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It shows "[Deprecated]" for both Landsat 7 & 8 surface reflectance Tier 1 bands...
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Use the following link instead
ee.ImageCollection("LANDSAT/LC08/C02/T1_L2") for Landsat 8
ee.ImageCollection("LANDSAT/LE07/C02/T1_L2") for Landsat 7
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Hello professors
Hope you're doing well.
Is is possible to download data from NASA website and use it in research papers written for international journals. If possible then is the data source is authentic to use for research work?
For your information the website of NASA is given below from where I want to download and use data....
Please have a look and give your kind suggestions regarding the data authenticity.....
Thanks in advance
Regards
Sami
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Sami Ullah Khan The NASA Open Data Portal is NASA's clearinghouse site for publicly available open data, with access to tens of thousands of datasets.
NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is built as a distributed system, with significant facilities situated around the United States at NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs).
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Dear All;
If we look closely to scientific works, interviews and speeches of Stephen Hawking, we may see many points unacceptable to norms of science. I myself have identified questionable statements by him that may need to be clarified. I share you several examples:
1- As far as I have seen and read his books, I did not find any referencing styles, bibliography...
2- Strange Statements, for example about Black Holes, rejecting other sciences such as Philosophy,
3- Changing his views constantly, with no reference, talking about Big Crunch, then reject it, talking about Big Bang and then reject it.
4- Advertising "The theory of everything" and then giving it up silently...
5- Did not talk about opposite ideas by others, eg, those who don't accept Big Bang...
6- Changing his ideas about our fate constantly, for example saying we have 1000 years time to leave earth, 600 years, 200 years, 100 years...
7- The reasons he talks about for leaving the earth (such as possible nuclear wars, Viruses, climate change, ... ) could be easily challenged, as humans (if ever according to him ) leave the Earth, wont take with themselves their behavior, culture, tools, systems, policies, attitudes, understanding ideology, beliefs, systems, doctrines? just to name a few.
8- Alien invasion
9- other issues... we talk about later
Please share your ideas on points mentioned above, or other points you know
Thank you
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A discussion about science popularization and the responsibility of scientists in this is a very general and brought one, and, although it is of great interest, I do not have the time to take part in this. Perhaps others may contribute. Concerning the discussion of Susskind and Hawkins, this was a scientific one, and, as Leonard Susskind wrote, he "deeply respected" Hawkins. Therefore this is another question and is not connected to Hawking's popular books.
Best regards,
Wolfgang
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"The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will find the first galaxies that formed in the early universe" - confidently claimed NASA! If the universe is infinite then how NASA or anybody can find a limit, not to speak of the so-called "early universe"? This foolish aim of official theoretical physics and cosmology arises from the utter ignorance of "The Infinite"; the lack of understanding of the source of matter and motion; and the defective theories of gravitation, pointing to a so-called "Big Bang Creation"!
"The Infinite - As a Hegelian Philosophical Category and Its Implication for Modern Theoretical Natural Science" :
"The Philosophy of Space-Time: Whence Cometh Matter and Motion?" :
"KEPLER -NEWTON -LEIBNIZ -HEGEL Portentous and Conflicting Legacies in Theoretical Physics, Cosmology and in Ruling Ideas" :
"The Mystery of the Lorentz Transform: A Reconstruction and Its Implications for Einstein's Theories of Relativity and cosmology" :
Now please enjoy the fun of seeing the "progress" of JWST in the following videos:
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Dear all
Let’s look at this topic from a research perspective and research based thought.
For many decades we have seen that in academic research peer review has played an important role to filter questionable research. While the system has its own shortcomings.
Peer review system is so important that it is called the gate keeping of science (Paltridge, 2017; Hames, 2007; Forsberg and others, 2022). And indeed it is. But academic resources on this important topic (peer review) are so scarce (in comparison with other related topics).
More important in the era of Mis/Disinformation in virtual worlds is “post peer review”. If we have a look at sites such as Retraction Watch we see that how effective post peer review has been for retraction of published papers, because of misconducts and frauds (we can call them whistleblowers of science).
  • James Webb, and Hubble telescopes, etc.
  • For NASA claims we lack both. Neither PRE nor POST peer review . Let me explain it. One of the topics that we are not sure what to do with, how to deal with, how to test, examine, repeat, ask for expertise, get real unbiased scientific information, provable by peers, accessibility of the real, first-hand, unchanged data, is those released by NASA. Not only James Webb, and Hubble telescopes data/info/findings/images… but also too many other related topics surrounding UNIVERSE, COSMOS, or whatever we call it. It is simple that one of the most basic and fundamental characteristics of academic research is replicability. For years we have had also this topic on replicability in research, called “replicability crisis in science”. Researching this crisis from two different viewpoints, one, not enough data to do so by peers and also hard or almost impossible to accurately replicate. The peer review and “post peer review” systems have power, because they can test, examine, review, replicate and experience. About NASA claims, what powers reviewers have? Independently Replicate what? test what? experience what? Are there anyone to PEER review, data and info provided, and disseminated by NASA? Who has access to first raw data? Are they accessible to all? After all the entire system of science has been effective as it does not work according to "TRUST" , but contrary. Verification and Validation.
  • There are too many other scientific clues and signs that we have to be very cautious about. To be short the “so called scientific claims, and findings” that cannot have or receive INDIPENDENT, Real, unbiased and Expert peer review, should be dealt with concerns.
  • Let’s see how this discussion will move forward and then we can go more in to details.
References
Paltridge, Brian. The Discourse of Peer Review: Reviewing Submissions to Academic Journals. United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2017.
Peer Review in an Era of Evaluation: Understanding the Practice of Gatekeeping in Academia. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2022.
Hames, Irene. Peer Review and Manuscript Management in Scientific Journals: Guidelines for Good Practice. United Kingdom: Wiley, 2007.
Also there are some ongoing discussions in RG surrounding issues about the gray or dark sides of science and research. I kindly refer you to these following links
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Hello,
The NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database gives two velocities for each galaxy: The velocity (helio) and velocity (CMB).
I need just to know, if possible, the difference between these two velocities.
Thanks in advance.
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Dear honorable Forrest Noble,
Thank you very much for your response. I have other questions for you, if possible.
1/ Is the trajectory of the proper galaxies movement known?
2/ In a group of galaxies such as the M87 group for example, do the galaxies orbit around the center of the group?
3/ The CMB velocity of a galaxy, represents the velocity of its gravitation around the cluster ?, its proper velocity ?, or the velocity of its movement related to the Hubble constantt?.
Best regards
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I want to convert HDF files to GeoTIFF format. I attempted to instal Earthdata NASA "Release 2.15 (April 2019)" but was unsuccessful. I made sure to act in accordance with the guidance. But I didn't get HEGTool.bat. I disabled the firewall that was installed with Windows. I keep getting error messages that say "Directory not exist" whenever I try to enter the directory path. I have attached the two pictures below for your consideration.
It would be of great assistance to me if someone could direct me.
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Goodyear offers
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Dear friends,
I'm studying the soil moisture content of AMSR-2 and relevant data currently. One of the required data for my research is surface temperature. And I can not find this data from both NASA and JAXA websites though I found that NASA provides the air surface temperature products in GeoTIFF format (https://nsidc.org/data/NSIDC-0451/versions/3).
Could you please tell me where I can get the retrieval (air) surface temperature of AMSR-2 in the other formats to get the digital data?
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Thank you Sanaz Khosropour, I also found the other way to get this data from JAXA.
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Hi,
I am trying to access the prognostic data repository that belongs to the NASA site without success.
I think they have changed the location of the repository.
Your help will be appreciated to re-access this repository.
Thanks in advance
Mohamed
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Hi,
The information can be found through the following link
More preciesly, Nasa is updating their website and they will restore a direct link to download the data, as mentioned below:
""Download: Data is currently unavailable for download directly. NASA is working to restore direct download capabilities. In the meantime, if you would like access to the data, please contact christopher.a.teubert@nasa.gov.""
I hope this satisfies your query.
Best regards
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Dear researchers
In my subject, I work on the characterization of the Moroccan marine microbiota by metagenomics under the discipline of microbial ecology.
During the sampling, we could not have all the in situ measurements of the Physico-chemical parameters of the studied microbiome. That's why we had recourse to the extraction of spatial data from the NASA website to complete.
my question is: do we have the right to combine our own data with those of a database to analyze them? ethical and copyright aspects. since these data are submitted to the public with open access.
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Samir Ranjan Panda , Man Kit Cheung , Phil Geis thank you very muche for your answers :)
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Why did NASA/RSS stop reporting average global water vapor?
The WV data had been reported monthly by NASA/RSS from Jan 1988 to Jan 2021 at http://data.remss.com/vapor/monthly_1deg/tpw_v07r01_198801_202101.time_series.txt . They stopped reporting with their last report for Jan 2021.
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There is a definite trend in the data of TPW vs temperature'
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Like i wonder if they train astronauts on earth, NASA may have facilities where microgravity is achieved, but how ?
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Astronauts usually train in planes that are moving in parabolas, so for a brief period of time, like 20-30 seconds, they experience microgravity by free fall. And there are also fall towers, which also mimics microgravity. But standing on Earth, as far as I know, it cannot be done yet, because it would mean that you would somehow counteract the gravity force that is always attractive, always pulls you down. There is no machine (yet) that could cancel or diminish a gravitational field. Astronauts also train in big pools of water that simulate microgravity: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutral_Buoyancy_Laboratory
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According to NASA/RSS anomaly data (the reference level is 28.73 kg/m^2) at http://data.remss.com/vapor/monthly_1deg/tpw_v07r01_198801_202101.time_series.txtaverage global water vapor increased about 1.49% per decade from Jan 1988 to Jan 2021 (their most recent report). This is about twice the amount that would occur from just temperature increase and amounts to about 7 molecules of WV added for each molecule of CO2 added.
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Dear all,
I have read the paper “An Assessment of the State of the Art from the 2019 ARO Dynamic Stall Workshop” by Prof. M.J. Smith et al . where she said that the experimental database on 2-D dynamic stall of airfoils NACA0012, VR 7 and VR12 is available online or by request. I would be grateful if someone who has the web address for getting this experimental database, send it to me.
Best regards,
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Thanks for your reply. I have already the data of the Glasgow University. I'm looking for the data of McCroskey, but I don't know where to get it online or where to make the request.
Best regards,
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There are no reliable climate data for my research which is remote and quite far from a weather station. So, NASA power data is the last option. But I need to know the resolution.
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Thank you @pulakabha
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I wanna get MODIS Image but the websites pop up below error
"Bad Request
Your browser sent a request that this server could not understand. Size of a request header field exceeds server limit."
I use NASA & USGS websites to get it
thanks for your reply
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Hi, I also meet this "Bad request" error.
Have you figured out how to solve it? Thank you!
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Dear Colleagues. I have a rainfall data of 30 minutes interval from GPM(NASA), I also have an hourly rainfall data of one hour interval from ground 2eather station. The satellite data start at 0: 00 hour while the ground data start at 4:37PM. My question is, how do I convert the half hour data of the satellite to match the one hour ground data to enable me run a regression analysis to use the ground data to validate the satellite data?. I will appreciate your kind contribution as this has been given me sleepless night. Thanks
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An easy way would be to start the NASA dataset from 4:30PM, and add up two 30 min records to make it an hourly data series. Use that to corrrelate against the ground data that starts at 4:37PM.
Yes, they will be 7 minutes off, but if you look at the entire year, a 7 minute offset is not a huge error.
There is no other way, as one cannot divide the 30 minute or 1 hr data into 1 minute resolution - the data is the sum of the rain that fell in that entire interval.
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I`m organizing a testing campaign to evaluate a set tools designed for astronauts using VR (Virtual Reality). To measure the design performance we will use two well established performance evaluation methods, but they are both qualitative (NASA TLX and mSUS). I had the idea to add a quantitative control data layer to the experiment, using biometric feedbacks from wearable sensors.
Since I`m not a physician, I`m not sure which kind of data (and so sensors) will be best suited to measure stress and focus, and which indicators to look for. On the market there is a huge range of wearable sensors (hearth monitors, skin temperature and moisture, breathing levels, ECG).
Thank you for any suggestions or researches you can share on this topic.
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You can use biomarkers (hormones) to measure stress and focus.
For instance, you can track the levels of cortisol and dopamine in saliva, sweat and/or blood before, during and after the given tasks.
There are plenty of kits on the market to easily determine quantitatively those hormones.
If you need references pls let me know so I can look up some and share with you.
Best,
Hector.
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I have downloaded data of 10 Aug 2015 from SABER instrument on the NASA TIMED satellite by choosing altitude (10 to 155 km), latitude (-90 to 90) and longitude (0 to 360) and converted in to .mat files. If possible then kindly help me selecting NO_VER for latitude of 69.58° N, altitude of 145 km and longitude of 19.23° E at (01 – 02 UT) from my MAT file of 10 Aug 2015.
THANKS
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Hello everyone. I need to calculate the upwelling and downwelling radiances and atmospheric transitivity for Landsat images prior to 2000 for my research therefore I cannot use the NASA calculator (https://atmcorr.gsfc.nasa.gov/). Does anyone know a way how to determine these parameters for images between 1984 and 2000? I do not have MODTRAN software.
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Djamal, thank you for your idea
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In technical guide pdf, the unit of precipitation in mm/hr.IS MEAN must be mulitable all pixels 24*31 to get mm/month ?
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Are you talking about IMERG monthly data? If the unit of this data is mm/hr and you need to convert it to mm/month, please look at the link and the description below. In general, you are right but don't forget that the number of hours (days) in each month is different.
"Because the total days in each month are different, mm/hr is used for easy comparison. Since the 3B43 product is a monthly average, you could simply do the conversion by multiplying the hourly rain rate with the total hours in that month."
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One of the things that has kept NASA's astrobiologists busy is the possible habitability of the low clouds of Venus, in which traces of phosphine have been detected, which is the product of microbial activity, the problem is that it has not been detected enough water to sustain this hypothetical presence of life, so where does this phosphine come from?
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Dear Juam, please don't teach me chemistry.
Material balance (in this case, in phosphorus) means something.
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Citing Surendra Adhikari at NASA, I would like to ask how it is possible to claim that the North Pole drift is caused by climate change:
"Climate change does not only cause the rise of the oceans, it also disturbs the magnetic field of the Earth. "There has been a dramatic change in the direction of pole drift, undoubtedly caused by climate change, which is linked to the disappearance of the ice sheets,  especially in Greenland," said Surendra Adhikari, researcher at the NASA. The North Pole has lost 278 gigatonnes of ice since the beginning of the third millennium.  As a result, the magnetic north pole moves eastward, and faster than before. The melting of ice would account for 66% in the acceleration of the phenomenon."
The magnetic pole drift is caused by the magnetic field strength of the North American flux lobe and the Siberian flux lobe (Ref: 1, 2, Figure 1). This is also based on a comparison with the magnetic South Pole in Antarctica, which is immobile and entirely surrounded by ocean, while the magnetic North Pole is driven by continental mineral density of the two major continents forming large magnetic fields. These mineral densities of the Siberian and Canadian regions are fluctuating with the activity of the internal core and the rotation of the iron core of the earth, seismic activity and change in mineral composition of the mantel over several years. The geomagnetic properties of these region can change drastically by the alterations of the electromagnetic field of the planet Earth, which is also affected by the electromagnetic field of the Sun. How can NASA claim that the North pole ice, which is virtually the same as water around Antarctica in magnitude of electromagnetic strength, alter the position of the magnetic North Pole?
References.
1. Gubbins, David, and Peter Kelly. "Persistent patterns in the geomagnetic field over the past 2.5 Myr." Nature 365.6449 (1993): 829.
2. St-Onge, Guillaume, and Joseph S. Stoner. "Paleomagnetism near the north magnetic pole: a unique vantage point for understanding the dynamics of the geomagnetic field and its secular variations." Oceanography 24.3 (2011): 42-50.
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Thanks for this reply. This confirms that the theory of NASA is not fully in accord with geomagnetism.
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For LULC data from USGS, It shows me this error and logging in NASA earth data it doesn't help either, so if you can help me in this that would be really appreciated.
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I recomend Google Earth Engine (GEE). It helps you to get data like landsat, sentinel, modis etc easily. There are lots of examples codes available for performing NDVI, LULC and Change Detection over time. If you're interested then I can provide my codes
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I am trying to map NO2 using the NASA nc files using spyder (python). These files contain the scientific data sets (sds) and can be converted to CVS format and opened with excel. The excel files then contain data for the quantity of that specific pollutant, in this case NO2 with the format e.g. 9.97E-36. How do I map this? Do I convert it into python file first? because those can be mapped easily. But would that require coding? Please help.
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Adrien Wehrlé I will try using this and then let you know.
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Actually, I would like to have an open discussion on the enigmatic subject related to life on Mars. There are two opposite opinions, one supports and the other rejects. However, there are no strong evidences outweighed one of these two opinions till now. Under the circumstances, I would have a feedback on this subject matter from the experts.
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Since there used to be water on Mars and there were more favorable conditions for the development of life (those at least known and similar to what is called life on the planet Earth), some forms of life may have existed on this planet. Perhaps soon some life forms will begin to exist on Mars, if man implements his plans to establish bases on Mars and manned flights to this planet begin. It may take place in the perspective of the next decades in the present 21st century.
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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I am trying to use NASA Earthdata paired with QGIS to model changes in elevation at any point on Earth with respect to time. When importing certain NASA Earthdata datasets as a raster layer to QGIS, some datasets (ASTER) are imported to the proper coordinates (hovering the mouse of the layer shows the exact coordinates related to the location on Earth), however some datasets (MODIS for example), despite having latitude and longitude data available with the dataset are not imported to QGIS with the proper coordinates corresponding to each point in the layer.
How can I recalibrate or attach specific coordinates to these enlarged raster layers?
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You can use QGIS's Georeferencing tool and an accurate base layer as reference: https://www.qgistutorials.com/en/docs/georeferencing_basics.html
That being said, are you sure the layers' CRS are the same as different reference systems will cause misalignments?
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I have downloaded NASA MODIS Aqua level 3 daily sea surface temperature it is a nc file and I opened it using raster package in r. I found that there are lots of empty grids without data (please see the uploaded picture). What should I need to do in order to fill in those empty grids? and same problem happened on the Chlorophyll a data. I am so grateful if anyone can answer my questions. Thanks!
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There are many interpolation schemes available to estimate the data at grid point. Select one after another and check where you get the error in estimation minimum with some randomly selected available data. The interpolation scheme with minimum error of estimation to be used for the rest of the data.
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The meteorological agencies that monitor global climate [NASA, Met Office, NOAA, Japanese Meteorological Agency] calculate temperature anomalies according to data from many stations around the globe.
Where one can find a full list of those stations for each agency?
Do those agencies rely upon the same stations or different?
Are those stations the same every year or different?
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Apparently WMO presents just a handful of the thousand stations that are used by the major agencies measuring global temperature. I wonder how to find a comprehensive list.
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Countries launch satellites for several valid reasons, but now scenario is that many (in thousands) of these are longer working. Thus acting as space debris, these satellites and their non-working parts can collide with existing functional satellites and create more and more debries. Are we doing the same with space what we have done to our Earth or are some countries are taking some action. Please discuss.
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Hi Aman, some countries like France have adopted laws to prevent space debris. You will find attached a short presentation of this "French Space Operation Act". The main countries having space activities should adopt the same kind of laws. In addition, some projects are under study to remove debris from space ("Active Debris Removal" missions). Best
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What is the aerodynamic issues expected on mars regarding the fly of NASA's Ingenuity Mars Helicopter?
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The Red Planet has a significantly lower gravity one-third that of Earth’s and an extremely thin atmosphere with only 1% the pressure at the surface compared to our planet. This means there are relatively few air molecules with which Ingenuity’s two 4-foot-wide (1.2-meter-wide) rotor blades can interact to achieve flight. Kindly check the following link:
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I am trying to evaluate solar (PV) potential for various areas in the world with use of daily data. The NASA POWER tool (https://power.larc.nasa.gov/data-access-viewer/) which I consider using, has daily data of All Sky Insolation Incident on a Horizontal Surface . This data has limited usability for tilted panels (as I understand) as it is composed of direct radiation (which depends strongly on the tilt angle) and diffuse radiation.
How can this kind modelling achieved with daily data?
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I think that there may be a predictive percentage, not an absolute one, we can consider that there is an estimate or approximate value. The data of the mentioned website can be adopted, but after adding a random prediction percentage.
Best regards
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I am trying to plot active fire data taken from NASA FIRMS for a period of 10 years. It is taking to much time to plot using the conventional excel sheet. Is there any tool to simplify the process likely QGIS or other. Kindly help me with this
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You can use a simple script (R, Python...etc) to plot using a for loop.
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I want to design PV/wind /hydro hybrid system for rural electrification.
We obtain solar, wind and other information from NASA and other websites. For finding the hydro information there is exist any way like NASA OR OTHER WAY
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@Shir Ahmad Dost Mohammadi
There are only regional Data sources Like
There will be no Main system for all because of the gouvernance structure in water area.
Feel free to contact us for more Help. We Work in Micro Hydro systems since years and have an own Test system.
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1. Which software is comparatively easier to learn in order to analyze the available satellite data for air pollutants such as tropospheric ozone, PM10, NO2 etc.
2. Please recommend a guide to follow as well, if possible.
3. Approximately, how much time will it take to analyze data spanning 6 months?
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Hi
you can use the Air Quality Index (AQI) to calculate the quality of air pollutants such as tropospheric ozone, PM10, NO2 etc.
with my best regard
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I have climate data from NASA and I'd like to know how do I convert rainfall rates from mm day-1 to mm?
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That depends on the temporal scale of interest. If you want to determine daily rainfall sums, your data does not need to be converted. If you are interested in monthly or annual rainfall sums, you need to aggregate the rainfall amounts in mm/day for each month or year by summing all daily rainfall values within one month or one year.
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I have tried Idelchik's Handbook of Hydraulic Resistance 4th Edition (2007 page 300) formulas and across some range the formulas are reported valid for, the law of conservation of energy is violated (expansion loss without kinetic exit loss included) and differs from CFD results, underestimating by order of magnitude of about 137 times (while it agrees in other sub-ranges for which it is reported valid within 3% of CFD results).
I have also tried Ekert et al (1976 pages 30 and 36) on NASA's site: https://ntrs.nasa.gov/api/citations/19770005050/downloads/19770005050.pdf
The results in Eckerts also overestimates by as much as 62% of the CFD results when the diffuser cone angle is 5 degrees whereas it agrees within 7% of the CFD results when the cone angle is 1 degree.
Diffuser Loss formulas which agrees within 5% of CFD results for the range it is reported valid for will be appreciated.
The Friction Loss formulas work perfect but the problem is the accuracy of the expansion loss formulas. I need the formulas to run numerical optimization before generating a geometry for CFD so important I get the analytical/numerical formulas .
Thanks in anticipation of the help
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You will not find a ready-made formula in the literature, you have to establish it yourself. The following link relates to the circular divergent. You can follow the same process for your problem.
Regards
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We have been investigating the annual/seasonal variability of chlorophyll-a concentration and its relationship with sea-surface temperature and river discharge in coastal shelf region of northern Bay of Bengal (Norther Indian Ocean) and validate MODIA Aqua chl-a data with in-situ measurement. We used 16 years’ level- 3 MODIS aqua chl-a (OCI algorithm) data for our study. But, we are facing several questions related to data from scientific community while publishing paper. The question was quoted below …
“In general, MODIS chlorophyll concentration products provided by NASA were directly used in the paper, without regional correction or regional algorithm inversion, which would lead to the unreliability of the results: It is suggested to carry out regional correction of MODIS or regional algorithm inversion
How can we clarify this query?
As we worked with level-3 data, there are no way to use regional algorithm. Level-3 chl-a data has a build-in algorithm called OCI (OCx and CI combined). Moreover, there need huge work load (time and funding) to form up a regional algorithm, which was not the scope of our study. Developing regional algorithm can be handy to get more accurate results. But without it, can’t we use level-3 data for our study area in scientific study?
I need some really strong and plausible statements regarding this query? We are rigorously questioned about quality of MODIS aqua data. 
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Dear Muhammad,
All remote sensing data could be unreliable if the assumptions in the algorithm applied are violated in the place where they are used. The concerned with some chlorophyll algorithms (e.g. OC-x) is that they are empirical algorithms based on open ocean data where most parameters covary with [chl]. As one gets closer to shore, suspended sediment and colored dissolved organic matter from terrestrial sources and/or ocean bottom can become important contributors to color whereby the assumptions of the empirical algorithm may be violated. There are other products, such as from GIOP, QAA or GSM inversions scheme that do not make such assumptions and are expected to work better in coastal areas, as they allow for independent variability of [chl] and other constituents. In any case, and as a general rule, it is always advisable to validate remote sensing data with some local data prior to using it for publications. Best, Emmanuel
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Dear Authors & Readers,
I'm looking for The file airfoil.txt Profile coordinates of NASA rotor37.
If you can kindly help me to send me them. So that I can continue working.
Sincerely yours.
Mohamed Laid Salem, PhD Student.
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You're welcome. Best
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This is a plot of wind speed in America at 100m and 80m. what software can i use to plot this
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To plot the contour plot first, you need to have wind data. If you already have measured wind data, you can use surfer. If you don't have the data, you can also get them from https://globalwindatlas.info/.
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NASA's unmanned X-34 shcramjet demonstration sub-orbital aircraft is air-launched from Orbital Sciences Corp.’s L-1011, a commercial jetliner originally modified to carry the company’s expendable Pegasus launch vehicle. I understand that shcramjet engines need to be boosted to supersonic velocity before they start to work, but I am wondering, "why they are air-launched rather than boosted using a rocket from the ground?"
I suspect it has something to do with reducing vibrations and g-forces on instruments and sensors, or concurrently demonstrating reusable launch vehicle technology, other than the Pegasus, which is considered expendable. I am wondering about the cost difference as well.
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L-1011 is an airliner with three jet engines, two with the wings the third on the tail. Whereas X-34 can reach Mach-8 with rocket engine. L-1011 is probably suitable to put the Mach-8 feature easily in the upper atmosphere.
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New approaches indicate climate variability is due to natural causes. GCMs fail to explain climate variability, as they are blind to solar variations. NASA keeps posting graphs of TSI ignoring the modern satellite measurements that indicate a TSI increase. Running GCMs backwards in time reveal a total catastrophe as they are incapable of reproducing past climate variability. So shouldn't we look closer to the solar variations to examining climate?
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The general state of the Earth's climate is a function of the amount of energy stored by the climate system. More specifically it can be stated that the Earth’s climate is regulated by the balance between the amount of energy the Earth receives from the Sun, in the form of light and ultraviolet radiation, and the amount of energy the Earth releases back to space, in the form of infrared heat energy. The basic causes of climate change involve any process that can alter this global energy balance. Scientists call this "climate forcing.” Climate forcing "forces" or induces the climate to change, although the acceleration or pace of the process is highly variable.
There are many climate forcing processes, but broadly speaking, they can be classified into internal and external types. External processes operate outside the planet Earth, and include changes in the global energy balance due to extraterrestrial factors like variations in the Earth’s orbit around the Sun, and changes in the amount of energy received from the Sun. Internal processes operate from within the Earth's climate system, and include changes in the global energy balance due to changes in ocean circulation or changes in the composition of the atmosphere. Other climate forcing processes include the impacts of large volcanic eruptions, collisions with comets or meteorites etc. Luckily, the Earth is not hit by large comets or meteorites very often, perhaps every 20 to 30 million years or so, and therefore their associated climate changes occur rarely throughout Earth History. However, other causes of climate change influence the Earth on much shorter time scales, with changes sometimes occurring within a single generation. Indeed, our present oscillation of the composition of atmosphere due to emission of greenhouse gases may be causing the global climate to change with an increased trend of atmospheric temperature.
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Accepted data for the Venusian atmosphere record a surface pressure of 9200 kPa and an atmospheric composition of 3.5% Nitrogen by volume. (NASA data). Using Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure this means that the partial pressure of N2 is 322 kPa and therefore Venus has 4 times as much nitrogen gas as Earth does.
If Venus possessed a CO2 free, nitrogen only atmosphere, then the boiling point of water on Venus would be 136 deg C.
Where does all the nitrogen on Venus come from and how long has the planet had this much nitrogen gas?
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This work by Ian Miller provides a valid chemical mechanism by which nitrogen can be incorporated into the solid particles which form the process of planetary accretion :-
"There is, however, a further mechanism for accreting nitrogen. If the stellar nebula reaches the 2000 K, at that temperature nitrogen reacts with most metals to form nitrides, which, being solids, will be able to accrete, and will subsequently react hydrothermally to form ammonia able to be released during degassing."
Miller, Ian, Early Martian Atmosphere and Biogenesis (April 2001). Chemistry Preprint Archive Vol. 2001, Issue 4, pp 126-140. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2969550
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Satellite images released by NASA and the European Space Agency reveal the impact of China's Corona virus shutdown on pollution levels across the country.
Production in many factories was halted and transportation restricted to prevent the virus from spreading in the country.
Images taken from January 1-20 show higher levels of nitrogen dioxide in the air. But from February 10-25, traces of the gas are hardly visible.
(Source: CNN)
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Thank you sir for your sharing
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I need to plot and read TEC value file downloaded from NASA server. Is there any tool to read it or any programing language.
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Currently, through SIMuRG you can only plot full map at https://simurg.iszf.irk.ru/gecmap.
I will think about regional plot.
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Hi,
I am checking the daily precipitation data from NASA POWER (https://power.larc.nasa.gov), which uses data from MERRA2.
When I compare values with other data sets' daily sum values, I see that POWER's values are much lower than other sources, especially in extreme rainy or snowy days. (data sources such as CHIRPS, or DarkSky)
The parameter definition for precipitation is "The daily average rain rate" on the POWER website. ( https://power.larc.nasa.gov/#resources )
Is this the accumulated rain in a day? If so, could it have a tendency to underestimate daily precipitation?
You can compare yourself here: https://climengine.page.link/dvut
using MERRA-2 and CHIRPS dataset. You should see that scales are different between the right and the left.
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Both are remotely sensed with NASA having one degree sensitivity, CHIRPS has 0.05 degree sensitivity. CHIRPS is more accurate to local conditions, but neither is probably sufficient for most field based research level hydrology. The level of sensitivity suggested in the plot by the Lat-Long values is likely just the center of the location analyzed to 1 or 0.05 degrees. If these are used regardless of this, the NASA might be better for large basins or regional study, and the CHIRPS for watersheds. When comparing, it would take 400 CHIRPS size units to make one NASA unit, so when comparing these two data, the average of the 400 CHIRPS would be compared with the one georeferenced NASA location.
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Free-piston stirling engines (FPSE) have been used by NASA for space power conversion for more than 30 years. Is there a new simpler machine that could replace FPSE?
Thanks.
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I agree and I like the proposition of Bo Miao
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DO YOU KNOW WHY NASA SUSPECTS MARS LIFE COULD BE HIDING UNDERGROUND?
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Yes, life can exit underground for millions of years. Even on earth micro-organisms are found in hot springs and even several hundred meters under water and has survived freezing temperature. On Mars there are several geographical locations (like the ice capped mountain in the south pole https://mars.nasa.gov/news/1001/nasa-orbiter-penetrates-mysteries-of-martian-ice-cap/ ) and active geology (active lava tubes ) can foster life for a long period of time.
However we cant expect the same type of life as on Earth to be found on Mars. If we do find life on mars it will be in form of single cell micro-organism confined to few colonies. Also their cell internal structure may not consist of DNA, Nucleus, mitochondria etc.; but some other alternative forms. This is what makes journey to Mars more interesting. We don't know what kinds of life form we may find on Mars. On Earth we have found life taking refuge (even mutated) under severe environment conditions, and we hope that the same would have happened on Mars.
In the past all NASA missions has been exploring the surface of Mars, and non of them could find life. the only option remains is to dig deeper (at-least 100 to 200 feet) into the Mars surface (covered in ice or key zones). And to do so we need some serious space hardware.
Thanks,
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in the course of learning feature extraction methods and signal processing using IMS Bearing Data set from the Prognostics Data Repository hosted by NASA
by the Center of Intelligent Maintenance Systems (IMS), of University of Cincinnati; how do i process such an amount of data and more specifically, i need to plot an RMS curve to show degradation behavior of bearing_3. i have been trying around Matlab and R but cant get my way around it
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The bearing RUL can be challenging to predict because it is a very dynamic. In general, the bearing degradation has three stages: the healthy stage, linear degradation stage and fast development stage. You can refer to RMS plot for the Bearing_2 in the IMS bearing dataset.
As for the RUL prediction, many prediction algorithms has been proposed for this application. You can refer to Table I in the below paper for a summary.
If you want to build predictor to predict the RUL of bearing, exponential model can be a good option when you don't have abundant historical data.
I saw several people posted their code on the github.
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I have obtained ASTGTM v002 data from NASA. This dem data is almost 30m/pixel around equator. what I want is 1m/pixel.
The Bilinear Interpolation is used, but the result has many noises. Then I read some paper, there may have a way:
1. Extract contour(vector) from ASTGTM dem.;
2. Raster the contour use the algorith noted in the paper, An algorithm for generation of DEMs from contour lines considering geomorphic features.
Is the way feasible? I am trying to implementing the algorithm. Or there is a better method.
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If you can generate contours at finer intervels like 0.5-0.25m from the existing DEM of 30m. You may be able to generate DEM of 1.0 m resolution from the contours. But contour file will be very heavy to manage.
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NASA’s latest robotic geologist is starting to reveal the red planet’s pulse.
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1. Mars catastrophic past.
2. Real forces of celestial mechanics
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Thirty years ago, NASA’s Voyager 1 captured an iconic and humbling portrait of our world later described by scientist Carl Sagan as the “Pale Blue Dot.”
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Since the resolution of SMI data provided by NASA GSFC is 4000m or 9000m, why the spatial resolution of MODIS Ocean Color SMI data in Google Earth Engine is 500m?
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NASA gsfc may give re analysis product but MODIS spatial resolution is 250,500,1000 m so you can get level 3 data sets at the same resolutions, fir chlorophyll we generally use green band which is available at 500 m spatial resolution.
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I am trying to download over 800 images from the GIOVANNI platform of NASA. I saw that using wget can act as a faster download option. I have installed wget on my windows operating system and tried to follow some tutorials online. My problem is that I keep getting the error "unable to establish SSL connection". Does anyone have an idea how i can move past this error??
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Thank you. It seems the problem was with the wget version I was using. At least a version of 1.18 was needed.
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The NASA Power data set gives access to daily or monthly temperature averages for any point on earth. This would be useful for calculating PV output given the reliance of efficiency of panels on temperature, however it seems to me that the peak solar irradiance would coincide not with the average temperature--which includes an average from post-sunset hours too of course--but with the maximum temperature.
What I am looking for is a means to re-calculate the average temperature and skew it to the maximum, but I have only a minimum, maximum and mean temperature. I have a feeling that I would not be the first person to do this for a PV application. Is there some kind of established standard/protocol for doing so?
Thank you!
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Alternaively, maybe you can use TMY data from http://climate.onebuilding.org/
this website provides weather data by hourly.
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I am trying to get an accumulated map for precipitation in Giovanni platform. If I use the accumulated map option I get results with an underestimate than the ones obtained by NASA for the same tropical cyclone and time frame.
Do I need to do the accumulation myself after downloading 30-minute cumulation time intervals and run the cummulation in R? My worry is that the data will be a lot and I am not very good at R.
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Hi Helen, you could use CHIRPS, to get daily, monthly precipitation data. Best.
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I am working with multiple netCDF images from NASA GPM. I have to make a cumulative hydrology map by adding all the stacks of images together. For now, I have the simple code below but it is impossible to apply it for 868 images.
How can i automate the process?
> rr3 <- sum(rr1,rr2) > print(rr3)
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Dear Helen,
You can open all the netCDF files at once using raster::stack(x), where x is a character vector containing the filenames. Then, use raster::calc(x, fun = sum), where x is the RasterStack object loaded previously. Alternatively, you can use sum(s), where s is the RasterStack object.
HTH,
Ákos
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Hi Everyone,
I have a data set from NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the "Diameters of the asteroids" that has fallen till now and from that I am trying to forecast future asteroids diameter through ML algorithms.
For this research I am not able to find many published papers. Can anyone guide me with this?
Thanks
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Given that the shapes and sizes of asteroids that have been visited or imaged via radar are so varied, it is not clear that what you are trying to do is possible. Can you say more about what the inputs to your model would be and what you have found in the literature so far?
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I have come across ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite) data which provides information regarding altitudes, that are under the operation of NASA's Earth Observing System. Likewise, is there any such satellite covering India? If so, please provide the details.
Thank you very much in advance.
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I recommend you to search among the products offered for free by Aviso + https://www.aviso.altimetry.fr/home.html
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Dear Researchers and Professors,
Trust you are good.
I'm a researcher at School of Computing at Dublin Institute of Technology and currently working on Human Mental Workload under Dr. Luca Longo (www.luca.longo.eu).  My research includes the use of Machine Learning in conjunction to the NASA-TLX and its features.   For this purpose, I have started to contact all the scholars who have done research with the NASA-TLX and collected primary data.  My goal is to collect as many datasets as possible from different researchers to build a data-driven model that considers a multitude of human tasks. I was wondering whether you can share with me your data. I am aware of new GDPR regulation for data protection and privacy and to stick with it, I am not interested in the names of the participants of your dataset, but only in their answers.
It would be of great help if you could provide us the following: 1. Dataset (anonymous containing only the NASA-TLX answers) 2. Which task/s humans performed during the experiment? (perhaps you have already published a paper which we will cite) 3. What was the task performance measure/s used (time/number of errors/etc..)?
I thank you in advance for your kind availability and I am sorry if I have caused any inconvenience. I hope you can help us with this challenging research activity. I look forward to hearing from you.
Raunak Renge and Dr. Luca Longo School of Computing College of Science and Health Dublin Institute of Technology
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Dr. Renge,
I am interested to share ours data related with NASA and the own NASA TLX data. I need before contact you to talk about our intentions and if your group can help us too.
I hope your answer.
Best regards
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This is an open thought question for future xenobotanists.  I read that NASA is hiring a new round of astronauts for their Mars project, and it made me think about botany that is not on Earth (xenobotany)
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Xenobotany only applies if there is any botanical knowledge to be investigated and/or discovered. I don't think this is really applicable for the Moon or Mars, we would have known if there were anything as big as plants there.
However, if we are talking about a planetary-body were there were plant life it's a different story. I think the first round of projects for a xenobotanist in these cases would be to document as much as possible: photographs, tissue-samples, multi-spectral readings, nutrient exchanges etc. It will also be really important to include advanced security measures to avoid cross-contamination between our worlds. After all of these measurements and samples have been analyzed, more in-depth projects can be conceived, observations into: evolutionary relationship, biodiversity, plant abundances, plant-plant interactions, density dependence etc.
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Attached the elevation data from USGS 1-arc-second SRTM data. I understood that every pixel is associated with a latitude/longitude and elevation data at that location.
I want to extract the elevation data for a particular location using python 3. I am looking for an example code to do it.
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Hello Elango
Don't Know much about the Python Language. But If you have point locations in the form of shape file, you can easily extract the raster values of that location using ArcGIS with Tool Name ' Extract Values to points ' .
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I want to do certain analysis with surface as well as wind speeds at certain pressure levels (500 hPa, 850 hPa,1000hPa). Kindly, let me know the best available wind data in terms of the resolution (preferably 25km x 25 km), as well as good temporal resolution (3 to 6hr.)
Till now i have an option of CFSR, ERAinterim and Reanalysis. However,I want something like TRMM for precipitation, is there any observed wind global datasource ?
Saurabh
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At the moment I am working with Sentinel-2 images and would like to generate per pixel angle bands (view_zenith, view_azimuth, sun_zenith and sun_azimuth).
Considering Sentinel-2 SAFE structure, I found that MTD_TL.xml (metadata) describes the angle bands. This XML file describes the angle bands as 5000m resolution 23x23 data. Regarding solar zenith and azimuth each one is separated in one matrix, while for view zenith and azimuth it is distributed in several matrix based on the band and detectors.
Another consideration to be done is that this 23x23 matrix (at 5000m) is larger than the granule image. Regarding this, from ESA Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP) forum (https://forum.step.esa.int/t/generate-view-angles-from-metadata-sentinel-2/5598/2) I found out that not all fields from this matrix are used.
That said, I would like to know if there is any code or platform that is used to calculate Sentinel-2 angle bands. I found out that SNAP can perform that but it has several memory issues.
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I started developing a script to calculate the angle images.
If anyone need something similar, it can be found at https://github.com/marujore/sentinel_angle_bands . The only parameter is the MTD_TL path in the sentinel ".SAFE/GRANULE" folder. However, the sensor azimuth bands are not satisfatory, as can be seen in attached images.
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Hello everyone,
 I am trying to download SMAP  soil moisture data from http://nsidc.org/data/smap/
How can i download SMAP L2 Radiometer Daily 36 km Soil Moisture data in large batch files (more than 6 months data at one time) including all important parameters?
Can anybody tell me about any Python or Matlab scrip  which can download Batch data from HTTP website?
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I used Google Chrome 'Tab Save' app to batch download data.
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Humans will "absolutely" be on Mars in the future, NASA chief scientist Jim Green told USA TODAY. And the first person to go is likely living today, he said. 
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Dear colleagues ,
Nobody like to live away from his mother
I love our beautiful Earth
Kind Regards
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As the title stated, the GEOS-5 surface temperature products were used for SMAP surface temperature correction, while the GEOS-5 surface temperature included in SMAP had swath gap. What I need is the global space seamless GEOS-5 surface temperature as well as surface soil moisture products.
Actually, I tried to search them in the NASA/GMAO website: http://gmao.gsfc.nasa.gov/products/, But I found that there are only some air parameters.
Thus who can tell me where can I successfully download these products? Thank you very much.
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Mr.Sylvain Renevey, thank you very much. I have successfully downloaded the required data sets.
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I am a user of Debian GNU Linux (stable), R and QGIS. I use many data formats, but ESA data are resisting me. They come in NetCDF4. I had tried several R libraries (ncdf4, RNetCDF, raster) abut I believe that these files are not fully compatible with standards. In fact, I can read these files but when I want to process them the program is interrupted. Also, the version of QGIS that comes in Debian GNU Linux does not read these NetCDF4 from ESA. QGIS read perfectly the NetCDF4 from NASA. I really just want to pass one of the layers of these NetCDF4 to GeoTiff. I'm using NASA's Panoply viewer and exporting the data to CSV for import into QGIS, but it's a very slow process. I just need to see the layer and pass it to GeoTiff. Does anyone know a simple visualizer that allows to do it?. Panoply can not do it... Thanks in advance...
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Hi,
You can save image in tiff format in Panoply, then open that image in QGIS and complete georepherencing maunaly using plugin GDAL (https://www.qgistutorials.com/en/docs/georeferencing_basics.html ).
You will need at least 4 points(longitude, latitude) from panoply which you can read holding alt key +left mouse click and add those same point locations in QGIS
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COCOMO and NASA are the mostly used datasets in most of the systematic literature review and I need to know why they are used mostly compared to the other like China, Kemerer, etc?
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COCOMO is very good effort estimation techniques because is very flexible and the project team can adapt it according to requirements. There are other techniques that yo should consider such as: function points, use case points, decomposition, and others.
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I have Jaxa data of soil moisture level 3 from gportal with an extension of .h5
Variable available are GeoPhysical_Quantity and time_number.
I wanted to extract soil moisture layer and convert it to tif format using python - gdal library, but it is showing 3D array with row column and band.
And we want it in 2D array as having error with 3D array using python library.
When we read the data it ranges from 0 to 600, what does this mean ?
And what is the significance of these values ?
Also We saw for NASA LPRM data, which shows value ranging from 0 to 100, so why there is a difference ?
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use "h5py" package in python
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We all know that human activity has caused global warming and as a result climate change. While politicians pursue strategies harmful to environment to boost economy, scientists cannot rely solely on pre-emptive campaigns to ban fossil fuels. Therefore, I think some other remedies should be sought. One idea which I think about, though I am not sure if it works out, is installing a shield on a suitable orbit between the sun and the earth. Obviously, the shield must be built by specialists and must be so transparent that it allows for less passage of sunbeam to reach the earth. Also, the shield must rotate with the earth rotation, and I think some how the AI technology must be used in it. The planning, construction, calculation, installation and maintenance can be worked out by NASA. Now, my question is “is the above idea workable?”
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