Science topic

Music and Society - Science topic

The role of music in society. The modes of interaction between society and music.
Questions related to Music and Society
  • asked a question related to Music and Society
Question
5 answers
can we find the parameters for increasing intelligence in person of society?
Relevant answer
Answer
Approaching this question from the point of view of artificial intelligence engineering, it's clear that there will be a variety of designed processes in any AI system contributing to the overall pattern(s) of behavior that we loosely call "intelligence". A better and more powerful  design for any of these processes will tend to enhance the system's "intelligence".  For example I am particularly interested in the processes of abstraction (discarding relatively unimportant details) and planning (including plan formation, revision and execution) -- it is intelligent to plan at the highest level of abstraction that is effective in the particular context being addressed.
So how do we make humans better at abstraction and at planning?
Cheers
Jim
  • asked a question related to Music and Society
Question
11 answers
I'm looking for the benefits of singing in a choir for the adults
Relevant answer
Answer
Wow! Thanks all for the articles.  I am a choir member of our church and i will challenge my friends to consider joining the choir.
  • asked a question related to Music and Society
Question
14 answers
I am looking for guidance as to where to look for sources and/or studies on how the culture of an area might affect its music.  Whether it be religion, conflict, or any other factors, how does culture change and affect the musical style that is produced?
Relevant answer
Answer
Culture can exist without music, while music is an expression of culture. As with any artifact, music incorporates the symbols of lived experience in noise.  
For a structural insight into music see Roland Barthes Image-Music-Text, for a critique of industry and sound see Theodore Adorno Theory of Music, for a vision see Attali's Noise: The Political Economy of Music, for affect and politics in the USA see Grossberg, Dancing in Spite of Myself, for contemporary classical music Alex Ross, The Rest is Noise.
  • asked a question related to Music and Society
Question
6 answers
In the film Latcho Drom, Tony Gatlif shows the migration of the gypsies from India to Europe as they take their music along with them; the music transforms as they move through time and place; In Crooks' film Siddhartha, based on Herman Hesse's novel, we see Sadhus singing and clapping - similar in sound and style to the Roma at the beginning of Gatlif's film. I'm trying to find out if anyone has written about the possibility the Roma were Indian Sadhus (or related to Sadhus) who were exiled or migrated from northern India about the time of the Buddha or earlier.
Relevant answer
Answer
Try with Paul Polansky books.
Good luck.
Massimo
  • asked a question related to Music and Society
Question
31 answers
I mean, there are certain things that can only be expressed with music? This language that use no words but notes. Aren't the words capable of express the same thing? There is a certain type of knowledge that admits no words but music instead?
Relevant answer
Answer
Maximiliano,
''Why the humans created the music?''  WE did'nt, only add some more. Many animal species have created musics much before our primate ancestors.  Why did biological evolution created it?  It makes senses that some early animals had to detect other moving animals through the sound they emit while moving and walking.  These type of sound contains a lot of rythms associated with moving animal bodies. The purpose of the detection is also to infer the type of movement, the type of animal doing it, the position and direction of trajectory, etc.  HOw this could be best achieved?  Through interpretation of the sound vibrations in the ears through the motor systems equipped for enacting such movement in the animal.  So I assume that the origin of music is this interpretation of sound through the self-enaction of the motor system.  At some point in evolution it became possible for some species to go futher and to actually produce sound using the motor system in ways that were pleasing for the animals and could be used for many social functions such as mate selection through musical selection or coordination of motions into a kind of swimming dance as for sea mammals, etc, etc.  
Music is a universal cultural elements of homo sapiens and music has many common elements with human languages.  Babies responded first to the musical part of the language sound and it is likely that humans became humans through a form of collective singing dancing. There are many empirical evidences for this hypothesis.  
  • asked a question related to Music and Society
Question
4 answers
I consider that music analysis must be consolidated under new points of view,: the open, live, and music connected sociology, like sociosophy understanding of music history. By other side, the music listening must be more rich and productive, music is history, life of society, so, por this reason it is very important to apply elements of musicosophy. Now I am working in Shostakovich`s music, and I found there we all we have a bigger field. I need this suppor, and found materials about this new perspectives to apply my theories and opinions.
Relevant answer
Answer
New neologisms to me,But they imply new approaches to theories of  philosophy and sociology of music.  What is "new" in your coining of these terms?  My recent contribution to both fields is: A brief introduction to the philosophy of music and music education as social praxis (Routledge 2016).  Maybe the "new point of view" is hinted at in that book.  LIving in Helsinki, I hope we might meet to discuss this--after you have read my book and find interest in my theory, not negativity.
  • asked a question related to Music and Society
Question
13 answers
Western music notation used widely in transcribing and notating non-western music. Well, it looks a media beside the oral transmission of music which can help grasping structure of a certain type of music, but it is not. Western music notation forces its limitations in transcriptions and through the history the notated version remains as the document or “original version” against changes take place in oral versions over time. It is in spite of modifications the written version already got through transcribing musical sound to written notation.
Relevant answer
Answer
I think most of the discussions of notation miss the most important point: notation shows perceived musical structure, not sound. Western musical notation - used by a western musicologis - will show the musical structure as perceived from a Western point of view - and that may (of may not9 be totally different from an insider's perception of the musical structure of the same sound. Music is NOT sound, it is sound perceived as specific structures that the culture designates as musical.
  • asked a question related to Music and Society
Question
4 answers
I wants to know differences and similarities of between European and south Asian ethnic, folk and traditional music and culture.
Relevant answer
Answer
Marcelo, thanks for those references, I found them quite interesting. They are concerned primarily with the instruments used, and those certainly have a strong influence on the music that develops.
My own interests are more focused on the rhythm, melody, and harmony employed in the music of various cultures. Assuming those are also relevant to the question at hand, I can offer a few comments on the differences between classical Indian music (representing “south Asian”) and some segments of European folk music.
To my knowledge, the classical music of India is based on the most advanced systems of rhythm and scales in the world. Indian rhythm makes use of subdivisions of basic patterns consisting of a variety of numbers of beats in the repetition. It takes years to become competent in executing these patterns and a lifetime to become expert. But when two or three such experts collaborate in performance, the effects of just the pure rhythm can be intoxicating.
Melodies are constructed from scales, and the most advanced system of scales with a cultural identity that I know about is the South Indian system called the Melakarta. This has 72 heptatonic scales called melas, 37 of which are unique, and the others are modes of each other. Almost every one of these scales is beautiful to hear just played up and down a few octaves, and even on Western instruments that cannot execute the quarter-tone variations that are essential to the use of these scales in constructing ragas. There is another somewhat reduced system used in North Indian (Hindustani) music consisting of ten scales that are called thats.
But classical Indian music makes very little use of harmony or modulation between distinct scales. The incredible variety in the rhythms and melodies sustains its beauty.
European music makes great use of scale modulation and harmony, but although there are exceptions, the rhythms are usually very simple compared to Indian music. One exception is Spanish flamenco, which has its own set of more advanced rhythm structures.
These high-level remarks are of course somewhat glossed over, but those are the highlights of the differences of which I am aware.
Incidentally, I am a co-author of the Scale-Chord Synopticon, which is a mathematically complete collection of all possible scales and chords in the 12-tone equal-temper system, where “scale” means consisting of 5 to 9 notes per octave. This book has an appendix on International Scales that identifies all of the melas and thats by Synopticon ID (subject to the approximation of 12-tone equal temper), along with many other scales used in other cultures. The scales used in a particular culture have a very strong influence on the flavor of the music. For example, there are a number of Japanese pentatonics which almost guarantee a Japanese flavor no matter what rhythm or melodic structure you assign to them.
I am no longer affiliated with the company that sells this book, and I get no income from its sales, so I have no conflict of interest in recommending it. It is available on Amazon.com and also directly from the current owners, whose website is www.strunzandfarah.com
Hope that helps!
  • asked a question related to Music and Society
Question
7 answers
I am trying to see the nature of value given from music business to stakeholders involved in the value chain. What kind of value are we talking about?who's the main holder?
Relevant answer
Answer
Interestingly Philip Sousa was against recording of music as he thought the process debased it to the level of a "commodity" for mass consumption. Glen Gould however abandoned the more public setting (but for Gould more "competitive"setting) of the concert hall for the recording studio, believing perhaps that recording allowed musicians to cultivate a certain perfectionism in their craft.
The value of mass production through recordings and media is that we get to preserve the "spirit" of the original/premier performances. The downside is that the human component of frailty and authenticity is often lacking and unappreciated.
From  Sousa to Gould, we have now come a full circle, where a musician now earns most of his/her income from live performances. 
There is a certain limit to the "avatarization" of music (mediated music), after which people will begin to crave the authenticity and the immediacy of the human touch.
  • asked a question related to Music and Society
Question
11 answers
Thank you in advance for helping my reasearch!
Relevant answer
Answer
I think silence is an intrinsic part of Eastern philosophy, which John Cage made used with great effect in 4'33''. To me, his not playing for that duration actually created an intensification of expectations that helped focused the attention of the audience like a laser beam. The video link shows how the audience squirmed in their seats while they waited.  It sort of reminds me of Beethoven's use of contrasting dynamics to convert his audience into active listeners.
  • asked a question related to Music and Society
Question
3 answers
I have become intrigued by the musical devices employed in such a simple piece of music as Thomas Arne's closing chorus to Alfred "When Britain first at heaven's command"; My latest fascination has been with the Bassoon line as that's my primary area of study right now.
That particular part is so lovely but the question arose in my mind. How did this piece become the quintessential patriotic song.
But my question for wider consideration is in the area of prior scholarship on this point. Surely there is a 19th century clergyman who studied the rhetorical devices (and there are many - try the 3 sixteenth note syncopated flutterings throughout). How do these devices so clearly define the "us" group which triumphs over the "them" group (to put it in simple terms)?
Relevant answer
Answer
I cannot answer your technical question about the bassoon, but insofar as Arne's music becoming more popular, I think that was consequent upon a tiredness of Italian music and the related theatrical changes e.g. as portrayed in Hogarth's The Enraged Musician. I recently added a new analysis of that print to my website at http://tobiassmollett.blogspot.co.nz/2015/01/william-hogarth-and-enraged-musician.html which discusses Arne and the London theatre, and it may be of interest?
  • asked a question related to Music and Society
Question
3 answers
My composer talks about his symphonies being in the spirit of the Italian sinfonia NOT German symphonies.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Philip,
you can find them and download them on my page ResearchGATE (Contributions, articles).
Saludos desde México,
Fabrizio
  • asked a question related to Music and Society
Question
24 answers
Does anyone know whether Maurice Ravel´s music has had an impact on European music after his death in 1937? How much impact, where, and on whom?
Relevant answer
Answer
Nelson, what a refreshing question. I had classical piano training for 11 years when I was a child/teen. My Mom played all kinds of music at home, from Bach to Bacharach.
In preparation for writing this note, I enjoyed Ravel's Pavane for a Dead Princess: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GKkeDqJBlK8
Really, Ravel and his contemporaries reflected the romanticism of literature, art, and, yes, music. When you play or listen to Ravel, you just have to feel something, and this deep emotion used to be thought of (in the Victorian era) as unhealthy, but we contemporary folks don't think that way. Bolero was an early orchestra performance ... excellent. 
Anthony, I disagree .... IMHO this does not make you a "low culture" person! Nelson, thanks for asking and best wishes.
  • asked a question related to Music and Society
Question
4 answers
Singing and other led activities are essential in music groups for pre-school children and parents. It provides a clear structure and helps both parents and children feel safe. What can improvisation offer to the group, particularly in promoting interactions between parents and their children?
Can anyone share any reference related to above topic?
Relevant answer
Answer
What are the specifics with the group? If the children are developing their language, the improvisation could function in a "call and response" type setting whereby the children are learning the functions of appropriate communication: taking turns, asking questions and waiting for responses, etc.
  • asked a question related to Music and Society
Question
13 answers
Music is well known to be a therapeutic tool for individuals suffering from depression, anxiety and other conditions. What about its use in a larger context? With music so readily available for all, can it be harnessed to facilitate positive change?
Relevant answer
Answer
Called social change "any observable change in time which affects in a way that is not temporary or transient structure or function of the social organization of a community and change the course of history ." Social change power must be logged in to see the time from a reference point in the past. From there, you should be able to say what has changed and how it has changed.
Social change occurs through agents more or less aware of the factors that affect sociaux.Les change agents " are actors and groups whose work is driven by goals , interests, values, ideologies that have an impact on the future of a society. "
Music is no longer linked mostly to the divine, has not provided a feature simple décor, and can not use more than just as an object of consumption. Instead, the music able to conduct a reenchantment world .
In this connection it is not to understand the study of music in a progressive or rationalist line, but rather follow the way it "appears" in the contemporary world .
Music is in large part the background sound of the environment. It creates a directory of composition and technique and a value system that are the result of our sociocultural environment.
More than any other philosopher Nietzsche can address the musical continent. First for being a musician, then for the Dionysian thinker par excellence.
For him, music is the heartbeat of the world. He designed the musical moment , not isolated from the cultural sphere, but as a means of expression thereof .
" So what wind music my whole body ?
It's ... I think its relief .
That's why I need music "
"The music never ceases to dramatize and make dramatic catharsis that task to rule by all means the night and darkness. "
Mangue Beat movement also appears as an issue in a social context that since the 80's is getting worse. Analysis of the economic and social situation in Recife . The idea is to add some thoughts to the discussion of the place of culture and leisure in society.
The music for this philosopher - artist expresses , more than any other art, the reality of the will to power , it is the stimulus of life.
  • asked a question related to Music and Society
Question
9 answers
How does the instant availability of any kind of music have an impact on human productivity, social mentality, and understanding of one's self?...
Relevant answer
Answer
I've seen people listening to verbose music sing along during a work day and go about task mindlessly...this music may be good for work that is chorish as opposed to detailed and mentally demanding.
I prefer classical which can by lyrical, melodic, emotional, and a whole spectrum of depth. I find it helps with stress and change the pace of the work I do.
I think listening to music gives people a sense of more control of their environments, where we are no longer surrounded by the banter of others or the noises of our worlds. We are more disconnected with the reality of the proximal area and more connected with the dilution of introspection. OR just using it as beat to work to.
Much of the music has lost its sense of creativity and now thrives on the momentarily catchiness of a meme. Much of the more creative music thrives on memes but they compliment it with tempo and volume irregularities. So, which music we see catching on more may signify whether or not we are more impulsive or contemplative.
I am biased in my views but I'd love to see studies looking into patterns of behavior and musical preference. Are your more rebellious listening to Rage against the Machine, Bob Marley, etc or do they listen to Top 40, or classical? Is there a difference between those that lead and those that follow and those that organize? There is going to be a great deal of personal bias,but as recently done, musical preference can be correlated to SAT scores (http://musicthatmakesyoudumb.virgil.gr/)
  • asked a question related to Music and Society
Question
8 answers
I am looking for recent research in this field.
Relevant answer
Answer
I'm coming at this slightly differently but maybe it's of interest to you. In New Zealand the national school curriculum defines dance, drama, visual art and music as being literacies in and of themselves, whilst also seeing how they can promote literacy in the conventional sense. If you find the NZ Ministry of Education website there may be docs of interest. However, more widely this theory of 'multiple literacies' emanates from
New London Group, The (1996). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social futures. Harvard Educational Review, 66(1), 60–92.
Also the following may be of interest
Eisner, E. W. (1998). The enlightened eye: Qualitative enquiry and the enhancement of educational practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
My doctorate thesis touched on arts and cultural literacies which is why your comment attracted my interest. Good luck and a great choice of topic to research! Linda
  • asked a question related to Music and Society
Question
14 answers
Is musical taste just a matter of personal preference?
Are there cultural influences that determine our musical taste?
Relevant answer
Answer
I have been a musician for over forty years as well as a broadcast engineer and here is an opinion from two different idioms. The famous classical composers wrote music for the elite and wealthy society and not for the average citizen. This music still exists because it was written down, where as the commoners' music was passed down orally. This is why old folk and celtic music have so many variations of the same song. Technology changed the playing field. The common music played on the radio is all that is heard and is usually the only music people are exposed to. Program directors of most of the socially excepted stations look at their listeners as people that are illiterate in the arts, so in turn choose the most basic music that fits their lifestyle.The more refined and technical music is still made in all styles, but the listener has got to find it for themselves. I hate lumping people into groups, but most people are too lazy to do anything beyond the basics. I teach Jazz to Rock at the University and the taste of over half of my class changes in a semester. The student response is usually that they did know that type of music even existed. I beleive if students could be exposed to all types of music there would be a vast difference in what people say they perfer to listen too!
  • asked a question related to Music and Society
Question
14 answers
I am working on an independent music project. But the aim of this project is to try to use talent in a proper way. Creation. Then using the music technicians and tools to implement the artist's idea. Not making a job in that process. The aim is create and share. At a sustainable cost. That's what musicians are here for. That's what music is given for.
Relevant answer
Answer
Music is a psycho-physical pursuit of values in sound. As such, it has:
1. a research and development section (classical composition),
2. an educational or what the Germans call Heilige Kunst section that develops both aesthetic patterning and personal performance virtuosity in composers, performers and the audience,
3. generic formulas (entertainment) and
4 an economic section that is both goods and services.
As a "good" it is as Jose said above around licensing and physical products. As performance it is what is known as a "public good" that means that there is a problem of limiting access in all but enclosed hall venues. The limited venue causes a problem with making costs. But first here's the problem with "Public Goods."
Most venues are either limited halls or open venues like outdoor concerts, TV or the internet, etc. Limited venues don't make costs for large ensembles while outdoor, TV and the internet allow for great numbers of "free riders" with the internet being almost a "sinner" in that regard. Large ensembles like orchestras, opera companies, choruses etc are almost impossible to fund because the ticket prices have to be too high, in a limited venue, to support a repertory. Single performances by large ensembles NEVER make costs if they are inside a limited venue, on TV or the Internet. Those costs are either born by patrons, governments, advertisers or the artists themselves. No musical organization with an orchestra, chorus or opera company, makes more than 60% of costs on tickets hence making government or private patronage necessary.
That has nothing to do with product or service. It is due to the "public goods" issue and another economic term called "productivity lag." The Arts are the poster child for "productivity lag." Public Goods and Productivity Lag make professionalism a real problem in music because the performer who has huge upkeep (practice) requirements cannot charge enough for his time (Productivity Lag) and makes a second job necessary such as, university teaching, working in sales or working in a totally different profession like engineering (generic science). Generic science is actually close to Generic Music (entertainment) in that both have set rules that allow for more practical economics. However, Engineers do not have the virtuosity problem inherent in music. Not working as an engineer may make you starve but it won't diminish your knowledge. On the other hand lack of practice in music destroys virtuosity while Productivity Lag destroys the practice time necessary to maintain virtuosity.
Ray Evans Harrell
Jewish Theological Seminary, NYC, adjunct professor
The Magic Circle Opera Repertory Ensemble, Inc.
artistic director
  • asked a question related to Music and Society
Question
14 answers
Steven Mithen's book "The Singing Neanderthals: the Origins of Music, Language, Mind and Body" tells that singing came first and provides evidence on facts such as the manner in which adults (specially mothers) communicate with pre-linguistic infants, noticing the highly musical nature of this type of communication, which also supports the argument that humans are inherently musical-oriented. However, can we consider this IDS (infant-directed speech) as musical?
Relevant answer
Answer
I would propose that the movement towards a big head in hominids came first with the movements of dance that developed upright posture and a different relationship to gravity and changed the pelvis so babies with larger heads could be born. As for singing, the movement form of the temporalis muscle [from above the eyebrows where it was anchored for a strong bite,] became less necessary as humans used rhythms and resonant sounds to coordinate movement in hunting and better teamwork. [The dance helped with that as well.] Rhythm creates coordination in groups both in games and music. Many animals have a type of music and rhythm but don't speak. Why shouldn't humans? As better learning groups evolved through team hunting, better hunting teams meant better diets and evolving bodies and psychologies. Still the brain was blocked by the thick bone where the pre-temporalis was anchored at the front of the forehead. As skills advanced there was less of a need to bite and more of a need to communicate. More sophisticated rhythms gave us vowels, long sounds, and consonants (articulation). The need to fight with the mouth receded and the temporalis muscle migrated to the present position. The frontal bones of the skull thinned and the brain grew in the frontal lobes. More brain power gave more variety of music and the evolution of language. Many cultures in the world have stories about the world beginning with the song of the Creator. Not just indigenous cultures but the sounding God sounded the world into existence through thought and word. Later he sang to Moses and became the model for the evolution of Jewish music and later, Christian music. For a discussion of this you can refer to
So the idea of sound being the beginning of modern humanity and the precursor to concept is probably pretty over simple but I don't find it hard to believe that such a supremely rhythmic creature as humans would sing before they form the concept of a word and since sound is the "stuff" of words, what's the big deal? Also I would encourage one to read Edward T. Hall's book called "The Dance of Life" and his discussions of human rhythms and what he learned from extensive research in proximics with modern humans. I would say that concepts in modern humans begin with dance, rhythm and song in early childhood as well. Mithen's observation was documented in the 1980s by Hall and his team. I did, however, enjoy the Mithen book. It's nice to see the idea evolving given the current status of the Arts in American thinking. Meanwhile, what does it mean that we teach music so sparsely and poorly in our schools? We have feral sociopaths documented on Wall Street. Could that be an indicator of an anesthetized culture that has lost its foundations? Walter Bernard and the Positivists were making that argument until Hitler stopped it cold with a war and the destruction, at Auschwitz, of the people making the argument. It's true more than ever, in my opinion. REH