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Motor Learning and Motor Control - Science topic

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Hi everyone,
I'm working on my doctoral dissertation, which is about learning and memory functions in diabetic rats. Before performing behavioral tests, I need to first evaluate motor functions of animals. I'll do it by using Rota-rod. When I read the relevant papers, I see that there are dozens of protocols in rats the literature. As you might know, diabetes may lead to cognitive and motor coordination issues in rats. So, I consider it be set at a constant speed, since the accelerating type of Rota-rod might be very challenging for those suffering motor coordination issues. I would be very glad if you could provide any information of what parameters (speed in rpm and duration) required to be set for performing Rota-rod in STZ (Streptozotocin)-induced diabetic rats.
Kind regards,
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I'm fine too Gokhan, thank you.
You're welcome, I wish the best for you.
Good luck with your research.
King regards,
VERAS, ASC.
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In a Posterior Parietal Cortex - TMS session, I managed to elicit very strong consistent MEPs along with a 60-70 ms long silent period from the PEC major muscle. I used a high intensity - 85% of the max intensity - single pulse, but there was no noticeable twitch in the arm or fingers.
The subject was holding a constant background contraction by pulling against a weight in the horizontal plane. What could be the reason? Are there studies that were able to induce MEPs by stimulating the parietal regions?
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Did you try FDI for hand muscles...
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Muscle fibers develop from fusion of myoblast that are centronucleated. Then they accumulate myofibrils and the structural organels of the excitation-contraction coupling apparatus. Finally nuclei move to the periphery and stay there in normal myofibers, why one of the sound morphological markers of myopathies is to find internalized or not peripheralized myonuclei. The peripheral location of the nuclei seem thus the result of an active process that "maintain" the sub-sarcolemmal elicoidal diatribution of the myonuclei. Mechanisms and gene products of the machinery that transport the myonuclei at the periphery of the muscle fibers are well known (in particular in some muscle dystrophies) nothing, instead, of the mechanisms of the peripheral localization. It remains also to be recognized the functional advantages of such mechanisms that are not present in the cardiomyocytes
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I stand by my original statement Ugo Carraro but you have a very lovely outlook on the younger generation. We can always learn from each other.
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Firstly, is it correct to describe the study as an AB/BA crossover design if I have 2 conditions and 2 periods but all participants were followed-up at 16-months post-intervention also?
Secondly, are there any useful resources I can refer to, to figure out how to correctly analyse the data using SPSS?
Measurements were taken pre and post period 1 and then pre and post period 2 and again at 16-months post-intervention.
4 schools with 11 class groups were included. Before baseline 2 schools (6 class groups) were assigned to the AB condition and 2 schools (6 class groups) were assigned to the BA condition. A was a control condition where groups continued with normal PE lessons and B was the intervention condition (8-week intervention focusing on fundamental movement skill development). A 4-week washout period was included before groups crossed over for period 2. All participants were assessed for FMS proficiency and BMI across 5 time-points.
Time 1: Period 1 pre-test
Time 2: Period 1 post-test
4-week wash-out period, then groups crossed over for period 2
Time 3: Period 2 pre-test
Time 4: Period 2 post-test
Time 5: 16-month post-intervention 
Research questions:
1. can an 8-week intervention programme lead to significant improvements in FMS proficiency levels?
2. can any improvement in FMS proficiency levels be maintained over time?
3. do the effects of the intervention programme vary by sex and/or weight status?
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Béatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist thank you for your suggestion.
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for lift objects we need to contract our mussle but how brain control this contraction?
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Great ressources for basic motor control notions here http://nba.uth.tmc.edu/neuroscience/s3/chapter03.html
Best
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Most instructor of martial arts ask the beginner student in a certain technique, to always starts to perform the movement in slow-motion and only after performing it with great apparent quality, to progressively increase the speed until they turn able to make the fast movement with " perfection". However, the responsible subcortical structures for automating slow motion (certain regions of the basal ganglia and cerebellum) are not the same as those of rapid movement (other regions of the cerebellum). Moreover, the proportion ratios of the timings of movements that result in a given technique are different when the velocity is altered, the momentum of body segments are also radically different and in the same way, the muscle fibers that are recruited in slow motion (type I fiber) are different from those recruited (type II) in rapid movement. So the question is:
"Is the learning of a new technique through slow-motion movements the best learning strategy for martial or sport techniques?"
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In my experience it depend also on the age of the student, his/her experience in other sport, the level of his/her motor talent, the difficulty of the task and the quality of the partner (if the task need a partner).
For example for a pupil (6-16) I prefer situational learning in natural velocity: to learn how to reverse an opponent in ground fight, I put the pupils in a certain safe position and situation, and I ask to one a task and to the other another task, the solution will easily come in natural velocity by trials and errors.
For a normal twenty year old student, I prefer slow motion to use the capacity to perceive their body, to avoid typical errors using the sensibleness. If I have a motor talent, I prefer situational learning, in normal velocity, but I need a good partner to avoid possible injuries.
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Is it possible to show the recovery of motor function of upper limbs or elbows of individuals with stroke by observing simple elbow flexion and changes in the EMG pattern of the extension muscles?
In addition to simply increasing the potential, please tell me the detail relationship between the phase pattern change of the flexor muscle and extensor muscle, the degree of synchronization with the joint motion or smoothness of the joint movement.
Are there papers showing evidence?
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It is clear that if we exercise something for example walking or shooting , our brain learn this function and we can do this better.
It is normal process of motor learning.
but the question is if we imagine these exersice in our mind without any physical activity, Can it have the same effect on our brain and our function?
Can we improve motor learning with just mental training?
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Dear Samaneh,
YES and I think the following papers will help you:
Abbruzzese G, Avanzino L, Marchese R, Pelosin E. Action Observation and Motor Imagery: Innovative Cognitive Tools in the Rehabilitation of Parkinson's Disease. Parkinsons Dis 2015;2015:124214. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4606219/pdf/PD2015-124214.pdf
Avanzino L, Gueugneau N, Bisio A, Ruggeri P, Papaxanthis C, Bove M. Motor cortical plasticity induced by motor learning through mental practice. Front Behav Neurosci 2015;9:105. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4412065/pdf/fnbeh-09-00105.pdf
Eaves DL, Riach M, Holmes PS, Wright DJ. Motor Imagery during Action Observation: A Brief Review of Evidence, Theory and Future Research Opportunities. Front Neurosci 2016;10:514. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5116576/pdf/fnins-10-00514.pdf
Asaseh M, Hashemi Azar J, Pishyare E. The effect of motor imagery on the gross motor skills of children with developmental coordination disorder. Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège 2016;85:130-139. http://popups.ulg.ac.be/0037-9565/index.php?id=5478&file=1
Bonassi G, Biggio M, Bisio A, Ruggeri P, Bove M, Avanzino L. Provision of somatosensory inputs during motor imagery enhances learning-induced plasticity in human motor cortex. Sci Rep 2017;7(1):9300. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-09597-0.pdf
Scott M, Taylor S, Chesterton P, Vogt S, Eaves DL. Motor imagery during action observation increases eccentric hamstring force: an acute non-physical intervention. Disabil Rehabil 2017 Mar 21:1-9. doi: 10.1080/09638288.2017.1300333. [Epub ahead of print]. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09638288.2017.1300333?journalCode=idre20
Sobierajewicz J, Przekoracka-Krawczyk A, Jaśkowski W, Verwey WB, van der Lubbe R. The influence of motor imagery on the learning of a fine hand motor skill. Exp Brain Res 2017;235(1):305-320. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00221-016-4794-2
Li RQ, Li ZM, Tan JY, Chen GL, Lin WY. Effects of motor imagery on walking function and balance in patients after stroke: A quantitative synthesis of randomized controlled trials. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2017;28:75-84. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1744388117302049?via%3Dihub
Best wishes from Germany,
Martin
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Please let me know if it is possible to use Manual Muscle Testing for assessing the hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio in young athletes and non-athletes.
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Dear Colleagues,
Thank you for your help.
Saeed
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Estimated community,
I am planning to do a behavioural experiment recording fNIRS and muscular activity during (bi)manual motor tasks. These tasks are to be planned in three degrees of complexity, from single finger tapping to knotting or another similar fine control task. 
Since there might be participants with different degrees of experience with such tasks (e.g. some participants may have years of experience playing guitar or knitting, other none experience) and degree of experience is related to different brain activities I would like to control for this using a self-reported questionnaire before the tasks begin.
Do you know of such a self-reported questionnaire in fine motor skills for all ages (18-50 specifically)?
Everything I have found is related to the evaluation of the development of these skills in babies and children.
Thank you very much!
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Gracias por la recomendación. No obstante, en esa línea de investigación ya hay varios autores que están trabajando actualmente, como Antonio Manuel Solana que se centra sobre todo en el ámbito del fútbol.
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For people with central nervous system disorders, how much joint assistance or individual's effort is required for joint movement to restore motor function or better motor learning? What factor that defines The optimum assistance for reorganization of CNS is? Please tell me the papers or information on these.
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Hi Kenichi,
if the joint is assisted, the individual is learning to move the joint in an manner that does not activate the sensory and motor systems necessary for normal movement. The individual may learn to move in an assisted manner, but the carry over to normal movement will still require additional training.  As for restoring normal movement, we anticipate roughly 4000 repetitions, however the joint movements are task specific, therefore the carry over to similar movements may require additional training. 
Monica Rivera 
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I am trying to publish papers related to method presented in an article attached to this question. It is The method to evaluate the susceptibility to injuries during the fall – validation procedure of the specific motor test. But reviewers decline it because they did not recognize this test as valid, although presented article is validation procedure.
I am teaching patients with mental disability safe falls technique for backward fall. This test is designed to measure probability of injuries of different body parts based on method how someone is laying down. Better outcome should indicate that there is lesser probability of injuries.  Patients with mental disorders are hard to test so full battery of different tests are almost impossible, but this one is acceptable by them as it is covered in motor task similar to exercises. 
Can I have honest opinion about this test and maybe someone know which journal accepts studies like that?
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We know about orthesis, but can you add link to example of this special compressive clothes? Yes, his brother is asparger like with EDS and mother is under diagnosis. Thank you, I do not know about influence of head trauma, this is very helpful information.
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Can Anybody tell me the Prognosis of UMN lesions in Different Body types (Constitution)?
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I have a problem about modelling BLDC motor control.
I am trying to do my own motor model. Although switching functions are same, I couldn't get similar results with the Simulink's Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine model. I guess the mistake is on the inverter block because my motor couldn't reach the nominal speed and phase current shapes are a bit different from well-known plots.
I am try to find what is there in the powersysdomain and how is the phase voltages calculated. I add my model part and submodel and code of VSI block.
Summary, how can I model the VSI for driving BLDC motor or what is my mistake.
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Thanks for your attention i have solve the problem by changing bemf constant
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Hello,
I am trying to build a closed loop stepper motor using a rotary optical incremental encoder to detect stall and missing of steps.
The encoder has 4000 pulses per revolution (very high resolution) and the stepper motor has a step angle of 1.8degrees and I can run it in either full step (200steps/revolution) or microstepping (1/4 so 800 steps per revolution).
In the first case I should see 20 encoder outputs each step issued to the motor, while for 1/4 microstepping I should see 5 encoder pulses each step issued to the motor.
The problem I am facing is that the encoder has a very high resolution and then I read much more pulses than the expected encoder outputs each step. This because the stepper motor bounces forth and back every time it accomplishes a step.
How can I get rid of these additional pulses and just read a net encoder outputs at each speed of the motor?
Thank you, 
Antonio
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The rating of both the motors are same and the load also remains same
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Dear Rajan,
Assuming same supply and voltage frequency (50Hz)
6 pole motor has no-load speed = 120*50/6 = 1000 rpm
4 pole motor has no-load speed = 120*50/4 = 1500 rpm
As per your input you are running motor at 250 rpm
So,
Slip speed for 6 pole motor is 1000-250 = 750 rpm => slip is 0.75 or 75%
Slip speed for 4 pole motor is 1500-250 = 1250 rpm => slip is 0.833 or 83.3%
Now as we know that higher the slip, more the losses in the motor. hence 6 pole motor in comparatively better than 4 pole motor.
However technically motor will not be stable at both of these slips unless the slope of load is higher higher than dT/dS . where T is torque and S is slip
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I'm interested in provision of skill acquisition/motor learning sessions for pre-school children as a means to encourage activity and improve sporting ability.  Has anyone considered providing a structured program for pre-schoolers?
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Hi Jamie,
There are many programs that address motor learning in the preschool age group.  Action perception theory and learning is a theoretical framework for motor skill acquisition. The term perceptual learning is also terminology that addresses how young children learn.  Under these headings there are games, activities both fine and gross motor that will provide concepts and ideas.
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I search the best duration (or number of movments) for the motor imagery for the lower limb (duration of the session and durantion of imagined movment)
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It depends on the task (the more repetitive the shorteste it should be) and the age of the participant (childen are easily distracted and less resistent to long tasks)
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I know this might seem difficult in the sense of how to predict when the subject will start imagination, but: How can I trigger TMS stimulus with the beginning of the process of imagining a movement in order to secure effects on MEP outcome parameters changes? I heard that we can train the subject to imagine the movement when he will hear some kind of sound! When should I apply TMS pulse, at the beginning or during sustained state of the imagined movement?
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I mean I would test motor imagery of a movement involving a different (possibly antagonistic) set of muscles (finger opening?) to show thaty indeed your subjects have corticospinal facilitation that is specific to the imagined movement, thus implicitly validating the fact that they are actually fulfilling the task of imagining rather than thinking about their holidays. An easier but slightly less powerful way to do this is to record more muscles, some of which are not involved in the task.
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Hello,
I have some TMS measurements over time while the subjects were blindfolded (10 minutes in between measurements). The result I have is an increase in MEPs compared with PRE, but the SICI measurements show a decrease in the conditioned MEPs as well. 
To my knowledge, usually an increase in MEPs amplitude is followed by a decrease in the inhibition levels. Do you know what could be a possible explanation for my results?
Thank you very much in advance. 
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That's a great answer from Luigi, and I would just add that if you look at a variety of paired-pulse measures you may get a clearer picture of the excitability state. You don't mention if you collected any other measures, but if you had a large increase in ICF (for example), it might be driving the increased MEP amplitude regardless of the SICI changes.
Kind regards,
Amaya
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Has anyone implemented mirror therapy (MT) based on the unilateral approach (ie, practice by the un affected upper limb)? If there is pertinent literature on this unilateral approach to mirror therapy that you know, please kindly let me know.
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I have used/implemented mirror therapy along with one of my colleagues on a recent patient. What seems to work is to visualize the unaffected leg, for example right knee and/or ankle dorsiflexion and the pt. looks into the mirror looking as if it is the left leg. 3 sets 5 repetitions. After that then the pt. looks at his left leg and performs knee ext and/or ankle dorsiflexion. This along with utilization of sEMG and patterned electrical stimulation appears to be effective. I hope this helps. 
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I would like to know whether Increasing attentional demand by implementing a cognitive task concomitant with a unstable balance condition should have a greater influence on postural control, comparing two different groups non-athletes and athletes, both young male, 20 – 30 years old. 
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Marcelo,
My project for my Masters dealt with peroneus longus reflex response to sudden ankle inversion under 2 overlapping conditions of cognitive information, anticipation and cognitive loading. We are still waiting for the manuscript to be accepted, but if you send me a message, I would be happy to show you some of the data. I know this is a static task, and not really a dynamic or unstable surface in terms of maintaining stance balance, but hopefully my results can inform you.
I identified a trend suggesting that the later components of the stretch reflex, believed to have more cortical control, were more affected when a more difficult cognitive task was added. While not a strong trend, this may suggest that at minimum our protective strategies for balance recovery stay intact under a cognitive load, but your proposed study will hopefully add to this growing field. 
Additionally, this may help you, J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2010 Mar;40(3):180-7 - not healthy participants, but they utilized a biodex stability platform and manipulated surface stability.
Regards,
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Presently I'm working on control of DC series motor. I would like to know how to control the speed of motor above the rated speed using four quadrant chopper. I'm using four quadrant because I would like to run the motor both in forward and reverse direction. 
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Bharath,
Try the classic book on Thyristor DC Drives by P. C. sen.
-Sanjay
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I am currently working with neurofeedback by fMRI in healthy volunteers to figure out if we can induce, after a one-hour neurofeedback session, improvement of motor performance. 
During the neurofeedback session participants would perform motor imagery of right hand finger movement associated with neurofeedback training.
The motor imagery task would be imagining a predefined finger tapping sequence (little, middle, ring, index, ring, little, middle) at 4Hz.
Beforehand I would expect subtle motor improvement after only 1h of motor imagery training. This is especially critical in my case because both groups (neurofeedback and control) would perform motor imagery, but one group would be performing while receiving neurofeedback information in real time.
My biggest challenge so far is how to measure subtle differences in motor performance. In other words, what are the best ways to assess improvement of motor performance in my case? Which measurement would be sensitive enough to detect differences between groups?
Should I try collecting data about tapping speed and error rate (based on the predefined sequence) or should I try to investigate myoelectric response changes both before and after motor imagery? Or both?
Thank you in advance!
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Dear Theo Marins,
To analysis the motor performance, in your case I recommend you apply the myoeletric analysis, which you should find interesting responses. In fact, I believe you will can find good different response for two groups (neurofeedback and control) using the two methods, however if you use the second (eletromyographic) you can explore whether there will be differences mainly between principal muscles involved in the action. Another possibility will be if you associate both, and you can produce a new study, I'm sure.
Best regards.
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Hi,
We read a lot about motor control, movement pattern and movement impairments. Do we really correct these patterns or not? do we have good quality evidence for this? I have seen athletes who have faulty movement patterns but they all perform really well, does this mean not to worry about the abnormal patterns or they might end up in a injury. There are athletes who are injured but they have really good movement patterns what to do with them? i accept there are lot of other intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved in an injury but is it about movement patterns or just mixture of many things that we are just trying to pick up one by one. Please give in your views.
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Dear Roger,
I also have interest in this subject of study. In any case, it's a complex response, but I will try to show some points of view about this. There is a principle in the movement control namely "variability", which can to explain it. Specifically to athltletes, they have a efficient capacity to adaptation and they use also a greater set possibilities to perform a same movements. There is a standard (movement pattern) however they have a different capacity to perform a movement comparing for example to no-athlete.
The human movement concepts come from a set of processes and events occurring neuronal level, physiological and structural body of individuals, may also be a reflection of immeasurable influences arising from the physical environment, cultural and social environment in which the individual is inserted. These processes result from the interactions between the current state of each of these environments and the acquisition of new skills, resulting in relatively permanent changes in performance through practice or experience. These changes can be characterized as motor learning (MAGILL, 2000; Schmidt et al., 2001; Wulf et al., 2010).
One of the most important characteristics of human movement is the variability. This is important because it allows movement patterns are actually adapted to the environment, in order to perform the required tasks or endogenous variables (such as motivation, and fatigue), while the task goal remains unchanged (Bernstein, 1967; Davids et al., 2006). Several attempts to the same task allow lead to some movement patterns. Thus, some researchers consider motor variability not as a disturbance, but as a kind of central organization window for motor organization system that makes voluntary movements; however, when the subject reaches the autonomous stage of learning, which is able to perform the movements required in an automated manner and without giving much attention, may have therefore a pattern of movement with less variability.
I recommend the Massion's papers, Stapley or Bernstein. These authors work a lot with this subject and I'm sure that you will can clarify your ideas.
I hope this helps.
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It takes some time to get into the rhythm (even if the rhythm is not extranally triggered) and some motor planning is needed as well in the beginning of a repetitive task.
An example. In a sprint of 100m the first steps are different to the following. But how many steps are needed to get into the rhythm (3,4,5)? In what way to they differ? Are they slower?
Do you have any suggestions from the literature?
Or suggestions on keywords?
I have been searching without success on "rythmic, repetitive tasks, reaction time, inter response interval, tapping".
I am especially interested in movements, where movement speed is as fast as possible (not externally triggered).
I appreciate any ideas.
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Stephan,
There has been some work on walking with respect to distance or strides to reach steady state.  This paper is about older adults, but it may help guide your search.
Eric
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I need to collect and analyze acceleration and angular moves of the feet during walk of a foot drop patient. Does anyone know any online resource for these data?
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Antrhopomethic atlas?
I also think about my device for obtaining the torqe in the ankle joint (not especially walking, but in a static position)
maby this could help...
I also cooperate with friends that are interested in gait analysis, so in case give me a touch.
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In the last decade, the concepts of many sciences were varied according the new studies that depend on the measurement tools, and the desired aims.
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Dear Abdel-Rahman,
I'd go along pretty much with Marcelo's answer.
As I see it, there is neither a clear-cut definition of kinesiology at an international level, nor is there a clear distinction to be drawn between what people understand by kinesiology as compared to human movement science(s). 
This pretty much depends on national traditions in terminology as well as  college structures. In Poland,  the Scandinavian and the Benelux-countries, kinesiology seems to have a tradition at least terminologically,  while in the German-speaking countries the term is used rather seldom as a designator for college disciplines. In the English-speaking countries, to my feeling it is pretty mixed - you should stick to the syllabus on the respective college homepage if you really want to know what's being taught there, when you read "kinesiology", "human movement studies", "motor learning and control", etc.,. Here, as in Scandinavia, there are close relations to physiotherapy, which, contrary to this,  in a lot of other nations is not considered a scientific field taught at an university, but is rather understood as a field of vocational training.
And when you compare, e.g., journals like "Journal of Human Movement Science" and "Journal of Human Kinetics", you'll find that they both cover a real broad area of scientific enterprise related to the  human motor system (biomechanical, physiological, neurological), to motor learning, motor development, motor control, and to various more or less applied areas associated thereto.
So, no, there won't be a conscise definition that applies for more than one national system or even university.
Regards,
Klaus Blischke
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Different studies to deal with this subject, however I would like to know, what's the real coordination between control of posture and movement?
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Marcelo,
pass me you email.
regards, A.
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How can I record the lower limb muscles activity (EMG) in pool?  
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Dear Saeed,
The following publications describe a method to record EMG under water:
1-
Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol. 2009 Mar-Apr;49(2-3):103-8.
A novel signal processing method using system identification for underwater surface electromyography.
Uehara S1, Muraoka Y, Tanabe S, Ota T, Kimura A.
Author information
 
Abstract
PURPOSE:
Currently, to record underwater surface electromyography (EMG), electrodes are covered with waterproof tape. For short-term measurement, waterproof tape prevents electrical leakage. However, during long-term measurement, water or sweat can contact the electrodes, changing the measurement conditions and gradually affecting the EMG data. The purpose of present study was to devise a novel method for prolonged underwater EMG recording, which estimate dry-land EMG from underwater EMG recorded by non-waterproofed electrodes using system identification techniques.
METHOD:
One healthy male participated in this study. System identification was used to convert underwater EMG signals to the estimated dry-land signals. Transfer functions were derived using two pairs of surface recording electrodes on the same muscle in parallel. System input was the EMG recorded using non-waterproofed electrodes; the output was the signal recorded underwater using waterproofed electrodes (supposed to be the same as dry-land signals). To examine the validity of the present method, three experiments were conducted.
RESULT:
There was a high positive correlation between the estimated dry-land EMG based on the non-waterproofed electrodes and the EMG obtained using waterproofed electrodes. To test the validity of long-term recording using the novel method, the estimated dry-land EMG signals were measured during 30 minutes of underwater stepping and were stable.
CONCLUSION:
The novel method using non-waterproofed electrodes with system identification techniques eliminated the effect of changes in measurement conditions and appears effective for long-term, underwater surface EMG recording.
2-Journal of Neuroscience Methods 134 (2004) 37–43
A method for positioning electrodes during surface EMG
recordings in lower limb muscles
A. Rainoldi a,b,∗, G. Melchiorri b,c, I. Caruso b,c
a Electronic Department, Bioengineering Center, Polytechnic of Turin, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi, 24. 10129 Torino, Italy b Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy c Don Gnocchi Foundation—Onlus, Rome, Italy
Received 4 July 2003; received in revised form 24 October 2003; accepted 27 October 2003
Abstract
Purpose: The aim of this work is to provide information about the degree of inter-subject uniformity of location of innervation zone
(IZ) in 13 superficial muscles of the lower limb. The availability of such information will allow researchers to standardize and optimize
their electrode positioning procedure and to obtain accurate and repeatable estimates of surface electromyography (sEMG) signal amplitude,
spectral variables and muscle fiber conduction velocity. Methods: Surface EMG signals from gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, tensor faciae
latae, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus medialis obliquus, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, soleus,
gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis muscles of ten healthy male subjects aged between 25 and 34 years (average = 29.2 years, S.D.= 2.5
years) were recorded to assess individual IZ location and signal quality. Results: Tensor faciae latae, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus
lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis showed a high level of both signal quality and IZ location uniformity. In contrast, rectus femoris,
gluteus medius and peroneus longus were found to show poor results for both indexes. Gluteus maximus, vastus medialis obliquus and tibialis
anterior were found to show high signal quality but low IZ location uniformity. Finally, soleus muscle was found to show low signal quality
but high IZ location uniformity. Conclusions: This study identifies optimal electrode sites for muscles in the lower extremity by providing
a standard landmarking technique for the localization of the IZ of each muscle so that surface EMG electrodes can be properly positioned
between the IZ and a tendon.
© 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Electromyography; Electrode positioning; Lower limb muscles; Innervation zone; EMG variables; Standardization
3- Monopolar electromyographic signals recorded by a current amplifier in air and under water without insulation
ARTICLE in JOURNAL OF ELECTROMYOGRAPHY AND KINESIOLOGY 24(6) · SEPTEMBER 2014 
ABSTRACT
It was recently proposed that one could use signal current instead of voltage to collect surface electromyography (EMG). With EMG-current, the electrodes remain at the ground potential, thereby eliminating lateral currents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether EMGcurrents can be recorded in Tap and Salt water, as well as in air, without electrically shielding the electrodes. It was hypothesized that signals would display consistent information between experimental conditions regarding muscle responses to changes in contraction effort. EMG-currents were recorded from the flexor digitorum muscles as participant’s squeezed a pre-inflated blood pressure cuff bladder in each experimental condition at standardized efforts. EMG-current measurements performed underwater showed no loss of signal amplitude when compared to measurements made in air, although some differences in amplitude and spectral components were observed between conditions. However, signal amplitudes and frequencies displayed consistent behavior across contraction effort levels, irrespective of the experimental condition. This new method demonstrates that information regarding muscle activity is comparable between wet and dry conditions when using EMG-current. Considering the difficulties imposed by the need to waterproof traditional bipolar EMG electrodes when underwater, this new methodology is tremendously promising for assessments of muscular function in aquatic environments.
Hoping this will be helpful,
Rafik
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Hey there, I'm currently writing my graduation paper and I have a chapter where I have to compare the normal development with the development of a child with DCD.
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Look for attributions of Moto Miyahara  Otago University Dunedin NZ
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I am going to study on visual cues, i need to remove some parts of the body in a video film. is there a software to do that?
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Dear All,
Finally I could remove a specific part of body in a video display.  It is possible and it is simple.
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I'm doing an experiment in which I would like to get information whether the person was about to click the pad or the finger was still. I'd like to know whether the inhibition was successful before any movement or after initial preparation for the movement. I'm going to use EMG recording for that. Can anyone recommend some papers that describe similar procedures or have experience with such setup? I'm especially interested in the right placement of electrodes. Thank you for any help.
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Hi Mr. Warchol
I am currently researching the motor control and posture associated with APAs and APCs. To find my reponses, the EMG analysis (time and frequency domain) proved to be very efficient as the verification of muscle activity during the analysis cycle, but mostly I was able to get important answers of what happens before and after a certain event, usually of short duration. Therefore, I suggest that you use the EMG analysis in your case.
I send to you two articles that I think help you.
I hope this helps.
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Dear all, 
there are different studies supporting the hypothesis that the vertebrate motor system produces movements by combining a set of building blocks named motor primitives or motor synergies. 
One year ago, Levine and colleagues identified classes of interneurons in the mouse spinal cord that could support motor primitives in mammals (http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v17/n4/full/nn.3675.html).
I'm developing a computational model of the spinal cord and i would like to take into account these kind of networks but it seems that at the moment none know how to implement the motor primitives by a neurobiological point of view.
In particular, i want to investigate the role of this kind of spinal circuitry in the execution of reaching movements. D'avella and colleagues have shown (just for example here https://www.researchgate.net/publication/5818579_Combining_modules_for_movement) how a reaching movement can be decomposed in a linear combination of muscle synergies but it's a mathematical model.
Can you suggest me any papers that can help me to model a motor primitive circuitry? 
Thank you for your support,
Antonio
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I know I'm late to the party on this, but I thought to provide an answer anyways.
The answer to this question is neither straightforward nor consistent across classes of movements.  This is because a primitive represents a movement class, a synergy does not.  A synergy represents a strategy to fulfill a movement class.  More specifically, it specifies the control signal to realize a type of primitive.  I try to explain a little more below.
By and large, movement primitives can be divided into several class (a la Hogan and Sternad).  Minimally, you could have discrete primitives, impedance primitives, or  rhythmic primitives.  What makes these primitives is that, presumably, any of them could be combined into a more complex movement.   
I think the nature of your question is this:  how might the central/ and periperihal nervous system represent and institute such a primitive.  That is, in what sense is it constrained by interneuron regulation by the CNS.  On the other side of this coin, in what context are these synergies due to biomechanical or physiological constraints.  
However, talking about synergies and primitives as one in the same is difficult.  Let's take a simple reaching movement to a target.  Let's ignore the shoulder, and only consider the reach as requiring torques around a two-planar link arm. We assume two agonist-anatognist pairs of muscle, one for each link.  Let's assume the CNS (e.g., the motor cortex) represents the required transformation to endpoint force (at the hand) as a trajectory.  Let's further assume this is represented as a motor primitive in terms of a simple equation of motion as follows.  F(t) = -kX(t)+bX(t)' +u(t).  A simple forced damped mass spring.  The system simply needs to translate the desired force pattern into a control signal to follow some desired path (a difficult problem I won't discuss).  Consider the following two ways this could happen: (1). the CNS represents the necessary activity to each muscle independently; therefore, not really fulfilling the requirement of synergy. (2). the CNS represents the activity as modulating something at the level of interneurons, which individually might project to multiple motor neurons; this fulfills the synergy condition.  In both scenarios, though, the same motor primitive is used.  Thus, the distinction between synergy and primitive, I believe, is required. 
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Though most most people use gait and walking interchangeably, Dr. M. Whittle in his book on Gait Analysis: An Introduction specifies a difference as
"the word gait describes 'the manner or style of walking', rather than the walking process itself."
How will you differentiate manner of waking from process of walking?
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I think it is the same as saying the 'biomechanics of walking' as opposed to walking. You are trying to define the attributes of the action.
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I am working on golf putting task. subjects practice putting in a variable order for 4 targets, each target can be repeated one time during practice. does it make sense to calculate movement variability by comparing movement trajectory in different trials for different goals? 
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Yes it appears to make sense to analyze movement trajectory in different trials. However, club head velocity is also a factor that could/should be analyzed, as the more experienced/higher skilled golfers have a higher club head velocity at impact as well. The ICC values could be looked at as well as measuring accuracy (distance to the target).  I hope this helps. Analyzing many trials with many subjects will provide you wit greater statistical power.
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I am interested in assessing the effect of a training intervention on motor cortical plasticity. However, I would like to assess it using a multijoint movement (i.e. reaching movement, etc).
Is there a TMS protocol which could allow me to do so?
Thank you very much
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Hi Fabio, the technique of MEP recordings can be quite limited in these cases as you probably already know. We had some good results with the recording of the kinematics of the TMS-induced twitch (originally devised by Stefan et al, to test the results of cortical plasticity on thumb movements). Here is an example:
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Distracting or arousing conditions of testing have been used to study specifically visual selective attention in the 5-CSRTT in rodent models of human brain dysfunction (e.g. ADHD).
The Montoya staircase test has been used to measure skilled forelimb performance in animal research also, but I have not came across any published work that used distracting conditions, as a method to study the role of attentional processes in motor performance.
I plan to duplicate the 5-CSRTT method with olfactory distraction I use in my research on attention to "see" if this method can also impact the skilled forelimb performance in my rats in the Montoya staircase test.
If anyone has came across such work or is a "user" of the staircase test, please share the info or your own views on a method that would "distract" rodents from performing skilled forelimb movements in the Montoya staircase test?
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Thank you Dr. Montoya for the suggestions. We considered using the predator smells of fox... to distract our rats during staircase performance but ended opting for less powerful distracters that are identical to those we use in our visual attention task. Unfortunately, we observed that only the number of pellets taken were impacted by this manipulation whereas those eaten or the ratio of eaten/taken unaffected by distracters. I am not fully satisfied with what we did thus far and hope to do more in the next funding cycle. One issue we struggle with was the timing of the odor delivery during the 10 min trial as well as its duration. Any thoughts on this? Thanks again for your time and designing such a clever and simple device. It has advanced my understanding of the neurobehavioral impacts of developmental manganese poisoning in rats.
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Hello
I am looking for a simple task that tests procedural motor learning performance in children (ages 5.5- 7 years old). Thank you. 
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First I'd like to second Rob's good advice!
Then again, there have also some other tasks been used in research on motor sequence learning. For an overview, I'd reccommend the attached paper by Rhodes et al. (2044), published in Journal of Human Movement Science.
These authors review major results from prominent sequence learning and performance tasks, namely immediate serial recall, typing, 2 · N, discrete sequence production, and serial reaction time. These tasks populate a continuum from higher to lower degrees of internal control of sequential organization and probe important contemporary issues such as the nature of working-memory representations for sequential behavior, and the development and role of chunks in hierarchical control. The main movement classes reviewed are speech and keypressing, both involving small amplitude movements amenable to parametric study.
Keypressing and small-amplitude movements, however, might miss challenges in motor control specific to children below the age of, let's say,  ten to twelve years old, when (close to)  "real life" goal-directed aiming movements are involved.
It seems that in children of that young age  contro/programming of movement direction and movement extent develop at a different rate. Also, only at the age of  about seven to nine years, children start using predominantly a feedback control mode. Feedback-based  control and pre-programming are then  integrated over a a longer span of time. See, e.g., the following publications on this subject:
Hay, L. (1979). Spatial-temporal analysis of movements in children: motor programs versus feedback in the development of reaching. Journal of Motor Behavior, 11, 189-200.
Hay, L. (1984). Discontinuity in the development of motor control in children. In W. Prinz & A. F. Sanders (Eds.), Cognition and motor processes (pp. 351-360). Berlin: Springer.
Hay, L. (1990). Developmental changes in eye-hand coordination behaviors: Preprogramming versus feedback control. In C. Bard, M. Fleury & L. Hay (Eds.), Development of eye-hand coordination across the life span (pp. 217-244). Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press.
Hay, L., Bard, C. & Fleury, M. (1986). Visuo-manual coordination from 6 to 10: Specification, control and evaluation of direction and amplitude parameters of movement. In M. G. Wade & H. T. A. Whiting (Eds.), Motor development in children: Aspects of coordination and control (pp. 319-338). Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff.
Hay, L. & Redon, C. (1997). The control of goal-directed movements in children: Role of proprioceptive muscle afferents. Human Movement Science, 16, 433-451.
Hay, L. & Redon, C. (1999). Feedforward versus feedback control in children and adults subjected to a postural disturbance. Experimental Brain Research, 125, 153-162.
So, before chosing your criterion task and setting out doing your experiments, you might first want to give the precise goal of your research with children not older than 7 years a serious second thought.
Regards,
Klaus Blischke
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Some researches have defined the instant of ball release as " Ball release was defined as the first frame in which the basketball left the  participant’s  hand. ". However, as I hadn't any marker on the ball, I can't use from this definition.
Please let me know, how can I estimate the instant of ball release in basketball free throw by some variables such as elbow and wrist angels ( the peak of extension of elbow joint and or the peak of flexion of wrist joint)?
I'm looking forward to see your informative comments.
Regards,
Esmaeel,
 
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Hi Esmaeel,
First, could you explain why you want to know the instant of ball release? Are you trying to compare with previous research? Or are you trying to answer a specific research question? How accurate do you have to be?
Second, could you elaborate on what data you have measured?
Frankly, I don't think you can reliably detect the instant of ball release if you only have joint angle data. Sure, you can estimate it happens at for example the the peak velocity of the wrist angle, but you will never be entirely accurate due to (functional) variability. Ultimately, you would have to validate your assumption that instant of release and some variable of joint angles are related.
Good luck,
Rens
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The child is 2 years old. They made a cerebral resonance where it get out arachnoid cysts. Since 2 months the child gets at 2 weeks periodic disturbance of gait of right hemibody with tendency to gait disturbances on the affected side, when the trunk turns to the right and the child have distonic posturing but get walking and continuing to walk.
What lab investigations needs this case?
Thank you
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Dear Eva
This information may be useful for you:
 Paroxysmal Dyskinesias
Paroxysmal dyskinesias (PD) are episodic movement disorders in which abnormal movements are present only during attacks. The term paroxysmal indicates that symptoms are noticeable only at certain times. The term dyskinesia broadly refers to movements of the body that are involuntary. Between attacks most people are generally neurologically normal, and there is no loss of consciousness during the attacks.
Identifying the types of movements associated with PD is complicated. These movements may be dystonic, choreic, ballistic, or a combination. An individual may show one specific type of movement or a combination of movements.
Dystonic movements are typically patterned and repetitive, causing twisting movements and abnormal postures. Dystonia occurs when opposing muscles are contracting simultaneously. The activation of these muscles may "overflow" to other muscle groups unintentionally.
Ballistic movements are more severe limb movements that involve portions of the limb such as the shoulder and elbow, and hip and knee.
Choreic movements may be described as brief, rapid, involuntary movements that serve no purpose. When mild, choreic movements may resemble fidgeting.
Athetoid movements are slower and more continuous than chorea with a writhing quality. They especially involve the hands and may also affect the torso and other parts of the body.
When chorea and athetosis occur simultaneously, the term choreoathetosis has been used. Choreoathetosis may coexist with dystonia or occur independently.
Terms used to describe paroxysmal dystonia include: paroxysmal dyskinesias. Forms of paroxysmal dyskinesias may be referred to as paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia, DYT10 dystonia; paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia, paroxysmal choreoathetosis paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis, DYT8 dystonia; paroxysmal hypnogenic dyskinesia, paroxysmal exertion-induced dyskinesia
Note: Paroxysmal dyskinesias are sometimes classified under the dystonia umbrella, and sometimes considered a separate category of movement disorders. Paroxysmal hypnogenic dyskinesias may be classified as a form of epilepsy, not dystonia.
Symptoms
History and (ideally) video documentation of the attacks are important tools toward diagnosing PD. The work-up for diagnosing paroxysmal dyskinesias may also include an electroencephalogram (a test to measure brain waves), brain imaging (such as MRI or CT scan), blood chemistries, and calcium tests.
The paroxysmal dyskinesias are currently classified into four types:
Paroxysmal kinesigenic (action-induced) dyskinesia (PKD)
Paroxysmal non kinesigenic dyskinesia (PNKD)
Paroxysmal exertion-induced dyskinesia (PED)
Paroxysmal hypnogenic (nocturnal) dyskinesia (PHD). *Most cases of paroxysmal hypnogenic dyskinesia are currently classified as a form of frontal lobe epilepsy.
[Note: Previous classifications included "paroxysmal choreoathetosis" and/or "paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis." Due to the variety of dyskinesias observed in PD, "paroxysmal dyskinesia" is a commonly used term.]
Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia (PKD) may be inherited, meaning that it is passed genetically from a parent or ancestor. Inherited PKD is an autosomal dominant disorder. (The term "autosomal dominant" indicates that only one parent need have the PKD gene in order for a child to inherit the disorder.) The age of onset in inherited cases of PKD is from five to fifteen years. PKD may also occur sporadically, meaning that symptoms manifest without a family history. The age of onset in sporadic cases is variable. In both cases the attacks, which may occur up to 100 times per day, are often precipitated by a startle, a sudden movement, a particular movement, or other factors. The attacks are usually short, lasting seconds or minutes. The symptoms may be preceded by an unusual sensation in the limbs and may be limited to one side of the body or a single limb. Most people with PKD have dystonia, and some have a combination of chorea and dystonia or ballism.
Paroxysmal Nonkinesigenic Dyskinesia (PNKD) is also inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. The age of onset is usually between early childhood and early adulthood. The frequency of attacks is less than that of PKD, averaging between three per day to two per year. Fatigue, alcohol, caffeine, excitement, and other factors may trigger symptoms. The attacks generally last between a few seconds and four hours or longer. The attacks may begin in one limb and spread throughout the body, including the face. A person affected by PNKD may not be able to communicate during an attack but remains conscious and continues to breathe normally.
Paroxysmal Exertion-induced Dyskinesia (PED). Both inherited and sporadic cases of PED have been reported. The attacks are triggered by prolonged exercise and may last between five to thirty minutes. The attacks may occur once a day or twice a month.
Paroxysmal Hypnogenic Dyskinesia (PHD) is characterized by attacks of dystonia, chorea, or ballism during non-REM sleep. These attacks may occur between five times a night to five times a year and usually last between thirty to forty-five seconds. The attacks may also sometimes occur during the day. PHD is probably a broad condition consisting of a several different types of episodes and symptoms. Most cases of PHD are currently classified as a form of frontal lobe epilepsy.
A miscellaneous episodic dystonic condition is benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy, which typically begins in the few months after birth. These attacks may occur once every two or three weeks and last from hours to days. Typically, the head and/or trunk tilt to one or the other side. These symptoms are often treated with specific physical therapy and disappear when the child is between one and five years old.
Cause
As is the case with most dystonias, paroxysmal dyskinesias are generally attributed to dysfunction in the area of the brain called the basal ganglia. However, much has yet to be learned about how and why PD occurs. Some regard PKD as a form of epilepsy involving specific parts of the brain (i.e., the basal ganglia and thalamus). There is a growing resource of evidence that suggests that PKD may in fact belong to a group of disorders similar to the inherited episodic ataxias, which are known to be associated with disorders of ion-channels. (Ion channel genes are responsible for the proteins that regulate the passage of salt atoms into and out of cells.)
Although the exact origin may not be known, most cases of PD are inherited or sporadic. A gene for PNKD has been located on chromosome 2q, and a gene for PKD on chromosome 16.
Cases of PD that are not considered inherited or sporadic and are associated with specific factors and conditions are classified as "secondary."
Secondary causes of PKD include multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, metabolic disorders, physical trauma, cerebrovascular disease, and miscellaneous conditions including supranuclear palsy and AIDS. Most conditions associated with PKD may also be associated with PNKD. A few cases of secondary PED and PHD have been reported.
Paroxysmal dyskinesias have also been associated with encephalitis and injury to the brain due to stroke and tumors. Drugs such as cocaine and dopamine blocking agents may also induce dyskinesias.
In extremely rare cases, paroxysmal dyskinesias may be a manifestation of a psychiatric disorder. Only a qualified movement disorder and/or conversion disorder expert (preferably a team of multiple specialists that includes both) should make such a diagnosis. Unfortunately, authentic cases of PD have often been inappropriately dismissed as "psychogenic." An inaccurate psychiatric diagnosis not only causes unnecessary suffering to the person affected by PD, but it may also preclude appropriate treatment options.
Treatment
There is no cure for dystonia or PD at this time, but treatments are available. These treatments aim to reduce muscle spasms, pain, and disturbed posture and function.
The current poor understanding of the pathophysiology and biochemistry of PD often makes establishing a satisfactory treatment plan difficult. Treatment needs to be tailored to the individual, and it may be necessary to try several options before symptoms are diminished or alleviated. Patience on the part of both physician and patient is important.
Medications
People with PKD generally respond well to anticonvulsant agents such as phenytoin, primidone, valporate, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, and diazepam. Other drugs that may be helpful include anticholinergics, levodopa, flunarizine, and tetrabenazine. Haloperidol has given inconsistent results.
PNKD may respond to clonazepam, haloperidol, alternate day oxazepam, and anticholinergics. Anticonvulsants are ineffective in most cases. Trying to avoid triggering factors such as alcohol and caffeine is important.
There are a few cases of PED that improve with levodopa and acetazolamide, but drug treatment is ineffective for the most part. Avoidance of prolonged exercise may reduce frequency of attacks.
People who experience short attacks of PHD may respond to anticonvulsant drugs, including carbamazepine and phenytoin. Those who experience longer attacks may respond to haloperidol or acetazolamide.
Secondary PD associated with multiple sclerosis responds well to anticonvulsants. Acetazolamide may be a helpful alternative or adjunct agent to anticonvulsants. PD due to head injury may improve with anticonvulsant medications or a combination of anticonvulsants and trihexyphenidyl. Underlying conditions need to be addressed in other cases of secondary PD.
The intermittent and transient nature of paroxysmal dyskinesia generally precludes the use of therapies such as botulinum toxin injections and surgery.
Accelerating Research & Inspiring Hope
The Dystonia Medical Research Foundation (DMRF) has served the dystonia community since 1976. Join us in our global effort to find a cure.
source:  Dystonia Medical Research
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I am specifically looking to see if the literature says they enhance the development of fine motor skills, specifically pincer grasp for writing or not. I am finding it hard to get anything from searches as I'm not sure what key terms to use.
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Merisa:
Have a look at these studies on your topic in ResearchGate:
I extend best wishes for every success with your research.
Kind regards,
Debra
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I am developing a study with the following KP schedule:
80 Trials total with 5 Trials of 100% KP, 5 Trials of 80% KP, 5 Trials of 60% KP, 5 Trials of 40% KP, and 60 Trials of 20% KP.
I calculate this to be 32.5% KP.  Is this a good faded KP schedule?
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knowledge of performance (KP) is responsive information related to the source of errors, how to correct,  how much the performance changed?
so when you design schedule, i think you should consider the trails with the concept of  KP
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Can the force control approach of motor control still be feasible as model of motor control even without the vision integration (i.e. motor control of blind subjects)?
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You can say what you mean in more detail?
The type of engine?
Control?
And ...
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I'm trying to run small volume correction analysis in fMRI data. To do so I need to create a ROI based on coordinates.
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Thank you Robert and Patil. 
This study seems to work for me!
Cheers!
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Hi all,
Do you guys have any idea to use the tamapin/apamin in behavior experiments? I want to use this drug to block the SK2 channel and see the effect in learning behavior. I am not sure which concentration and how should I administrate this drug in the primary motor cortex of mouse. Does any one have done before?
Thanks
Shahid
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Thank you guys for your comments. I got some good publication though these links. Hope these will be very helpful for me.
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For a motor behavioral study I need to stick some plastic pearls on the back of my pleurodeles but I observed that the glue used (RotiColl) was dissolving the skin of my animals. It seems to be darker, modifies the texture of the skin and then leads to an injury. We used this glue for few years and it's the first time we have this kind of problems. If you observed this in your studies tell me what you did to get through that. Maybe we should try another glue so if you have any suggestions about which glue you are using I'm listening! Thanks for your answers
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I totally agree but my collegues used this glue for few years without any problem. Maybe the Roti Coll's composition has changed and that's why I observe this phenomenon.
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In the last years I have studied how CNS and Spinal Cord interact for generating a reaching movement.
I'm writing on the current opinions about how CNS controls reaching movements. Because there are a lot of different positions about this topic i want to be sure that no one is omitted in my thesis.
So, in your opinion, which are the parameters encoded by the motor cortex in a motor command? Or, in other words, how CNS controls reaching movements?
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I am running reaching and grasping experiments using tools and have always found reliable scaling of grip as object sizes increased in the past and performance has always been directly comparable to performance when grasping with the hand. However in my latest study I have found little to no grip scaling (a slope of 0.2, compared to the earlier 0.7/0.8 slopes) and I am wondering if anyone knows any literature that might account for this?
We had a much smaller stimulus range in this study, does anyone well-versed in reaching and grasping literature know if stimulus range has an effect on grip scaling? I am completely at a loss!
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The 0.8 slope is generally found (Smeets & Brenner, 1999). Several factors are known to have a slight effect on the slope, such as object shape (steeper slope for a block than a cylinder; Verheij et al., 2012). But these variations are very minor. The very low slopes you report remind me of the values Thomas Schenk found with patient DF in situations without haptic feedback (Schenk, 2012).
Hope this helps, Jeroen
Schenk, T. (2012). No Dissociation between Perception and Action in Patient DF When Haptic Feedback is Withdrawn. Journal of Neuroscience, 32(6), 2013-2017.
Smeets, J. B. J., & Brenner, E. (1999). A new view on grasping. Motor Control, 3(3), 237-271.
Verheij, R., Brenner, E., & Smeets, J. B. J. (2012). Grasping Kinematics from the Perspective of the Individual Digits: A Modelling Study. PLoS ONE, 7(3), e33150.
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There are some known methods to measure/estimate the complexity of a signal both in frequency domain and time domain. Are there any criteria to assess the effectiveness of such methods to study human biomechanics? I am particularly interested in complexity assessment of involuntary movements (dyskinesia) in Parkinson's disease patients. 
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Thanks for your help Joshua; just started reading Costa's paper.
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I need references out of Serbia. Thank you!
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Dear Robert!
Thank you for your help!
Best regards from Serbia
Szabolcs Halasi, MSc
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Sometimes motor builders don't provide this important piece of information that is critical to Field oriented control of sinusoidal (AC) permanent magnet brushless motors. In this question I assume that the rotor angle is the angle between the direct axis of the rotor magnet and the axis of phase "A". If one could know this offset delta (and whether it leading or lagging the N-pole axis with respect to a given sense of rotation), it is then easy to decide the angle of the stator current vector necessary for FOC.
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The easiest way I think is that if you rotate the rotor then it will induce voltage on stator winding this is back EMF. After getting back EMF, you shoul see the enconder index pulse on oscilloscope at same time. Finally, you can see and know how much phase degree has the motor between back EMF and index pulse.  actually back EMF is the best way to understand direct and quadratue axes of motor. 
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Until now we have investigated the arm proprioceptive control in volleyball players - female, but we intend to develop our researches in enrolled patients in rehabilitation programs ( i.e. post stroke ).
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Dear Nicolae, you can ask Mara Fabri Associate Professor Università Politecnica delle Marche Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicinehttps://www.researchgate.net/profile/Mara_Fabri
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Perhaps the climbing fibre teaching signal varies in strength as proposed in my 1974 paper and recently demonstrated by Yang and Lisberger Nature 2014 510 529-32
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Encoding in the 'spikelets' of the complex spikes seems a feasible mechanism to enrich information density of the climbing fibre signal. But poses a problem for movements that are direction-specific, eg eye or arm movements. How is the necessary information conveyed during movement directions, where the climbing fibre signal is largely absent?
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I am looking for any experience or publication about how a coach can create a learning environment, in learning design, for exploiting self-organisation coordination tendencies that exist in human movement systems?
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Hi Behazd, take a look at this paper that I wrote. 
Best, 
Pedro.
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All the information coming from outside is received and converted into a command by the brain. The commands of the brain vary at different situation and different time. In other way way we can say that there is a main external stimulus that is same at two different time but the accessory stimulus coming in the back of the main stimulus are different. So the response is modified according to the collective stimulus in spite of the main stimulus is same.
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Have you an idea of temporal and spatial summation
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I am going to test the Power Law (PL) relationship in a test. The test is a 10-cycle repetitive continuous agility test and there are 10 participants. In implementing the PL, I am going  to regress the radius of curvature over velocity of movement. The question is which type of regression analysis should I use? Should I use ordinary least square or should I consider it as multilevel type data and regress accordingly? 
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Hi, Good Afternoon
Hoda,
Companion for the SIAM Review paper on power-law distributions in empirical data, written by Aaron Clauset (me), Cosma R. Shalizi and M.E.J. Newman.
Implementations of the methods we describe in the article, including several by authors other than us. Our goal is for the methods to be widely accessible to the community. Python users may want to consider the powerlaw package by Alstott et al.
References:
1.  A. Clauset, C.R. Shalizi, and M.E.J. Newman, "Power-law distributions in empirical data" SIAM Review 51(4), 661-703 (2009). (doi:10.1137/070710111)
2.  Y. Virkar and A. Clauset, Power-law distributions in binned empirical data.Annals of Applied Statistics 8(1), 89 - 119 (2014).
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Many of these people do not understand the assignment because of mental retardation. Homework should be simple enough to be understood and properly weigh the factors considered. Is there a site or group that may propose certain principles for designing appropriate tasks? I simplify cognition software but I have a little problem in the design of motor tasks for example to assess the impact of feedback or ...
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thanks a lot dear beatrice marianne.
these are very useful. i will study.
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Please support with evidence if possible.
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If the fracture is consolidated one may assume that the DHS completed its role. So you should not bother about loosening of the screw. Loose or not it does not matter any more. Here one should have concerns about an eventual development of a vascular osteonecrosis of the head. In such cases the screw may seem to be loose but the trouble is with the destruction of femoral head. Anyway, you are right that osteoporosis is a factor that makes the osteosynthesis less stable. However, the grade of the fracture , timing of surgery, quality of surgical technique are important factors which influence the stability of osteosynthesis.
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How do you rate (percent wise) the performance of skills? Is the rating based on the criterion with minimum standard or based on the way the student performs the skills based on skill cues? Do you give a greater score to students for competency on the skill performance such as time and distance or based on skill cues?
How do we know that students have learned a physical education skill? We can assess students using formative and summative assessments but how do we know that students will actually be able to use their skills in real-life, authentic situations? In short, how do we know that our students are competent in the target technique?
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Dear Hashem: First we have to be sure that students did learn the required physical education skills, and thereafter have the moral to be able to use their skills when needed in the real-life and authentic situations.
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I am trying to understand the concept of FES. Since I'm not an expert in rehab research, is there any good link or maybe good review paper that I can read that clarifies the research direction of this FES? For those who are experts, is there any issue or gap that can be filled if I'm interested in getting involved in this area of research? Thanks.
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You can gather useful information in the international FES society website (http://www.ifess.org). There's an education section that might prove useful for those not familiar with FES concepts. And there's also an open access repository of the IFESS conference proceedings.
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I have a PEBL expeirment but Fitts' task in this program is a little different.
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The researcher
Jacob O. Wobbrock
has a very interesting and useful tool: Fittsstudy
you could use this software tool; this tool folllow the standard ISO 9241-9...
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Since the book of Basmajian JV, & De Luca CJ entitled Muscles Alive: their functions revealed by electromyography, I have not seen any new interpretation of the influence factors that affect the interpretation of muscle force production. For example, the type of muscle fiber, muscle length, and muscle velocity may influence the association between EMG signal as an electrical and mechanical activity of a muscle.
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Dear Professor Kilani,
I have studied the attached article and found it beneficial.
Regards,
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What measures can be used to assess dynamic balance in people with low pack pain?The purpose is to test, intervene and assess immediate dynamic changes in balance.
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Force plates are frequently used systems for evaluation of postural control. EMG measurements could be another option. However, measurement devices are quite expensive. Depending on your research question, the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) or the Y-balance test are inexpensive or even cost-free alternatives - just to name a few.
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This test will be used for upper limb movements, particularly to test reaction time on the impaired upper limb.
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Andrew,
I will go with an offline software, just to avoid the extra noises which will be too hard to control when using an online system. I agree, Eprime is a useful tool to developed my own software. Thank you again for taking your time to reply my question. Best, Nuray
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This is a very interesting debate. There is evidence supporting that an errorless training is more efficient for learning a new skill in people with cognitive/memory impairments. However, some authors suggest that a generalization to other motor skills and self-regulation of skills can only be obtained with an error-based training (see for example, Ownsworth et al., 2013). Does anyone having an opinion on this debate?
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I'm afraid that there is no general answer to this very interesting question, as there are good arguments for both approaches, and studies showing that both can work. I only know very few studies directly comparing error-based to error-free learning (e.g., http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/713756014?journalCode=pqja20#.UxXGGH6iYUc linking error-free learning to implicit learning), and even these studies probably cannot answer the question, as a error-based approach normally differs in many ways from an error-free approach, making it difficult to attribute group differences solely to the concepts of error-based vs. error-free.
In any case, I can recommend the review by Wolpert and colleagues on sensorimotor learning, perhaps you can extract some ideas about the general topic of motor learning: http://brain.phgy.queensu.ca/flanagan/papers/WolDieFla_NRN_11.pdf
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Requirements for the test: (a) it should yield age equivalent scores, (b) it should cover the (developmental) age range of 3 years to about 16 years.
I am familiar with the Movement ABC 2, but unfortunately this test does not provide age equivalents.
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Another optional solution might be rescaling the results of different tests (done at different age ranges) into one scale, so that you can compare between them and look at the results longitudinally. I have done that with the Bayley and the Bruininks in my paper: Shafir et al., (2006) Effects of iron deficiency in infancy on patterns of motor development over time. Human Movement Science, 25(6), 821-838. (PMC1993818)
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As more studies into hamstrings flexibility of the normal developing child are being published I wonder what the outcome of this research can add to my working skills in the clinic. I am genuinely interested
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Thank you everyone for sharing your ideas with me.
I am aware of the differences in flexibility in children in general. We have our hypermobile and our hypomobile children in the normal population.
Shortend hamstrings and backpain are two symptoms we see in the clinic. I am not aware of any research into this combination (cause-effect) and if there is, please let me know.
I am very aware that it isonly one muscle in a whole functional chain. I think we always need to look at the whole and not only at the part.....
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In general what should be the characteristics of an accelerometer to study postural sway?
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Thank you for your answer Fernando. Mainly the condition is quiet standing.
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Even though this theory is the commonly conveyed in the majority of articles and books, there is a growing amount of data showing that when we move an hand or an arm the activity in both the contralateral and the ipsilateral hemispheres are simultaneously activated. The neurophysiological significance of the bilateral activation of the motor cortices remains unclear. Kobayashi et al (2003) suggested that “ipsilateral activation during non-dominant hand movements could reflect an increased inhibition exerted by the right over the left hemisphere through callosal fibers”. Others support the idea that all movements are initiated in the dominant hemisphere with the non-dominant would be responsible just for the execution of the command issued by the dominant hemisphere (e.g. Derakhshan I, 2004). Do you know any paper reporting neurophysiological evidence (e.g. EEG or fMRI recordings) in support of one or the other hypothesis?
Kobayashi M, Hutchinson S, Schlaug G, Pascual-Leone A (2003) Ipsilateral motor cortex activation on functional magnetic resonance imaging during unilateral hand movements is related to interhemispheric interactions. NeuroImage 20: 2259–2270.
Derakhshan I. Callosum and movement control: case reports. Neurol Res. 2003; 25: 538-442.
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Great Question! There has been a great deal of work since Kobayashi et al.'s paper and there isn't a consensus (not surprising) respective of locus of motor activity. We've been exploring the differences in aging respective of motor performance using a unimanual task paradigm and have found that aging confers a loss of interhemispheric inhibition and dexterity. However, aerobic exercise ameliorates the loss of inhibition (again in a unimanual task paradigm). This doesn't necessarily argue for a contralateral locus of motor control, but does provide evidence that the ipsilateral cortex is strongly influenced by transcallosal inhibition in a unimanual task paradigm. See McGregor et al., 2013 below for details.
However, there is an excellent paper by Diedrichsen et al., (2013) in Cerebral Cortex that shows that there may be a differentiation of ipsilateral cortical involvement based on task demands. That is, during a bimanual task, the activity of the ipsilateral cortex of the non-dominant (though still task active) is largely influenced by parietal and supplementary motor areas. As such, there appear to be distinct circuits required for bimanual versus unimanual action.
McGregor KM, Nocera JR, Sudhyadhom A, Patten C, Manini TM, Kleim JA, Crosson B, Butler AJ. Effects of aerobic fitness on aging-related changes of interhemispheric inhibition and motor performance. Front Aging Neurosci. 2013 Oct 30;5:66. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2013.00066.
Diedrichsen J, Wiestler T, Krakauer JW. Two distinct ipsilateral cortical representations for individuated finger movements. Cereb Cortex. 2013 Jun;23(6):1362-77. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhs120. Epub 2012 May 17.
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Single phase - 240V
Three Phase - 415V
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First read the datasheet of the pump:
The centrifugal pump is coupled with a 3-phase induction motor with all the 6 terminals are connected outside. Say, the terminals are A-A', B-B', C-C'. If you correctly remember you need a rotating magnetic field. For 1-phase give supply to A-A' and connect C-C'-B'-B in series with the capacitor in series with the capacitor you have mentioned in the nameplate. And connect this also to the supply. Thus, the windings will be in phase and space quadrature.
For three phase operation refer to any standard technical documentation.
Look, the maximum pumping power possible is given in the datasheet. Given the insulation class, motor rating for single phase 230V means it has to be connected in star so line voltage for 3 phase is 430V. Do some check and proceed. Hope that answers your problem.......:)
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