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Mycotoxins - Science topic

Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.
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Dear Researchers,
I'm trying to develop Reference Material for mycotoxin in cocoa beans using IDMS as the primary method of characterization. How do I prepare the 1:1 isotope ratio of the native mycotoxin and isotope-labelled mycotoxin? Does it simply mean the same amount (concentration) of native mycotoxin and isotope-labelled mycotoxin? Then, how do I calculate the concentration of the mycotoxin in the samples using IDMS method? Is there any step-by-step protocol/SOP/documents that I can refer to?
Thanks in advance.
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Try to weight your sample m and the isotopologues reference m* so that the ratio of the area I/I* is close to 1. Afterwards, you can calculate the unknown sample m using the formula in the following paper...
Koehling, R., Hellriegel, C. (2015). Characterization of Stable Isotope Caffeine as Reference Material for Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry. Analytix Volume, 2.
Breidbach, A und Ulberth, F. (2015). Two-dimensional heart-cut LC-LC improves accuracy of exact-matching double isotope dilution mass spectrometry measurements of aflatoxin B1 n cereal-based baby food, maize, and maize-based feed. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 407, 3159-3167.
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There are many Alternaria pathogens that produce host-specific toxins. Alternaria host-specific toxins are classified in three groups in terms of the primary site action. First group of toxins have in common an epoxy-decatrienoic acid structure and exert their primary effect on the plasma membrane of susceptible cells. The second group is represented by ACR(L)-toxin, which induces changes in mitochondria, including swelling, vesiculation of cristae, decrease in the electron density of the matrix, increase in the rate of NADH oxidation, and inhibition of malate oxidation. The third group consists of AM-toxin, which appears to exert an early effect on both chloroplasts and plasma membranes.  
Ames and bacterial assays has demonstrated that Altertoxins I, II,  III, toxins AOH and AME  were mutagenic. A.N. Samokhvalov ( «A method for producing mutant strains of plant pathogen X. campesrtis». Invention certificate  No 1473360 of 15.12.1988 (USSR) has found that Alternaria brassicola caused similar mutation in different strains of X. campestris affected xanthomonadin synthesis and virulence of  the bacteria.
Is there any information about specific interaction between Alternaria toxins and bacterial/chloroplast or mitochondrial DNA?
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Schrader, T. J., et al. "Further examination of the effects of nitrosylation on Alternaria alternata mycotoxin mutagenicity in vitro." Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 606.1-2 (2006): 61-71.
... To examine other targets for mutation, the metabolites Altertoxin I (ATX I), Altenuene (ALT), Alternariol (AOH), Alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), Tentoxin (TENT), Tenuazonic acid (TA) and Radicinin (RAD) were reexamined ± nitrosylation, using Ames Salmonella strain TA97, sensitive to frameshift mutations at a run of C's, as well as strains TA102 and TA104, reverted by base pair mutations at AT sites and more sensitive to oxidative damage. ... These results suggest ATX I, AME and AOH induce mutations at AT sites, possibly through oxidative damage, with nitrosylation enhancing ATX I frameshift mutagenicity at runs of C's. Nitrosylated ATX I was also directly mutagenic in mammalian test systems.
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Hi,
I'm looking for levels for Aflatoxin, DON, H2, Ochratoxin, Zearalenon mainly for feed but dog/cat food would also be great?
Kind regards,
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You can visit this website:
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for my PhD project, I need a sample of corn to be analyzed for mycotoxins. Unfortunately, in Iran I did not find a laboratory that could detect fumonisin. can anyone help in this regards?
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Saeed Ghasemi Good luck
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1) ICP MS NexION 2000P (For Heavy Metall Analysis):
2) Agilent 6460 Series Triple Quadrupole LC/MS/MS System (Pesticide and Mycotoxin analysis):
3) Agilent's 7010B Triple Quadrupole GC/MS/MS, Pesticides and Environmental Pollutants GC/MS/MS Analyzer:
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Albert Khakimov You should request the price from your local Agilent and Perkin Elmer official dealer. If you expect to use it in a certified diagnostic laboratory, you will be requested to pay for annual technical service. The cost of equipment may include up to 50% of the initial price taken by the local dealer, and about 5% of the technical service price.
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I am a PhD scholar currently doing mycotoxin analysis from rice false smut, at Agriculture college and Research institute, Madurai, Tamil Nadu Agriculture University, Coimbatore. I am in need of ustiloxin standard for my research.
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For example, which part of aptamer for afb1 that can specifically recognize afb1?
Sequence as follow:
5'-GTT GGG CAC GTG TTG TCT CTC TGT GTC TCG TGC CCT TCG CTA GGC CCA CA-3'
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I am looking for a standard extraction procedure for herbal samples or Herbal powders by HPLC- FLD Detection?
Thank you ,
Srinivasu K
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Srinivasu Kurella there are few available and already Dr Chinaza Godswill Awuchi has shared with you many of them and he has nailed it and was reading the links shared by him and it is perfect i do agree with his comments and hope so these are helpfull to you as well
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There is growing evidence that in utero exposure to dietary aflatoxin can impair birth outcomes, which in itself can set in motion additional processes contributing to sub-optimal child linear growth. The child's exposure to dietary aflatoxins (including through breastmilk) may also contribute to growth retardation and possibly to other developmental impacts. While there are clear thresholds for maximum exposure for aflatoxin based on risk factors for acute aflatoxicosis and known determinants of cancer, nothing is known about threshold levels or cut-offs in relation to birth outcomes or child nutrition. Is anyone out there undertaking or planning research on this topic? If yes, what are your foci, methods and locations?
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A detail methodology of mycotoxins.
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Check this link of a paper on Research Gate from 2021 (PDF:) Natural Co-Occurrence of Multiple Mycotoxins in Unprocessed Oats Grown in Ireland with Various Production Systems (researchgate.net)
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Hello, did anybody face with researches / information / experience about influence of graine (wheat, barley) time storage on fusarium level / mycotoxines /gushing?
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Most of research on modelling of toxins in grain has been done at 1990-s. It is unpleasant and health-risk work . Main factors are:
1) initial infection of grain (species diversity) , weather (rains, temperature) in field before the harvest, disease control technology (fungicides)
2) Infection level (CFU), species diversity, grain damage (insects), humidity (water activity), temperature, CO2 and O2 inside the grain bulks , storage period
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Do you have any information legislation about mycotoxin limitation acceptance in food for human and animals.
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I need a model substance similar to AFB1 to see if the FT-IR method is suitable to study AFB1 (and what is the lowest concentration that can still be detected with FT-IR).
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Clay based toxin binders act on the mycotoxin to bind them and help eliminating from the system. Can I get some advice on reference papers regarding site of action of clays against ingested mycotoxins in ruminant digestive system and mode of action of bentonite clay.
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Hello everybody,
I am desperately looking for a lab that performs mycotoxin analyses in corn silage from a lab-scale trial on effects of different additive types. I am particularly interested in mycotoxins produced by the P. roqueforti group (e.g. roquefortines, penicillic acid, mycophenolic acid), by Monascus ruber (incl. mycophenolic acid and monacolins) and by Aspergillus fumigatus (incl. fumigaclavine, enniatin, fumitremorgen, verrugulogen).
Can somebody help? Funding available. More details upon request.
Many thanks.
Horst
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I would suggest enquiring at Romer Labs. They are in Singapore, Austria, UK and USA. They routinely analyse for a broad range of mycotoxins. Check their website.
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I am attempting to identify compounds present in dust samples and have a very robust method for viewing about 40 mycotoxins and microbial secondary metabolites (MSMs) via LC/MSMS. I am looking to see what else is in the samples that I may be missing, but I don't entirely know where to start. I have access to a GC/MS and I have BSTFA +1%TCMS that I can derivatize with for GCMS use. Is this a good place to start? Or is there another method I should think of using to identify new mycotoxins and MSMs that I don't have in my LCMS method?
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Actually these are two separate questions:
i. How to extract mycotoxins from the media PDA the fungal culture is growing on?
ii. Can we extract the toxin from the natural media it is growing on?
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Hello,yes you can extract mycotoxin from the substrate. You may culture the fung in a specific media preferred by this fungi .
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Identification of aspergillus flavus for mycotoxin production
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Laboratory Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis: From Diagnosis to ...
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Hi all,
I would like to find feed ingredients (such as corn gluten meal, wheat) naturally contaminated with DON/ T-2 toxin.
Is there anyone working with mycotoxins that can advise me where I can search for contaminated ingredients?
Any suggestion would be highly appreciated.
Thank you in advance.
Vivi Koletsi
PhD student at Wageningen University & Research
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Dear Dr. Vivi Koletsi,
Do you need the mycotoxin in feed anymore?Pribolab is specialized mycotoxin standard and reference material in different matrix(such as corn ,feed wheat) , customized different concentration range. If you need, please send mail to me: gracetan@pribolab.com
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Immunoaffinity column building
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the antiboy of mycotoxin was located in the column, when the extration solution was passed the column, the antigen of mycotoxin in your sample solution will combined with the antibody, other ingredients willbe washed away. finally, the mycotxin was washed by methanol from the column, you can get mycotoxin, this method is high specific.
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I need quite a lot of DON and T2 toxin (cannot afford to buy analytical quality grade).
Thank you.
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we can provide all kinds of mycotoxins standards and mycotoxins in different matrix, please send me your requirement: gracetan@pribolab.com
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How mycotoxins are isolated from a fungal infected feed to cattle? Please inform the methadology..
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By processing during fermentation (silage) from selecting quality feed ingredients. During fermentation, it should meet the ideal moisture content and should be anaerobic to prevent the formation of fungi/molds.
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Are we missing the role of mycotoxins?
Brief discussion on the contribution of mycotoxins in necrotic fungi infection of fruits.
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Fungi produce numerous secondary metabolites (SMs) and numerous SM biosynthetic gene clusters have been annotated in fungal genomes. These gene clusters are often large, yet conserved across numerous fungal lineages, and thus presumed to provide evolutionary advantages. SM production likely evolved to inhibit other microbes competing for the same niches, deter mycophagous animals, infect hosts, etc. Mycotoxins are a subclass of SMs that cause dysfunction/toxicoses in animals. Phytotoxins are another subclass of SMs that cause dysfunction in plants. Some mycotoxins also affect plants and some phytotoxins also affect animals. Mycotoxins that can act as necrotrophic phytotoxins include DON and related trichothecenes in Fusarium, and fumonisins and AAL-toxin in Fusarium and Alternaria, respectively. I don't know if aflatoxins or ergot alkaloids have been shown to be required for plant pathogenesis. Of course there numerous other host-specific and -nonspecific phytotoxins produced by Fungi, but I believe the mycotoxicity of these are low-to-none or not investigated.
Hope this helps!
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hello,
I am working on the extraction of trichothecenes from the grain of wheat and I would like to ask how is it possible to calculate the concentration of toxin ug per gram of wheat?
the protocol is as follow:
  • grind 2 g of sample in 15 ml of solvent.
  • filter and transfer 3 mL to the glass tube.
  • pass it through MycoSep 113.
  • remove 1.5 mL and evaporate to dryness.
  • redissolve in 400 uL of the mobile phase.
  • injection of 50 uL and detect using HPLC.
so how to calculate the concentration of mycotoxin per gram of sample?
thank you.
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Yes, I agree with that calculation, 160 times the result, per gram. You need to compare your sample to a reference to get that result that you multiply by 160.
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OTA productors, like A. ochraceus, P.nordicum et al., have the ochratoxin A biosynthetic gene cluster (pks, nps, chl), does the non-ochratoxin A. ochraceus or P.nordicum also have these cluster?
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Agree. Stachybotrys chartarum produces mycotoxin indoors when growth conditions change to threaten its existence, for example, the removal of water source. When growing outside under the bark of aspen trees produces no mycotoxins. Move same spores inside to wet drywall, they will grow, then when it dries, mycotoxin production begins. All probably have same simple scenario.
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I want to get a clear explanation that it is not adsorption or opening of the lactone ring, for example, nano-magnesium oxide, how it works when it binds or interacts with aflatoxin, what is the mechanism
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Nanoparticles diffuse within the tertiary structure of mycotoxins,changing its configuration and rendering it inactive and because of certain desruction of toxin molecule
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how we can do the quantitative detection of mycotoxin produced by Alternaria brassicae
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There are several methods for detecting mycotoxins in feed. What is the fastest and most reliable technique. Laboratory tests are very slow (detection of fungi, isolation, search for mycotoxins...etc)
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Various kits are available (AgraStrip® test kits, Rida kits, etc) for on-site testing. These allow a rapid analysis of a wide range of both food and water samples with a assay time of around 3 minutes and have been shown to give better qualitative or quantitative results. They can also detect multiple mycotoxins from the sample.
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HPLC is an expensive analytical method for mycotoxin analysis, so I want a preliminary practical method for detection on presence or absence of mycotoxin in my fungal isolates.
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Hello, you can also use immunoflow systems like new RIDA®SMART APP:
The next generation of quantitative mycotoxin analyzers.
See info below for more results.
Good luck!
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We all know Antibiotics and Mycotoxins are secondary metabolite that produced by various fungi.
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Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by microfungi that are capable of causing disease and death in humans and other animals. Because of their pharmacological activity, some mycotoxins or mycotoxin derivatives have found
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The following microorganims are associated with vanilla pods: Moulds; E.coli; B. cereus; Sulphite reducing clostridium; Staph. aureus; Salmonella; Mycotoxins; Aflotoxins.
What time/temperature sterilisation combination will be efficient to kill microorganims without altering vanilla pod quality?
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Dear Dr. Steyn
You can search other plants with a similar properties. This is one described a general usage of steam sterilisation
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Does anyone know about the mechanism of building an immunoaffinity column of mycotoxins?
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I am looking for a simple to use (a lab tech can do it), quick and accurate test for mycotoxins.
Preferably if one test could check for several toxins
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Nahid Rahimifard and
Yi Wan
thank you guys so much!
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I want to develop an enzyme for biodegradation of zen toxin in animal feed. please suggest me simple and best method to extract enzyme.
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I did not understand what you mean by extracting the enzyme from the bacteria because the localization of the enzyme in the bacteria will determines the method. However, the attached two review papers will answer your question:
1. Ji, C., Fan, Y., & Zhao, L. (2016). Review on biological degradation of mycotoxins. Animal Nutrition, 2(3), 127-133.
2. Loi, M., Fanelli, F., Liuzzi, V., Logrieco, A., & Mulè, G. (2017). Mycotoxin biotransformation by native and commercial enzymes: present and future perspectives. Toxins, 9(4), 111.
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Comparison between Mycotoxins and bacterial toxins.
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Still there are too many different mycotoxins and too many different bacterial toxins for an answer.
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On the mycotoxin determination methods for what purpose we use internal standards? Does it have any advantages that using external standard does not have? Why do we just not use external standards?
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Following
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From where I can get a high producer Aspergillus isolate culture of aflatoxin for my research work?
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Following
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Concern about mold in food is mainly beacise of mycotoxins, but little seems to be known about allergic response by food intake
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Thank you @Laith. IN fact, the second article you sent me only studies association/correlation of sensitization to food and inhalant allergens in patients with rhinitis. Thus co-sensitization and subclinical sensitization can be the resaon. I have to thank also @Irene and @George for their inputs. As I really see, there is not much infomration about this topic
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A mycotoxin (from the Greek mykes, "fungus" and toxikon, "poison") is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by organisms of the fungus kingdom. Aflatoxins are poisonous carcinogens that are produced by certain molds (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus) which grow in soil.
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I really care about your wonderful opinions and valuable feedback. Thank you so much
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I need to extract Mycotoxins directly from the Pulse seeds.
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Dear Colleague
I attach to you a manuscript about extraction of Aflatoxins and Fumonisins from corn and rice seeds. I wish it may help you.
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I would like to found a journal where I could publish works relative to Plant diseases and mycotoxins without publication charge for authors.
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Comptes rendus biologies publich in french without charge
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My question because I know it is an aggressive app of the fungus
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Thanks a lot for all responders
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I have cow milk and soft cheese samples frozen. How do I secure the mycotoxin still pure with no alternate concentration? Should I analyze ? I will analyze it by affinity chromatography. Any other suggestions would be great!
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Aflatoxin research started in the 1960s. There is a book from 1989 Mycotoxins in Dairy Products H.P van Egmond editor , Publisher Elsevier ; this might be of great help to you
Not all the old information might be easily available on the internet, but I am certain that there will be WHO/FAO documents on this topic as well, so check their websites
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Anyone know a practical method for producing large quantities of Deoxynivalenol (DON).
the described methods so far can produce 250-300 mg/kg feed. I want to produce  about 1-2 gm/kg feed.
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Hello,
Dr Ochodzki and Goral reached as high as 10000 ppm in the study Production of mycotoxins by selected Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum isolates cultured on rice and wheat grain.Also, they reported high variability among isolates for DON production.
Hope it helps
Carlos
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In near future, is it possible a single, simple and fast analytical method alternative to chromatographic analysis for detection of all residues (pesticides, drugs, mycotoxins and the other toxic chemicals) in food without sample preparation and extraction steps?
Thanks...
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The ion-mobility MS sounds interesting, but if you look into the details- i.e. the resolution provided by current instruments - in many cases it is illusory.
The resolution is about 100. It means that for specific applications you can use it, but generally - no.
regards,
G
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Is there any complete comparison between ELISA and rapid method for mycotoxin detection??
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Rapid method may be used for qualitative analysis while ELISA is used for quantitative analysis for sure with limitations of sensitivity. The efficient method for quantitative analysis is the Liquid Chomatography tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for its specificity, sensitivity and accuracy within its Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantification (LOQ).
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Hi All, I want to help to work with my colleagues to setup a regulation in my country, it's not have any regulation to set the minimum limit for mycotoxin. How can we start from zero?
Any advice or idea.
Thanks
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although no safe level exist.still creteria for regulation,
1. natural occurence of specific mycotoxin in specific commodity
2. mean levels of mycotoxin
3. daily mean consumption of that food item by per person i.e. survey has to be conduct to find this
4. then apply aformulae to calculte dietary intake.
5. Trial on animal model to determine minimum level of specific mycotoxin for onset of clinical symtoms
by combing all thes infor in aformulae you can have a limit for a specific mycotoxin
it will depend on 1
1. detection technique
2. detection of limit
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Iam presently working on mycotoxin prevention strategies in Nigerian food
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Dear Samuel, the most efficient mycotoxin reduction method for rural areas is simple sorting. removing moldy kernels from corn can lower the exposure to aflatoxins by more than 90%. Sarah DeSaeger published work on this in Food Additives and Contaminants:
Other techniques such as Irradiation have been studied in model system but so far failed to show success in real life application. Alternative treatments are the application of alkaline solutions, called nixtamalization, as traditionally done with maize in South America. This especially impacts fumonisins (produces hydrolyzed fumonisins) but also zearalenone and deoxynivalenol.
Best regards,
Benedikt
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Clay-based toxin binders are generally indicated in modern livestock feeds as a preventive measure against multiple mycotoxins. Kindly throw light on the mechanism of action - why and how these are effective only under in vivo condition but not in vitro?
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Dear Mr. Mahesh The matter is that the сlay-based toxin binders, due to their physicochemical properties, are able to bind only certain polar (Log Pow <1) and moderately (non) polar mycotoxins (1 <Log Pow <3), for example, NIV, DON, FUM, AFLB1 and others. And if in the feed there are mainly such toxins, then these sorbents can improve the physiological state of animals in vivo. But, if nonpolar mycotoxins dominate in the diet (Log Pow> 3), which constitute about 50% of all known mycotoxins, such as ZEN, OTA, ENN, BOV, apicidins, terpendols, ophobolins, etc., such sorbents as a rule, are useless. With best regards, Alex I. Sotnichenko, PhD
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Hi everybody ...
When is the fungus exposed to hard conditions or exposed to typical conditions?
Aflatoxins are poisonous carcinogens that are produced by certain molds which grow in soil, decaying vegetation, hay, and grains. They are regularly found in improperly stored staple commodities such as cassava, chili peppers, corn, cotton seed, millet, peanuts, rice, sesame seeds, sorghum, sunflower seeds.
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Dear Oluwagbenga
Thank you very much
Regards
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I am thinking for use mycotoxin banded with large molecules of protein to use it as a vaccine to livestock animals, I dont know if this will work or not to give the animal resistance for mycotoxicoses problem in the future.
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I see some problems:
  • The mycotoxin/protein complex should elicit a specific antibody response to the mycotoxin and not (only) to the protein
  • The antibodies should have a long life in the target animals or you have to immunize time and time again
  • The mycotoxin itself should enter the body to be captured by circulating antibodies; if it is metabolised rapidly (in the intestine) and the metabolite is the one causing the adverse effects, the whole operation will fail
  • The bonding between mycotoxin and antibody should be strong and also block the active places on the mycotoxin causing the adverse effects, to prevent adverse effects from happening anyway.
  • The antibody mycotoxin complex should preferable excreted via liver or kidney but during that proces the mycotoxin might be liberated and become active again
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We are currently using lymphocytes in comet assay but we would like to start analysing tissues as well. Liver will be our target tissue for the beginning and I would like to get different protocols (I have been reading several articles as well) in order to set our own.
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Dear Patrick Heinrich,
Thank you for sharing the information.
Kind regards,
Mariam.
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I am Carlo Brera, head of the National Reference Laboratory for Mycotoxins and I work at Istituto Superiore di Sanità in Rome
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Dear colleagues, there is an ongoing project 4prima financed by the EU Horizon 2020 Program. i don't know if we would be able to prepare something from now till 15 of february..you may check for it :
and check the 4prima website.
while waiting your answers i wish you a good day.
Sincerely
Andre
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Mycotoxins
detoxification
related with fungi
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Mycotoxins are toxin substances produced by fungi or molds. The major mycotoxins are: Aflotoxins, AFB1 etc. Aflotoxins may be degraded by the fungi Aspergillus species ( Mishra and Das, 2003; Wu et al. 2009). It can also be metabolized by certain species of actinomycetes such as Nocardia asteroids, Rhodococcus erythropolis etc. Laccase enzyme can degrade AFB1 (Alberts et al. 2009). The bio-factors that supports detoxification are: Available nutrients, Lipoic acid concentration, Oxygenating and conjugatic plant enzymes, Presence of active enzymes like phytase etc.
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I want to do mycotoxin extraction and analysis of fusarium oxysporum ..I have difficulty in finding solid phase extraction unit ..so want to know about alternative method of extraction.
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which kind of clay can using as a natural additive?
what about the % or level we can use?
what about the structure of clay and active substances in it?
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yes , you can use uv light but no enough
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From where I can get a high producer Aspergillus culture isolate of aflatoxin for my research work?
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I have been used on my research the strain thar i obtained fro NRRL colection under de number 2999. I very higher Aflatoxins B1 and B2 producer
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I am working on mycotoxin in maize and plz improve my knowledge for further investigation. 
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I am currently running ELISA tests for aflatoxin on nutmeg, and I have observed that, for duplicate samples and standards, there appears to be a uniform difference (one is consistently higher than the other) between one column of antibody wells and another. In some cases, there is as much as 40% variability between a duplicate set of samples. Could some of this variation be attributed to variation in strips of antibody wells?
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If you can prove beyond doubt that it is definitely the wells, just send the data back to the company. Should be easy enough to prove with another similar assay run through the same washing and dispensing protocol showing that other assays have no issues.
That said, variability between replicates in my hands is usually attributable to:
- Poorly designed dilution series (foaming, transferring <10ul to >1000ul volumes, insufficient mixing)
- Insufficient blocking of wells (fill to brim, block minimum 1h 37C)
- Insufficient washing of wells (leave last wash of each step to brim for 5-10 min)
Companies usually develop certain number of plates per manufacturing run and test a percentage of those in settings that show errors that you are describing.
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Sir, what can be the common baseline since the project deals with major multi mycotoxins with different contamination concentration? what is the critical factor(s) that we can look for to tackle the problem effectively?
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Hello Dear
Mycotoxins represent a risk to the feed supply chain with an impact on economies and
international trade. A high percentage of feed samples have been reported to be contaminated with more than one mycotoxin
The following article may be useful in this field
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 I isolate this fungus from some fruit so i want to know  if its produced  mycotoxin or not .
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You most welcome
Houda
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so isolated many fungi from  wheat especially belong to fusarium and aspergillus genre so i want to estimate the concentration of mycotoxins in my wheat simples blessing on the occurrence of mycotoxigenic fungi in my simple?
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The simple answer is; the relationship is not sufficient.
The reasons are quite simple (and long known):
  1. Not all Fusarium and Aspergillus species do produce mycotoxins
  2. In toxigenic species the conditions (temperature and humidity) for optimal growth and optimal toxin production are different
  3. After a treatment with e.g. radiation or antifungal agents, the fungi might not be alive anymore, but the toxins will still be present
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I cant use the aflatoxins and ocharatoxins A standard for tlc because of some problems and need to look for alternative standards.
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Dear Jing Yee,
I send you further HPTLC applications.
P.S. For me personally is HPTLC densitometric method for mycotoxins determination very good cost/benefit approach, but instrumentation is relatively expensive at the purchase (for example CAMAG  equipment - scanner and sample application)!
Best regards
Vladimir
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I am looking for a yeast "Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans" for experimental studies. Can anybody help me to find this culture?
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yes offcourse.zahoor my thesis paper accepted you are co-author
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Food restriction in diabetes is essential to activate the anti-aging genes to increase cholesterol and glucose metabolism. The brain with increased food consumption may lose synchrony (Type 3 diabetes) and careful food restriction is required to activate the hypothalamus that contains the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Food restriction for diabetes treatment may depend on the amount of bacterial LPS, mycotoxins, xenobiotics and other compounds that may enter the brain and interfere with the SCN circadian rhythm.
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Primarily with following objectives.
Metabolic support & Management of hyperglycemia
Lipid management
Obesity Management
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please I want your help in finding research laboratory working on mycotoxin binders in Massachusetts state?
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I asked in my school and I didn't find any lab. working in mycotoxin research,  hopefully I find soon 
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I've been growing Fusarium oxysporum on various formulated potato dextrose agar plates, and the fungi that have germinated are different in terms of colour. Some or pinkish, white, some are purple. Does the colour of the fungi affect its pathogenicity? 
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I agree with  Prof Houda kawas. for identification of Fusarium species, I add attachment below. 
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The diets that contain bacterial lipopolysaccharides change cell membranes and delay the clearance of mycotoxins such as patulin and ochratoxin A that enter the brain and lead to neuron apoptosis.
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Hey
Look PDF attached ,article published by yan et al 2015 associated with your question
may  help to answer your question.
Best regards
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Working with Hard Red Winter Wheat, we took samples at 0 days and comparing it with 30 days under conditions of 30% Relative humidity and 10 Celsius, we detected reductions as lower as 3ppm of DON. I want to ask if DON could be transformed in masked mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol‑3‑β‑d‑glucoside) during this process.  
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I have no idea on this matter
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Dear all,
I am studying the effect of some physical and biological process on the decontamination of Aspergillus mycotoxins (Ochratoxin A (OTA) and Aflatoxins AFB1). So, i need mycotoxinogenic fungi to artificially contaminate food matrices, particularly wheat, in order to evalute the efficacy of these treatments as decontamination methods. 
Best regars,
Amel.
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Amel, certainly type cultures of high mycotoxigenic strains are of limited scope and non available in culture collections. However given that there is a high amount of substrate specificity, biotic and abiotic factors that influence the toxigenicity of filamentous fungi, you could try experimentally mimicked scenarios with isolates of Aspergillus ochraceus or Aspergillus flavi species complex i to tranfect and produce OTA and Aflatoxins.  I am sure you would be at ease to recover them from cereal plants.
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I used PDB as media. The metode which I need probably using centrifuge and chloroform. 
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@Oadi Matny: 
Which one of layer containing toxin? The residue or the supernatan? Can I used ethyl acetate or aceton to collect the toxin as alternative methode? thanks for your responses.
@Ajay Gautam: Ok thanks
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I need to find a research on how the Fusarium mycotoxins affect the seed formation in wheat and rye, or rather the nutritional values etc. Any references please?
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Hi Aleksandra, Fusarium mykotoxins are pre-harvest mycotoxins and resulted host plant energy converts into defence mechanism molecules. Fusarium infected most susceptible stage anthesis in maize, wheat etc. Most nutrient goes to anthesis process root to inflorescence. Inflorescence infected by pathogen, utilises nutrient for multiplication and plant also utilise nutrient for defence mechanism. 
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An experiment is to be carried out to ascertain the impact of the above mycotoxins on steroidogenesis using cell models. Therefore, a concentration of each mycotoxin is to be obtained that can give equivalent to human exposure concentrations. This is to enable the extrapolation of the results to human relevance.
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Aflatoxin B1 is 27%
zearalenoneis 34%
deoxynivalenol 13%
ochratoxin A 21%
they are the concentrations 
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I would like to produce zearalenon from Fusarium sp.
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Dear colleagues, thank you for help!
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Is there any method to find out if Aflatoxin B1+BSA conjugate is degraded ? I have a stock of 1mg/ml stored in -20 degree and would like to cross check if anything is wrong with the stock. 
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Are you concerned about the aflatoxin or the conjugate? As indicated above the aflatoxin itself is quite stable. The protein (BSA) and  (stability of)  the conjugate might be a different story.
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We are conducting a multi mycotoxin study for screening and quantification. Any information regarding this would come much appreciated.
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Thank you very much for the very helpful responses
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Would you be able to provide an ochratoxin A (OTA) producing strain of fungi, preferably its toxin production conditions are well characterized and optimized for high OTA production (and less ochratoxin B) and also free of other toxins.
I want to use it for OTA production in wheat (or any grain) growth medium and subsequently use the medium as source of OTA for rat toxicological studies.
Thank you in advance.
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Dear Vladimir,
thank you for your contribution and interest.
If I cannot find a group who is already producing OTA for toxicological studies, I will buy it from a collection bank.
The problem is that, I am not just searching for an OTA producer, I am really looking for the high OTA producer in grain growth medium and collection banks have several OTA producing strains but unfortunately, those strains OTA production (yield) are not characterised and finding an high OTA producer is like searching a needle in a haystack.
Best wishes,
Mehmet
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Can I use SP sepharose to bind Fumonisin/ochratoxin 
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Dear Dr Adam, Thank you very much for your advice.
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Hi, I would like to evaluate the effect of a fungicide seed treatment on the production of deoxynivalenol mycotoxin in wheat seeds and looking for a protocol with an artificial seed inoculation with F. graminearum?? Thanks!
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Hello Maha,
The challenge that you would have is preventing the kernels from sprouting. The infection requires high Relative Humidity (70-80%) and temperature of 22-28C, depending on the Fusarium species you are using. Below a couple of options:
(i) You my want to grow wheat until the heads emerge. Spray them at anthesis with F. g. or better yet F. colmorum (induce more DON in the kernels). Then treat the daughter seeds with your seed treatment, germinate them and assess the levels of DON. The difference between the check ad treated should give you a better idea on the efficacy of your seed treatment.
(ii) place healthy and un-healthy kernels untreated and treated with your seed treatment on Petri Dishes with F. g. or F. c. cultures and assess the DON levels in the young seedlings. 
Good luck and look forward to hear from you regarding what worked and what didn't.
~Abdel
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I would like to ask if somebody have information on where is deoxynivalenol mostly absorbed in rabbits. I am searching the literature but I didn't find any info about rabbits. 
Thank you for your time in advance.
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Dear Mr Ostry,
Thank you very much!!!
Have a nice day,
Mariam.
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