Questions related to Mycotoxins
I'm trying to develop Reference Material for mycotoxin in cocoa beans using IDMS as the primary method of characterization. How do I prepare the 1:1 isotope ratio of the native mycotoxin and isotope-labelled mycotoxin? Does it simply mean the same amount (concentration) of native mycotoxin and isotope-labelled mycotoxin? Then, how do I calculate the concentration of the mycotoxin in the samples using IDMS method? Is there any step-by-step protocol/SOP/documents that I can refer to?
Thanks in advance.
There are many Alternaria pathogens that produce host-specific toxins. Alternaria host-specific toxins are classified in three groups in terms of the primary site action. First group of toxins have in common an epoxy-decatrienoic acid structure and exert their primary effect on the plasma membrane of susceptible cells. The second group is represented by ACR(L)-toxin, which induces changes in mitochondria, including swelling, vesiculation of cristae, decrease in the electron density of the matrix, increase in the rate of NADH oxidation, and inhibition of malate oxidation. The third group consists of AM-toxin, which appears to exert an early effect on both chloroplasts and plasma membranes.
Ames and bacterial assays has demonstrated that Altertoxins I, II, III, toxins AOH and AME were mutagenic. A.N. Samokhvalov ( «A method for producing mutant strains of plant pathogen X. campesrtis». Invention certificate No 1473360 of 15.12.1988 (USSR) has found that Alternaria brassicola caused similar mutation in different strains of X. campestris affected xanthomonadin synthesis and virulence of the bacteria.
Is there any information about specific interaction between Alternaria toxins and bacterial/chloroplast or mitochondrial DNA?
I'm looking for levels for Aflatoxin, DON, H2, Ochratoxin, Zearalenon mainly for feed but dog/cat food would also be great?
1) ICP MS NexION 2000P (For Heavy Metall Analysis):
2) Agilent 6460 Series Triple Quadrupole LC/MS/MS System (Pesticide and Mycotoxin analysis):
3) Agilent's 7010B Triple Quadrupole GC/MS/MS, Pesticides and Environmental Pollutants GC/MS/MS Analyzer:
I am a PhD scholar currently doing mycotoxin analysis from rice false smut, at Agriculture college and Research institute, Madurai, Tamil Nadu Agriculture University, Coimbatore. I am in need of ustiloxin standard for my research.
For example, which part of aptamer for afb1 that can specifically recognize afb1?
Sequence as follow:
5'-GTT GGG CAC GTG TTG TCT CTC TGT GTC TCG TGC CCT TCG CTA GGC CCA CA-3'
I am looking for a standard extraction procedure for herbal samples or Herbal powders by HPLC- FLD Detection?
Thank you ,
There is growing evidence that in utero exposure to dietary aflatoxin can impair birth outcomes, which in itself can set in motion additional processes contributing to sub-optimal child linear growth. The child's exposure to dietary aflatoxins (including through breastmilk) may also contribute to growth retardation and possibly to other developmental impacts. While there are clear thresholds for maximum exposure for aflatoxin based on risk factors for acute aflatoxicosis and known determinants of cancer, nothing is known about threshold levels or cut-offs in relation to birth outcomes or child nutrition. Is anyone out there undertaking or planning research on this topic? If yes, what are your foci, methods and locations?
Hello, did anybody face with researches / information / experience about influence of graine (wheat, barley) time storage on fusarium level / mycotoxines /gushing?
Do you have any information legislation about mycotoxin limitation acceptance in food for human and animals.
I need a model substance similar to AFB1 to see if the FT-IR method is suitable to study AFB1 (and what is the lowest concentration that can still be detected with FT-IR).
Clay based toxin binders act on the mycotoxin to bind them and help eliminating from the system. Can I get some advice on reference papers regarding site of action of clays against ingested mycotoxins in ruminant digestive system and mode of action of bentonite clay.
I am desperately looking for a lab that performs mycotoxin analyses in corn silage from a lab-scale trial on effects of different additive types. I am particularly interested in mycotoxins produced by the P. roqueforti group (e.g. roquefortines, penicillic acid, mycophenolic acid), by Monascus ruber (incl. mycophenolic acid and monacolins) and by Aspergillus fumigatus (incl. fumigaclavine, enniatin, fumitremorgen, verrugulogen).
Can somebody help? Funding available. More details upon request.
I am attempting to identify compounds present in dust samples and have a very robust method for viewing about 40 mycotoxins and microbial secondary metabolites (MSMs) via LC/MSMS. I am looking to see what else is in the samples that I may be missing, but I don't entirely know where to start. I have access to a GC/MS and I have BSTFA +1%TCMS that I can derivatize with for GCMS use. Is this a good place to start? Or is there another method I should think of using to identify new mycotoxins and MSMs that I don't have in my LCMS method?
Actually these are two separate questions:
i. How to extract mycotoxins from the media PDA the fungal culture is growing on?
ii. Can we extract the toxin from the natural media it is growing on?
I would like to find feed ingredients (such as corn gluten meal, wheat) naturally contaminated with DON/ T-2 toxin.
Is there anyone working with mycotoxins that can advise me where I can search for contaminated ingredients?
Any suggestion would be highly appreciated.
Thank you in advance.
PhD student at Wageningen University & Research
Are we missing the role of mycotoxins?
Brief discussion on the contribution of mycotoxins in necrotic fungi infection of fruits.
I am working on the extraction of trichothecenes from the grain of wheat and I would like to ask how is it possible to calculate the concentration of toxin ug per gram of wheat?
the protocol is as follow:
- grind 2 g of sample in 15 ml of solvent.
- filter and transfer 3 mL to the glass tube.
- pass it through MycoSep 113.
- remove 1.5 mL and evaporate to dryness.
- redissolve in 400 uL of the mobile phase.
- injection of 50 uL and detect using HPLC.
so how to calculate the concentration of mycotoxin per gram of sample?
OTA productors, like A. ochraceus, P.nordicum et al., have the ochratoxin A biosynthetic gene cluster (pks, nps, chl), does the non-ochratoxin A. ochraceus or P.nordicum also have these cluster?
I want to get a clear explanation that it is not adsorption or opening of the lactone ring, for example, nano-magnesium oxide, how it works when it binds or interacts with aflatoxin, what is the mechanism
There are several methods for detecting mycotoxins in feed. What is the fastest and most reliable technique. Laboratory tests are very slow (detection of fungi, isolation, search for mycotoxins...etc)
HPLC is an expensive analytical method for mycotoxin analysis, so I want a preliminary practical method for detection on presence or absence of mycotoxin in my fungal isolates.
The following microorganims are associated with vanilla pods: Moulds; E.coli; B. cereus; Sulphite reducing clostridium; Staph. aureus; Salmonella; Mycotoxins; Aflotoxins.
What time/temperature sterilisation combination will be efficient to kill microorganims without altering vanilla pod quality?
I want to develop an enzyme for biodegradation of zen toxin in animal feed. please suggest me simple and best method to extract enzyme.
On the mycotoxin determination methods for what purpose we use internal standards? Does it have any advantages that using external standard does not have? Why do we just not use external standards?
Concern about mold in food is mainly beacise of mycotoxins, but little seems to be known about allergic response by food intake
A mycotoxin (from the Greek mykes, "fungus" and toxikon, "poison") is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by organisms of the fungus kingdom. Aflatoxins are poisonous carcinogens that are produced by certain molds (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus) which grow in soil.
I would like to found a journal where I could publish works relative to Plant diseases and mycotoxins without publication charge for authors.
Anyone know a practical method for producing large quantities of Deoxynivalenol (DON).
the described methods so far can produce 250-300 mg/kg feed. I want to produce about 1-2 gm/kg feed.
In near future, is it possible a single, simple and fast analytical method alternative to chromatographic analysis for detection of all residues (pesticides, drugs, mycotoxins and the other toxic chemicals) in food without sample preparation and extraction steps?
Hi All, I want to help to work with my colleagues to setup a regulation in my country, it's not have any regulation to set the minimum limit for mycotoxin. How can we start from zero?
Any advice or idea.
Clay-based toxin binders are generally indicated in modern livestock feeds as a preventive measure against multiple mycotoxins. Kindly throw light on the mechanism of action - why and how these are effective only under in vivo condition but not in vitro?
Hi everybody ...
When is the fungus exposed to hard conditions or exposed to typical conditions?
Aflatoxins are poisonous carcinogens that are produced by certain molds which grow in soil, decaying vegetation, hay, and grains. They are regularly found in improperly stored staple commodities such as cassava, chili peppers, corn, cotton seed, millet, peanuts, rice, sesame seeds, sorghum, sunflower seeds.
I am thinking for use mycotoxin banded with large molecules of protein to use it as a vaccine to livestock animals, I dont know if this will work or not to give the animal resistance for mycotoxicoses problem in the future.
We are currently using lymphocytes in comet assay but we would like to start analysing tissues as well. Liver will be our target tissue for the beginning and I would like to get different protocols (I have been reading several articles as well) in order to set our own.
I am Carlo Brera, head of the National Reference Laboratory for Mycotoxins and I work at Istituto Superiore di Sanità in Rome
I want to do mycotoxin extraction and analysis of fusarium oxysporum ..I have difficulty in finding solid phase extraction unit ..so want to know about alternative method of extraction.
which kind of clay can using as a natural additive?
what about the % or level we can use?
what about the structure of clay and active substances in it?
I am currently running ELISA tests for aflatoxin on nutmeg, and I have observed that, for duplicate samples and standards, there appears to be a uniform difference (one is consistently higher than the other) between one column of antibody wells and another. In some cases, there is as much as 40% variability between a duplicate set of samples. Could some of this variation be attributed to variation in strips of antibody wells?
so isolated many fungi from wheat especially belong to fusarium and aspergillus genre so i want to estimate the concentration of mycotoxins in my wheat simples blessing on the occurrence of mycotoxigenic fungi in my simple?
I cant use the aflatoxins and ocharatoxins A standard for tlc because of some problems and need to look for alternative standards.
Food restriction in diabetes is essential to activate the anti-aging genes to increase cholesterol and glucose metabolism. The brain with increased food consumption may lose synchrony (Type 3 diabetes) and careful food restriction is required to activate the hypothalamus that contains the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Food restriction for diabetes treatment may depend on the amount of bacterial LPS, mycotoxins, xenobiotics and other compounds that may enter the brain and interfere with the SCN circadian rhythm.
please I want your help in finding research laboratory working on mycotoxin binders in Massachusetts state?
I've been growing Fusarium oxysporum on various formulated potato dextrose agar plates, and the fungi that have germinated are different in terms of colour. Some or pinkish, white, some are purple. Does the colour of the fungi affect its pathogenicity?
The diets that contain bacterial lipopolysaccharides change cell membranes and delay the clearance of mycotoxins such as patulin and ochratoxin A that enter the brain and lead to neuron apoptosis.
Working with Hard Red Winter Wheat, we took samples at 0 days and comparing it with 30 days under conditions of 30% Relative humidity and 10 Celsius, we detected reductions as lower as 3ppm of DON. I want to ask if DON could be transformed in masked mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol‑3‑β‑d‑glucoside) during this process.
I am studying the effect of some physical and biological process on the decontamination of Aspergillus mycotoxins (Ochratoxin A (OTA) and Aflatoxins AFB1). So, i need mycotoxinogenic fungi to artificially contaminate food matrices, particularly wheat, in order to evalute the efficacy of these treatments as decontamination methods.
I need to find a research on how the Fusarium mycotoxins affect the seed formation in wheat and rye, or rather the nutritional values etc. Any references please?
Can anybody guide me, as to the best methods especially to delay the resistance and specific marker to use in running the analysis.
An experiment is to be carried out to ascertain the impact of the above mycotoxins on steroidogenesis using cell models. Therefore, a concentration of each mycotoxin is to be obtained that can give equivalent to human exposure concentrations. This is to enable the extrapolation of the results to human relevance.
Is there any method to find out if Aflatoxin B1+BSA conjugate is degraded ? I have a stock of 1mg/ml stored in -20 degree and would like to cross check if anything is wrong with the stock.
We are conducting a multi mycotoxin study for screening and quantification. Any information regarding this would come much appreciated.
Would you be able to provide an ochratoxin A (OTA) producing strain of fungi, preferably its toxin production conditions are well characterized and optimized for high OTA production (and less ochratoxin B) and also free of other toxins.
I want to use it for OTA production in wheat (or any grain) growth medium and subsequently use the medium as source of OTA for rat toxicological studies.
Thank you in advance.
Hi, I would like to evaluate the effect of a fungicide seed treatment on the production of deoxynivalenol mycotoxin in wheat seeds and looking for a protocol with an artificial seed inoculation with F. graminearum?? Thanks!
I would like to ask if somebody have information on where is deoxynivalenol mostly absorbed in rabbits. I am searching the literature but I didn't find any info about rabbits.
Thank you for your time in advance.