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I have prepared three tungsten disulfide sample powders using three different solvents and keeping all other parameters same. Each of the sample shows different morphology like, rod and sheets. How the solvent effects on the morphology of samples? Give your valuable opinions
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Dear Vishnu Sankar, this is a well known and studied influence of solvents on NPs' morphology, shape and size. Usually, the dielectric constant reflecting the solvation power is taken as an indication. However, supramolecular order imposed by the solvents is behind the structural arrengements and order while NPs' growth. Sometimes the effect may be in part similar to the effects of caping agents, surfactants, and nucleation agents. Please have a look at the following sample references. My Regards
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Good day,
I am not a chemist, but a student studying mechanical engineering. I would like to know more about the morphology and the chain structure of PA6/66 Copolymer for the purpose of my thesis. After a long search on the internet, I couldn't find enough information about the morphology (macroscopic structure) and the chain structure of the PA6/66 Copolymer. I could only find out information about the general morphology of nylon fibers, which is a three-phase model with microfibrillar and inter-microfibrillar regions. I would be very grateful if anyone could provide me with the information or point me in the right direction.
Thank you in advance.
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Hello,
I made a drawing of the chain structure of the two polyamides, which you mentioned. The PA6.6 is the condensation product of a diamine with 6 carbon atoms and a dicarboxylic acid with also 6 carbon atoms. The 6.6 gives the carbon atoms in the monomers, which form this kind of polymer. The PA6 has only one sort of monomer. The monomer is a ring shaped molecule, which carries a carboxylic and an anime group after opening.
In the pdf file you can see that 6 carbon atoms are between the two nitrogen atoms of the former amine groups and the other 6 carbon atoms are between the two former carboxylic groups. For PA6 the 6 carbon atoms are in between a former amine group and a former carboxylic group.
I also drew a sketch of a copolymer's chain structure. In the compolymers structure, some of the carbon atoms have a nitrogen as a neighbor and some are part of a former carboxylic acid.
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Hi there,
Myself and some collaborators were hoping to build a cell segmentation and morphology analysis tool using machine learning. I don't suppose any of you would be willing to share any images of cells from routine cell culture (or from experiments either works). Would obviously acknowledge you in the final publication should you wish to be.
Thanks!
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Look the link, maybe useful.
Regards,
Shafagat
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In the case of Phylogeny, we consider all the taxa as OTU. So, how can we interpret the various rank below species level? Or Just morphological data can provide distinction below species rank?
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Difficult question to answer. If the species concept is complex and there is no general agreement among taxonomists, the subspecies concept is even less so.
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A lot of the research papers that I've read are about the dependence of the morphology formation of polyaniline to the synthesis conditions but only found one paper that gives the idea that the morphology formation is independent of the application form. I would like to ask how strongly valid is the latter statement and what some more papers can support it.
Thank you in advance!
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Dear all, I think the second statment is not correct. If porosity is considered for example, it is the morphology of prime importance for membranes applications, but for protecting coatings it is the morphology to be absolutely avoided. Please have a look at the following documents. My Regards
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I am trying to applying two and three element windkessel model as outlet boundary condition but problem in finding the values for Rp, C and Rd for different morphological data (geometrical dimensions).
I also want to apply the outlet model in COMSOL.
suggest what could I do for solving my problem.
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Hello,
I have the same question Dr. Abhishek Kandpal, Have you found the answer? or did you do that finally?
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In pathological report we often see the sentence: Clinical correlation is recommended.
Can experts let me know whether plant classifications based only on molecular studies is enough to arrive at taxonomic conclusions (like segregation of a new genus, etc) or they should be supported by morphological expressions and their clear cut differences as well?
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This means that it is necessary to take note of all the factors causing this disease through the clinical examination of the patient, and that these examinations should be attached by the physician treating the radiologist so that he can give his medical opinion.
It also applies to plants and others. In general, there must be an integrated medical team that follows up on the situation until it comes out with an accurate diagnostic summary, and similarly for plants and others.
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If I have prepared different carbon catalysts by varying pyrolysis temperatures, what will be their effect on morphology or metal content.
And when used for HER and OER what will be its effect.
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Dear Amravati Singh,
The pyrolysis temperature may have so many unknown effect on the performance of the catalysts, such as crystallization, coordination environment and may the components of your material. So you must consider different reasons when you design your project.
Best wishes !
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I have attached a photoplate and it was found on leaves.
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You need to have molecular data. I dentification based on morphology is not correct very often.
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Hello, I am trying to find a dataset of canonical suffix forms for Parts of speech tags. For example, ed->VBD (past tense), ing-> VBG. Is there any available dataset like this?
Thanks!
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Hello, you can manually create a corpus using "Parts of Speech Tagging Guidelines for the Penn Treebank Project(3rd revision) by Beatrice Santorini". Since I didn't find any such datasets existing datasets.
Happy coding 😊
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I am trying to coat the standard triple-cation perovskite on top of PTAA using the anti-solvent technique. However, in order to get consistent films, I wanted to use an electronic pipette for dispensing the anti-solvent to control the speed of anti-solvent. When I dripped the anti-solvent the Perovskite film appeared to be full of cracks. I tried to change the amount of anti-solvent (from 90ul to 200ul ) but still, the problem persists. I tried different anti-solvents like CB, Anisole, and Ethyl acetate. In all the cases I see the consistent result. I coated the perovskite with a normal pipette and there are very little cracks. I don't understand what might be the issue.
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I think your solution becomes non-homogeneous when you drip the anti solvent.
You have to modify your method such that a homogeneous solvent results. This can be accomplished by using ultrasound agitation or or you can sprayer and ultrasound agitation. This is my proposal if the it succeed please inform us.
Best wishes
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I can not describe morphology of some AMF spores isolated from soil sample. Permanent slides in PVLG+Melzer, x600, light microscopy and phase-contrast microscopy. Pink stained spherical structures have multiple layers and rigid outer layer. Do they look like spores inside sporangium? May these structures be endoparasites or plant pollen?
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Yes, can be used specific dyes in spore staining
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I perform whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from neurons in acute brain slices and fill the neurons with biocytin for later reconstruction. To preserve morphology, I am used to retracting the pipette slowly to allow for the membrane to reseal.
Lately however, I’ve been having the issue that the cell nuclei stick to the pipette and come along upon retracting, in effect leaving me with an unintended nucleated patch, which often destroys cell morphology. It seems the longer the recording lasts, the greater the likelihood of this occurring. I’ve been playing around with the osmolarity of my (intracellular) solutions without much luck so far. Does anyone have some thoughts on what could cause this? I’m a bit short on ideas and would much appreciate your comments.
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Hey Mariana Vargas-Caballero, good to hear from you and thanks for the pro tips! Regarding retraction speed, I too prefer a relatively fast retraction over a couple of seconds, starting slowly and gradually increasing pace if you see your cell is closing nicely on the membrane seal test. This has always worked fine for me; it’s just recently that I’ve been having the issue of sticky nuclei. A bit of positive pressure only helps occasionally sadly… When the lab reopens from the corona lock-down I’ll review everything and hope I find the culprit. If so, I’ll be sure to report back here. Be well.
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Although the idea of beauty (of and in cities) has always been debated and discussed in the literature, today it seems to remain an incredible vast concept (hardly categorized) on which is difficult to agree upon. When a city or part of it becomes beautiful? What makes it so? I know this topic can sound a bit out of date or inappropriate in this time of global emergency, yet I believe beauty is still one of the greatest hopes for our civil societies.
Do you have any good recommendation of texts dealing directly with this issue?
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In my opinion “beauty” in city goes together with how people use the design of a city. Some cities look beautiful to many people in pictures but people can’t use this “beauty” in everyday life. “Cities for People” from Jan Gehl presents great examplse how “beauty” and “use of cities” can go together.
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I have not seen this type of bacteria morphology before. I am wondering what it might be and how to classify it. Is it even bacteria? Could it be fungi?
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Hello, wich kind of solid culture medium are you using? If you want to exclude any kind of fungi there is a simple trick: do a Gram staining on one colony sample and pick up another single colony by simply touching it with a little piece of adhesive and transparent tape (or just use a sterile loop to transfer it on the tape if don't want to comìnatminate your sample), then put the tape on a microscopic slide. Then observe both by using an optical microscope at 40x magnification: yeasts will appear as big blue an round cells (Candida spp or Saccharomyces spp do so) in the stained sample, molds on the tape (but judjing by your image i don't think that it is the case) will show their tipical structure. I know thath Gram staining is used for bacteria classification, but can come handy for yeasts that may grow on a simple medium (like TSA or PCA or Mueller Hinton) and be confused as bacteria. Hope it will help
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Is chlorophyll content measured using SPAD meter is a physiological trait?
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Chlorophyll content is a physiological parameter. However, in some publications you might find it under biochemistry category. In the past decades, the concept of plant physiology changed considerably, so you can read plant physiology papers from different time periods that seem to belong to different fields, in terms of studied parameters. Some old papers on plant physiology are found nowadays under plant ecophysiology field. For scientist working several decades ago the plant physiology papers from nowadays would appear as purely biochemistry work. All parameters referring on processes, functionality and dynamics should be considered physiological. Indeed, there is always a biochemical involved mechanism.
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I have been growing E. coli host in SM6 medium for fermentation. During the run, I did microscopy and found long filamentous rods, which are Gram negative. I have started searching literature for morphological changes in E. coli due to stress. The antibiotic marker I use is tetracycline.
I'd really appreciate some help here...
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Hi,
You need some biochemical tests.
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Has the time at which satellite image taken got importance in quantifying morphological behavior of a river? If so, which season is best for analyzing the same for Indian scenarios?
P.S. Please share a supporting document if possible.
Thank you.
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Thank You Praveen Rathod sir.
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Hi, I am looking for some information about Vorticella morphology. In some Vorticellas I found lot of granules I think it is a reserve granules but I am not sure. Some publications called they as " refractile reserve granules" - what does it mean? What does they large numer mean? Also why are they iridescent yellow sometimes?
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Kasia, they look like granules with stored substances, but what is inside? You should do specific staning to detect e.g. carbohydrates. These granules reflactile and therefore they are iridescent (especially when you observe moving Vorticella). Best, Ania
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I have a data set of spontaneous speech in Romanesco (Italian dialect spoken in Rome), which I need to gloss morphologically.
These are the turns in question (but there are other similar instances):
25 C; [°tsahah::=avvocà°]
26 F; nzomma viè da sé
The notation used is taken from Jefferson and the SBSC.
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I've been taught to work with the Leipzig Glossing Rules. That means glosses align vertically for ease of identification. You can have as many lines per item as needed for your analysis. I have worked with spoken Greek dialectal data (which I wanted to present to English-speaking audiences). I had 6 lines per item: 1. Dialect transcribed in Greek 2. Standard Greek equvialent transcribed in Greek 3. Standard Greek equivalent transliterated with roman characters 4. Word for word English translation 5. Morphological analysis 6. English Translation
I'm not sure how that would feed back into a Conversational Analysis piece that also has its own coding conventions. I'd imagine going with a 6-line gloss per turn will be way too much.
But then again it is more of a matter of what you want to actually claim. Is there morphological variation away from the standard language in your data? Or is it that the dialect only differs phonologically? Remember a morphological analysis deals in morphemes. So the dialect may present different morphs (allomorphs), but not different morphemes. If that's the case, glossing from the standard equivalent is fine. If not then you'could go with a phonemic gloss first and then morphologically gloss that (essentially treating the dialect as a 'different' language).
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A few, previously (in the 1990s) morphologically identified Chlamydomonas strains turned to be Scenedesmus and Chlorella strains after my phylogenetic analysis. Morphology was not the scope of my submitted paper. It is only about identifying them phylogenetically, because this was never applied to the strain collection before.
In my manuscript I stated that the strains in question must have been misidentified morphologically. According to the reviewer, it is hard to imagine that one would misidentify a coccoid as a flagellate. Then the reviewer referred to the fact that Chlorella/Scenedesmus species may contaminated the original isolate of Chlamydomonad, and later predominated in the culture. As it is almost impossible to prove, the reviewer asks to discuss the topic in the resubmitted manuscript.
Additionally, the reviewer says that the original Chlamydomonads may survive in the culture as a minority, and that the authors should check if the strains in question include Chlamydomonad.
This is where I am asking for your advice.
I would like to know that what would be the most cost/time-saving and still scientific way to check the Chlamydomonas presence?
If I only have light microscopy, how long and to what extent should I screen the strains to conclude reasonably that they are no longer Chlamydomonas?
I mean, is that enough if I state that I did not find Chlamydomonas minority after microscopy or are there any other more serious ways in the scientific sense to state that?
What type of answers would you accept if you were my reviewer? : )
Could you also provide references to papers related to the ‘strain contamination topic’?
Thank you
Szabina
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Thank you Jayant.
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Which method would be used to attain inverse kinematic equations in a complex morphology for a combination of joints in a robot manipulator?
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Hello,
I am dealing with linear measurements of limb bones, and I already have run a PCA to explore the dataset. If I want to extrapolate an ontogenetic growth trajectory, what is the best approach?
Thanks
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Jonathan Wagner thank you very much. You helped me a lot ! I think i got this. =)
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I have a difficult problem with the technical term “reduplication” as the prefix “re-“ is a disturbing tautology and I think only “duplication” is enough for describing it as a morphological process (though, I do not know whether it is one of the morphological processes or a simple lexical item. What is it? This question was raised by Rajendra Singh). I will be obliged, if the linguist community would kindly allow me to use “duplication” instead of dubious “reduplication” in case of XX lexical items.
Secondly, within the domain of “duplication”, sometimes “onomatopoeia” has got the iconic status as if signifiers and signified are “fully” analogous. What’s about the “relative degree of arbitrariness” in case of onomatopoeia or any other so-called icons? May we need grammatological intervention in this case? I think, in case of onomatopoeia, the differAnce of degrees of arbitrariness is important.
I am so much concerned with this phenomenon as, when (re-) searching on Bangla, I was surprised to find a large corpus was generated at the end of 19th C and at the beginnings of the 20th C. and still the research on such process/item is going on with the deployment of different types of methodologies. Why were the members of the emerging civil society of a newly imagined state, viz. Bangla, so much concerned about duplication? Was it for the sake of showing something unique in the imagined speech community—something different from the supposed inheritance of the Old Indic language? Were the civil members of Bengali community trying to get out of genealogical fantasy and creating another imagiNATION? This is, of course, a question not related to micro-linguistics.
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RE: “re-“
This is actually an interesting prefix. The word that once got me exercised was “redouble” where it functions as an intensifier rather than implying “again” (like “resound”) — except when “redouble” is used as a technical term in bridge for doubling a bid that has already been doubled by an opponent.
You might also consider the difference functions of "re" in pairs like “recover” / “re-cover”, “restore” / “re-store”, and the like, where the prefix is not detachable in the unhyphenated member without affecting the sense of the root.
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I would like to analyse the shape of parotoid glands between two species by using landmarks. But because of assymetries between glands of an individual (i have observed assymetries in many of my samples) i m doubtful to try it. I am also inexperienced in this approach. So,could anyone inform me whether it is an appliable idea to analyse the shape of parotoid glands ?
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Christopher James Evelyn I am thinking about both of them but mainly focusing on the positional status. Thanks for advices, i got them.
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We can observe this for example on the abdomen of Hermetia illucens. Do you have any knowledge in this field or articles?
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Chitin is colorless and translucent itself. Many arthropods have cuticle (both sclerites and membranes) entirely colorless and translucent. So it would be better to ask, why some insects have non-translucent fragments on cuticle (i.e., what is function of their cuticular pigments).
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Whether the changes in the cytoplasm and nucleus are symmetrical or they differ ? Whether the morphological changes are dose dependent ? or species dependent ?  
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Punjabi is the majority's first language in Pakistan. Unfortunately, it is not well-researched on linguistic grounds. For my PhD dissertation requirement, I need foreign evaluators as external examiner. I want to know if anyone of you is interested and ready to guide me during the process please.
Thanking you in anticipation.
Regards,
Mehwish Noor
PhD Candidate
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The topic is a little different and looks very interesting though! I would still suggest if you have little more in-depth meeting with your supervisor regarding this. The most worrisome concern for me, at this point of time, is whether or not you would be able to maintain the same level of interest for researching this issue in very limited sources available in a country like Pakistan. I seriously doubt and could see it that your interest might fade away having to see the extent of difficulty in the process of doing this research for next three to four years. This does not mean that there is any problem with what you have apparently decided to investigate. The trouble would be lack of academic support as well as resources!
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I synthesized some cadmium sulphoselenide crystal using hydro-thermal method with the starting materials of Na2S, CdSO4 and Se. Na2S was added into a solution which had CTAB dissolved previously, then Se powder was dissolved in the Na2S solution to form Na2S-Se solution. Then the prepared CdSO4 solution was added into the Na2S-Se solution by drop. The mixture was treated in polytetrafluoroethylene for 8h. CTAB was used as surface modifier, expecting to gain an even distributed spherical cadmium sulphoselenide crystals. But the morphology turned out to be less uniform, and without spherical morphology. Could someone give me some advice to improve the morphology of cadmium sulphoselenide?
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I recommend Marco's answer
Best Regards
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id like to know the similarities and differences of using morphological data vs molecular data for compiling a data matrix and conducting a phylogenetic analysis
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The major difference lies in the space of possible states and in the number of relevant levels of granularity and frames of reference. Whereas in molecular data at the nucleotide level the space is limited to only 4 different states (the 4 different nucleotide types), in morphology there is practically no such limitation. Moreover, whereas in molecular data you usually analyse the data either on the granularity level of individual nucleotides or on the level of amino acids. Different frames of reference are usually not used, but sometimes gene arrangement and 3d structure is also considered. In morphology, all different kinds of levels of granularity are considered, from the molecular level to the gross anatomy level. Moreover, different frames of reference can be considered, as for instance a purely spatio-structureal frame as opposed to a functional or a developmental frame.
All this affects the descriptive level as well as the analytical level in phylogenetic investigations. Molecular data can usually be described as a sequence of letters using a 4-letter code. This lends itself to very formalized descriptions of sequences. In morphology, we are dealing with a lack of such formalism. Instead, we are facing different terminological traditions that are often taxon-dependent, where the meaning of terms can vary between different authors and through time and where also homology considerations influenced terminology. No formalized standard exists for morphological descriptions.
In the step of character identification and homology assessment, using molecular data we must align sequences and then each nucleotide position in the sequence is a putative phylogenetic character with a set of 4 different possible character states. This can be easily formalized for phylogenetic algorithms to analyze the data. This is straight forward. In morphology, this step is tricky due to the space of possible states. The delimitation of characters is non-trivial and the different levels of granularity and frames of reference make it even more complicated. We have discussed these differences between morphological and molecular data in some detail in our 'The Linguistic Problem of Morphology' paper (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/215827731_The_linguistic_problem_of_morphology_Structure_versus_homology_and_the_standardization_of_morphological_data).
We are currently working on a solution for formalizing morphological descriptions using ontologies and semantic technology
Sorry for this somewhat longer post. I hope I have answered your question.
Regards Lars
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I think that morphology provides all the necessary data to define a species. DNA data is useless unless you don't know the exact species name.
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Morphological taxonomy is the first requirement. Without classical taxonomy it is impossible to carry out molecular Taxonomy I(it is like a Tyre you donot know which car it belongs to) . That correct identification is done by morphological characters and then the specimen is borcoded and the borcode is submitted. If some one identifying based on barcode which is present in BOLD / gene bank and the one who has submitted has missed correct identification, the exercise goes wrong. Therefore it is requested to go far correct identification seriously then only bar code and submit. If I have identified a specimen correctly and I try to match bar code of my specimen with already present in BOLD/ genebank, is wrong then I will land with many confusions like I will think mine is a new species etc. IT HAS TO BE DONE VERY CAREFULLY.
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Plant morphology manual.
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Hi Geonyzl,
Is everything going well with the organization of the plant morphology book?
I would love to collaborate. Thanks for the invitation.
My best,
M. Athaydes
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I have a diglossic situation, in which the main different between L and H seems to be in the realm of grammar (also vocabulary, but less so). Can you recommend any specific literature on that, especially contemporary theories? I have already covered most of the general literature on diglossia.
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Depending on the the grammatical structures you'd like to focus on, the answers will vary. However, here is a good resource on dimensions of register:
Dimensions of Register Variation: A Cross-Linguistic Comparison by Douglas Biber https://goo.gl/LaVxip
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 I am looking for any information on the morphological structure of Avicennia germinans (Black mangrove) below ground root structure.
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Thanks Dr Hudson.
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I have recently bought Aluminum fine powder, stabilized about 2% fat.CAS 7429-90-5 from Merck group. I thought the product should be gas-atomized but when I looked at the morphology under microscope, a flake to lath-like morphology was observed that even some of which where attached to each other similar to milled powders! Can anybody help me how (by which method) could they be produced?
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Dear Behzad,
The technology of Al-powder production is already very old. This is a large-scale production and can only be realized on large industrial aggregates. Ball mills are one of those machines and that's why, I'm pretty sure your powder was made this way. Of course, there are other ways to downsize aluminum powder, for example, attritors or jet mills, but only ball mills are used in large-capacity production.
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So I am doing an experiment involving endothelial cells (HMVECs) plated on top of Matrigel and am trying to look at the branching and morphological properties of the cells over a time period. I have been using Matrigel and see tube formation and structures very rapidly and want to slow down this process. Are there any known protocols for this such as a mixture of collagen and Matrigel? If so can someone help me find references.
I'm looking to see slower tube formation over a course of days not hours.
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Hi Danielle, have you seen the real vessel tube like structure after ECs culture on matrigel? How long did you culture? My guess is that ECs might group each other resembling vessels, what do you think? I may be wrong, ECs sprouts might form vessel like structure, in fact it might not be a real vessel. If there is a real vessel formation, you can control angiogenesis either by reducing the ECs numbers or using low concentration of matrigel or reducing both ECs number and matrigel concentration. Please update your successful attempt on how you control the rapid angiogenesis on matrigel substrata. Thanks.
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Does anyone see this morphology of the cells before? What kind of cells do they look like? liver cells, pancreatic cells or other kinds?
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The first one looks like fatty tissues cells with nuclei pushed to the periphery.
The 3rd one possibly may be liver tissue but without portal triad architecture.
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Might it be related to size and water filtration?
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One of the main challenges facing nanotechnology is the scale-up of currently used synthesis methods so as to reduce costs of production in the large scale. The presence of mathematical models and correlations, which enable calculation of morphology/size/properties directly from synthesis methods, will be very important.
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Mustafa,
this is a good question and hopefully you will get a lot of answers.
Personally, I would say NO and YES. All chemists and materials scientists at the moment are trying to control size and morphology. The properties are largely depending on the latter.
Although many have managed to reproduce relyably a specific material, say TiO2 in terms of size and morphology, there is no general model whatsoever beyond the classical description by Ostwald and LaMer. "CONTROL" in most cases simply means reproducability but not prediction.
A recent paper: underlines this nicely.
Best
AXEL
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what are the reasons for a change in powder morphology in a pervoskite system (ABO3)...I replaced some amount of A(+1) with A(+2) after calcination, I have observed the change in morphology from cube like shaped to rod like shaped..what me the possible reason for change in morphology....(Image S1 is the material with A(+1) and S5 is the material with A(+2))
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From your question it appears that you have changed the valency state of cation A in the two samples. If it is so then it is possible to have two different compounds after calcination, having the same cations. And if it is so then your crystal morphologies will be different. CONFIRM THRU XRD.
Also, if you are getting similar XRD patterns, still you can also have different morphology as your starting materials are different. CHECK, IN XRD SAME JCPDS FILE NO., AND INTENSITY OF THE PEAKS. PROBABLY PEAK HEIGHTS WILL BE DIFFERENT.
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Trying to isolate MSC from mice/ rat bone marrow. Upto second passage cells are proliferating and in good morphology. When I am trying to expand the cells (second passage) cells are not attaching or they are dead. None of the culture conditions were changed fro first or second passage except the flask area (T25 to T75). Please give some advice for this problem.
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Add 50 microM of beta-mercaptoethanol (final concentration) into the media. This will solve the problem.
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I've been reading the article: "Biological identifications through DNA barcodes" (Hebert et al, 2003), in the introduction, they explain that morphological based identification has four significant limitations, I found some articles that confirm three of them, but I cannot find any articles about "Genetic Variation".
I need an article that talks about issues that genetic variation could cause in morphological identification.
If you suggest me such articles, I'll be very thankful.
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To answer your question, several studies showed evidence for species differentiation identified by markers tracing speciation events at the genotype thet are not reflected in the usual diagnostic characters in some groups of ferns, such as the Asplenium nidus complex and the Asplenium normale complex to name only two. The reasons for the lack of correlation between speciation events and the establishment of morphological diagnostic features are complex. For example, reticulate evolution may cause the formation of intermediate forms that obscure the species differentiation using phenotypic data only. A similar pattern but totally different dynamics may be found in taxa that speciate only recently. Genetic markers may found them clearly segregated but phenotypic markers still show not clear distinction because of differences in the time intervals required to get the genotypic and phenotypic polymorphisms sorted. This is an interesting but still poorly understood issue that needs more attention.
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Hello everyone, I want to grow thin film on FTO using hydrothermal but the medium is highly basic so FTO looses even its own stability and tore down into small pieces. Now my question ' is there any most stable substrate that could even stable in highly basic conditions? because my sample with specific morphology could be obtained hydrothermally in highly basic medium like 16M KOH solution. If anyone could give some suggestions will be highly appreciated. Thank you
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Thank you Riley Rex. I will try it.
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  1. Moreover, as shown in Figure 7 (d), the morphologies of silica nanoparticles could be clearly seen, and the dispersion was remarkably uniform.
  2. The article can be viewed from the link below.
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I would like to image differentiated Caco2 cells grown on a transwell and stained with fluorophore (ie Phalloidin -Alexa 488) without perturping the 3D morphology of the cells.
I have read that you can cut with a scalpel the filter and place it on a glass slide. I gess I should than add antifadding, but then? Should I add a coverslip? Will the coverslip not scratch out the apical surface of the CaCo2 cells?
Do you have a protocol to recommand? any suggestions are welcome
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If you just put a drop of antifade, and then gently put the coverslip upside down to allow to sink by the viscous antifade. It will be OK.
Regards
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Current literature states that during apoptosis of microglial cells, the cell body can decrease in size, membrane blebbing can occur, and measures such as nuclear condensation, fragmentation can be observed.
I am wondering, during the apoptotic process (particularly early apoptosis) what the state of the microglial processes are in. Are any distinct morphology changes observed in contrast to non-apoptotic microglia? I have looked for some literature (hoping to find some cell reconstructions to answer this), however have not come across any or have missed it.
Any ideas?
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In addition to Sang Ho Lee's answer, you could also stain for cleaved PARP. You should see this early during apoptosis and it would let you distinguish apoptotic cells from non-apoptotic cells through other means than morphology. Based on timing, you could then determine whether there is a difference in the microglial processes. Good luck!
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Is there an index to calculate such trait variations in plants?
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Land equivalent ratio can be effectively used...
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Hello,
I am stacked in the nexus file for a combined data analysis on mrbayes It is not working and don"t know where is the mistake .... in the header or rather in the endblock ...
that's the content
#NEXUS
BEGIN DATA;
dimensions ntax=50 nchar=638;
format missing=?
interleave=yes datatype=mixed(DNA:1-627, Standard:628-638) gap=- match=.;
matrix
begin mrbayes;
outgroup S_long, S_minus, S_bail;
charset 28S = 1-627;
charset morphology = 628-638;
partition favored = 2: 28S, morphology;
set partition = favored;
lset applyto=(1) nst=2 rates=invgamma;
lset applyto=(2) rates=gamma;
unlink statefreq=(all) revmat=(all) shape=(all) pinvar=(all);
prset applyto=(all) ratepr=variable;
mcmcp ngen=100000 samplefreq=100 nchains=4;
end;
many thank's for your consideration I hope somebody can help me
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hello
many thank's for your answers I corrected my nexus file according to you ideas and I worked ..
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Hi, Is it possible to find a relationship between mitochondrial dna sequence and any morphological variations in human? for example the high or the shoulder width. I did look around but I did not find answer.
Thank you
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Thank you Gary for answering. I immediately take a look at the paper.
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We washed ZnO thin films with acetone. We use stream of N2 gas to dry the thin films and to remove some organic compounds from the reaction. Some organic compounds might still be present after.
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I perfectly agree with Dr. Yuriy Kudriatvtsev. Nowadays microwave plasma cleanaing appratus, or simple cleaning at a very very low power especially in oxygen plasma even in a rf sputtering system would be greatly beneficial. In my case during ZnO deposition by rf sputtering, despite cleaning the substrate thoroughly in a variety of solvent, and extended vapor degreasing in (TCE, acetone, and IPA), I found after loading the substrates into the sputtering system, a simple insitu plasma cleaning treatment at a very low power (25 to 50 W) in oxygen for about 5 to 10 minutes, really produced a very very clean surface. Definitely such a treatment will not etch your film and disturb the morphology, provided you maintain very low powers, and do the cleaning for very short times.
K. Sreenivas
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During solidification, solidification structure can be changed by temperature gradient and velocity of liquidus isotherm at solid/liquid interface.
I have an idea about its morphological change by relationship between temperature gradient and velocity of liquidus isotherm.
However, I want to know that which factors can make slower or faster the velocity of liquidus isotherm (so called as solidification rate or growth rate) during solidification ?
Please let me know if someone have an idea for that.
Thanks a lot.
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Hello
By controlling the velocity of truth, it is possible to form desired phase and structural changes in the metals. You can cool at high speed then the material will remain phases characteristic of high temperatures. Heat treatments can then be performed to reduce internal peaks and to form the structure.
At low speeds of realism (throwing in a furnace) then a uniform structure is guaranteed. If it is carried out in vacuum to ensure non-oxidized thermal treatment.
Wishing for success in scientific and research work.
With respect
Emil Yankov
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I believe that I have both species in different vermicomposters that I am using for practical classes of Environmental Biotechnology with my students. The colors are different between both species, but this probably is not a good feature. Apparently, E.fetida is light red and with more visible rings. The back part is yellowish. Are these features enough or I need more reliable characteristics such as clitellum position?
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At the moment there is no morphological differences. Previously it was thought that E. fetida is a stripy worm and E. andrei is uniformly coloured (red) this is why its first (but unavailable) name was E. unicolor.
Recently, investigating Iranian samples we have shown, that all the material (both striped and with uniform colour) belong molecularly to the E. andrei clade. So the only way is barcoding which is quite consistent showing two highly divergent Mt. clades.
To Anoop: It is not surprising that veneta differs from fetida/andrei; it belongs to a different genus Dendrobaena for a long time but erroneously time to time appears under the name E. veneta in the literature.
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Hello,
There are some cracks on surface and cross section of our produced ceramic coating and they vary in number, length, and morphology. We don't know how to characterize them properly.
Can anyone give some suggestions?
Your help will be very appreciated.
Kind Regards,
Yitian
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Cross sectioning and sem microscopy should give you good indications about their exact size. Check also the orientation of them and where they are located, along grain boundaries if they grow within your material, what microstructural features they follow. You can also do a chemical analysis at the cracked regions to see if the chemical compositiin plays a role.
But in general size orientation and the microstructural 'weak' features it follows are the important parameters.
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Bone marrow aspiration of a 84-yer-old man with anemia (HGB 100g/L), leukocytosi (75x109/L) and thrombocytopenia (47x109/L). Blast cells in PB 37%. In the attached photos some microscopic field of PB (1) and of bone marrow (2-3).
I would like to discuss about this case with RG community
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The morpholgical features of monocytes had been described in the WHO 2008 classification to differentiate monoblasts from pro-monocytes and pro-monocytes from abnormal monocytes (figure 1). Pro-monocytes are considered "monoblasts equivalents" when the percentage of blasts is required for the diagnose of different types of acute leukemias of monocyte lineage. It's important that abnormal monocytes are excluded from the blasts count.
Previous photos are from an acute monoblastic leukemia (acute myeloid leukemia not otherwise specified in the WHO classification; M5b in the FAB classification) and constitute an interesting exercise to distinguish different types of monocytes. In the figure 2, a naphtyl butyrate esterase staining of bone marrow.
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After treating a compound to my cells, I noticed that cells died in a way I have never seen before (see the attached image - panel A). I don't think its apoptosis (apoptosis look like panel B). Basically, a single huge vesicle contains cell fragments. Any idea based on the morphological features? Thanks very much for your insights.
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I think Olena is on the right path. I believe this death is called oncotic necrosis. Looks like giant blebs are forming. Something is either preventing the primary Na/K pump from working or energy production is severely impaired.
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2D area is calculated from a flat surface in plan view. 3D area takes into account 3D characteristics of the surface. A 3D polygon with peaks and valleys will have a larger 3D surface area then a flattened "plan view representation" of the same polygon in 2D.
How can I calculate 3D surface area base on slope in GIS for each morphological units in watershed? Are there any different methods that help me to calculate 3D surface in morphological units?
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Dear Reuben Reyes, thank you for your attention and your help.
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Dear Sandra,
When we talk about homophones; don't you think that we are talking semantics or phonetics rather than morphology or psycholinguistics?
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Dear Ali, In Macedonia' s literature homophones are elaborated in the part that cope with lexical issue. But, one angle of dealing with homophones can be semantics too. It depends on the aspect from which you are approaching,
Kind regrads,
V. Janusheva
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Hello, in order to measure the dry mass concentration in the fermentation broth, It is well-known that we should draw the calibration curve correlating cell concentration with absorbance deviates from a linear correlation y=ax+b. However, the value of a and b is variable, depends on yeast morphology and nature and even the growth phase.In my case, I used commercial dry yeast after 6 hours of incubation to draw the following calibration curve where a=1.07 which represents a significant difference with other works where a was around 0.34. I have double-confirmed and got same results.Does my calibration curve seem correct?
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Hi there,
Basically OD of cell suspension is actually a measurement of light diffusion due to the cells rather than light absorption. So the result depends on the geometry of the spec (if PM is farther from the cuvette, OD is bigger) which is not standardized (distance between PM and cuvette is not a constant therefore the same sample will give different OD value depending on this distance). So comparing data is complicated if they haven't been collected with the same apparatus.
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My question concerns with the field of spider taxonomy. It seems to be a neccessity (never observed anything to the contrary) to include descriptions of only mature specimens for a taxonomic publication on spiders. Sometimes, however, extremely rare specimens are encountered in the field for which mature specimens may not be found. My question is that is it acceptable to at least include those specimens in one's thesis work? Perhaps pertaining to a description of up to the genus level and not till the species level (as that requires the evaluation of genitalic morphology). Im particularly looking for a reply from thesis evaluators of the field. Thank you.
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Dear Kumail,
Yes, if they are identifiable to the family or genus level, they can be included in the thesis and even your paper (by mentioning them as e.g. Araneus sp., Araneidae gen. sp.), it would only be problematic if one tries to designate a new name on the basis of juvenile specimens (in other words, describe a new species. I personally haven't seen this happen in modern arachnology, only in old papers) which could potentially lead to several nomen dubia.
Best,
Alireza
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can i find difference in morphology and biological properties between the same peptides but differ in stereochemistry ( L and D form) or it should be have the same properties?
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Although it is fully understood that a L- and D- amino acids are have different spectral and physical properties than DL-amino acids,  less known is that an equimolar mixtures of L and DL amino acids often also have very different spectral and physical properties than either pure L or a racemic  DL mixture.
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I am working with modified KPC cell lines. When I revived my cells, most of the cells were already stressed.(probably they were stressed while making the stock itself). After 2 days of reviving also there are only few cells with good morphology. Rest of the cells are rounded and are stressed. I do not have more stocks of these cells. So is it possible to get rid of all stressed cells from this flask by giving media change everyday or so?
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Thanks for the suggestion. I am trying the same. It is getting better but still the problem exists.
KPC lines do attach. The problem is not all those stressed cells detach and float. So it is difficult to get rid of all stressed cells.
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references would be appreciated .i am looking for justifications on crystal growth and comparison with temperature.thanks in advance
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Dear Saba Aziz,
your question is very interesting but is very complex as well. The growth morphology of a crystal depends on the ratios between the different growth rates of its faces. THe growth rate of a face depends, in turn, on its surface structure, on the supersaturation of the mother phase and on the temperature (when working in the absence of impurities, of course). The dependence on the Temperature is an exponential dependence concerning the activation energies for a growth unit to enter the kinks in the growing steps of a face...and so on.  The best way is to study an interesting book:
 Crystal Growth for Beginners
Fundamentals of Nucleation, Crystal Growth and Epitaxy 
2nd Edition, WORLD SCIENTIFIC
By (author): Ivan V Markov (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria)
This is the first-ever textbook on the fundamentals of nucleation, crystal growth and epitaxy. It has been written from a unified point of view and is thus a non-eclectic presentation of this interdisciplinary topic in materials science. The reader is required to possess some basic knowledge of mathematics and physics. All formulae and equations are accompanied by examples that are of technological importance. The book presents not only the fundamentals but also the state of the art in the subject. The second revised edition includes two separate chapters dealing with the effect of the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier for down-step diffusion, as well as the effect of surface active species, on the morphology of the growing surfaces. In addition, many other chapters are updated accordingly. Thus, it serves as a valuable reference book for both graduate students and researchers in materials science.
All the best !!!
Dino
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Based on morphological and molecular characteristics AM fungi move forward to a phylum with 214 species belonging to 19 genera, 13 families, 4 orders and 1 class. Among them which species are considered to be noble and more efficient for sustainable agriculture?
What is the outcome of platitudinous AM fungi global assessment?
Why it is difficult to quantify the economic benefits of using mycorrhizal inoculum in agricultural ecosystem?
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Sustainable agriculture is implemented through an integrated concept of production. Do I have enough material on this production if you are interested?.
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Dear all, I used metal ions and amino acid complexes to synthesize metal complexes with good morphology. I ask you how to analyze his structure. What kind of characterization do I need to use?
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Dear Haifeng,
It really depends on what you want to know. For example, if you are interested in the morphology of your compound, you can try SEM. TEM is also a good analysis presenting an image with the deepness of the compound. For characterization, usually CHN, EDX and IR are reported in the articles. For IR, you should take an IR from your ligand (amino acid) and one from the complex and then compare them and see the shifting in the peaks. H NMR can be also very helpful in this case. If you are eager about thermal stability of your compound, then you should apply for a TGA analysis. Finally the most important technique:  X-ray. The real structure and actual geometry of your complex can present by X-ray so try to make a single crystal from your complex. 
Cheers,
Ashkan
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We have got a case of human gential myiasis. We have got 6-7 maggots from the lesion. Can the fly be identified by looking at the morphology of these maggots?
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There are several papers on flies/worms related to human genital myiasis, but species ID would be difficult. Smith (1989) has an entire chapter devoted to diptera and myiasis. You may check that book available online (see below). As already said by Shuvra, photo's may help.
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In the attached photos we can see some cells having similar morphology that in a 65 old years man with middle anaemia (90 g/L) were 23% of a total 5200 lymphocytes. What suggest these?
Because I know the final diagnosis, this is a further contribution to the discussion  and sharing of professional experiences in haematological morphology.
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Hi Antonio,
Prolymphocytic leukaemia (PLL) is my first differential. Meanwhile, does the patient has organomegaly, especially splenomegaly?
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I'm more concerned about the morphology. I have grouped the lithologies under migmatites, schist and granites. I see differences in downstream hydraulic geometry but incision in depth seems to be more in different series of migmatites and granites.
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Thanks alot
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When I prepared my solution in different values of pH (neutral,basic and acidic), I observed that the solution with a neutral pH gave a small particles compared at basic and acidic pH . Then ,what the relation betwen pH of solution and the variation the size of the particles? Is there an empirical relationship that explains this problem? thank you very much.
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Hello, 
You should have mentioned what type of particles you are working with. What you observe depends on the material of the nanoparticles. In the past i had investigated this effect for the case of gold nanoparticles protected by citrate ions. We found that in that particular case the protonation of the citrate ions was the reason why the size changed with pH. 
You may find this article useful. 
pH tunable morphology of the gold nanoparticles produced by citrate reduction
Materials Chemistry and Physics
Volume 108, Issue 1, 15 March 2008, Pages 45-54
Other people have investigated this effects
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For instance, the addition of oxygen during plasma deposition may result in a smooth and dense film. I am curious not only about the density, but any other possible morphological differences between the films deposited with and without a presence of a gas during plasma treatment.
Thank you in advance for the response.
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Partial pressure ratio of Argon and oxygen may also be 3:2 or 2:1.Oxygen is generally used to restore the oxygen content in the material like YBCO(123) during deposition.Argon is suitable as it is non-reactive with the composition of the target.
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I used mTeSR1 to culture my iPSCs and ReLeSR to passage them, they look quite good for some time. But since last week, I noticed that their morphology changed a lot. Fig1 is from last week, Fig2 is from this week, and Fig3 is larger magnification of today's culture. I can see that the nuclei is still quite large, but I don't know if they are normal iPSCs. I don't know if it is because of the medium, it's been in the fridge for 20 days. 
Could anyone give any suggestion? Do they look differentiated already?
Thanks a lot!
Xuezhi
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Hi Xuezhi,
As Justyna mentioned, only the cells in Fig.1 looks like healthy, undifferentiated iPSC. The other seem more like neural stem cell cultures (in Fig.3 there is a small colony tightly attached, still looking like undifferentiated but the other cells around are far too part apart for a good iPSc colony).
As a reason I can think of the medium kept in the fridge so long -  I also use mTeSR1 but do not keep it for more than 2 weeks once thawed. So please use a new aliquot. Do you seed your cells on matrigel? Make sure your coating is supporting the cells (i.e. if you changed to a new batch or different procedure for the coating, etc.)
Hope these will help -  good luck!
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I have tested my titanium alloys samples (with 8 mm in diameter and 14 mm length), but all the samples did not fail when tested at 100 kN load.
As my samples did not break during mechanical testing, can I perform SEM fracture morphology on these non-failed titanium alloys samples by cutting it from the centre and then polish it? 
If yes then please suggest how can evaluate those SEM Images. 
Thanks a lot
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When you are preparing your sample by cutting and polishing, you are imposing sample prep artifacts that may have been created during cutting, grinding and polishing. For fracture fractography, you should look at the surface without any external mechanical preparation. If you had some SEM images of a cut samples before test, you can compare the before and after SEM images to see if any compression mark/induced stress region could be observed. However, it will be nothing conclusive. COuld you please let me know why you can not increase the load or change the geometry and break the alloy and do the fractography? There is a known strength of the alloy, I guess.
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Though morphology of the true branched cyanobacteria is indeed tough and there do exist differences of opinions but as I can see, even the phylogenetic information is equally confusing, probably more because of the wrongly identified strains. Is there any way out?
I mean when we can club together our findings and go ahead with solving this problem.
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It is quite clear even from Komarek (2013) that a lot of revision is indeed needed.
Anyways thanks a lot for your answer.
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how to avoid needle shape morphology(low toughness)?
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Good publications attached above but iron comes from the bauxite ore and ferrous metals such as melting tools and dies, and is one of the most troublesome impurities in aluminum cast materials.