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Article
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The Best-Worst Method (BWM) is a relatively new and popular method for obtaining criteria weights in multi-criteria decision-making. The BWM uses very few comparisons and produces consistent comparisons, leading to more reliable criteria weights. Despite its popularity and reliability, the decision criteria in the BWM are considered independent of...
Article
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The conceptual design for a Flagship-class Uranus Orbiter and Probe (UOP) mission using aerocapture is presented. Uranus is historically the least studied destination for aerocapture, primarily attributed to the lack of an engineering-level atmosphere model until UranusGRAM was released by NASA in 2021. The present study is the first detailed end-t...
Article
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The focus of this study was to assess the solar radiation in locations with limited meteorological data. In 2019, monthly average temperature values that were collected from the South African University Radiometric Network (SAURAN), USAid Venda station in Vuwani, Limpopo, were inputted in the temperature-based empirical model, Hargreaves–Samani (H−...
Article
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The Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI), a new spaceborne LiDAR system of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), has the potential to revolutionize global measurements of vertical vegetation structure. However, GEDI performance among different forest types and factors influencing GEDI performance needs to be evaluated...
Article
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Solar activity has significant impacts on human activities and health. One most commonly used measure of solar activity is the sunspot number. This paper compares three important non-deep learning models, four popular deep learning models, and their five ensemble models in forecasting sunspot numbers. In particular, we propose an ensemble model cal...
Article
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Küresel ısınmaya bağlı olarak meydana gelen iklim değişikliği yağışların ve sıcaklıkların düzensizleşmesine sebep olmaktadır. Bu nedenle sosyoekonomik açıdan küresel ölçekte büyük öneme sahip kıyı alanlarında hızlı değişimler meydana gelmektedir. Kıyı alanlarındaki uzun süreli değişimlerin izlenmesi için kullanılan yöntemlerden birisi uzaktan algıl...
Article
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Marangoni effect plays an important role in many industrial applications where a surface tension gradient induces fluid flow, e.g., the cleaning process of silicon wafers and the welding process of melted metal. Surface tension gradient can also be caused by a spatially varying temperature field which, in the absence of gravity, is solely responsib...
Article
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For atmospheric correction over turbid waters, due to non-negligible water-leaving radiance (Lw) in the near-infrared (NIR), measurements in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) are usually required to achieve reliable remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs). But several ocean color satellite sensors, such as the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS)...
Article
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The Japanese meteorological satellite Himawari-8 has captured the Earth’s atmosphere and stars, planets, and the Moon in its field of view, enabling us to capture their spectroscopy with 16 bands from visible to mid-infrared wavelengths. The nine infrared bands in the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) onboard Himawari-8 are unique in spaceborne observ...
Article
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Sixth-generation wireless networks will aggregate higher-than-ever mobile traffic into ultra-high capacity backhaul links, which could be deployed on the largely untapped spectrum above 100 GHz. Current regulations however prevent the allocation of large contiguous bands for communications at these frequencies, since several narrow bands are reserv...
Article
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Aims: Due to time-critical decision-making, physical strain and the uncontrolled environment, prehospital emergency management is frequently associated with high levels of stress in medical personnel. Stress has been known to cause ischemia like changes in electrocardiograms (ECGs), including arrhythmias and deviations in ST-T segments. There is a...
Article
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NASA and commercial spaceflight companies will soon be retuning humans to the Moon and then eventually sending them on to Mars. These distant planetary destinations will pose new risks—in particular for the health of the astronaut crews. The bulk of the evidence characterizing human health and performance in spaceflight has come from missions in Lo...
Article
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Monitoring nighttime light (NTL) change enables us to quantitatively analyze the dynamic patterns of human activity and socioeconomic features. NASA's Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) atmospheric- and Lunar-BRDF-corrected Black Marble product (VNP46A2) provides daily global nighttime radiances with high tempora...
Article
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In-space cryogenic propulsion will play a vital role in NASA’s return to the Moon mission and future mission to Mars. The enabling of in-space cryogenic engines and cryogenic fuel depots for these future manned and robotic space exploration missions begins with the technology development of advanced cryogenic thermal-fluid management systems for th...
Conference Paper
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Figure 1: Case study: book searching task with our proposed HMD AR solution.): Our AR app gives the book title stimulus for searching.): The visual cue here is a light-green blob pointing out the correct bookshelf floor where the target book is located.) Users successfully found the book with/without the visual cues. ABSTRACT Augmented reality (AR)...
Article
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Dynamic hopping maneuvers using mechanical actuation are proposed as a method of locomotion for free-flyer vehicles near or on large space structures. Such maneuvers are of interest for applications related to proximity maneuvers, observation, cargo carrying, fabrication, and sensor data collection. This study describes a set of dynamic hopping man...
Article
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Forest canopy height estimates, at a regional scale, help understand the forest carbon storage, ecosystem processes, the development of forest management and the restoration policies to mitigate global climate change, etc. The recent availability of the NASA’s Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) LiDAR data has opened up new avenues to as...
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We report the first detailed study of the diurnal thermal structure of upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (∼80 to 160 km) of Mars from stellar occultation observations by the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) aboard the NASA Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft. Due to stray light contamination, analyses of this data set...
Article
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NASA's Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) seismometer has been recording Martian seismicity since early 2019, and to date, over 1,300 marsquakes have been cataloged by the Marsquake Service (MQS). Due to typically low signal‐to‐noise ratios (SNR) of marsquakes, their detection and analysis remain...
Article
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Photovoltaic‐powered electric transportation systems are gaining global momentum owing to their superior enactment and zero carbon emissions. With a growing number of electric vehicles (EVs) on the road, implementation of efficient and well‐organised charging stations is extremely indispensable. The authors investigate the feasibility of creating a...
Article
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The cosmic censorship hypothesis put a threshold on the observable universe with the order of magnitude in the visible spectrum and space-time singularity. The research put the question into the scope of chemical cosmology in local universe cases of black hole and white hole thermonuclear binding. The research adopted a controlled group data experi...
Article
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The recently selected NASA VERITAS and DAVINCI missions, the ESA EnVision, the Roscosmos Venera‐D will open a new era in the exploration of Venus. One of the key targets of the future orbiting and in situ investigations of Venus is the identification of volcanically active areas on the planet. The study of the areas characterized by recent or ongoi...
Article
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This paper presents an optimisation framework based on an open-source CAD system and CFD solver. In this work, the high-fidelity flow solutions and surface sensitivities are obtained using the primal and discrete adjoint formulations of SU2. This paper shows the direct use of CAD models for optimisation by developing a CAD system application progra...
Article
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The spatiotemporal model consists of stationary and non-stationary data, respectively known as the Generalized Space–Time Autoregressive (GSTAR) model and the Generalized Space–Time Autoregressive Integrated (GSTARI) model. The application of this model in forecasting climate with rainfall variables is also influenced by exogenous variables such as...
Article
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(1) Background: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), as a form of basic life support, is critical for maintaining cardiac and cerebral perfusion during cardiac arrest, a medical condition with high expected mortality. Current guidelines emphasize the importance of rapid recognition and prompt initiation of high-quality CPR, including appropriate ca...
Article
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The NASA MEaSUREs Inter-mission Time Series of Land Ice Velocity and Elevation (ITS_LIVE) project seeks to accelerate understanding of critical glaciers and ice sheet processes by providing researchers with global, low-latency, comprehensive and state of the art records of surface velocities and elevations as observed from space. Here we describe t...
Article
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Plain Language Summary The Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) is a neutron spectrometer that searches for signs of water by measuring the content of neutron absorbing elements in the ground below the NASA's Curiosity rover. Data derived from DAN are presented in discrete pixels along the traverse of the rover. Each pixel contains estimations of water...
Preprint
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NASA commissioned a research team to study Unidentified Aerial Phenomena (UAP), observations of events that cannot scientifically be identified as known natural phenomena. The Main Astronomical Observatory of NAS of Ukraine conducts an independent study of UAP also. For UAP observations, we used two meteor stations installed in Kyiv and in the Vina...
Article
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The Michelson Interferometer for Global High-resolution Thermospheric Imaging (MIGHTI) was launched aboard NASA’s Ionospheric Connection (ICON) Explorer satellite in October 2019 to measure winds and temperatures on the limb in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). Temperatures are observed using the molecular oxygen atmospheric band n...
Article
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The next generation lunar reflector (NGLR) experiment is one of the experiments selected by NASA in the framework of the commercial lunar payload services (CLPS) initiative. The experiment, inspired by the lunar laser ranging (LLR) experiments of the Apollo era, is basically a single cube corner reflector (CCR) capable of reflecting a beam coming f...
Article
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Upper: Giant impact (Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech); chondrule, majorite in shocked enstatite (Courtesy Miyahara); Lower: Collision of planetesimals (Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech); Raman mapping of wadsleyite and ringwoodite in Peace River L6 (Courtesy Miyahara and El Goresy).
Preprint
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NASA’s Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission performed the first ever kinetic impact to deflect an asteroid ¹ . The DART kinetic impact test artificially activated an asteroid with a hypervelocity impact, providing a unique opportunity for an extensive observing campaign to monitor the evolutionary process from the formation of the ejecta...
Article
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Facebook and Twitter, as two known social media become popular sources of big data that give the right to people to share and express their feedback about products, services, politicians, events, and every aspect of life in the form of short texts. The classification of sentiments could be automated through machine learning and enhanced using appro...
Preprint
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Solar flares, along with other sun-originated events such as Coronal Mass Ejections, fast solar wind streams, and solar energetic particles are among the most relevant events in Space Weather. Moreover, solar flares are the most energetic processes that occur in our solar system. The in-depth study of their occurrence statistics, both over extended...
Article
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Global climate change is a fact that affects all components of the environment. The main aim of this research was to conduct the retrospective monitoring of soils in the Trans-Ural Steppe Zone (Russia) and the analysis in changing of key climatic parameters for the periods 1937–1982 and 1982–2019. We investigated average temperatures and precipitat...
Article
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Forest fires cause damage to property and the environment around the world every year. North Korea has suffered from fires every year. Fires may lead to temporary or permanent damage to forest ecosystems, long-term site degradation, and alteration of hydrological regimes, producing detrimental impacts on economies, human health, and safety. In Nort...
Technical Report
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Presents the atmospheric environment during the launch of Space Shuttle STS-41D.
Preprint
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This paper introduces an interactive visualization interface with a machine learning consensus analysis that enables the researchers to explore the impact of atmospheric and socioeconomic factors on COVID-19 clinical severity by employing multiple Recurrent Graph Neural Networks. We designed and implemented a visualization interface that leverages...
Article
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Data-driven condition-based maintenance (CBM) and predictive maintenance (PdM) strategies have emerged over recent years and aim at minimizing the aviation maintenance costs and environmental impact by the diagnosis and prognosis of aircraft systems. As the use of data and relevant algorithms is essential to AI-based gas turbine diagnostics, there...
Article
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Tropospheric ozone is a key chemically active trace gas and radiative forcer. Understanding its long‐term changes is important to properly interpret observed changes in total column ozone and stratospheric ozone recovery. We investigate global and regional tropospheric ozone changes and their impact on total column ozone during 2005–2018 using sate...
Article
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The Hunga-Tonga volcanic eruption occurred on 15 January 2022 generated different modes of atmospheric and ionospheric waves. Using the Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite-17 (GOES-17), Aqua and Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite observations, an atmospheric and ionospheric multi-layer study of the Tonga volcano induced signature...
Article
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The Van Allen Probes mission operations materialized through a distributed model in which operational responsibility was divided between the Mission Operations Center (MOC) and separate instrument specific SOCs. The sole MOC handled all aspects of telemetering and receiving tasks as well as certain scientifically relevant ancillary tasks. Each inst...
Experiment Findings
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Analyzing NASA visualization data, we got permittivity, electrical conductance, density, and other data about the earth's surface layers. The CST Studio Suite covers a wide range of electromagnetic analyses. With regard to antenna design, we can create or import geometry directly in the software interface, and with the help of this data, we created...
Preprint
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The NASA Discovery-class mission VERITAS, selected in June 2021, will be launched towards Venus in 2027. In addition to the science instrumentation that will build global foundational geophysical datasets, VERITAS proposed to conduct a technology demonstration for the Deep Space Atomic Clock (DSAC-2). A first DSAC successfully operated in low-Earth...
Article
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In this paper, the assessment of wind energy potential for Nigeria is carried out. Average monthly wind speed data is obtained from NASA meteorological website for a period of forty (40) years (1981 - 2021) for forty-seven (47) study locations. The average annual and monthly wind speed estimated for the study locations varies from 1.38 - 3.89 m/s a...
Article
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NASA surface exploration missions have always seen negative effects of dust including the Apollo missions. The astronaut-witnessed unusual behavior of the dust particles that surround the vehicle after engine cutoff has the potential to have more of an influence on surface systems dust loading than the high velocity lunar rocket plume ejecta in the...
Article
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We investigate and assess how well a global chemical transport model (GEOS‐Chem) simulates submicron aerosol mass concentrations in the remote troposphere. The simulated speciated aerosol (organic aerosol (OA), black carbon, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium) mass concentrations are evaluated against airborne observations made during all four seasons...
Conference Paper
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Remote sensing datasets are being developed to support numerous geosciences and different fields which contribute to the flooding sector, climate sectors and others. Numerous satellite rainfall products have been developed over the recent decades at different time scales from sub- hourly to monthly and are freely provided for operational use. The a...
Article
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Plain Language Summary Under particular weather conditions, the Martian atmosphere displays a special sound‐wave velocity profile, where the wave velocity becomes larger with increasing altitude within a few hundred meters. When an infrasound signal—a low‐frequency (<20 Hz) sound wave inaudible to humans—propagates through such a structure, the inf...
Preprint
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A wall model for large-eddy simulation (LES) is proposed by devising the flow as a collection of building blocks. The core assumption of the model is that a finite set of simple canonical flows contains the essential physics to predict the wall stress in more complex scenarios. The model is constructed to predict zero/favorable/adverse mean-pressur...
Article
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The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite instrument on board NASA's Curiosity rover has characterized the inorganic and organic chemical composition of seven samples from the Glen Torridon (GT) clay‐bearing unit. A variety of organic molecules were detected with SAM using pyrolysis (up to ∼850°C) and wet chemistry experiments coupled with evolved ga...
Article
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Mass spectrometers on board spacecraft typically use either impact ionization or electron ionization (EI) as ion sources. Understanding the similarities and differences in the spectral signatures and fragmentation patterns produced by different techniques in mass spectrometry could elucidate the composition of organic compounds. Here we present a c...
Research Proposal
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How are you, I hope this letter find you well. My name is Ali Yousif Hassan Edriss from Sudan, and I developed a theory and equations that can predict the fate of spacecrafts which exist inside interstellar region and hence can give off huge explorations about the structure of that region. My theory says: Very far from the mass like the sun and its...
Preprint
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Ionospheric disturbances induced by seismic activity have been studied in the last years by many authors, showing an impact both before and after the occurrence of earthquakes. In this study, the ionospheric scintillation produced by the 2021 La Palma volcano eruption is analyzed. The "Cumbre Vieja" volcano was active from September 19th to Decembe...
Article
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We examine the thermal structure of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) using observations from 2002 through 2021 from the SABER instrument on the NASA TIMED satellite. These observations show that the MLT has significantly cooled and contracted between the years 2002 and 2019 (the year of the most recent solar minimum) due to a combination...