Science topic

Motor Learning - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Motor Learning, and find Motor Learning experts.
Questions related to Motor Learning
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
7 answers
Hi,
I'm looking for an online course about motor learning or motor control. I could not find anything in the main MOOCs sites (Coursera, Udemy). Does anyone know such a course that I can audit?
Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
There are number of online courses. You may search. For example;
ONLINE COURSES | Motor Learning (motorlearninginstitute.com)
Course: Motor Learning and Development (minnstate.edu)
Motor Learning | National University (nu.edu)
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
6 answers
Contextual interference
Relevant answer
Answer
Random exercise where practice is on any of the skills required randomly, random exercise is more suitable for learning open skills as the importance of random exercise is to make the learner forget the solutions and procedures for movement during each repetition, as forgetting the solutions forces the learner to generate new solutions and prepare them for the attempt Second, this requires the learner to provide the largest number of motor programs and store them in memory.
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
3 answers
What would be considered as reaction time outliers in the Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT)?
Some previous studies suggested RT below 300 ms and above 4000 ms should be excluded.
1) Is there a more flexible range for outliers specially for fast RTs? for example 200 ms or less?
2) is it possible to consider fast RTs (e.g., 300-150 ms) in the analysis? Because these fast RTs are indicative of learning and excluding them just affect the results.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear @ M.A. Salehinejad
I would not recommend having a fixed threshold for exclusions for the whole experiment. I think the most sensible strategy is to have a different threshold for each participant and for each learning block equivalent to +/- 3 Median Absolute Deviations. As a rule of thumb this procedure should not exclude more than 5% of the data. If you want, maybe my student Johanna Sánchez-Mora can provide you with some sample scripts for doing that.
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
6 answers
Educational guidance on muscle torque and its use in motor learning. .The combination of biomechanics and motor learning in sport. (Book or article)
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello my dear master.
I want a full explanation of torque, which is a force effect.
Thank you
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
3 answers
Many studies suggest that virtual reality rehabilitation can activate the cerebral cortex and improve the function of patients with neurological impairments. Also we hear hippo therapy has a positive effect on the physical function and psychological problems of children with Autism.
May hippo therapy and virtual reality together lead to overall improvements in the daily functioning and quality of life of these children?
Relevant answer
Answer
What do you mean regarding "cure for autism"? In my opinion, there's nothing beyond genetics that could lead for a cure. Of course, those activities when apllied in a correct manner would improve quality of life, cognition, motor control, social aspects... but cure? I don't believe.
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
10 answers
Imagination is creativity in action. It can be using our brain and our senses to create an image within our mind. Imagination draws on our experiences and knowledge of the world around us and combines them with the complete unknown to make something new.
It allows us to explore beyond the constraints of our environment and our reality, into a world of dreams, where creativity and invention are at their strongest.
How does it work?
Is imagination unique to humans?
Relevant answer
Answer
Imagination can occur where there is no knowledge. It is then called 'belief'.
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
6 answers
the very routine method of learning of an skill or subject is physical practicing. such as reading, driving or just talking. but can it maybe possible to learn skills with just imagining them and being focus on them? if it is possible, a new learning method can be learn with just mind!
Relevant answer
Answer
No, definitely not. It depends on prior knowledge, motivation, minimal required skills, and the whole thing happens only in the zone of proximal development (Vygotsky).
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
1 answer
Prior to the actual training of movement in rehabilitation with a medical device, it is often necessary to introduce the exercise and the way the device and/or the training software (program) works, and how the feedback and the movement are tied together. But how can you define the threshold for: the patient has understood the task and is now ready to proceed to the actual training (with less or no assistance). What are feasable markers or parameters (e.g., time to achieve a goal, number of successful repetitions, etc.)? And how can you best show and teach the exercise?
Relevant answer
Answer
Correct Techniques, in line with gold standards. When people will be ready to control velocity, force and direction they are ready to come back to they life.
In order:
1) A bit of strength (Force impovement)
2) Movement velocity (total control)
3) Movement Directions (Be able to fully control the body segment)
In my view these are 3 important sign that the neuromuscular system is ready to come back to the normal life.
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
4 answers
Is it possible to show the recovery of motor function of upper limbs or elbows of individuals with stroke by observing simple elbow flexion and changes in the EMG pattern of the extension muscles?
In addition to simply increasing the potential, please tell me the detail relationship between the phase pattern change of the flexor muscle and extensor muscle, the degree of synchronization with the joint motion or smoothness of the joint movement.
Are there papers showing evidence?
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
4 answers
Hello all,
We know that action observation and motor imagery produce changes in the mu rhythm event-related desynchronization, make the mu rhythm more focal and producing a higher % decrease (see for example Naima Rüther et al 2014).
However, I am wondering if anybody is aware of studies that specifically addressed the changes in mu rhythm and its desynchronization, after a motor learning protocol with actual movements, and of various length?
Thank you!
FABIO
Relevant answer
Answer
A specific pattern of rolandic electrical activity was found during Go - No Go learned responses to auditory clicks (left or right ear). Surprisingly we found the same pattern at rest, when the subject returned for control.
.- Stoica E., Psatta, D.M., Matei, M.: EEG changes induced by Auditory stimuli association with Finger movement responses may be seen one week after applying the procedure. Rom. J. Neurol., 2003.
More details about the investigation of motor control may be found in our book:
Psatta, DM. : Electrophysiological Investigation in Brain Diseases, Scholar’s Press, Germany, 2016, 268 pp.
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
2 answers
Hello, 
I am designing a study on motor imagery modulation after an intervention. At the moment I have some issues with the inclusion criteria "motor imagery (MI) ablity". In order to reduce the variability of my data, I would like to include only the low-aptitude motor imagers, under the rationale that high-aptitude motor imagers may not improve significantly with the intervention, since their MI level is already higher that the low-aptitude counterpart.
I thought of asking the potential participant to complete the MIQ 3 (the latest version of the motor imagery questionnaire, Williams et al 2012). However I still need a threshold that would allow me to characterize the result as belonging to the low- or high-aptitude group.
Has such thing already been done? Any suggestion on how to exclude the highe-aptitude motor imagers?
Thank you very much!
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello
I use the MIQ and the MIQ-R (french versions, we don't have a validated translated french version of the MIQ 3).
As in Goss et al. (1986) you can use :
"For both imagery scores, the criterion for a high imager was a score of at least I SD below the mean for the first 50 subjects completing the MIQ. Similarly, low imagers were those scoring more than I SD above the mean."
With the MIQ we used (robin et al., 2007):
"good imager (n = 10; scores < 11), poor imager (n = 10; scores > 26)"
More recently for the MIQ R we used (robin et al. in revision)
" Participants with scores under 18 were considered “poor” imagers and those with scores above 42 were considered “good” imagers (Gueugneau, Mauvieux, & Papaxanthis, 2008). "
Best regards
nicolas
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
7 answers
It is clear that if we exercise something for example walking or shooting , our brain learn this function and we can do this better.
It is normal process of motor learning.
but the question is if we imagine these exersice in our mind without any physical activity, Can it have the same effect on our brain and our function?
Can we improve motor learning with just mental training?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Samaneh,
YES and I think the following papers will help you:
Abbruzzese G, Avanzino L, Marchese R, Pelosin E. Action Observation and Motor Imagery: Innovative Cognitive Tools in the Rehabilitation of Parkinson's Disease. Parkinsons Dis 2015;2015:124214. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4606219/pdf/PD2015-124214.pdf
Avanzino L, Gueugneau N, Bisio A, Ruggeri P, Papaxanthis C, Bove M. Motor cortical plasticity induced by motor learning through mental practice. Front Behav Neurosci 2015;9:105. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4412065/pdf/fnbeh-09-00105.pdf
Eaves DL, Riach M, Holmes PS, Wright DJ. Motor Imagery during Action Observation: A Brief Review of Evidence, Theory and Future Research Opportunities. Front Neurosci 2016;10:514. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5116576/pdf/fnins-10-00514.pdf
Asaseh M, Hashemi Azar J, Pishyare E. The effect of motor imagery on the gross motor skills of children with developmental coordination disorder. Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège 2016;85:130-139. http://popups.ulg.ac.be/0037-9565/index.php?id=5478&file=1
Bonassi G, Biggio M, Bisio A, Ruggeri P, Bove M, Avanzino L. Provision of somatosensory inputs during motor imagery enhances learning-induced plasticity in human motor cortex. Sci Rep 2017;7(1):9300. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-09597-0.pdf
Scott M, Taylor S, Chesterton P, Vogt S, Eaves DL. Motor imagery during action observation increases eccentric hamstring force: an acute non-physical intervention. Disabil Rehabil 2017 Mar 21:1-9. doi: 10.1080/09638288.2017.1300333. [Epub ahead of print]. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09638288.2017.1300333?journalCode=idre20
Sobierajewicz J, Przekoracka-Krawczyk A, Jaśkowski W, Verwey WB, van der Lubbe R. The influence of motor imagery on the learning of a fine hand motor skill. Exp Brain Res 2017;235(1):305-320. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00221-016-4794-2
Li RQ, Li ZM, Tan JY, Chen GL, Lin WY. Effects of motor imagery on walking function and balance in patients after stroke: A quantitative synthesis of randomized controlled trials. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2017;28:75-84. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1744388117302049?via%3Dihub
Best wishes from Germany,
Martin
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
6 answers
For people with central nervous system disorders, how much joint assistance or individual's effort is required for joint movement to restore motor function or better motor learning? What factor that defines The optimum assistance for reorganization of CNS is? Please tell me the papers or information on these.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Kenichi,
if the joint is assisted, the individual is learning to move the joint in an manner that does not activate the sensory and motor systems necessary for normal movement. The individual may learn to move in an assisted manner, but the carry over to normal movement will still require additional training.  As for restoring normal movement, we anticipate roughly 4000 repetitions, however the joint movements are task specific, therefore the carry over to similar movements may require additional training. 
Monica Rivera 
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
7 answers
Im interested in how they are studying motor learning, and outcomes with implicit vs explicit learning styles
Relevant answer
Answer
You might start with Rich Master's chapter "Advances in implicit motor learning" [In, Hodges, N. J., & Williams, A. M. (2012). Skill acquisition in sport: Research, theory and practice (2nd ed.). New York;London;: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203133712]. It offers an overview of the literature and concept of implicit motor learning.
See also:
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
3 answers
As we know, mirror neuron system (MNS) has important role on our observational motor learning, and suppression of alpha mu rhythm (8-12 Hz) on C3 and C4 sites is a sign of participation of MNS in action perception and imitation. Have you studied any research about effect of motor learning on changes of brain waves? Please share your knowledge with us ;)
Thanks
Saber
Relevant answer
Answer
dear saber
Yes, there are
individuals EEG wave pattern changes with training and becoming to the master in any kind of motor performance,
as Vickers say in her book(perception, cognition and decision training, 2006) that quieting of the left hemisphere of elite shooter, golfer and another kind motor behavior has been found.
regards,.
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
4 answers
I'm interested in provision of skill acquisition/motor learning sessions for pre-school children as a means to encourage activity and improve sporting ability.  Has anyone considered providing a structured program for pre-schoolers?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Jamie,
There are many programs that address motor learning in the preschool age group.  Action perception theory and learning is a theoretical framework for motor skill acquisition. The term perceptual learning is also terminology that addresses how young children learn.  Under these headings there are games, activities both fine and gross motor that will provide concepts and ideas.
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
4 answers
Performance coefficient (CP) is a unit of measurement to determine the performance of the volleyball skills.
However, PC had a problem, this unit of measurement does not determine the low performance, medium and high of the volleyball skills.
Which statistical model I can use to make this classification of the volleyball skills?
Relevant answer
Answer
You might have to take a page from SABREmetrics and invent some metrics. There are several skill sets needed to be a good volleyball player. You need to ask what skills are most important and least important. 
One way to look at this type of model is to create a regression model. You can look at mobility and "spike" speed for a defending player. Suppose you have just one player on a practice surface. You can have them stand in a certain spot and "shoot" volleyballs at different areas of the practice surface at different speeds. You can then look at  speed of the ball, distance in the X-axis and Y-axis from the player. Your response variable can be, did the player hit the ball in a useful manner? (Yes/No)
This type of analysis can tell you if a player on the other team hits a ball with a certain speed and in a certain direction from the player, what are the chances they do something good with it. If that is one of your players, you can then work on that. If you look at tape of other teams, you can use that against the player and work on drills to hit hte ball in those "weak" areas.    
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
8 answers
I am working on a family with autosomal recessive in which affected members have CP characters so how will i differentiate between whether it is Cerebral Palsy or Heredity Spastic Paraplegia?
Relevant answer
Answer
Maybe you have to try out the old clinical practice: do longitudinal observation: CP usually remains stationary, given adaptive changes after birth; HSP should be slowly progressive with an later onset. Still, it remains a big challenge for a clinician to tackle the differences.
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
4 answers
This is for an undergraduate motor learning class that has been learning how stress affects motor performance. 
Relevant answer
Jed:
Ensure that your videos are culturally relevant so as not to add more stress to students' learning. Please see my attached conference paper in this regard as a contribution to your question.
Many thanks,
Debra
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
8 answers
I'm doing an experiment in which I would like to get information whether the person was about to click the pad or the finger was still. I'd like to know whether the inhibition was successful before any movement or after initial preparation for the movement. I'm going to use EMG recording for that. Can anyone recommend some papers that describe similar procedures or have experience with such setup? I'm especially interested in the right placement of electrodes. Thank you for any help.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Mr. Warchol
I am currently researching the motor control and posture associated with APAs and APCs. To find my reponses, the EMG analysis (time and frequency domain) proved to be very efficient as the verification of muscle activity during the analysis cycle, but mostly I was able to get important answers of what happens before and after a certain event, usually of short duration. Therefore, I suggest that you use the EMG analysis in your case.
I send to you two articles that I think help you.
I hope this helps.
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
5 answers
Good to have an agreement on ubiquity of 1/f scaling, I also am of the opinion experimental control is essential (see Hasselman, 2013). I would add that direct confrontation of theoretical predictions is crucial as well:
"In order to advance scientific knowledge about scaling phenomena in living systems a program of strong inference that aims to produce closed theories of principles is needed. In order to reach this goal, empirical inquiries need to go beyond describing scaling phenomena in different populations in the context of impaired performance or pathology (e.g., Goldberger et al., 2002; Gilden and Hancock, 2007; West, 2010; Wijnants et al., 2012a). Several recent studies reveal scaling phenomena can be brought under experimental control, which is essential for a program of strong inference (e.g., Kello et al., 2007; Wijnants et al., 2009; Van Orden et al., 2010; Correll, 2011; Holden et al., 2011; Kuznetsov et al., 2011; Stephen et al., 2012). The diverging theoretical predictions examined in most studies reveal that the observed waveforms are more likely to originate from interaction-dominant complexity than from component-dominant mechanics (also see Turvey, 2007; Kello et al., 2010; Diniz et al., 2011)."
At least these articles revealing experimental control over scaling exponents should have been discussed:
Then, there are many more  studies that make risky predictions or directly confront two or more competing predictions (in fact, all predictions in 1/f studies are more risky than mainstream, because they concern interval predictions and not merely > 0). In any case, they do much more than 'just' show another case of 1/f noise in some population.
All the best,
Fred
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Brandon, thanks for your answer.
My questions were triggered by the article: "Experimental control of scaling behavior: what is not fractal?" by Aaron D Likens, Justin M Fine, Eric L Amazeen, Polemnia G Amazeen
I agree with the message of the article: Experimental control is crucial, but I claim that this has already been displayed in several previous studies of which I wonder why they were not discussed. For some reason these studies are also completely ignored by critics like Wagenmakers et al. (2012) http://www.ejwagenmakers.com/2012/WagenmakersEtAl2012Topics.pdf
To return to your question, yes I believe that in addition to experimental control, the predictions about scaling behavior based on a principled, complex system approach, are much more risky and therefore should not be considered irrelevant, because of the frequency with which scaling is encountered: Theoretical considerations yield interval estimates of measurement outcomes. Not many theories about cognitive phenomena can do such a thing. 
Moreover, if systematic absence or presence of associations (by correlation) between scaling exponents and more traditional performance measures is theoretically predicted for different populations, then this would go beyond 'merely' evidencing  
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
3 answers
I am specifically looking to see if the literature says they enhance the development of fine motor skills, specifically pincer grasp for writing or not. I am finding it hard to get anything from searches as I'm not sure what key terms to use.
Relevant answer
Merisa:
Have a look at these studies on your topic in ResearchGate:
I extend best wishes for every success with your research.
Kind regards,
Debra
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
1 answer
Imagery and sports
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Laurent,
I have used covert sensitization (verbal aversion therapy) to reprogram alcohol dependent patients’ responses to their imagined alcohol drinking experiences. Prior to treatment these imagined drinking experiences typically stimulate alcohol cravings. Repealed pairings of the imaginary drinking with verbally induced nausea short of emesis usually renders the images aversive to the extent that they can induce abstinence-facilitating conditioned nausea responses. GSR was a sensitive and reliable psychophysiological indicator of conditioned nausea, which also was validated by patients’ self-reports and other behavioral indices.   You can view the GSR responses that accompany conditioned nausea acquisition in Elkins (1980), which can be downloaded as the 5th featured publication on my ResearchGate Profile page. Additional information can be found in my answer to Gerald Pohler’s GSR question.
I have no experience using GSR with emotionally neutral imagery but expect that for GSR to be of value the imagery will have to elicit some degree of negative or positive emotional reactivity.
I hope that this will be helpful.
Take care,
Ralph Elkins
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
4 answers
I am looking for any experience or paper in which a coach/teacher designs affordances into learning programmes, especially in motor learning and acquisition of movement skills, in nonlinear pedagogy and constraints-led approach.
Relevant answer
Answer
I am not aware of any applications of the theory of affordances to teaching or learning. But, the publication below may be a good starting point for how affordances fit into a coaching context.
Best,
Brandon
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
3 answers
Perhaps the climbing fibre teaching signal varies in strength as proposed in my 1974 paper and recently demonstrated by Yang and Lisberger Nature 2014 510 529-32
Relevant answer
Answer
Encoding in the 'spikelets' of the complex spikes seems a feasible mechanism to enrich information density of the climbing fibre signal. But poses a problem for movements that are direction-specific, eg eye or arm movements. How is the necessary information conveyed during movement directions, where the climbing fibre signal is largely absent?
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
2 answers
I am looking into a 3D-experiment on spatial awareness. The software we want to use can either be projected using a 3D-TV (active shutter, at least 1920x1080, 65") or a 3D-projector (DLP link, refresh rate min 120z).
However, the question is, what is the better solution for high qualitative presentation of the stimuli. Does anyone have experience with the different setups? Are  there any studies comparing both projection modes?
Thanks for the help
Nadja
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Nadja,
size really matters when it comes to 3D and perception. Stick to the projector and be aware that a rearprojection is the best solution for this case (subject standing in front of the screen). You should go with the priorities: a) 3d quality b) image size c) image quality (color...).
Daniel
PS: human vision range is about 180° x 120°.
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
1 answer
For example, the golf swing training, it has very fast motion, so trainee cannot adjust his/her path even though he/she gets the real-time feedback.
Therefore, He/She performs different golf swing that has low velocity, then the trainee can modify his/her path easily by using the real-time feedback.
However, I wonder the motor learning of specific velocity of motion can be applied other velocity of that.
Relevant answer
Answer
It is a matter of hyperbolic relationship between accuracy and velocity.  Not only the path.  It is a drills of controlling the velocity during the swing.
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
8 answers
For example, how can we teach a person with right hemiplegia, 3 months post-stroke and having no to minimal voluntary control in upper limb and hand to eat independently using task oriented approach? What are all the factors that will influence your clinical decision making?
Relevant answer
Answer
dear Shankar, I suggest you have a look at the website that Jan Davis has made for this patient group. She shares her knowledge and organizes courses answering the question you have posed. www.icelearningcenter.com
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
14 answers
This is a very interesting debate. There is evidence supporting that an errorless training is more efficient for learning a new skill in people with cognitive/memory impairments. However, some authors suggest that a generalization to other motor skills and self-regulation of skills can only be obtained with an error-based training (see for example, Ownsworth et al., 2013). Does anyone having an opinion on this debate?
Relevant answer
Answer
I'm afraid that there is no general answer to this very interesting question, as there are good arguments for both approaches, and studies showing that both can work. I only know very few studies directly comparing error-based to error-free learning (e.g., http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/713756014?journalCode=pqja20#.UxXGGH6iYUc linking error-free learning to implicit learning), and even these studies probably cannot answer the question, as a error-based approach normally differs in many ways from an error-free approach, making it difficult to attribute group differences solely to the concepts of error-based vs. error-free.
In any case, I can recommend the review by Wolpert and colleagues on sensorimotor learning, perhaps you can extract some ideas about the general topic of motor learning: http://brain.phgy.queensu.ca/flanagan/papers/WolDieFla_NRN_11.pdf
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
15 answers
I'm a Motor Behavior's Ph.D. student. My interest is how performance in fundamental skills changes with age (children, adolescents and adults). l am having troubles finding articles in this area. I need some recommendations of authors or studies in this area.
Relevant answer
Answer
I think you can also check the work done by Dale Ulrich who created a test called TGMD II to test the development of gross motor skills and for which you will find quite a lot of litterature about a large age range.
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
3 answers
Since there are a lot of references in this field, I'd like to find one or a few references that define 'coordination' once and for all (if possible).
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you Andrew for this nice review. Good list of articles.
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
7 answers
Single phase - 240V
Three Phase - 415V
Relevant answer
Answer
If you are trying to replace the motor, it is important to check if the new motor has the same motor speed (2900 min-1) and the same (1.5 HP) or higher capacity than old one. Voltage is not the matter.
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
21 answers
I mean, are there any mental characteristics that increase the efficiency of self-controlled feedback? In other words, which characteristics should the performer have to get more and more benefit from self-controlled feedback in motor learning?
Relevant answer
Answer
Do you know this work?
Maybe it can be useful in this project!
Hi! Mauro
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
7 answers
We record the EMG signals of dart throwing. Now, we are going to calculate the relative timing of the throws. can I do this?
Relevant answer
Answer
Rectification and high - pass filtering should be done to get muscle burst activity. You can high - pass filter at 10 or even 60 Hz and then rectify. After that you should get a cleaner and better signal. A fifth order butterworth filter would be the standard.
You could define the timing of the dart throw by looking for the EMG to cross a certain threshold. To keep parameters similar across subjects a relative threshold is advisable.
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
2 answers
Why do some therapists ask patients for feedback in stretching and some just ' feel ' where the stretch is and do it. Will there be any long term neurological proprioceptive changes in engaging the cortex in the activity?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dearest Katherine, Thank you so much for your response. I will indeed have a look into this. Many thanks for your time, Siobhan
  • asked a question related to Motor Learning
Question
12 answers
I am designing a sequential motor learning program for improving diabetes gait, but I don't know which parameter has priority over others to show trend of improvement in the process of gait training?
Relevant answer
Answer
Gait, balance or perturbation assessments may provide changes associated with altered function - if that is what you aim to alter with motor re-training. In regards to breath analysis I have reservations. Have there been previous studies in Diabetes?? There would be a lot of co-morbidity in Diabetes (especially type 2) that may change over time and has within-day variation... Such as... Glucose metabolism, hypertension, vascular disease and IHD that may alter breath analysis.
So I would be cautious and consider between day - reliability tests.
Best of luck