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Nanomaterials Synthesis - Science topic

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I want to deposit a nano-material which starts to degrade at 1000 deg. cel. and completely melts at 1600 deg. cel. I want to use HVOF process for coating, so which torch/gun is suitable ? What should be the process parameters so that particles must not be heated more than 1000 deg. cel. ?
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Most of the research using trisodium citrate to reduce Ag ion and its act as stabilizer. How if we replace trisodium citrate to sodium citrate monobacis? How is the chemical equation be?
Some was used both trisodium citrate and sodium borohydride in synthesize Ag nanoparticles. What if we used both trisodium citrate and sodium borohydride?Will both of the reducing agent take part in reaction to form Ag nanoparticles?How is the chemical equation be?
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NaBH4 is strong reducing agent, and used for synthesis of nanoparticles fabrication on the other hand sodium citrate stabilizer and as caping agent in cases.
NaBH4 manipulation for titanium dioxide, Ag, Au , Pd and other metallic oxide nanoparticles fabrication.
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I picked up some 1.5mm OD theta (2 chamber) borosilicate pipettes and would like to pull them to a point, the exact size of which is not critical. I have a Sutter P-2000 puller (CO2 laser) to do the job, but I can't seem to find parameters anywhere describing how someone has pulled a theta glass pipette. Anyone have success doing this?
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Usually glass based theta pipettes (TP) are thick, so they require higher temperature. Therefore, try the heat parameter of P2000 above 550. You can also look my articles for the parameters to pull TP having different pore sizes. Keep it in mind these parameters are instrument specific and not the model specific. Means you need to adjust these parameters according to your puller.
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Hi! Can anyone of you recommend a company that synthesize good nanoparticles? Ideally, if we could by already loaded nanoparticles with an agent of our interest.
Will appreciate all of your suggestions.
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I have had a very bad experience with Nanochemazone. Products are of very poor quality and customer service is almost non existent.
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I had used an AAO template for the formation of the organic-semiconductor nano-wires by filling the pores of AAO with the molten state semiconductor material. After the formation of organic-semiconductor nano-wires I need to etch-out AAO template parts.
So please give me the suitable etching solution and steps of etching process.
Can anyone give some papers related to this?
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Hi there,
We provide researchers with low-cost mild- and hard- anodized AAO templates, having different pore lengths and diameters. Contact: amirh.montazer@gmail.com
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For calculating the crystallite size of a catalyst, we use Scherrer equation. In which FWHM is required. Whether, crystallite size is depends on maximum intensity peak or average of crystallite size of main characteristic peaks?
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I agree with the above answers, you can select the most intense peak or can take an average of all of the peaks with std. Moreover, when you are calculating the crystalline size of all peaks then you can also calculate percent crystallinity by dividing the crystalline area over full area, these simple calculation I do in origin
Hope I answered well!!!
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Some papers quoted that synthesized zinc sulfate nano particles having the solubility of 100%. As per my little knowledge of nano technology, once the particle soluble, it will not sustain its size as in the nano meter range and converted to angstrom range. And so called particle not called as nano particle. So kindly clarify my query?
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I'm trying to synthesize bulk hBN powder from boric acid and urea precursors in a tube furnace. My goal is to get 100s (or at least 10s) of milligrams of hBN from each synthesis that I can use in catalytic reactions. I have a tube furnace that can go up to 1200C. Based off many references, I know that I need a high molar ratio of urea: boric acid, so I've been doing 30:1 (though I've also tried lower). I add ~150 mg boric acid and ~4.5g urea to a beaker with 20 mL DI H2O + 20 mL methanol (based on: ), then leave it in a 65C oven overnight to evaporate and recrystallize. In the morning, I grind it to a fine powder using a mortar and pestle, then load the powder into a ceramic boat with a lid (see photo), and load that into the quartz tube. I attach the gas line (I've used both Argon and N2) and I run the gas for 30 min, then turn on the instrument. I heat up at 5C/min until 950C or 1100C. The tube turns white (and sometimes a bit yellow) with urea (decomposition). Both have yielded charred, burnt material, not white hBN powder, or only a tiny amount of white, flaky powder amidst the char (see photo). I've talked to a couple of collaborators and read a number of papers and can't find anyone who has experienced this problem, though no one has tried this synthesis on my lab's exact tube furnace.
Does anyone have advice on how to eliminate these problems and move forward? Any advice would be much appreciated!
Some potential questions
-is oxygen getting into the reaction and causing it to char?
-should the ceramic boat's lid be removed? Is that a problem?
-should I switch to a rounded ceramic crucible, with or without a lid? (though that's harder to put in a round tube without spilling)
-should I change my temperature or ramp rate?
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Thanks for the tips! I haven't yet tried borazine, but when I changed a couple of parameters, including fixing a problem with the gas line and moving from a ceramic boat to a quartz boat, I've consistently gotten no char, just white powder (see the image). I'm not sure what the exact issue was, but I'll stick with the quartz. boat without a lid, as it seems to be working.
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Dear Researchers, I would like to open this discussion, I think it could be interesting and we participants can learn much from each other :
Is it well known that the so called reduced-size effects in Material Science can originate different behaviors in different properties of a given material (this is also known as "Nanomaterials", or "Nanostructured Materials")
Hence the question:
All Nanomaterials have higher Electric Conductivity than its bulk-size respective part ? The logic is that the DOS (Density of States) becomes (theoretically) infinite for some values of Energy in the material (the typical graph of E vs. g(E) for 0D Materials, which distributes this Energy discrete values in peaks, speaking of the shape).
So, this makes me think that for all solid materials; sigma increases (for this values of Energies) when the dimensions of the material decrease.
Regards !:)
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Esteban Diaz-Torres Wow , great explanation.
Thank you my friend !, Yo soy de Monterrey,
Saludos !
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The coating that I get is not good adhered on a glass substrate. The reduced graphene oxide had dried using freezer (-73 degree celsius). I'm using DMF solvent for reduced graphene oxide solution. Can anyone give me the suggestion for the good coating of reduced graphene oxide on a glass substrate? 
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Rita Joshi, did you measure the electrical resistance/conductivity of your substrate after rGO coating? Films of graphene are nearly 90% transparent.
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I have synthesized NiO nano particle. And they shown change in properties when we goes from bulk to nano regime. In bulk regime shown transition metal oxide but in nano regime shown semiconductor. Why this properties will be changed? I want to know the exact reason. Please explain it in details.
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Quantum confinement effect is the main reason. Quantum size effects result from reduction in the dimensionality of the material below a certain initial value that leads to changes in the electronic structure. So optical and structural properties are get changed.
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Phytochemical nano-synthesis involves the use of plant's extract as a reducing entity. However, as simple and cheap as this may seem, the technique has faced many challenges overtime. So what are the major challenges of phytochemical nanomaterials synthesis. The options include but not limited to
  • high water solubility
  • particle aggregations
  • crystallinity problems?
  • complex mechanism of synthesis etc
  • Please share your opinion to gain more knowledge.
  • Thank you.
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Dear Olayemi J Fakayode
All your quries can be covered by going through the following articles:
1. Sunlight-driven phytochemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Albizia lebbeck (L) Benth
2. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by traditionally used medicinal plants in Sudan
3. Green synthesis of phytochemical-stabilized Au nanoparticles under ambient conditions and their biocompatibility and antioxidative activity
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There are different nanostructures of silicon like nanotubes, QDs and silicene. I need to know what are the 'green' or other effective methods for preparing them..please share the procedures of following methods
1. Hydrothermal method
2. Spray pyrolysis
3. Laser and combustion methods
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I think on of the most important method tp prepare Si QDs is the laser ablation in liquid. You can control the particle size and morphology after selecting appropriate parameters
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Hello we all know the electronegativity scale and concept of elements in the periodic table
However when it comes to whole materials such as polymers, nanomaterials and etc
How can we understand theoretically if the synthesized material is highly or poorly electronegative ??
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Dear Gabris Mahamid, the following documents are extremely important in case you want to go deeper in this subject. Also it is nice if you take a look at 'Israelchevilli's book' on intermolecular forces. My Regards
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Most of the reported mixed metal oxides are prepared from their precursor materials. I want to prepare mixed metal oxides from already prepared metal oxide materials. For example, CaO and Fe2O3 are available commercially, I want to combine them together via a suitable chemical method like making a core-shell structure, or CaO coating on Fe2O3 surface. Please give me an idea on how to make mixed metal oxides from prepared metal oxide and send me any reference articles.
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as per phase diagram of CaO-Fe2O3, mixed and heat in muffle furnace as indicated temperature
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For the preparation of selenium nanoparticles mostly selenious acid is used however if someone try to prepare it from selenium dioxide what will be the proposed procedure or mechanism?? Is it possible to make selenious acid from selenium dioxide in ordinary chemistry lab?
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Sufian Rasheed Give a link to the method you are using, or describe it yourself, please.
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In order to improve the intimate contact of micro size silver flake in a solvent based printable polymer conductor I am looking for a method to precipitate nAg powder (from Ag salts) on an already designed micro flaky shape silver material.
Any suggestion?
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you're right, also NaBH4 is too reactive to get nano size silver particles
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There are hundreds of research articles published on the green synthesis of nanoparticles of various metals and metal oxides nanoparticles using plant extract (where mostly the extract of leaves are used) and they reported that plant extract is in rich of phytochemicals which act as reducing, stabilizing/capping agent for the synthesis of Nanoparticles but still its not cleared that exactly which phytochemical or which class of phytochemicals is responsible for reducing and which for stabilizing/capping? And also if they are used separately after isolated would they gave the same result or each class depend on one another??
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Most often the phytochemicals are - gallic acid, tannic acid, epigallocatechin gallate etc. As these are polyphenols - they are antioxidants (so they can reduce metal ions). From my experience - after isolation from plant extract polyphenols also can reduce ions to nanoparticles. I suppose that morphology of them (size, shape) may be different, because the other compounds in extract can act e.g. as stabilizers. Also - in natural plant extract the exact amount of reduction agents is not known, unless extract is standarized, what can also affect the resulting material.
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Hi,
I am trying to exfoliate single and few-layer of MoS2 from the bulk crystal using the scotch tape method. But I was not able to get very thin MoS2 nanosheets in this method. Graphene worked very well but MoS2 did not. Any suggestions on it?
Thanks!
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The substrate you use needs to be highly hydrophilic. Treat you substrate with UV-ozone that increase the chances of getting ultra-thin flake, sometime monolayers as well. That's my experience. Fastest way to check monolayer is Raman. You have to repeat the scotch taping many times as mentioned by Manuel Gómez .
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I need references articles that explain the drawings for the following materials, which illustrate the diagram between DR UV-Vis spectrums of the following materials blank sample as expressed in Kubleka-Munk function versus
the measured wavelength and the materials are ZnO, CuO, Fe2O3, and Co3O4.
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I want to Synthesize Molybdenum Disulfide at Nano Scale. Can I use Ethanol Amine or Poly ethylene glycol instead of Oleic Acid? Please brief with the reason.
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Additives such as PEG (and PEI) are steric stabilizers for nanosystems and one can get perfectly stable systems with 0 mV zeta potential. Molecules like formate and citrate can act as reducing agents and confer charge ('electrostatic') stability. Additives such as oleic and stearic acids confer a little of both charge and steric stability. However, the main application of these additives is for use in non-aqueous based systems, although use of appropriate surfactants can enable aqueous usage. The main factor to consider is the big difference in size from use of different additives. See (and attached PointOfPower slide):
Dispersion and nanotechnology (registration required):
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Sir,
With reference to your paper "Strain-driven electronic band structure modulation of si nanowires" I want to ask
1. When the uniaxial lattice strain is given by changing the unit cell size along the nanowire growth direction. what happens to the atoms inside the unit cell. They are stretched (i.e. their bond length and bond angel  changes)?
2. When the wave function of conduction band contains contribution from 3d-orbitals, why does the energy level decrease and what is bonding type functions?
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I think these attachments will be very useful for you
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I cannot find any noticeable references!
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Elective Separation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Solution The enrichment of m- or s- type SWCNTs can be obtained by removing the other type (usually SWCNTs can be thus sorted by electronic types and chiralities to some extent are often added to optimize the fine sorting of monodispersed SWCNTs.
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Between Iron oxide and Graphene which type of interaction gives the stability of the iron oxide into the nanohybrid?
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@ Suman Thakur
First we need to define the mixing process? Is ball milling? Fusion? Chemical coating?
Then the answer will be available by the reserachers.
Best,
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I am trying to produce graphite oxide using staudenmaier method, I have been using sodium chlorate in place of potassium chlorate. Is this a problem?
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May I know what chemicals have you used for Hummer's method while using sodium chlorate?
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Some researchers have been reported DF10, Acetylacetone and PVP as surfactants, but I need more information for preventing from agglomeration of particles during co-precipitation synthesis of Lanthanum Strontium Cobalt Ferrite(LSCF) compounds
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literature on use of glycine can be searched
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Hi, I'm trying a procedure to synthesis nano ZIF-90 in water for specific application, but there is some problem. pxrd pattern for as-synthesized MOF is not completely compatible with charactristic XRD pattern of ZIF-90, in terms of tetha. on the other side, as article indicated, i choose 1 to 40 ratio of zinc acetate to 2-imidazole carboxaldehyde to obtain particles with the scale of 100 nm, but led to really low yield, there is not another way to reach nanosize ZIF-90? I appreciate if anyone has the same experience and could help me.
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Naeimeh Hassanzadeh Goji Anytime. I did not also find the hydrate structure. Maybe it hasn't been reported, yet. You can give it a trial. Good Luck!
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Is there any matematerial which can reflect right handed circular polarization into Left handed circular polarization or vice versa of the EM waves operating in ultra-wide band?
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Any good conductor, e.g. a metal surface, reverses the direction of circular polarization on reflection, for all frequencies for which it is a good conductor.
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I want to Synthesize Sn doped Nanostrucutres with Iron and Sn Chlorides by Co-precipitation method... 
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Dear Sir
Please check the following link which me be useful to you
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Hi! I was synthesizing some gold nanorods. What's interesting is, that in one of my trials a negative value in the UV-VIS (around 630nm) was obtained. How is that possible? Also, it was done by common seed-mediated methods using CTAB. Also, I know this is not the spectra of a gold nanorod, I believe it can be a bone shape. I kind of try to do a few things different and this is what I got...
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Alberto Rodríguez Inadequate background subtraction is the only way that this could have occurred. Wavelength is also spelled incorrectly on the horizontal axis.
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I was previously working in WS2 nanopowder synthesis by using a microwave plasma process. I am interested in exploring WS2 thin films from RF sputtering. We have a multi-source PVD system, in which we can deposit WS2 thin films.
My main concern is that the sulphur from the WS2 target should not affect the other sources, such as thermal and electron beam evaporation.
I am curious to know whether it is advisable to do WS2 sputtering in such a multi-source PVD system? Kindly give your suggestions regarding this problem.
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Dear.. I am not sure whether you are still interested on this topic or not. Yes, it can contaminate the chamber but in very least amount as the chamber remains in high vacuum.
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Is it possible to synthesize carbides by solution-based fast-synthesis? such as Solution combustion method.
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Dear Dr. Meysam Kahkhaei Javan,
I suggest you to have a look at the following, interesting papers:
-Hybrid synthesis of zirconium oxycarbide nanopowders with defined and controlled composition
Daniel Hauser, Andrea Auer, Julia Kunze-Liebhäuser, Sabine Schwarz, Johannes Bernardi, and Simon Penner
RSC Adv. 9(6): 3151–3156 (2019).
-Synthesis of Chromium Carbide Nanopowders by Microwave Heating and Their Composition and Microstructure Change under Gamma Ray Irradiation.
Jin K, Jia Y, Zhao Z, Song W, Wang S, Guan C
Molecules. 24(1) (2018).
-Synthesis of Ultra‐Fine Hafnium Carbide Powder and its Pressureless Sintering
Ji-Xuan Liu, Yan‐Mei Kan, Guo-Jun Zhang
Journal of the American Ceramic Society 93(4):980 – 986 (2010)
Enjoy reading, best regards, Pierluigi Traverso
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We've got some carbon quantum dots in a mixture of H2SO4 and HNO3. Can anyone help me out with any possible ways to separate these quantum dots from acid without adding any more ions to the solution?
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I also loose most of my QDots using 1KDa membrane
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Hi everyone,
At this moment, I'm working with Au-CeO2 nanoparticles, and I need to dissolve them with a solvent whose evaporation temperature isn't higher than water temperature evaporation.
Thank you so much!
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I agree with Curtis_Guild
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Most of the literature reports that I came across are vague, especially the separation process.
So, I am looking for the tried and true protocols which can yield <10 nm MoS2 quantum dots.
Any relevant reading suggestions are also much appreciated. Thanks.
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Simply use the combination of probe and bath sonication. You can synthesize 5 nm MoS2 quantum dots. You have to run your bath sonication continuously for atlest 24 hours without any break.
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Hello,
I want to prepare g-C3N4 nanomaterials. Can you kindly suggest what type of furnace is necessary to prepare them? Is there will be any model number and specific features?
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Dear Sushanta,
It may come out fume because the condensation of melamine ad appropriate adjustment of mass ratio doe for precursor.. Have you adjusted the mass ratio of ammonium chloride and calcification temperature? what mass ratio and for calclination what temperature you have maintained? If mass ratio is high not adjusted appropriately they will generate gas bubbles. to control some water splitting is also required. Use intake of 0.8 gm of malamine along with 2 gm of ammonium chloride mix and ground to form the precursors. then precursor can be transfered to 10 ml crucible,, at 300 degree(not 400 degree centigrade) if purpose is not to get yoke shell structure for 2 hour. Hopefully it will work out. temperature and mass ratio is more important here due to ammonia.
Have you used solid or liquid ammonium chloride?
Ashish
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Dear all,
I am trying to fabricate material via a solvothermal method.
I use Teflon lined stainless steel autoclave.
Most of the time in the papers, authors mentioned the volume of the autoclave that they used.
My question is that I should change the volume of autoclave based on the volume of the solvent.
Should I fill the autoclave up to a specific volume of its capacity?
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My own experience in hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites has shown that for propre crystallization, the volume of the synthesis mixture should be at least 2/3 of the Teflon volume.
Use of low amount of synthesis mixture in large Teflon can cause complete solvent evaporation and poor crystallization.
On other hand, to create autogenous pressure, the Teflon should not be completely filled with the synthesis mixture.
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Hello.
How can I synthesis green emission carbon dots with microwave from glucose?
and How can I synthesis green emission carbon dots with microwave from citric acid and Urea?
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Carbon dots is an emerging class within the carbon allotrope family, have gained significant attention largely due to their versatile and tunable physico - chemical and optical properties,.......Some researchers attribute the green emission ( 510 NM ) to the introduction of defects induced by the presence of For details consult https://pubs.rsc.org
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I synthesized oleic acid capped SnO2 nanoparticle solution by hydrothermal synthesis method.
The solution in the three vials in the picture is a solution synthesized in the equal amount of reactant and same temperature.
Left - by three neck flask
Middle – by autoclave
Right – by three neck flask / different pressure compared to Left
After the synthesis, I spread them to the hexane at the same concentration and stored in refrigerator.
The solution in the left vial was coagulated like jelly. In the middle solution was murky and the particles sank to the floor, and the solution in the right vial was transparent and well dispersed.
I wonder why the difference in these solution occurred and what kind of characteristics it might have been. (ex, solubility size of nanoparticle, oleic acid dose not stick to nanoparticles, why?)
If you have the same experience or know about this, I'd appreciate it if you could help me.
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Of often the case, if reaction solution has not been degassed at 110 ℃ and refilled with Ar/nitrogen during synthesis, the oleic acid would be partically oxidized by those dissolved oxygen then resulting yellowish products, and this is difficult to remove. For the jelly-like solution, perhaps it results from the moisture or other polar solvents that leak into if the vial is storage in a refridgerator, forming a w/o gel.
For the second vial, if in the synthesis method, oleic acid and water or other polar solvents are both utilized as solvents, no matter whether oleic acid attached or not, the product may have a large size, probably reaching to several μm, therefore its Mie scattering booming, showing a milky look and the NPs sank to the bottom.
The third one is also often the case, relatively a smaller size, probably nanometers, no Mie scattering, well-dispersed in apolar solvent, suggesting that NPs is well-protected by ligands; For this case that is oleic acid.
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As all we know, by changing the size of perovskite nanoparticles, we can tuning of band gap would accur, so that according to each band gap we would expect photoluminescence in a certain wavelength. In lead halide perovskites, when we use bromide in the site of halogens, the luminescence will be green. In the case of CsPbBr3, we can have blue emission up to green related to size of nanobparticles. Now, if we have large particles that have luminescence, can we expect orange emission from that? (Although I've seen articles which has reported emission from micro size particles.)
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Dear Nima,
welcome,
I congratulate you for these interesting results. These are very expressive for the effect of grain size on the energy gap and can be used to demonstrate it.
AS for the answer of the question the quantum size confinement effect can be reduced rapidly with the grain size such it is expected that you increase the grain size more than 11 nm you will not get an appreciable reduction in the energy gap.
This what found by the colleague Long when increased the grain size by many factors he got green luminescence.
So, accordingly you will not reach the intended by further increasing the grain size. You can check this by knowing the band gap of the bulk material.
Best wishes
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I want to use NiCo2O4 as a substrate in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. Just wondering will it be chemically stable in strong acidic solutions? 
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We are dealing with the work entitled Synthesis of silver nanoparticle from plant. I have faced problem with particle size analysis by DLS. We got silver nanoparticle size in the micron range not in nano size, Can anyone send me the exact protocol for nanoparticle synthesis from water hyacinth plant?
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Silver nanoparticles have been synthesized using glucose but the resulting colloid is dark gray. Are the particles composed of micrometer? Or due to the non-spherical colloids is it this color?
I get very transparent yellow colloids using other methods (for example polyol method or reduction with sodium borohydrate) but it is not possible to separate the nanoparticles from the yellow solution. The resulting powder is not in operation. I need to produce a product that is a powder of silver nanoparticles. Please guide.
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Parastoo Mouchani You cannot have a 'powder of silver nanoparticles'.
Period.
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What are the most important conferences and symposiums in the field of nanomaterials, advanced materials or microfluidics in the Canada and USA?
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FTIR Spectrum result wavelength range of ZNO nanoparticles.
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M-O bond in FTIR below 600 cm-1
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If we are synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) together with PVP as stabilizer, there are sure some PVP include in AgNPs and might excess of PVP and silver ion were get rid during washing. When redispersed it again to water, how we to calculate or know the exact Ag concentration. For example, how we know there are how much of AgNPs in 1000 mg/L of PVP capped silver nanoparticles?
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Using TEM or AFM
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Iron oxide nanoparticles show magnetic properties. Are nanozerovalent iron nanoparticles also magnetic in nature?
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Recommend Darius Arndt answer
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I am looking for a nanomaterial which is sensitive to phosphate and I can use it as a sensor for phosphorous detection.
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For an easy, quick and simple method for determining the phosphate levels in any samples, you may use a formulation of the malachite green and ammonium molybdate solutions, which form a chromogenic complex with phosphate ions and give an intense absorption band at 650 nm.
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Dear respected RG members,
Recently, we tried to prepare Ni doped MgO nanoparticles using co-precipitation method. The XRD pattern of pure MgO-NPs is going well with five peaks (20-80 degree). We encountered unusual peak at around (64 degree) 2theta for 3% doped MgO-NPs. We follow the same procedure of preparing pure MgO. Stiocheiometric amount of magnesium nitrate hexahydrate (0.097 mol) and nickel nitrate hexahydrate (0.003 mol ) were dissolved in 200 ml water and the aqueous solution heated to 70 Celsius. Then, 0.2 mol of NaOH was add to the mixture as fast as possible till the precipitate occur (pH 10 ) and stirred for another 2 hrs at 70 C. The precipitate dried and crushed (using pestle and mortar) and calcined at 500 C for 2 hrs with a heating rate of 10 degree/min.
Our main concerns are:
1- The unknown peak at (64 degree) may come from impurity during grinding using pestle and mortal.
2- Is the incorrect calculation ( nonstoichiometric ) of the main precursor and the reagent cause this issue?
3- The Ni show very high solubility in MgO host lattice without phase separation, so we do not believe that the impurity is related to Ni, NiO or Ni2O3.
Please we are looking for your recommendation and help
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What XRD wavelength you use ? Cobalt it seems?
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I want to solve approximately 50mgr PbI2 in 10ml chloroform.
Is it possible? Does anyone have experienced this?
I don't want to heat my solution up. But if I solve it with raising temperature, then cool it down, does it precipitate?
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I found another relevant question that was posted 4 years ago but the Internet stopped working for ~ 2 hours here, unfortunately. Now that it returns, here is the question & the answers:
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Hi all,
I am ready to collaborate in writing book chapters in extractive metallurgy, nanomaterials, synthesis of nanomaterials as well as research and writing scientific articles.
please contact me
S. Yousefi
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thanks i will recomended you to my university friends
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Hello everybody
I measured BET surface area and Electrochemically active surface area (EASA) of synthesized MnO2 nanomaterial. EASA was obtained by using Cyclic voltammetry at different scan rates (considering slope (Cdl) by plotting current (mA) vs. scan rates (mV/s)). the slope was obtained to be 0.0487 mF. Here, the carbon clothes (1 cm2) was used as a substrate for MnO2 nanomaterial, and considered Cs = 0.02 mF/cm2. EASA calculated from Cdl/Cs. The mass loading of the MnO2 on carbon cloth was about 0.00036 g/cm2.
1- First question is that "considering Cs=0.02 mF/cm2 as specific capacitance of an atomically smooth carbon meterials" is correct?
2- Second question is that : The BET surface area of MnO2 was obtained to be 17.5 m2/g. But EASA was obtained to be 0.0487 mF (slope), 2.435 cm2 (from Cdl/Cs), and 0.68 m2/g. Why there is high difference between obtained BET surface area (17.5 m2/g) and EASA (0.68 m2/g). Is there somethings wrong with the EASA result or it is correct?
I will be thankful if you could help me regarding two above questions.
Thank you
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Your measurements are what one would expect. BET will probe the entire surface area available to N2 gas (at - 196C) - ~ 14 Angstroms2 and this includes the meso- and macropores. Your active surface area will be much smaller than this.
Always believe what a calibrated/verified instrument delivers.
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Good day all, I am trying to dope iron in MgAl2O4 spinel using solution combustion method. Urea and citric acid are employed as fuels, but in all cases I am getting poor Fe dispersion where Fe appear to form clusters. Please what do I do to improve the dispersion. Thank you.
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I am not sure what you exactly mean. However, in general, using ultrasonic equipment could largely improve the dispersion of your particles within a solution.
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we may faced problem in removing plant extract from silver nano particles. If we check pharmacological activity as such we may not able to discuss the exact mechanism by which these particles show the activity.
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Subha Kandiyar we are washing in order to remove the un-reacted moieties and the loosely bound capping agent. So that the surface of our nano are free for activities
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Dear Colleagues,
In recent years, carbon-based nanomaterials, such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, etc., have gained tremendous interest and more and more applications reap their numerous benefits. Lately, carbon nanodots (CNDs) have emerged as a new class of carbon-based nanomaterials, which have "outshined" other carbon-based nanomaterials, as they possess a unique combination of outstanding, enthralling and favorable properties for many applications. They are the sole carbon nanomaterials with inherent photoluminescence whereby multitudinous applications have been developed. They have been utilized as probes for analytical or biological applications, bioimaging agents for live cell and animal imaging purposes, drug carriers, photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy as well as in photocatalysis, solar cells, optronics, etc. The CNDs have come into their own as a standalone research field but their full potential is yet to be unraveled and harnessed. To understand their properties and gain deep knowledge on the subject, concise reviews and state-of-the-art research articles are needed.
In this context, we launched a Special Issue of C—Journal of Carbon Research, “Recent Advances in Carbon Dots” (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/carbon/special_issues/carbon_dots#published) , which is dedicated to the advancement of this novel field. We invite authors to submit original research articles, communications and reviews, related to all advances in the field of CNDs.
Contact me for further details.
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What would be the expected Impact Factor? and Q level?
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List few advantages and shortcomings of the preparation methods of Metal oxides using PLD. Because, as far as I know, the magnetron sputtering can also be used as forming metal oxides precisely. What is the difference between Pulsed Laser deposition and Magnetron Sputtering for the preparation of Metal oxides?
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Hi;
Basically PLD has been successful for growing epitaxial films. This naturally demands well matched epitaxial substrates. The substrate temperature must be carefully optimized, and the rate of deposition ( determined by the energy per pulse), and the repetition rate setting. PLD provides a stoichiometric transfer of material from the target to the substrate, and thereby ensures better stoichiometric control, and has been very effective with oxide targets.
Reserchers are often using PLD for making coatings on other substrates (like silicon, SiO2/Si) etc., which may not be epitaxially matched. Such a\depositions always result in polycrystalline coatings, and necesscitate post deposition annealing. A complex oxide compound PZT is a classical example. For this compound it is noted that in the literature excellent PZT films on epitaxial substrates, and epitaxially mathched electrodes (oxides) have been developed with excellent properties, whereas polycrystalline films on unmatched substrates do not result in good properties.
Sputtering is a slower process relatively. For oxide target it becomes more complicated. You cannot apply higher powers, the targets loos oxygen stoichiometric, makeing large area targets is a costly affair, and demand good bonding with metallic plates for cooling. Although sputtering has also been useful for making epitaxial films, but somehow the target surface changes after a few sputtering runs, and this affects the stoichiometric control.
Sputtering can handle deposition over a large area of substrates upto 4inches to 6 inches in diameter. Because it is easily to develop oxide films usisng reactive sputtering, which involves sputtering oxygen or Ar+O2 gas mixtures, and one can easily use large area metallic targets and sputter them easily in oxygen.
Large area deposition is possible only through sputtering, whereas PLD is limited to tiny substrates (5mm x 5mm), larger single crystal substrates also can be used, but then the substrate becomes costly.
PLD is a fast turn around process to check the growth of epitaxial films, and establish the properties in epitaxial films. PLD is really not effective for making films on unmatched epitaxial substrates and growing of polycrystalline films. Use it more for epitaxial growth studies.
Sputtering is a technique, and when properly optimised, it can be upscaled to larger area substrates. Simple oxide compounds like (SnO2, ZnO et) are rel;atively easy to optimize, whereas multi-component oxides the optimization takes a little longer. With this technique you can easily up scale for industrial applications.
Regards.
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Suggest references.
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Chemical treatment of photocatalytic degradation (semiconductor based materials like ZnO and TiO2 ), has been used extensively due to its excellent catalytic activity, eco-friendly as well as low secondary pollution.
Unfortunately metal oxide nanomaterials have no efficient absorption in the visible light region and require activation/irradiation in the UV region.
Metal nanoparticles, on the other hand exhibit strong absorption and excellent catalytic activity in the visible range and gained much attention due to its potential application in degradation and removal of organic pollutants under irradiation of visible light.
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I have prepared TiO2 nanomaterial in which I got both anatase and rutile phases. I want to calculate the amount of anatase and rutile phases present in that. Please suggest how I can calculate the phases?
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There is an alternative method to find out the volume percentage of different phases present together. For the calculation of the same, firstly, you have to identify the maximum intense peak of the phase present in the XRD pattern then find out the area under the peak for each. Then using the following formula, you can estimate phase fraction present in the sample.
Formula: phase fraction of 1st phase f1 = A1/(A1+A2+A3+...) and so on.
or f1 = I1/ (I1+I2+I3+...) and so on, where I, is intensity of most intense peak.
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I would like to know researchers view on this area,
What are the possible sources?
Plz, let me know references.
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We have developed an integrated technology for producing nanopowders of metals from waste. Solid waste (spent magnets, scrap electronic industry, exhaust gas neutralization catalysts) is dissolved in acids. Ion flotation is then used to selectively extract ions. Then we reduction the ions into nanoparticles in the direct micelles of the surfactant. Nanopowders of bismuth, gold, platinum, copper, cobalt ferrites, and nickel ferrites were obtained using this technology.
See articles on my profile.
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Mentioned in article- `Medium viscosity and 91% Deacetylation degree chitosan'. Viscosities are given as range in other internet sources.
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The viscosity of chitosan is directly related to its molecular weight. The medium molecular weight chitosan is used to ensure its easy incorporation and retention with the matrix. In contrast, it would be difficult to incorporate high molecular weight chitosan into any matrix while low molecular weight chitosan will be leaked out during the post-synthesis processing of the composite.
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I am size selecting the graphene produced in the lab. While performing Raman analysis, I am finding that the larger flakes have a greater ID/ID' than the smaller flakes. Could anyone please explain why this is happening? (Please see the attached image)
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First of all I´m so happy to find someone with the same interrogations and tell you that the graph you post it has great meaning, so if you permit me to give you my point of view take it, and construe as you consider.
Larger nanoplatelets tend to stabilize ans show more of their inner vacancy defects (something like grain boundaries) nor the edge defects. But smallers graphene nanoplatelets show more edge defects, even that ratio could be very useful to determine the size at witch you can obtain more oriented nanoplatelets.
I´d be attentive, bests
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I have read that ball milling is a procedure which is usually used for nano material synthesis without the aid of solvents. At the same time, i have found some literature regarding synthesis of 2D materials by ball milling in which they have used ethanol as solvent.
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Yes ethanol will work. It is also possible to use a solid as control process agent such as stearic acid.
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We know different material has different density and acoustic impedance. A particular value needs to be specified to get the actual deposition thickness of a particular material through thickness monitor. I shall be highly obliged if anyone can provide me the value of acoustic impedance that should be set for In2O3 and Er2O3 in electron beam evaporation.
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For my monitor the Z-value is defined by acoustic impendence of the crystal divided by acoustic impedence of the evaporated material.
Do you have any method to test the thickness after evaporation? You could simply evaporate some material with a guessed acoustic impedence setting. If you make several samples with different thickness, a totallyincorrect impedence value should be noticable as a non-linear deviation from your tooling value.
This way you could tweak the impedence setting by fitting the target thickness to the measured one. But still, I would first try to simply evaporate some material without worring about the impedence value at all.
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.
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Before irradiation, it is essential for the target pollutants to get adsorbed on the selected photocatalyst by stirring in dark for 30 to 60 minutes. More adsorption on the catalyst reaction site leads to enhanced degradation.
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Dear all,
I'm performing colloidal syntheses of Si and Ge nano-particles (NPs).
Lately most of my result (XRD, EELS, Raman) are strongly effected by the presence of Nickel in my solution. The Ni come from the thermocouple i've been using.
I'm performing a standard hot injection synthesis protocol with a Schlenck line to work in oxygen-free atmosphere.
At first planning ahead of the problem we started the synthesis with a fretted glass jacket inserted in a 3 neck round bottom flask where to stick the TC in an inert solvent, but this has been troublesome for the accuracy of the temperature reading, given the different heat capacity of the 2 solvents.
Do any of you had a similar problem, how would you prevent the thermocouple to contaminate the synthesis?
Looking forward your answer and do not hesitate to contact me if interested.
Best
Bruno
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Glass is some kind of ceramics so results will be similar for ceramic sleeves. Exclusion are rare : SiC and BeO for example, have much higher thermal conductivity
Air in finger is bad heat conductor, and TC have little contact surface. Thermal transfer fluid in finger allow to avoid such problem but temperature response time will be slower (~0.5-1s) rather than in the case of direct placement of TC in reaction media.
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Dear experts,
I am trying to study the affect of Zinc doped BeO, as far as I know, beryllium oxide have a large band gap about 10 eV, while ZnO have 3.3 eV, both of them crystallize in wurtzite structure.. and there is a large mismatch between Be ionic radius (0.27) and Zn ionic radius (0.6).. Can I force Zn atom to replace the Be atom in the unit cell to produce a doped powder...
Any suggestion will be really helpful...
Best regards...
mohammed
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Remember that beryllium compounds are highly toxic and exercise great care in their use especially in aerosolized form.
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As there are materials electrically superconductive, Is it possible to generalize the idea into the field of thermal conduction?
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I guess if a material is thermally supraconductive, the mechanism will be correct in both nano and quantum mechanics.
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what are the techniques/ways to check and confirm the atomic level doping in materials ?
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As far as one we see, Mr. Sankar Sasidharan currently works at the Tokyo Institute of Technology doing research on characterization of nanomaterials, and he has XPS in his research ab. XPS is useful for quantitative analysis of elements mainly at the surface (0-10 nm), but not for a bulk, where dopants are hardly detected by XPS. In tis case, STEM methods can be used to image dopants at the atomic scale.
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The material performance is greatly dependent on the mass loading and significantly declines in highly loaded electrodes. It is misleading to take advantage of the high capacity by a low active material mass loading to compare with the commercial device, which generally has a high mass loading on the order of ∼10 mg cm−2. The authors may take a look at the following references:
[1] Y. Gogotsi, P. Simon, True Performance Metrics in Electrochemical Enrgy Storage, Science  334 (2011) 917–918.
[2] H. Wang, C.M.B. Holt, Z. Li, X. Tan, B.S. Amirkhiz, Z. Xu, et al., Graphene – Nickel Cobaltite Nanocomposite Asymmetrical Supercapacitor with Commercial Level Mass Loading, Nano Res. 5 (2012) 605–617.
[3] Jaime.S. Sanchez, A. Pendashteh, J. Palma, M. Anderson, R. Marcilla, Anchored Fe3O4 Nanoparticles on rGO Nanosheets as High-Power Negative Electrodes for Aqueous Batteries, ChemElectroChem. 4 (2017) 1295–1305.
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Dear Bidhan and Adam,
welcome again,
I will try to derive the relation for nonlinear GCD,
At first we have to make some assumptions:
- We are interested in the electrode capacitance C which has an active material mass= m, then the specific electrode capacitance of the electrode is Cs= C/ m,
This capacitance can be measured directly.
The electrode capacitance is nonlinear such that one defines its value at certain given voltage by  C= dQ/dV, With dQ= Idt, then we have 
C= I dt/ dV,
Since the capacitance is nonlinear it value changes with charging and discharging voltage of the electrode. With constant charging current the voltage can change from an initial voltage Vi to a final voltage to Vf. Then one can define an average capacitance during the charging Cav which can be deified as:
Cav =INTEGRA LI dt/ dV,which can be put in the form by multiplying the numerator and denominator by V :   Cav=  Integral  I V dt / VdV,
Integrating we get from Vi to Vf we obtain:
Cav= 2* I integral Vdt / V^2 from Vi to Vf,
Then Cav= 2* I integral Vdt / (Vf^2- Vi^2),
And the integral is the area under the charging voltage curve from t at V i to t at Vf.
We need  only to divide both sides by the active area mass of the electrode m to get the specific average charging capacitance of the electrode; that is:
Cs av= 2* I integral Vdt / m(Vf^2- Vi^2),
This is the formula which you introduced in your question. Now it is fully derived from the first principles.
Best wishes
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I have a A-cut single crystal sapphire which I want to etch. Based on literature, I tried using KoH (W/o heat and with heat). But both of these did not work. Does anybody have experience with this?
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Hi Karthic,
The standard etchant for sapphire is the mixture of H2SO4 and H3PO4. The temperature can be set between 200-270C so that the etching rate can be well controlled. But be careful: the hot mixture is very corrosive. Handle with care. For details, check my RG page for several publications on this topic.
Best,
Yang
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Nanotechnology is an emerging technology for fabricating nanostructures where at least one dimension is smaller than 100 nm.
The development of easy, low-cost and high-throughput techniques for the fabrication of nanostructures has been of great interest for both the possibility to increase the device packing density and for reducing the power consumption, as well as the creation of a new class of nano-electronic devices
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Our group has been working for developing nanogap by atomic layer lithography in which the gap width is determined by the atomic layer deposition (ALD). Alternatively, CVD or molecular beam epitaxial are also applicable for defining the gap-width. The gap-width can be down to a few nanometer to sub nanometer. Here is a list of some of the publications where you can find the fabrication techniques. 
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Dear Experts, 
Give suggestions to synthesis nanosized GaN Quantum dots with good yields.
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Dear Anupam Thakur, 
Thank you.,
I am new to RF and MBE methods. Can you able to some papers links if you have it.
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If you go very less scan rate, mobility of ions between electrode and electrolyte will be very proper and you may get very good response.
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I have successfully Synthesis Graphene nano-platelets. It is in powder form and now I want to make Graphene nano composite from my Graphene nano-platelets. Can I use that? Since in every literature everyone used Graphene-oxide so I am confused can I use my nano-platelets? Does that Graphene nano-platelets cause bad effect on my results? As if what kind of results can be expected from that?
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In order to achieve best interaction and exfoliation with polymers, graphene oxide is better as agglomeration can be avoided. Please refer to this paper to get a better idea.
Processing-property relationships of polycarbonate/graphene composites
Hyunwoo Kim, Christopher W. Macosko*
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Dear Bidhan Pandit,
...the internal (equiv. circuit) resistance(s) obtained from EIS are  NOT[1]  always the same R (for the cause of IR drop). Only in some linear and simple systems, there are (model) values very close to R. In short, EIS give us a hint about the order of R values (and the iR drop).
1.  Note: In common EIS measurements iDC is near 0.  Also, in common (low amplitude) EIS iAC  is actually near 0 (very small).