Science topic

Mythology - Science topic

A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)
Questions related to Mythology
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
3 answers
Dear Sri Lankan history scholars,
I advise a team of university students from all around Asia who are authoring stories that focus on various cultures of Asia. The stories are derived from stage plays put on during our multicultural week celebrations on campus here at Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University. I am wondering if you have any knowledge of mythical creatures of Sri Lanka that might play a transcendental role there. For example, although it makes appearances in a variety of cultures, there is the Manohara, a heroine half-bird, half-woman. Also, I wonder if there are any myths about the power of sapphires, in general, or specific ones, in Sri Lankan culture. I am sure you are way too busy to think about this, but if you happen to have something pop to mind and feel like sharing, I would appreciate your input! Which of these mythical creatures or elements might help people outside of Sri Lanka to come to a deeper appreciation of the uniqueness of the culture there?
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
3 answers
Is there any centralized database that would list and preferably also shown on a map all Eurasian and African archaeological sites from years 5000 - 1500 BCE? I would need to see, whether the appearance of archaeological sites correlates with the appearance of ancient place names.
Our team studied the geographic distribution of 15 ancient name sets to see, where they appear as place names and personal names. We found out that most of the ancient name sets seem to have their urheimat in India (e.g. Phoenician, Hyksos, Mitanni, Berber, Sea Peoples and Ethiopian) or have a very strong connection with India. The second highest density of ancient names was found in the river valleys of Volta and Niger in Africa, with relatively high density also along Danube and at the western parts of Eufrat & Tigris.
A short summary of the study is available here:
and the full study is found in here :
Relevant answer
Answer
I suggest you the following books:
Clark, Peter (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013
MacEvedy, Colin. The Penguin Atlas of Ancient History. New York: Penguin Books, 1979.
MacEvedy, Colin. Cities of the Classical World An Atlas and Gazetteer of 120 Centres of Ancient Civilization. New York: Penguin Books, 2011.
Maisels, Charles Keith Maisels. Early Civilizations of the Old World. The formative histories of Egypt, the Levant, Mesopotamia, India and China. London-New York: Routledge, 2005.
Woolf, Greg. The Life and Death of Ancient Cities: A Natural History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020.
Yoffee, Norman. Myths of the Archaic State Evolution of the Earliest Cities, States, and Civilizations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
4 answers
When studying the mythological thought in ancient Egyptian art and tracing the artistic paintings in tombs, temples, and papyri, I found a link between artistic paintings with abstraction, surrealism, and symbolism.
The abstract is the art that moves the forms of nature from its image to its essential forms, in liberation from partial characteristics to total qualities, and from individualism to absolute generalization. Therefore, abstraction required stripping nature of its form in order to reveal its underlying secrets to suggest the content of the idea on which the artwork is based. It manipulates the form and drawings and goes beyond the object, as it is concerned with the imagination and the subconscious of things.
Relevant answer
Answer
It depends on what you mean by "the basis of" and "abstraction". Similarities between things do not necesarily imply a casual relation, as similar kinds of art objects might have evolved separately. If you found any abstactionists referring to Egyptian art as inspiration and precedent, then your intuition might have ground to be validated.
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
47 answers
In researching the enduring place of racism in society, I have been impressed with Leon Poliakov's 1971 analysis of various social mythologies/genealogies in "The Aryan Myth." I am also interested in hearing other perspectives on the "stickiness factor" of these ideas.
Relevant answer
Answer
The cause of racism is not skin color, but human thinking. Therefore, healing from racial prejudice, xenophobia and intolerance should be sought primarily in rescuing from misconceptions that for centuries have been a source of misconceptions about the benefits or, conversely, the lower position of various groups among mankind.
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
3 answers
specifically why did the romans copy some certain legends and some certain statues
Relevant answer
Answer
The Romans initially copied Etruscan culture, who took theirs mainly from the Greeks.
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
8 answers
I am looking for fiction (excluding fantasy and science fiction) drawing on preferably "Norse" or "Celtic" mythological sources other than the works by George Mackay Brown. 
Thank you!
Relevant answer
Answer
The Edinburgh Companion to Twentieth-Century Scottish Literature by Ian Brown, Alan Riach
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
3 answers
Hello,
Please, I need your opinion.
I want to map the depth of 20,000 hectares of land. I have sampling points of 20,000 with their respective depth attributes and photos of the topsoil(less than or equal to 40 cm depth depending on the limiting horizon).
Now, I want to zone the entire 20,000 ha
with respect to depth and the ph value.
I want to employ machine learning algorithms to achieve this.
Any guidance on the mythology?
Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
Try with the SVM
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
6 answers
Much of this is quoted from elsewhere, but I think deserves its own thread:
Kuhn, who I have always seen as having a only a partial (that is: just a "some-parts" understanding) of a paradigm, still seems at least in the direction of being correct in some noteworthy ways. According to Kuhn : An immature science is preparadigmatic -- that is, it is still in its natural history phase of competing schools. Slowly, a science matures and becomes paradigmatic. (End of short summary of some of his views.) [ It will be clear I do not fully agree with these views, in particular: the " 'natural' history" part. ]
I would say that preparadigmatic is not yet science at all and characterized by flailing and floundering UNTIL a paradigm is found (and RATHER: actually, this should be done NOW and with any necessary efforts: FORMULATED). Preparadigmatic is nothing good, clear or even "natural"; it is a state of insufficiency, failing to provide for making for clear sustained integrated progress (and even, as indicated, I would say this situation is: unnecessary -- see my delineation of the characteristics of a paradigm * to see why this situation in Psychology is unnecessary and INEXCUSABLE, because clearly you MUST be doing paradigm definition the best you can, clearly and respectably). _AND_ we are not talking about progress in one vein (sub-"area"), but some interpretable, agreeable findings for the whole field -- a necessary condition of HAVING ANY sort of general SCIENCE AT ALL; obviously Psychology does not have that and should not be considered a science just because people in that field want to say that and supposedly aspire in that way [ ("aspire" somehow -- usually essentially mythologically, irrationally, and just "hoping beyond hope" (as people say)) ] In short: that state of preparadigmatic should not be tolerated; major efforts should be clearly going on to improve from this state immediately ("if not sooner", as they say -- i.e. this SHOULD HAVE BEEN DONE SOONER).
Since I think I DO KNOW at least many of the characteristics of a paradigm (presented elsewhere, for one: in the description of the "... Ethogram Theory" Project *) AND since mine is the only paradigm being "offered up", Psychology people should damn well take full note of that and fully read and come to a reasonable understanding of my perspective and approach -- all that leading to clear, testable hypotheses that, IF SHOWN CORRECT, would be of general applicability and importance and very reliable (in the formal sense) and , thus (as I say): agreeable. IN short, I OFFER THE ONLY FULL-FLEDGED GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY PARADIGM and if someone is in the Psychology field and really cares about science, they must take note (and fully assess it) (no reason for any exception): Minimally, all must "see" AND READ:
Barring any "competition", my paradigm should be studied and fully understood -- NO REASONABLE SCIENCE CHOICE ABOUT IT. It stands alone in Psychology, as a proposal for a NECESSARY "ingredient" for SCIENCE for Psychology.
* FOOTNOTE (this footnote is referenced-to twice in the essay above): The characteristics of a paradigm are presented the Project referred to: https://www.researchgate.net/project/Human-Ethology-and-Development-Ethogram-Theory-A-Full-Fledged-Paradigm-Shift-for-PSYCHOLOGY (in particular, in its description)
Relevant answer
Answer
I agree with William J. F. Keenan
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
6 answers
Celtic mythology tells of Eochaid Ollathair (“Father of All”), also known as the Dagda, the “Good God”.  The Dagda's cauldron, one of the four sacred objects brought to Ireland by the Tuatha De Danaan, provided unlimited food and sustenance:  "No company ever went from it unthankful".    
But this is not a simple corncopia.  The Dagda's cauldron is a central symbol of reconciliation, at the heart of good governance. It is the Coire Aisic -- the Cauldron of Restitution -- positioned in the Great Hall in the Rites of Tara and around which everybody must gather when a divisive problem has arisen.  All persons who participate in the gathering, contribute what they have to the cauldron, so that it holds every form of sustenance used by the Irish.  All those present (including lords and poets -- the knowledge holders and the 'stakeholders', as it were) must speak to the cauldron, instilling it with the knowledge and the purposes that they bring.  Then each in turn is brought to the cauldron, and receives a fork thrust out of it; and, in this way, through the magical power of the cauldron, the proper portion comes out to each.
 
The Rites of Tara engaged people to renounce their prior claims, to contribute sources of nourishment and understanding into the common pool, so as to permit -- somewhat mysteriously -- the emergence of a just and respectful solution to the conflict.   In what ways can these symbols be useful for orientating current challenges of reconciliation and conflict resolution?
Relevant answer
Answer
Your research perspective is very important and makes a lot of sense nowadays. The concrete references that I have in my library are the following:
- DOWLIN, Gerard. "The Liminal Boundary: An Analysis of the Sacral Potency of the Ditch at Ráith na Ríg, Tara. Co. Meath", in: The Journal of Irish Archaeology, Vol. 15 (2006), pp. 15-37.
- MACALISTER, R.A.S. "Temair Breg: A Study of the Remains and Traditions of Tara", in: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Section C: Archaeology, Celtic Studies, History, Linguistics, Literature, Vol. 34 (1917 - 1919), pp. 231-399.
- MACALISTER, R.A.S. Tara: A Pagan Sanctuary of Ancient Ireland. London: Scribners, 1931.
- MICHAEL J. ENRIGHT, Michael J. "lona, Tara and Soissons: The Origin of the Royal Anointing Ritual. (Arbeiten zur Fruhmittelalterforschung, 17.) Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1985.
- PETRIE, Georges. "On the History and Antiquities of Tara Hill", in: The Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. 18 (1839).
I also remember that in the movie Gone With the Wind the name of the plantation was Tara, and the family probably was from Irish origins. I am not sure, but probably can be an interesting clue for contemporary representations of rituals of repentance and reconciliation.
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
39 answers
From Robin Hood to the Kray twins there has been a tendency in Western European cultures to mythologise outlaws, many of whom were cold blooded murderers. The American gangsters of the 1920's to the present day have been glamorised is countless movies, comics and novels. The villains are often portrayed as far more interesting than their law enforcement opponent, who often in these myths become villains themselves.
The murderous activities of Jesse James and Billy the Kid, John Dillinger and Bonny & Clyde left dozens of innocent people dead and many families of ordinary folk grieving. The New York & Chicago mobs destroyed the lives of thousands and made life a misery for the legitimate businesses of those cities.
The reality is that virtually all gangsters going back from modern times to the medieval outlaw were motivated by greed and prepared to kill sometimes for pleasure to support their life styles.
What is it about Western culture that perpetuates the heroic myths?
Relevant answer
Answer
How Wild Was The American Wild West?
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
6 answers
What we actually mean by "Dark Matter Energy" in layman language?
Relevant answer
Answer
Do you have any good abstract for this topic in your mind? Please feel free and share with us.
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
6 answers
I wanted to understand the science behind mythotherapy and who are the one's practicing it. What type of mental effects it has and in what amount of time?
A basic definition to mythotherapy from google search, " Mythotherapy is an interdisciplinary therapeutic method which uses myths and sacred texts and mythological findings for therapy; and at the same time uses psychology, cognitive sciences, cognitive behavior therapy, anthropology, philosophy and ancient knowledge and wisdom for therapeutic intentions. Mythotherapy is also a method for knowing the self and self-actualization. What is important in mythotherapy is the fundamental realms of human soul and spirit. They are said to contain archetypes as well as an unconscious knowledge and wisdom. "
Relevant answer
Answer
Myotherapy is not part of scientific allopathy. It is offered vias Skype - without any direct patient contact.
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
24 answers
  1. “Black magic” reality or myth?
  2. What is magic?
  3. What is black magic?
  4. Does it exists?
  5. Do the concept of Black magic have significant effects on Human economics, sociology and creativity?
  6. Any proven scientific references of black magic?
  7. What are “magical mysterious Spells?”
  8. Any scientific prove that magical spells works?
  9. What can be expected mechanism by which spells works?
  10. Electromagnetic field & quantum spectrum get effects by magical spells and magical products?
  11. Does acoustic-optics property of human voices can effect brain waves and neural combinations? Any proven references?
  12. Ghosts, Metaphysical products, or any Undefinable Energy Objects (UEO), "shadow shapes" etc have any link with black magic
  13. Black magic in real is a refine example of an illusionary mythologies?
  14. If it exists then what can be its treatments?
  15. Any scientific explanation for “Black magic”?
  16. Any other point you want to add
Many Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
There was a time when people said that radiation from a stone was impossible, that would be magic… they could not belief... Today X-Ray is common known phenomenon…
What is magic? Special skills to elevate over the laws of matter?
Everything is Energy which can be converted so matter can be formed in this way. This is magic, because we do not know the rules of energy, we belief that consciousness is a product of matter (Darwin) so our imagination is already limited and because of that we explain some things as 'magic'. But Levitation or to control the 'chi' is just a skill which can be trained, like playing an instrument as well.
Every skill level deppends on the imagination which depends on the mind set. It is always the following cascade: 1. Conception 2. Perception 3. Action
An Exapmle: Track reading. I you are the first time in your life together with an Indian track reader he can say "...look over there, a fox-track, there the fox stopped a short time an saw a duck flying away…" An you think that this is imposible (magic) because you see nothing on the ground. But you are hungry and the ability of that Indian is important to chase an animal, because there is Nothing else to eat in this great forest. After some day yo decide to belief and you Change your conception (he can see tracks, although you can't, so the track is there). Than you follow the Indian for one year and more and more you learn to see tracks in the snow, in the dirt and within the years yo can detect every little aspect on the ground and so you change your perception. Through all the years in the forest you learned a lot about every animal living there and some day you have the ability to find any animal you want, you are able to act like the Indian... Every other would say that your action-level is magic (like you did it the first time).
To summon an individual ( a deamon or whatever) in the whide sphere of beeings (when you know the rules) is complex bit you just need to know the rules. Than you can force a beeing to do things for you (a lot of people would call that 'magic' as well). This is certainly black magic, because you force and do not respect the will of the summoned individual. This is the general definition of 'black' in this context.
When you do things not in harmony with the will of the absolute AND the will of the beeing, the person, or whoever is involved, you do not respect their free will or the will of the absolute and what you do is 'black'. In this way you can practice black magic, black healing, black regulating, black trading and so on... Black means: NOT in harmony. When you do your stuff in harmony, you do not Need 'magic', and if you need it nevertheless - you will get the magic power suddenly from the absolute. We knor examples of this magic powers when People rescued another for example...
But there are a lot of human inkarnations in the world who belief (god-averted) in "needings" and fear of having too little and sattisfite their starvation by consuming others or the planet - this is black magic as well. And sadly this plays an importand role in the direction of the mass (politics) today, because the black mind-set behind is widespread and popular…
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
4 answers
The British colonialism have very deep effect on World, From marketing till Globalization. It were on any name but the responses were very deep. Still Commonwealth countries are facing the effects generation after generations. It the induction into social and religious, mythological matters with Pin Point areas. Still British policy planning support is creating effects which whole world is facing.
1) Were British Mindset right to do all this?
2) Who will clean up the mess creating in response of British Policies?
3) Do British policy planers need to accept the responsibility for it?
4) Do British need to stop it?
5) Do its indicator that British Policies need to role back and World need to oppose British Royals to make such policies which destroy the World Peace?
6) Is it end of "Tricks" to rule the world?
7) Ever Britain will realize the mess it creates for whole human being just in quest of illegitimate conquer?
Thanks for find out deep and struggle for solutions
Best Regards,
Relevant answer
Answer
You detect the real motivation at "the fruits" (like it is already remarked in the bible (Mt7/18)). What is their intend? Which reward do they want?
You find the answers in your threads before! It depends on their worldview and their handling with the world and with themselves, thus the fokus of their consciousness (consumption (needing) vs harmony ("godgiven enough"))
It seems that the fruits in the world (wars, factory raming, hunger,poisoning with Fluorid ANTIbiotics and many more) reveal their motivation (might, manipulation, farming, destruction) because of the mind-set: "I Need, I must regulate, I am in a higher value than other beeings…"
But this phenomenon of "crazy mind set" is not only under the british policy makers. This plague goes around the world since thousand of years… Therefore from Jesus to Sri Caitania - a lot of beeings tried to warn us, showed us the alternative (divine, re-connection with the absolute). But with every day the plant of bad fruits grows...
Therefore it is so important that some of us begin to "shine", try to re-fokus their mind-set on god. This has an important Impact to the world-consciousness. (again the bible: "...where two or three come togehter in my Name (this consiousness) - Mt 20/18).
And the effect is already proven in Quantum Physics. (see your other threads or the Research of Amid Goswami). So: We have all the "keys", which are necessary to "change the world"...
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
4 answers
How to approach a deep reading of Pasolini? How the semantic levels of texts of hermetic & mystical tradition could be used here? Is higher spirituality/higher consciousness/modern and post-modern spirituality/mysticism/metaphysics/mythology an important key to a more appropriate and more insightful reading of oeuvre of Pasolini?
Relevant answer
Answer
I am sorry, I do not get clearly how your response should be aligned with the question strictly related to the oeuvre of Pier Paolo Pasolini, that is the mainpoint and not the question of gnosis/ortodoxy/heterodoxy/christianity/any other kind of spirituality if not related to Pier Paolo Pasolini. Maybe I just did not understand your point, could you please kindly rephrase or comment on your answer? Thank you.
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
20 answers
Neanderthals were extant till a comparatively recent past. In fact nobody is very sure about when or how they disappeared. Also it is found that non-African modern humans carry a small but significant amount of their DNA. On the other hand throughout folklore, mythology, and cryptobiology we come across 'other type of human or human-like beings'. Taken together these raise the tantalizing possibility of finding isolated populations of extant Neanderthals. Again, through genetic manipulations, we may regenerate such individuals. I would like to know the possibility of either if these.
Relevant answer
Answer
They need not have that much expertise. If you consider the fact that a major part of Oceania still remains essentially unexplored.
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
1 answer
Stem cell research is a long-standing subject. Quite a lot is known for stem cells. But their massive use in medicine is a novelty of recent times. This area of medicine is developing rapidly. Appears many clinics in various countries around the world. Clinics promise a solution to many problems. It begins with the rejuvenation of the body. Everyone wants to rejuvenate for 5 - 10 - 15 years. Why not? The declarations end with the promise of treating a large number of diseases that were previously considered not measurable. How to get correct information on the current level of development of stem cell medicine? What are the proportions of science, commerce and mythology in modern knowledge about stem cells and their use for medical purposes?
Relevant answer
Answer
Page of History. The term itself was introduced in 1909. As far as I know, Alexander Maksimov used the term first (Maximow A. Der Lymphozyt als gemeinsame Stammzelle der verschiedenen Blutelemente in der embryonalen Entwicklung und im postfetalen Leben der Säugetiere. Originally in: Folia Haematologica 8.1909, 125—134. Republished in: Cell Ther Transplant. 2009,1:e.000040.01. doi: 10.3205/ctt-2008-en-000040.01
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
1 answer
Chimera, in genetics, an organism or tissue that contains at least two different sets of DNA, most often originating from the fusion of as many different zygotes (fertilized eggs). The term is derived from the Chimera of Greek mythology, a fire-breathing monster that was part lion, part goat, and part dragon.
Relevant answer
Answer
As a follow-up question, Is it possible to use CLC (Genomics workbench) to identify ?
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
2 answers
We here at Loughborough University in the UK have a Research Group to investigate "The Arts in the Public Sphere", and we are holding a conference at our London campus on "Modern Mythologies" (September, 2019). There will be some of Barthes's ideas debated. If you all like we could develop our own conversation?
Relevant answer
Answer
Wel ok, Barthe's "Mythologies" what about them?
Modern mythologies should have had the time to develop until this day.
- Mythologies changing shape?
- New mythologies? - I don't know..
"modern" and "mythology" seems to me a contradiction in terms.. succes anyway! - let's hear what you can make out of it!
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
3 answers
I'm looking for scholarship on Japanese mythology represented in Anime for a grad student I'm working with.
Relevant answer
Answer
These might help:
1-Silvio, Teri (2010). Animation: The New Performance? Linguistic Anthropology. 19: First published: 19:
2-Condry, Ian (2013). The Soul of Anime: Collaborative Creativity and Japan's Media Success Story. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
3-Thomas, Jolyon Baraka (2012). Drawing on Tradition: Manga, Anime, and Religion in Contemporary Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
3 answers
I am looking for specialized sources on Jungian archetypes in the novels of Charles Dickens. I have more general sources that outline Jungian archetypes but I was hoping to get help in finding sources that are specific to Dickens.
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
5 answers
It is not an expression of the wisdom of the "wisest" (Homo sapiens) and this evolutionary killing instinct having millions of years of history, need to be irradiated if we really qualify to be the wisest. Or else if the dangerous weapons used as IBM the life will be wiped out from earth surface by the Kalki Avtara (incarnation) to destroy the Evil Creation as per Hindu mythology.
Relevant answer
Answer
Let me see whar the scholars of the highly developed nations say.
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
7 answers
if you have any text which can help me with interpreting sophisticated ideas and philosophy of Benjamin and make my way easy through his ideas to Messianism in political revolution, I'll appreciate if you share.
Relevant answer
Answer
Here are some more:
Chapter 5 of Peter Osborne, ed., Walter Benjamin: Critical Evaluations in Cultural Theory (Routledge, 2005)
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
32 answers
I'm looking for stories anchored as firmly in the 'real' as in the magical – not sic-fi and not mythology, and suggestions of works by African/Asian authors particularly welcome. 
Thank you!
Relevant answer
Answer
I would highly recommend Susanna Clarke's novel Jonathan Strange and Mr. Norrell (2004), an otherwise realist novel about the rediscovery of magic by two very different men in the early nineteenth century.
Since you also seem to be interested in this question from the perspective of world literature, I would also recommend Patrick Suskind's Perfume (1985), in which a young Frenchman is born in the late eighteenth century with an extraordinary sense of smell, while possessing no scent of his own.
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
13 answers
Gender
Mythology
Relevant answer
Answer
Myths are one of the main concerns of the sociological studies of culture. Throughout history, many cultures and societies have seen their base shaped through these figures. The origin of myth has also been explained through the Greek mythologist Euhemerus’ interpretation, which established that gods had developed from the biographies of human beings. In a vast majority of regions around the five continents, mythology is still present today. Gender is and has been a key element establishing the bases of society for long although it has been “marked by power struggles and inequalities”. Gender hierarchies and inequalities are maintained, among other factors by meanings and belief systems and these are in turn generated through representation. Representations are constructed through language, images and social practices and possess a material as well as symbolic dimension. The myth of women pertaining to the household has been widely spread and long established. As Milestone and Meyer state in Gender and Popular Culture, “men are associated with the public domain and the world of work,  women are associated with the private space of the domestic. The media have played a key role in inculcating these gender myths in contemporary society: from magazines to soap operas, romantic novels, books, TV shows, films and advertisements, among others. Thus, they are crucial in the shaping of culture since their products signify and construct meanings through the use of language and images.
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
10 answers
Do you know of descriptions in which one social constituency positions it’s  version of anarrative as historically ‘true’, whereas a different constituency claims that its own version of the same ‘events’  is ‘symbolic’ in nature? Any bibliography on this aspect of the history/myth dichotomy would be most welcome.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks all for your very interesting responses.  Best wishes.
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
32 answers
In the study of ancient history or theology the concept of "myths' is very important because in both of the fields and even in philosophy scholars always try to stretch the past to justify the present, in this sense myths are the carrier of perception of reality is a matter of debate among the scholars but it is very true that the mythological myths in all religions/civilisations posses a dogma of being sacred due to its longevity and moral ideas. On the basis of these two ideas can we argue that 'the construction of present reality' is under challenge because some how it has been associated with the idea of "myths" in the past.    
Relevant answer
Answer
Myths, by their very nature, communicate metaphorically. Perhaps I should have said, "cannot be wrapped explicitly in language." I can say explicitly, "There was a father who had two sons. The younger demanded his inheritance and left home, insulting his father in the process. The other stayed at home, grudgingly doing what he perceived to be his duty. After falling into bad circumstances, the younger son came home, and his father forgave him, but his brother never did." I have eliminated the mythic elements of Luke 15:11-32, and in so doing have lost the elements that speak to the heart. The story was explicitly stated, but the essence of the parable was lost. The original story with its mythic elements communicates elements of human values and emotion that the mere facts cannot.
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
3 answers
There are a lots of papers which explain and investigate PROMETHEE I and PROMETHEE II also GAIA. However, I cannot find any papers which explains PROMETHEE III and IV which and be in English.
If you know any people which can help me in understanding them I kindly ask you to introduce them to me.
Relevant answer
Answer
This is a chapter of the book entitled "Multiple Attribute Decision Making Methods and Applications, An Introduction" by Gwo-Hshiung Tzeng and Jih-Jeng Huang.
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
3 answers
I have been observing a subtle symbol on a variety of surfaces in both the East and West Hemispheres and to date have not been able to identify it. The symbol consists of two separate motifs: two parrot profiles facing each other, and a rounded triangular shape with a headdress consisting of an array of small birds or tripartite triangular features. The triangular form many times presents a curved tail. The symbol is formed by the heads of the two birds positioned within the trianglur shape and form the "eyes" of a face. Known parallels are the Hindu Naga based upon the King Cobra hood and the Chinese Fenghuang bird pair, however I have never seen them conflated like this. Lastly the "Face" is often red when using color stretching software. I am going attempt to attached a picture. I am attaching a tracing sans one of the birds. Thanks much, Jon
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
42 answers
Even in modern times myth has served as a fundamental ingredient of politics: idealization of leaders, of historical events, of the origins of a community or a nation, are some of the most common. Myth and structured mythologies have played several essential functions in human life: 1) cognitive: myth explains the origin of all things, the reason of their existence, why is life as it is; 2) ontological: it roots human life in a cosmos and its archetypical order; 3) moral and psychological: it presents the conflicts inherent to human existence, the relation between interior conscience and the external world, offering harmonious solutions to those conflicts; 4) social and political: it creates the codes of collective identity, unifies the beliefs of social groups and legitimates social and political institutions.
However, we should distinguish between traditional myths that have a religious character and modern myths, which are predominantly profane.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you all for your really interesting answers. I agree with most of them. The importance of myth in human life is a fundamental theme and has been studied by many authors that have a profound vision. It is very difficult to present adequately such a theme in so few words. Even though, I want to make a clearer statement about the question.
First of all, I want to say that myth is a live experience and not a static structure. Each person and each society experiences myth, in a very specific way. Either personally or collectively our actions and our imagination are working with myth. In traditional societies, as well as in modern ones, from a personal point of view, we create myths in childhood, in adolescence, and in adulthood: our lives move around them. Jung has demonstrated that.
With human history we have the same: all societies have created their myths and use them in very specific forms, as Joseph Campbell has shown. When I refer to functions, I am speaking of something creative, an experience that is unique, from a personal or an anthropological point of view. Not something static, as Jean Duvignaud has demonstrated when he criticizes Lévi-Strauss. I’m sure that the main focus of psychology and of ethnography should be centered in the particular, the different, the unique and, from there, part to find common patterns, not the other way.
For people who believe, I mean, those who have a deep religious experience, myth is something alive and ever present in their lives.
I agree with Werner and Alison, we, human beings need narratives, as much as we need to breathe and eat. The first human expression of narrative is myth, that’s why language and myth are so deeply interwoven since the beginnings, as Cassirer demonstrated long ago. As Paul Ricoeur has explained, human beings live in time and narratives are the human expression of our experience of time, of life and of action.
The human mind is mythic-poetic, it creates myths as a normal function of our symbolic thinking. That’s one of the reasons there are modern myths, like in literature: Faustus; in cinema: Star Wars or The Lord of the Rings; or in science: the Big Bang Theory. In that sense, Rollo May’s book, The Cry for Myth explores the importance of myth in contemporary American life.
Ernst Cassirer, Gilbert Durand, have demonstrated that myth cannot be understood from a pure rational point of view, it is much more complex and has its own logic, which goes beyond rationalist, functionalist and structural explanations. Myth is embedded in the deep mental layers of human mind. That’s why it is so powerful. Mythical patterns use rhythm, sound, phantasy, images to get into those deep layer of the human mind.
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
11 answers
I'm seeking additional examples to go along with those like (a) the Babylonian king Hammurabi receiving his ‘code’ from Shamash (the god of justice) or (b) the God of the Israelites presenting Moses with the Ten Commandments on Mount Sinai. What are some other historical myths of divinely bequeathed moral codes?
Relevant answer
Answer
Jim, seek out the scholarly primary resources for various religions. This is hard work and very complex; but it is your task. Remember too that the Ten Commandments on Mt. Sinai when applied to 21st century US are applied in new and different ways because of historical and cultural change.
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
17 answers
What is the role of myths in today's culture? How could they be reinterpreted? What is the role of myths and folklore in diasporic communities (particularly for Iranian)?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Sara,
The great Jazz pianist, Charlie Mingus, said "Making the simple complicated is commonplace; making the complicated simple, awesomely simple, that’s creativity."  I applaud your stance as first, researcher, then artist.  As a researcher, you use intentional thoughtful scientific tools to collect your thoughts, explore the background, gaher the information, to arrange your thoughts and direction.  As an artist, you will then interpret your thoughts and information into a tangible, artistic production that brings to bear all of your obvious communication and creative abilities (light, dark, color, texture, composition) to distill and convey in very simple, emotional, and intetional terms, everything you have learned.  To paraphrase the quote from Charlie Mingus, the artist in you will be able to simplify the complex for all of us, those of the diaspora and those who stand outside the diaspora experience, with the compassion to try to understand.  Just as love, hope, and dreams are universal to all mankind,  diaspora, an experience or sense of displacement, is also one of the universal experiences of man.
1) Keep doing your research.  If you are blocked at the moment, there is a fact, a story, or a lesson that your research and your ongoing life experiences will bring, at exactly the right time, to provide a building block, an inspiration, a foundation, or a perspective that you require to complete this project.  Keep doing the work.  The pathway from potential to performance is paved with persistence and perseverance.
2) Look at your history, your culture, your myth, and your experiences, as though examining an expensive and precious jewel.  Look from every conceivable direction, with both eyes open, ready to learn.  Are there other artistic interpreters (sculptors; musicians; actors; speakers; leaders) of the Iranian myths or culture that you admire, and from whom you might draw inspiration, different viewpoints, or fresh perspectives as you seek to share your experiences and distilled findings?
3) After doing the research, you may have to face a monumental decision: will you insert yourself into the story, making it a first person experience and thereby welcoming others into the myth and experience, or will you draw some frame or foundation from the myth, making it a third person experience, to serve as a foundation for the message, the story you wish to show and tell the world?  
4) As the artist, you have the opportunity and the responsibility to make the courageous decision to help us experience, to see, feel, hear, taste, and even smell the essence of the lessons you've learned, and the next steps you want us to take with you in your journey. 
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
11 answers
For quite a while now, I have been regarding Heroes and Gods as externalized and personified concepts representing basic biological urges and emotional responses to the world. Does anyone else have this theory? Am I barking up the wrong tree?
Relevant answer
Answer
From a biological perspective, the gathering and transmission of knowledge has an intrinsic life value. As Sandra L. Bloom explains in ‘Bridging the Black Hole of Trauma: The Evolutionary Significance of the Arts’, Psychother. Politics. Int. 8.3 (2010): 198-212., human beings are subject to the same “cognitive imperative” that drives other mammals and birds to order the world by differentiating and adapting significant events and sensory elements and unifying them into a cognitive whole (Bloom 2010, 201). Consequently, sharing knowledge about such matters as which plants are edible and which poisonous is crucial for the survival of all species. However, in the case of human beings, this vital cognitive imperative is complicated by our capacity for self-awareness, which involves the perception of our own mortality, for, as Bloom reflects: “How does one place into a meaningful and ordered scheme, the idea of one’s own death?” (ibid., 202). The answer to this question is that “there is a great deal about reality that we simply cannot bear” (ibid.). The function of art is to mitigate the traumatic potential of traumatic though necessary knowledge through metaphor and myth. I would say that here lies the human need to create heroes and gods.
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
2 answers
I have been working with some unique material from the Carpathian Basin which show similarities with the abstract decoration of the gaming boards of Ur but I cannot find any publication on these abstract decorations.
Relevant answer
Hello, Emilia:
You can find some data in I. L. Finkel (ed.), 'Ancient Board Games in Perspective: Papers from the 1990 British Museum colloquium with additional contributions', London (British Museum Press), 2008.
Some other references of interest (especially on its archaeological context) are on the website of the British Museum: http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/me/t/the_royal_game_of_ur.aspx
I hope this can help you.
Regards
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
5 answers
This stems from the earlier question I posted on 1 October 2013, for a friend seeking the source of a reference to these in a medieval translation of Boethius. Please see that question for more details.
Relevant answer
Answer
Try Macrobius, Saturnalia 1.7.19-22:
19 Regionem istam, quae nunc vocatur Italia, regno Ianus optinuit, qui, ut Hyginus Protarchum Trallianum secutus tradit, cum Camese aeque indigena terram hanc ita participata potentia possidebant, ut regio Camesene, oppidum Ianiculum vocitaretur. 20 Post ad Ianum solum regnum redactum est, qui creditur geminam faciem praetulisse, ut quae ante quaeque post tergum essent intueretur: quod procul dubio p52ad prudentiam regis sollertiamque referendum est, qui et praeterita nosset et futura prospiceret, sicut Antevorta et Postvorta, divinitatis scilicet aptissimae comites, apud Romanos coluntur. 21 Hic igitur Ianus, cum Saturnum classe pervectum excepisset hospitio et ab eo edoctus peritiam ruris ferum illum et rudem ante fruges cognitas victum in melius redegisset, regni eum societate muneravit. 22 Cum primus quoque aera signaret, servavit et in hoc p53Saturni reverentiam, ut, quoniam ille navi fuerat advectus, ex una quidem parte sui capitis effigies, ex altera vero navis exprimeretur, quo Saturni memoriam in posteros propagaret. Aes ita fuisse signatum hodieque intellegitur in aleae lusum, cum pueri denarios in sublime iactantes capita aut navia lusu teste vetustatis exclamant.
Apparently there was a Roman tradition connecting the Ianiculus with Ianus.
  • asked a question related to Mythology
Question
7 answers
I have found that they are thought to be the same image but in different forms.
Relevant answer
Answer
Existe un libro que se llama: El Tepeyac : Estudios Históricos, que se publicó en el año de 2000, si se pone en contacto electrónico conmigo, puedo proporcionarle una copia digital del mismo, ya que es muy difícil encontrarlo impreso. Mi correo electrónico es: oceloayotl@yahoo.com.mx