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Amidst the continuing atmosphere of post-Soviet revivalism, historiographical debates over Central Asian as well as broader world religious-cultural history and identity continue to be voiced among Kazakh scholars. In examining these debates through his own careful translations of key Kazakh-language sources, the author highlights the internal stru...
Poster
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The international conference on the History of Logic in the Islamic World will be held between March 6-8, 2023 by the logic group at the Iranian Institute of Philosophy (IRIP) in collaboration with the Iranian Association for Logic (IAL), Iranian Philosophical Society (IPS), Institute for Interdisciplinary Research in Fundamental Sciences (IRFS), a...
Article
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This article examines the attack on a mosque in Samalanga, Aceh, Indonesia, by showing the relations between religious ideology, the state, and paramilitary groups. Intolerance studies in the Muslim world pay less attention to the ideology in the sectarian state, and its influence on attacking houses of worship. Using the state-parallel theory to l...
Article
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Besides causing physical disability, accidents also cause psychological problems. Some people are easy to adapt to the situation, others have difficulty adapting so confined in psychological problems. This study aims to reveal the ability of resilience in Muslims with physical disabilities post accidents. Eight participants were recruited by purpos...
Article
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Many Muslims continue to believe that Ashura is a custom and ceremony that is associated with expressing worry about the Karbala event, however in the Buginese community of South Sulawesi, this tradition is entwined with community culture, transforming it into a Buginese-specific tradition. The purpose of this study is to address the following thre...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to explain the development of scientific publications on Islamic banking based on year, country, authors, and fields of science that are focused on mapping topics. This study used a qualitative method to review 696 articles published in Scopus indexed scientific journals and the collection of data was carried out in sta...
Article
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Ecocritical scholarship has encouraged diverse contributions from varied disciplines to the discussion of environmental issues across the globe. Given the magnitude of the problem and the frequency of the mutilation it carries along, there is a call for every segment of the society to contribute towards the theme. Literature being one of the strong...
Article
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This study aims to understand the risk of spousal violence in the context of polygyny in India. National Family Health Survey (2015–16) data has been used in this study. The study population consisted of women who answered the questions regarding spousal violence and the number of additional wives of their husbands. Chi-square significance test and...
Article
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Whereas the topic of “Religion” has garnered considerable scholarly attention in the general education literature, its place within TESOL circles has long been contentious. It is only recently that the religious dimension of the TESOL profession and professionals has seen the light of day. Yet, even when the literature in ELT does engage with these...
Article
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Insecurity and terrorism poses global concern. Central to this concern is how the Christian self and identity are experienced in relation to Nigeria’s ongoing terrorist threat. Informed by data from 63 Christian participants recruited in Nigeria, this study makes an original contribution by demystifying how personal experiences fuel perceived victi...
Article
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Value co-creation has become an essential strategy in business that encourages customer involvement in creating products that meet customer demands and have superior value. Brand image and e-service quality are still important factors that influence customer decision making in purchasing products online. The purpose of this study is to identify the...
Article
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Purpose: This study explored critically ill Muslim patients’ experiences and perceptions related to confinement to isolation rooms. Methods: The descriptive–interpretive lens of phenomenology was employed to explore and illuminate the isolation experience of critically ill Muslim patients). Semi-structured, face-to-face, audiotaped interviews were...
Article
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The research assesses religious consciousness as an explicit rhetoric of lived experiences of a group of minority Muslims living in the Muslim majority country, Bangladesh. It is a qualitative endeavor that reports and interprets the religious consciousness of the followers of late Zulfigar Haider Shah, aka “Haidar Baba”. The research argues that t...
Article
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This article discusses the response of Muslim youth to the conception of a child through in-vitro fertilization. The pros and cons among young Muslims were carefully evaluated. Data that were collected through questionnaires, interviews, and document reviews constitutes the basis of this article. Questionnaires consisted of two types of questions:...
Conference Paper
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Hem putperestlik hem de İslâm dönemini görmüş olan Ebû Kays b. el-Eslet (ö. 1/622), Arap edebiyatındaki muhadram şairler arasında sınıflandırılması gereken biridir. Mamafih klasik kaynaklarda onun genellikle şâ‘ir câhilî yani Câhiliye şairi olarak tanımlandığı gözlemlenmektedir. Bu durumun muhtemel nedeni, ömrünün büyük bir kısmını İslam öncesinde...
Article
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The measures of economic development change with time. Economic growth, the structural change model, GNI per capita, and, more recently, HDI, which incorporates inequality and environmental concerns, are all considered development measures. However, the meaning of development for Muslims differs from the contemporary definition of development. The...
Article
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Terrorist attacks on the Twin Towers in September 2001 have spawned myriad discourses in various disciplines over the past eighteen years. Framing Muslims as a homogeneous and sinister "Other" of the West, much of the post-9/11 Islamophobic discourse slaps a monolithic group identity upon the Muslims and thereby ignore the diasporic Muslims' hetero...
Article
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This study addresses the perceived role of mosque education in the integration of Turkish–Dutch Muslim children in the Netherlands. It is based on interviews with imams, mosque teachers, parents of mosque students, chairs of migrant organizations, policymakers and experts (N = 75). Most respondents (N = 49) view mosque education as potentially aidi...
Article
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Using multilevel modelling, this paper investigates ethno-religious penalties in unemployment and inactivity among men and women using the Understanding Society survey. The paper confirms previous findings of a Muslim penalty and a British labour market hierarchized by colour (ethnicity) and religion (culture). However, by including a greater range...
Article
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Longlisted for the Booker Prize 2018 and winner of the International Dylan Thomas Prize 2019, Guy Gunaratne's debut novel, In Our Mad and Furious City (2018), depicts a cultural conflict unfolding in contemporary London. Set off as the result of a killing of a white soldier by a black Muslim boy, violent riots force Yusuf, a son of immigrants from...
Conference Paper
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The Hausa-Muslim northern Nigeria is known for many things, including religious orthodoxy and conservativism. Since Nigeria's return to democracy in 1999, twelve of its nineteen northern states established Sharia. Consequently, the government of Kano, Nigeria's most populous state and the epicentre of Kannywood, founded a censorship board. The boar...
Article
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Defisit APBN dalam upaya percepatan pembangunan nasional memerlukan dukungan pembiayaan yang luas dan berkesinambungan. Aset wakaf selama ini telah menjadi salah satu sendi berkembangnya peran keuangan syariah dalam masyarakat. Beberapa penelitian sebelumnya telah menemukan potensi untuk mengintegrasikan keuangan syariah beriringan dengan keuangan...
Conference Paper
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Understanding the ‘other’ and welcoming the stranger: A vision for Cross-cultural Religious Education in Turkey All religions have problems when they encounter the stranger. In Turkey, which has settlements where multi-religious nations live, the problem of identity and culture has produced and developed solutions with various ideological approach...
Article
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This study intends lo examine Hausa Bandiri Songs as a special kind of Islamic performing art. This is in view of the fact that originally 'Bandiri' songs are religious and the language of their composition and performance is Arabic. There is also an accompaniment of simple musical performance with an instrument called Bandiri, which is completely...
Conference Paper
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In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent the Most Merciful. My overall contention in this lecture is that almost all theologies worth calling Islamic theology, and especially the Ash’arite theology which is prevalent among great majority of the Sunnite world as Official Islamic Creed, have committed severe epistemic fallacies in their metaphysic...
Book
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Muslims in Muslim countries are apprehensive about pluralism because they confuse it with polytheism. But the two are different. Pluralism refers to the plurality of ethnic groups. Pluralism recognises the diversity of humanity. Polytheism teaches a plurality of divinity. Muslims worry about the erosion of their way of life. A plurality of perspect...
Thesis
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The discussions about tradition or turast and modernity had occurred among contemporary Islamic scholars and contemporary thinkers. This is because Islam is faced with the contemporary reality of the emergence of modernity. Islamic thought believes that the decline of Islamic civilization is caused by the inability of the Islamic tradition to confr...
Article
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Pulmonary tuberculosis is one of the infectious diseases that has become a global health problem and causes a variety of adverse health effects, including psychological factors such as poor socioeconomic conditions, lack of social support, and decreased quality of life due to a diagnosis that causes anxiety in the majority of pulmonary TB patients....
Article
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Every Muslim-majority country, including Indonesia, has a growing Muslim population accompanied by rising Muslim incomes. As a result, the demand for halal goods has increased, both in Indonesia and in other countries where the majority are Muslim. Causal association strategy and quantitative approach were used in the research design. Causal relati...
Article
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The Qur’an is a fourteen centuries old divine book in Arabic language that is read and followed by almost two billion Muslims globally as their sacred religious text. With the rise of Islam, the Arabic language gained popularity and became the lingua franca for large swaths of the old world. Devout Muslims read the Qur’an daily seeking guidance and...
Article
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This article addresses the question of the Muslim umma (the universal community of Muslims) which arises within the context of the ongoing debates about the status of refugees and their rights around the world, especially in the Muslim world, where a significant majority of migrants and refugees originate and are hosted. We question the existence o...
Article
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Background The stature of a living human reflects the nutritional, genetic, and disease patterns of individual experiences. This study adopted a simple linear regression method and R ² values to identify the preferred model for stature estimation based on the lengths of the arm, radius, ulna, and hand; breadth of the hand; and circumference of the...
Article
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Dialogue within a multi-religious context presupposes the recognition of the many identities that are involved in mutual encounter and exchange. The understanding, shape or interpretation of each identity plays a critical role in the nature of the dialogical process as well as the outcome of the dialogue itself. This article re-assesses the Christi...
Article
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Since the emergence of the global challenges of COVID-19 pandemic, its impact could be widely viewed in various human society aspects, such as education, business trading and also social interaction limit. Apart from many discussions on the pandemic from a wide range of such perspectives, scholarly attention is still rarely mainly in trying to elab...
Article
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Even though there is a consensus among Muslim scholars that rebellion without valid grounds is not acceptable, they have disagreed on the permissibility of rebellion against an unjust ruler. Abū Ḥanīfa has a pivotal place in these debates, as he is the eponym of a law school that first dedicated a special chapter to rebellion (baghy) in its legal t...
Article
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As a major mass Islamic organization, Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) has been influential both in culture and politics in Indonesia. In consonance with the decline of democratic politics across the globe, NU internal organization experiences the practice of deliberative democracy with elite deliberation or fox elite fox Dei as its procedure of electing its t...
Article
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‘If I have a bird, or an animal, and it were to die, what should I do?’ ‘Is it forbidden to read verses over the deceased animal, especially when some people may consider the animal part of the family?’ These questions, excerpts from posts in online Islamic advice forums, enfold several notions not usually associated with Muslim societies, such as...
Article
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Purpose Destination competitiveness is a significant contributor to tourism growth, performance and development. The current research intends to test the effect of the dimensions of the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) on destination competitiveness in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Egypt and Oman and how competitiveness influences...
Article
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The Qur'an is the holy book of Muslims, which was revealed by Allah SWT to the Prophet Muhammad SAW. At the same time it becomes a miracle that is special from the others. The Qur'an was revealed in a certain period of 23 years Tajweed is giving a letter to its rights and order, returning the letter to the makhraj and origin (nature), and refining...
Chapter
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XPDQ QDWXUH LV FKDQJLQJ :KHQ SHRSOH ¶V EHKDYLRXUDO DFWLYLW\ FKDQJHV DQG LW UHIOHFWV RQ VRFLHW\ WKHQ LW IHHOV that adaptation and transformation process is going on. From primitive society to present internet era, human civilization is continuously changing by some internal and external factors like societal norms, beliefs, cultures, values and natu...
Article
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Counting and detecting the pedestrians is an important and critical aspect for several applications such as estimation of crowd density, organization of events, individual’s flow control, and surveillance systems to prevent the difficulties and overcrowding in a huge gathering of pedestrians such as the Hajj occasion, which is the annual event for...
Article
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Human mobility, particularly during certain festivals in rapidly growing megacities in low- and middle-income countries, has critical implications in infectious diseases surveillance and preparedness. In this perspective, we present the interesting case of Dhaka megacity, the capital of Bangladesh with a population of over 20 million. In recent tim...
Article
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The rise of the Salafi movements in Indonesia during the last two decades has created an increasingly pessimistic view of the status of women in Islam. This paper aims to lessen this negative view by showing the tremendous contribution of ‘Aisyiyah, the oldest modern Muslim women’s organization in Indonesia, to transforming Indonesian society throu...
Article
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Tafsir Nur al-Ihsan is the earliest Malay-language tafsir book that was printed in 1934. This book was written by Hj. Muhammad Sa’d bin ’Umar (d. 1932 AD) presented the interpretation of Surah al-Fatihah as an introduction to the book as is common with the content of other books of interpretation. The interpretation is still general and requires a...
Article
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This article examines the inversion of majority/minority at Xiamen University Malaysia (XMUM), the offshore campus of a mainland Chinese public university and the catalyst development of a satellite township in Sepang, Selangor, Malaysia. Using the framing of the de/reterritorialised urban higher education enclave, it examines how, within the campu...
Article
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As a country that has a great history of Muslim civilization, Palestine get the full support of the OIC, as a member (of OIC) and also as a form of human solidarity. The OIC has taken note of Israel's aggression against the Palestinians and its designation of Jerusalem as its capital, along with the move of the US Embassy there, as well as both of...
Article
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One of the important rituals that Muslims do on their pilgrimage to Makkah, which is called Tawaf in Arabic, is a walk around the Ka'aba seven times. The space around the Ka'aba is limited and it is usually crowded. Pilgrims arrive at unpredictable intervals to perform the Tawaf and quickly join the crowd, which increases the population. Congestion...
Article
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This thematic dossier is a product of the ongoing research project “Embedding conquest: Naturalising Muslim rule in the early Islamic Empire (600–1000 CE)” (EmCo), financed by the European Research Council. EmCo examines how interdependent relationships between individuals and groups contributed to the early caliphate’s longevity and success. One w...
Article
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Commands of Will are those commands revealed by Allah Almighty, which have a key role in human life and are the main part in the promotion of social affairs. All kinds of ambiguity and doubt should be removed, along with implementing the country's laws, it is necessary for every Muslim person to place the divine commandments in his life in the true...
Article
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This article focuses on the confrontation that broke out sometime in 709 or 710 CE between a hundred men led by members of the Banū Fahm and the Umayyad governor of Egypt, Qurra b. Sharīk. After presenting the case in question, the article explains who participated in the conflict, what their motives and expectations were, and how the failure of th...
Conference Paper
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In the past few decades, some historic domestic buildings in the city of Granada (Spain) have been refurbished for use as hotels. These projects follow an economic-based approach to preserving the city's heritage, strongly driven by property developers. In parallel to this, other urban and social rehabilitation strategies have been set in motion th...
Article
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Novitiates to the study of Middle Eastern faiths ‘know’ that much of the Druze religion is—paradoxically—unknowable: Druze sacred texts are regarded as closely guarded secrets. Not even Druze themselves are granted access to these scriptures if they have not taken a vow to become normatively observant. However, the decision to become Orthodox is no...
Article
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Islamic Intellectual Capital (IIC) is a new notion of intellectual capital and has been critically discussed by the government and academic researchers due to its indirect impact on the Islamiceconomy. One of IIC’s dimensions, i.e., Islamic Structural Capital that measuring the infrastructure, processes and methodologies of an organization’s operat...
Article
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Zusammenfassung Trotz starker Säkularisierungsbewegungen behält das Thema Religion seit Jahren auch in Europa eine hohe Anziehungskraft und Öffentlichkeit. Diese resultiert vor allem aus dem Blick auf religiöse Pluralisierung und die Zunahme von Muslim:innen im Zusammenhang mit Migration. Dabei wird schnell deutlich, dass die Forschung zum Verhältn...
Article
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The city of Batam is a city with a population that is predominantly Muslim, where in ensuring every believer of religion to worship and carry out his religious teachings, In ensuring that all food products circulating in Batam City do not contain unlawful/not in accordance with Islamic law, the government has regulated in the laws and regulations,...
Article
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This study aims to determine the role of the teacher as a motivator and a mentor in shaping the discipline of children's prayer at the Al-Qur'an Education Park at Surau Balenggek Sikabu Bukit, Lubuk Alung. (1) Background: The implementation of prayer discipline education at the Al-Qur'an Education Park (TPA) is not going well. Due to the lack of mo...
Article
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The dissemination of unauthorized hadith is an issue that has continuously plagued generations of Muslim scholars. Nowadays tremendous effort has been made to resolve this issue wisely. If failed to do so, there is a risk of distorting the purity of hadith which will in turn confuse the Muslims because the Hadith they have been referring to are a m...
Article
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One of the significant criteria of an authentic ḥadīth is, it is free from any syudzūdz and ‘illah in its sanad or matn, and this criterion is related to one important criterion, which is ḍabṭ al-rāwi. A ḥadīth narrator is categorized into different levels and groups based on his ‘adālah and ḍabṭ, and hence his narrations will be labeled as Ṣaḥīḥ,...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to explore the prayers of the Indonesian Muslim community at various levels to deal with COVID-19. An analysis of the reasons why prayer is important at every level of society is described here. This study presents three levels of support for the prayers of the Indonesian people in dealing with COVID-19, namely the stru...
Thesis
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Motivation is one of the main psychological factors that influence the academic success of university students, as well as academic failure and / or dropout. In this study, with a descriptive, cross-sectional design, a total of 292 university students (195 women and 97 men) enrolled at the University of Granada, at the Ceuta and Melilla Campus part...
Article
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Since entering the era of decline, Muslims no longer produce outstanding achievements in the field of science. Western scholars then developed science with the materials developed from the work of Muslim scholars. Of course, there are weaknesses inherent in Western civilization. However, they creatively produce new things to be studied. In the 19th...
Article
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Al-Ghazali is one of the leaders of Muslim scientists who thought to be reckoned with in the world of science. But even so, thought a scientist would never be separated from the pros and cons. Some have claimed that Islam had reached its heyday in around the 7th century / M decline. The circles say that Al-Ghazali considered most responsible for it...
Article
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This study examined the association between the degree of religiosity, combined with cultural beliefs, social stigmas, and attitudes towards mental-health treatment in two groups, who, despite having similar cultural and religious affiliation, have experienced different socio-political contexts: Palestinian Muslim college students living in the Occ...
Article
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This study aims to determine the implementation of the DSN MUI fatwa Number 26 of 2013 and how it affects the purchase decision of Generation Muslimah Y and Z in choosing and buying cosmetic products—using qualitative methods with triangulation techniques, namely using various data collection methods consisting of observations, interviews, question...
Book
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Mawlana Ashraf ‘Ali Thanawi, referred to by many South Asian Muslims as Hakim al-Umma (“Spiritual Physician of the Muslim Umma”) and Mujaddid al-Milla (“Reformer of the Nation”), is a towering figure of Islamic revival and reawakening of South Asia in the twentieth century. Mawlana Thanawi was the “most eminent religious figure of his time, a proli...
Article
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This study compares the critical neural correlates of two altered states of consciousness: near-death experience (NDE) and spiritual contemplative experience (SCE), a.k.a. mystical experience. For Centuries NDE and SCE have been reported by all faiths, including Abrahamic religious contemplatives: Christian mystics, Muslim Sufis, and Jewish Kabbali...
Article
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The existence of religious pluralism in Indonesia cannot be separated from the dynamics of Islamic contestation in the Archipelago. The reasoning and practice of religious pluralism have not yet received full support from Muslims. Social conflicts are often injured in practice, such as intolerance, violence, and persecution between religious believ...
Article
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Food and drink are basic needs for humans to meet the body's intake needs, both for growth and for energy in daily activities. Allah SWT. ordered people to look for food and drink that is lawful and good (Qs. al-Baqarah / 2: 168, 172) This has been regulated since the revelation of the Islamic treatise. In Islamic law, it is strictly prohibited and...
Article
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إن الإسلام ثورة شمولية على معلوم الإنسان وموروثه، وإنّ السنة النبوية لتذخر بثورة سبقت بها أمم الأرض في التصورات والمفاهيم التي كان لتطبيقها التمكين لأمة رعت حق الفرد والجماعة من غير إفراط ولا تفريط، بل ببديعِ اتزان، فقد هدَى مُنزّل الكتاب وحافظه علماء الأمة إلى علم الرجال وعلم الجرح والتعديل، اللذين كانا بدعًا في العلوم، فلم تهتدِ أُمة إليهما لحفظ...
Article
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Abstract 1. Introduction 2. Homophily, Bonding Ties and Bridging Opportunities 3. Methods 4. Results 5. Importance of Frequenting a Mosque 6. Discussion 7. Conclusion Additional information Footnotes Full Article Figures & data Citations Metrics Licensing Reprints & Permissions View PDF View EPUB Abstract In this study, we identify the factors that...
Article
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Adolescence is a period of transition or change from children to adults. There will be many things they can learn from the people around them. If teenagers get good parenting or social relationships, they will survive various mental stresses. As adolescence goes on, the role of parents is very important to equip children's growth and development to...
Article
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RESUMEN: El estudio de las formas poéticas multiestróficas de origen árabe andalusí ha causado un gran revuelo entre los filólogos de los siglos xix a la fecha. Su origen es motivo de un intenso debate que no ha sido resuelto. Lo que si podemos encontrar es evidencias del impacto del zéjel y la muwasaha en la literatura hispana de la época y de otr...
Article
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Tujuan utama dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui jual beli emas secara cicilan di Indonesia berdasarkan pandangan imam mazhab dan pandangan ulama Islam kontemporer. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini lebih merupakan metode normatif dan hukum-yuridis. Metode ini melibatkan melakukan penelitian pada sumber-sumber sekunder, seperti buk...
Article
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ABSTRAK Kepentingan memahami konsep halalan tayyiban merupakan suatu kewajipan kepada setiap individu muslim. Kepentingan terhadap kefahaman ini tidak terkecuali kepada golongan mahasiswa muslim di pusat-pusat pengajian tinggi dalam negara. Faktor kesuntukan masa dan produk tular antara punca mahasiswa cenderung untuk mendapatkan makanan dengan cep...
Article
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The creation of a social climate where all ethnic groups can harmoniously coexist is a central challenge for many countries today. Should we emphasize similarities and common ground or, conversely, recognize that there are important differences between groups? The current study examined relations between diversity ideologies (assimilation, colorbli...
Article
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This study aims to describe and analyze the philosophical values contained in katoba ritual on the Muna tribe society in Muna Barat Regency, Southeast Sulawesi Province. This research is a qualitative research. There are two types of data used, namely primary data and secondary data. In collecting data, researchers used observation techniques, in-d...
Article
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Search for financial security after active service years of employees in Nigeria gave birth to pension scheme regimes in Nigeria. The focus point of the new pension scheme is security of funds and reasonable investment for profitability. Lots of Muslim subscribers have been complaining against the present administration regime of their pension fund...
Article
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This study investigates the views of contemporary Muslim jurists about withdrawing treatment of the terminally ill. Its aim is threefold. Firstly, it analyses jurists’ views concerning core themes within the process of withdrawing treatment. Secondly, it provides insight into fatwas about withdrawing treatment. Thirdly, it compares these views with...
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This paper argues that Islam is an all-embracing ideology, which deals with the entire worldly affairs as well as the hereafter. Islam does not confront democracy or development. Islamic polity, called by Westerners a theocracy, (where religion and politics are inseparable), is unlike Western theocracy, which separates religion from politics. The Q...
Preprint
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This study focuses on the multiple ways in which the Hindu community in Oman negotiates its religious identity in an Islamic country by strategically using its historic mercantile relations with the ruling families, maximising the use of public-private spaces, and creating and participating in transnational networks as ways to cope with state restr...
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Muslims in the West face numerous challenges in that not only westerner assumptions including many different stereotypes and communal prejudices influence Muslims’ lives, but diaspora affects their identity as well. These challenges make Muslim identity unstable amid on one hand, a sense of belonging to the culture of origin and on the other ha...
Article
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In the distant past, the Muslim world was booming with new ideas in the areas of natural, social and revealed sciences. Muslim empires established many centres of learning and research for Muslims and others as well. The main epicentres for research and learning at that time were located in Baghdad, Cordoba, Damascus and Cairo. The Baitul Hikmah in...
Preprint
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It was reflected in the international press that upon the humiliating statements made by two senior officials of the ruling party in India about Islam's Prophet Muhammad, some member countries of the Organization of Islamic Countries (OIC) made statements and condemned their remarks. In this context, it is noted that some of the countries in questi...
Article
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The novel allele HLA‐A*24:02:01:136 as compared to HLA‐A*24:02:01:01 displays a single nucleotide polymorphism at position; gDNA 2827 (C > A) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Sociologically, the discourse on gender equality indicates the theory of conflict because it sees society in a condition of contradiction or conflict between men and women so that women as the second sex must seek to equalize themselves (emancipation). Whereas sociologically obedient Muslims are more accurately viewed through a functional structura...