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Molten Salts - Science topic

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Please refer to the photo attached. I am currently trying to determine my ionic conductivity with Galvanostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (GEIS) with a 3 electrode setup.
Cathode and Anode are stainless steel, PP as the separator, and molten salts + lithium salt as the electrolyte.
The frequency range is from 1Hz to 1MHz, with 10mV AC amplitude.
May I know what caused the negative impedance value on both of the axis, and what caused the spiral behaviour in the high frequency? Please refer to the photo attached.
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Dear Tommy Lee,
please take a look at Figure 12 of the following application note:
This high-frequency spiral is probably an artefact from your reference electrode. The solution is to have a capacitor in parallel of your reference that plays the role of an AC bypass for high-frequency measurements.
Best regards,
Nicolas
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Hello Everyone,
I would like to know the various molten salts in CSP Plants for TES and have greater stability at higher operating temperatures. Are there any actual working or Prototype for these plants other than Solar and Hitec Solar Salt and if so could you please share the working conditions of those plants.
Regards.
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Salt stores heat at night; kindly refer to my article about solar concentrator mirrors and their industrial use.
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A ceramic material (Carbide) is synthesized using the molten salt (NaCl-KCl) method. After heating at 1000 degrees it is then naturally cooled down to room temperature. Now I need to remove the excess salt. How do I remove it? Any methods to effectively remove these salts. Kindly enlighten me
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Hmm... I think B. Srikanth Ragunath asked the question because she suspects her carbide is water-sensitive. If so, other options can be methanol, or - if OH groups have to be avoided - formamide or acetamide.
Also, bear in mind that the solubility of the salts in these solvents, while significant, is lower than in water, so the dissolution will take a long time. To facilitate it, the ratio between surface area and volume should be maximized (one should avoid compact "lumps" of frozen melt), and of course strong agitation is beneficial.
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Dear researchers, is there anyone who know the chemical exergy amount of "Molten salt" (60NaNO3_40KNO3) which use in the solar towers.. .
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Can i find any DSC For binary salt LiNO3,KNO3 to see the phase change on it
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I found the following two papers that might be of interest to you:
Coscia, K., Neti, S., Oztekin, A., Nelle, S., Mohapatra, S., & Elliott, T. (2011, January). The thermophysical properties of the NaNO3-KNO3, LiNO3-NaNO3, and LiNO3-KNO3 systems. In ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (Vol. 54907, pp. 889-894). (see enclosed file).
Zhang, X., Xu, K., & Gao, Y. (2002). The phase diagram of LiNO3–KNO3. Thermochimica acta, 385(1-2), 81-84. (see enclosed file).
Best regards.
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According to attached photo i find all molten salt is mix salt from the same family
like nitrate or carbonates or fluorides and so on .......
so why i don not find molten salt as mix between nitrate and carbonates or in general mix between different family
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Same family but different thermophysical properties. All Molten salts can operate at higher temperature than thermal oil which increases efficiency but molten salts has high freezing point which means an auxilliary heating system is required to avoid freezing.
This is why other fluids that can operate at even higher temperature are now being inveatigated.
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Many Research Articles are describing the salt bed for placing the samples and is placed in an alumina crucible and heated to several degrees. I need an answer in preparing the salt bed in which composition and ratio?
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First step is to identify the temperature at which you are going to carryout the synthesis (melting temperature of reactants).
Secondly you have to prepare various percentage compositions of KCl and NaCl like 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60...
Finally you have to find out the melting point of all the Eutectic compositions using TRANSITION TEMPERATURE apparatus then you can select the right composition of Eutectic Mixture.
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Dear all: I want to simulate the storage tank of molten salt for 4 hours without any new molten salt feeding in. But the Hysys programe there is a continuous feeding in of the molten salt which means that the storage tank will always be filled with 100 % molten salt. I am trying to simulate the noncontinuous feeding in the tank to set a limit for 4 hours, so I can see the different result from the simulation. Your suggestion on the matter would be very much appreciate.
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Can you show me the tutorial to make this simulation.thanks
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Can single crystal materials be prepared via electrochemistry in aqueous solutions, ionic liquids or molten salts?I have hardly seen any reports on this, may I ask why this is? I look forward to your answers and comments! It would also be helpful if any book or article is shared which explains these details.
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The electrolysis method is used to produce polycrystalline metals, such as silver catalyst, which is used to convert methanol to formaldehyde and the particle size is controlled by changing the current, voltage and concentration of Ag+ in the solution. Because these items and conditions of the electrolysis solution are constantly changing, it is difficult to prepare monocrystals materials. preparation of monocrystals materials severely depends on purity of solution, temperature and time.
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I am thinking about working on solar furnace with heliostats that concentrate sunlight and heat molten salt, but currently no luck with research. Not a lot of papers based on the subject. (check out solar furnace at Odeillo). My group wants to work on something like that, with max temperature to be around 800-1000 deg Celsius.
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I would like to pay your attention to the of Energy by Fricke et al: https://www.osti.gov/etdeweb/biblio/5816597
It contains a chapter about solar concentrators.
You can refer also to this paper which treats solar concentrators with high concentration ratio:
In addition to solar radiation concentration you have to control the heat lossess from the furnace.
Best wishes
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Are there any handbooks or websites for checking the dissolubility of metal oxides or metal carbonates in various molten salts? If there are, could you give me some recommendation?
Thank you very much
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The formation of a ceramic layer on the carbon steel surface is proposed as a method to protect carbon steel against corrosion by molten salt at high temperature > 500°C. Has anyone the expertise to explain the protection mechanisms and the effectiveness of the protection method?
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Basically the idea of the protection layer is to form an oxide (or any non-metallic system) layer (or film or coating) over the steel. In your case for high-temperature applications, the refractory ceramic oxide layers are preferable over others. For example, refractory ceramic oxides like Al2O3, Cr2O3, CaCO3, etc could be used for many years in certain applications. These oxides exhibit much higher corrosion-resistance against molten salts, slags, and glass, and thus used for high-temperature process industries & pyrometallurgical operations due to high thermal & chemical stability, as well as low cost. Please find a paper attached for the more detailed mechanism (note: CaCO3 could decompose beyond 700 degrees centigrade).
I hope it would be helpful.
Thanks & regards
MN
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I measure the specific heat capacity (Cp) of molten salt using MDSC. Thus, I need to know how to calculate the Uncertainty of these measures.
Thank you.
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Dear Marllory, for cp-uncertainty determination I refer to or book "Differential Scanning Calorimetry" (see attached Flyer) in particular see chapter 7.3.
Good luck! Günther Höhne
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HTF is one of the most important components for overall performance and efficiency of CSP systems. Since a large amount of HTF is required to operate a CSP plant, it is necessary to minimize the cost of HTF while maximizing its performance. This means that we are looking for an HTF with the Characteristics:
- Low melting point.
- High boiling point and thermal stability.
- Low vapor pressure (<1 atm) at high temperature.
- Low corrosion with metal alloys used to contain the HTF.
- Low viscosity.
- High thermal conductivity.
- High heat capacity for energy storage.
- Low cost.
Can I find an open-source software to simulate the thermo-physical properties of a mixture of Molten Salts as a Heat Transfer Fluid?
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I think LAMMPS, the molecular dynamics package, can compute most of the above mentioned thermo-fluid properties.
My best regards
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I need a software to simulate a electrolysis process in a molten salt I need to know regards flow simulation and reaction inside crucible and usual flowsheet, because we have to add to this system others elements in the plant which could be in aspen hysys.
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I hope this paper can be useful in your research:
• Numerical Simulation of Temperature Field in Electrolytic Bath for Preparing Rare Earth Cerium by Molten Salt Electrolysis.
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I have prepared the stable water-in-oil Pickering emulsion by using stearic acid-modified CaCO3 nanoparticles. The oil phase is toluene and the dispersed phase is deionized water. I want to use this approach to make the microcapsule containing molten salt. Will an addition of salt (NaCl, NaNO3,....) destabilize the water-in-oil Pickering emulsion system above? I just need a small amount of molten salt to be encapsulated.
Thank you so much.
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It is possible that a large amount of stearic acid and salt will contribute to the usual stabilization of the emulsion by means of a surfactant (stearic soap).
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The history of molten salts research and applications is very long, but ionic liquids have attracted far more attention, particularly since early 1990s when room temperature molten organic salts were reported. Without using a furnace, experiments in ionic liquids become more convenient, although applications of ionic liquids are still at much smaller scales compared to those of molten salts. Nevertheless, apart from melting temperatures, research in the past three decades has revealed more contrary properties between these two types of liquid salts, such as ionic conductivity, viscosity and chemical stability. Discussions and debates have continued globally, but in the UK scientists gather twice a year to report and exchange views on research and technological development involving either or both liquid salts. Such a discussion is to take place in Churchill College, University of Cambridge between 12-14 (Monday to Wednesday) August 2019 (https://www.msdg.uk/summer-2019-research-meeting) when famous scientists, such as Prof. Sadoway (molten salts) and Welton (ionic liquids) will lead the discussions.
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Very high concentrations of salts in water or other liquids could be called liquid salts but they are not molten salts. Molten salts such as LiNO3-KNO3 or LiCl-KCl do not contain any added liquids. They contain only positive and negative ions in a liquid form. Ionic liquids are quite different and are not true molten salts and should not be labeled as such.
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The thermal radiation transfer in molten salt is usually neglected in researches. Does anyone knows the reason ?
Are there any research (experimental data) focusing on the absorption coefficient of molten salt(Hitec, solar salt, etc.) in the wavelength of 2-15 um?
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T. H. Al-Noor Thank you for your recommendation. From its abstrat, it is found that the molten salt is analyzed within the solar spectrum, not in the IR range.
Thank you.
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Thorium MSRs can be built on an assembly line very much quicker and cheaply than conventional uranium reactors. A fast track to mitigating climate change
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Many thanks for the various replies. Admiral Rickover’s essay seemed to me to reflect some confusion. He seems somewhat scornful of “academic” studies "The academic-reactor designer is a dilettante" But theoretical studies are needed to provide basis for design. You cannot make a reactor on the basis of trial and error. He defines the characteristics for an “academic” reactor as being:
  • It is simple.
  • It is small.
  • It is Cheap.
  • It is light.
  • It can be built very quickly.
  • It is very flexible in purpose ("omnibus reactor").(
  • Little development is required. It will use mostly “off-the-shelf” components.
Exactly what a thorium MSR could achieve.
Thanks also for link to latest World Nuclear Association.
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molten salt chlorination process of TiO2?
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actually my major problem is the corrosion which happens to the reactor material at almost 1000 centigrade in presence of molten salt and chlorine gas injection through the reactor.
can lead me in reactor material selection or coating or any suggesting technique in order to fight the destructive corrosion during this process?
i have no idea about the base material, coatings, refractories or other treatments in this respect.
do you know that in industry and corporations which are doing molten salt chlorination what is the reactor material and coating and refractories?
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my major problem is with the corrosion of reactor in high temperature and presence of chlorine and molten salt
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Dear Imad Disher,
thanks for your suggestion
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molten salt chlorination process of TiO2?
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Dear Luma M. Ahmed,
thanks for your answer,
but what i mean is high temperature chlorination of titanium ore by passing cl2 bubbles through molten salt which leads to the formation of Tio2 pigments
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Hello
I'm trying to synthesise CCTO using the molten salt approach. The reactants used are CaO, CuO and TiO2. The salts I've tried so far were KCl and KBr (3x weight of reactants). First I grind the reactants in agate mortar, then I add the salt and mill the mixture using ZrO2 ball mill with ZrO2 balls in methanol for 4h. After milling and drying the mixture is placed in corundum crucible and calcinated in 800oC for 5 hours. After calcination the powder is sintered, gray-ish black inside and white/a bit green-ish on the outside, where it had access to air. After grinding and XRD examination there's no sign of CaCu3Ti4O12 phase. I would be greatful for any advice regarding this particular problem and molten salt synthesis in general.
Thanks in advance
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You maintain proper stoichiometric ratio among the reactant, cacination, sintering temperature, detention time.
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How can I generate 3D conformation ionic liquids or molten salts to be analyzed in DFT calculations?
I want to generate conformers with different relative positions of the cation and anion.
If any knows help me
Regards.
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Dear Daniel Moreno,
Use Genertae conformer module (incorporated in the Discovery Studio software) to generate 3D conformers of ionic liquids.
Thanks,
Best wishes,
Sk. Abdul Amin
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I am doing electrochemical experiments in molten salts between 600-800C. I need a platinum electrode, but I cannot afford to have a 25cm length of platinum wire coming out of my furnace. My hope is to weld 3-5cm of platinum to another metal (such as tungsten) to connect to my potentiostat.
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It is very strange. I cannot make full answer. May be it is problems with system…
We used spark welding in similar case, in a strong solution of rock salt, or in a powder of carbon (as this method applied for to tungsten, carbon cannot be used, because tungsten forms brittle carbides). One copper wire is connected with other end of tightly twisted wires (in this case platinum and tungsten, since platinum is much softer, it makes sense coil it tightly exactly onto the end of tungsten wire, which must be previously cleaned with fine sandpaper). Second contact is connected with metal cup with few grams of solution of rock salt. You should (using the welding glasses) to touch gently the surface of the solution with the end of twisting pair and keep the spark that appeared for a fraction of a second. This is task for good hands and eyes... Voltage on the contacts should be about 30-40 volts (AC). We used laboratory regulable transformer for this task. Unfortunately, the voltage at the contacts and the time of confinement of the spark are experimental parameters. As a result, the metal ball should form at the end of the twisting wires. It makes sense to start from a lower voltage, because a small ball can be increased during the next attempts, but to connect the burnt wire if the voltage was too great already will not be possible...
Alternative is soldering of twisted wires with silver or even palladium solder (they exist).
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Dear experts,
I am trying to study the affect of Zinc doped BeO, as far as I know, beryllium oxide have a large band gap about 10 eV, while ZnO have 3.3 eV, both of them crystallize in wurtzite structure.. and there is a large mismatch between Be ionic radius (0.27) and Zn ionic radius (0.6).. Can I force Zn atom to replace the Be atom in the unit cell to produce a doped powder...
Any suggestion will be really helpful...
Best regards...
mohammed
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Remember that beryllium compounds are highly toxic and exercise great care in their use especially in aerosolized form.
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Molten Salt can reach a temp above 550 C in this type of Heliostat Solar Tower. So this heat source should cause a high temp inlet temp heat input for the ORC cycle (Lets say R245fa is the W/F here). But we also know that, over 400 C, Organic fluids are thermally unstable.
The project I'm dealing with already proposed Solar Tower as the Heat source using molten salt that'll be integrated with an ORC.
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If you have this level of temperature, the steam Rankine cycle technology can work more efficiently than the ORC. This last is more suitable for temperatures in the range of 80-350C. Above this range, the organic fluids are chemically unstable.
This is some papers can help you:
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I am looking to simulate the properties like thermal conductivity and heat capacity of different ionic liquids.
I also need to build my theoratical background in this area so advice in this regard is also appreciated.
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You can use LAMMPS simulation package. Refer attachment.
S. Plimpton, Fast Parallel Algorithms for Short-Range Molecular Dynamics, Journal of Computational Physics.  117 (1), 1995:1-19. doi:10.1006/jcph.1995.1039
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Standard ultrasonic velocity transducers can work up to 60°C ambient temperature. However, for high temperature application (i.e. molten salt and metals) measurement of high temperatures (up to 500°C) are sometimes necessary. Are you aware of any research grade ultrasonic velocity transducers (2 MHz or 4 MHz) with BNC connector - compatible for use in such an application?
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One method is already suggested by Dr. Swaminathan.K  and other methos is using wave guide technique with thin sheet wave guide. In this technique transducer can be mounted outside the high temperature area.
regards.
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This compound is produced in situ from the Al-Ni powders so that it is surrounded by liquid Al simultaneously.
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Commonly intermetallic compounds does not pose any wettability issues if synthesized by reactions during casting. As per established phase diagrams, there are thermally in equilibrium with molten aluminum. But the temperature should be sufficient to decompose the metal particles and form the desired intermetallic.  
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Absorption of about 10ppm is required.
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Since middle kingdom in Egypt sodium salt has been decomposed by fire to make acid gas and soda ash. Aluminum process is more extreme, but some sodium may be found in the aluminum. Usually the alumina should be purified of unwanted impurities before electro smelting.
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I am student doing masters thesis work. Project topic- Design of solar thermal storage facility for 50 MW solar thermal power plant.
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CSP molten salt 
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 Can you use beryllium fluoride or beryllium oxide?
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Hello everyone, I calculated the standard rate constant of Tb3+ at the liquid Zn electrode in LICl-KCl melt by CV. The result is about ~10-4 cms-1. I found some standard rate constants on the inert electrode in various molten salt, which these values are calculated to be 10-2 ~ 10-3 cms-1. And it makes me wonder that this parameter at liquid Zn electrode is smaller than that on the inert electrode. Is this normal? What is the real reason for the  case? Thanks!
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@ Lixia Luo, thank you for your explanation, and I think you can modify your question (edit) so that others will not be confused.
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I read some papers about molten-salt electrolysis. But most of them are used chloride,e.g. KCl-NaCl as eletrolyte. Why sulfate are not used as eletrolyte? In water environment, I know that chloride solution has less resistance , and better electrowinning efficiency than sulfate solution in electrowinning process (like MnSO4 and MnCl2 solution ). But there are still some sulfate used for electrowinning. 
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Sulfates are volatile. 
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Molten nitrate salt corrosion of steels at high temperatures. Presently I am immersing my samples in molten salt in a Boat. But I am suspecting some hanging the samples can improving my experiments. But not sure. Can any one tell me which is the best and why?  
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If you hang the samples are only about half in molten salt, you can analyze the corrosion on the three-phase boundary (steel-molten salt-air). Steel corrodes more rapidly on the three phase boundary and above the level of molten salt than in the melt.
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I already checked corrosion with SS316L, SS316, SS304, copper ,brass and aluminum. but short time test. All materials has corrosion because of high temperature.I want to construct the experimental device and want to study the melting and solidification characteristics of this mixture. I want to search appropriate material of test section for molten salt mixture to prevent corrosion.
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please try glassy carbon if money is not an issue.
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Can anyone share comsol .MPH file for electrodeposition or consult me on how one can do it. I've got a molten salt electrolyte LiOH, KOH and MnCL2 at 280 deg C. I need to examine how concentration gradient of depositions/deposition rates are affected as I change some material and process conditions. Help!
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Dear Aneil
Just go through the Application Gallery of COM-SOL software and there you can find at least 17 types of electrode-position mph files, select accordingly to your requirement. 
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 Carbonaceous material is synthesized in molten salt. 
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Hi, This is good source for you:
Molten Salts Chemistry and Technology-Wiley (2014).pdf
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I would like to use a NaNO3/KNO3 (46:54 by weight) molten salt bath to heat up to 300C. I will be using standard 100ml round bottom flasks.
Can someone with experience with salt baths advise me on any safety hazards associated with them?
How do you heat the baths? Can I use a standard hotplate?
Can I use a standard crystallization dish as a container for the salt bath? If no what type of container should I use?
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You will need to do this in a programable verticle tube furnace with a sealable reactor that allows the applicaiton of a controlled atmosphere (e.g. Ar or N2), and better avoid any reductive agent (e.g. H2, hydrocarbons,and reactive metals). You should also use an alumina crucible to contain the molten salt and place the crucible and its content inside the sealable reactor. 
Please do not do this in an open atmosphere. The hotplate suggestion is not safe.
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What is a suitable stainless steel alloy that resist against sever basic condition?
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At what temperature? Stainless steel is not typically a good choice of material for molten NaOH. Typically a binary nickel alloy or zirconium is used. See the following link: http://naca.central.cranfield.ac.uk/reports/1958/naca-tn-4157.pdf.
Rob
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LiCl-KCl+UCl3 is used as electrolyte in a electrorefiner for separating uranium from spent nuclear fuel.
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This calculation to be published soon
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I have found different combinations / proportions provided in the literature for the Hitec XL commercial ternary nitrate mixture salt.
Ca:K:Na-NO3 (wt%) ==> 44:44:12 (Sandia National Labs), 48:45:7 (Kearney Associates) and few more.
Can anybody tell me the correct combination of Hitec XL commercial ternary nitrate mixture salt?
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FWIW it seems that Abengoa (specifically Dylan Grogan) is also happy to use the 48:45:7 composition, as per http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1090096/, which cites Bradshaw and Siegel [1] as their source. And I note that Siegel used to work in the CSP group at Sandia...
[1] R. W. Bradshaw and N. P. Siegel, “MOLTEN NITRATE SALT DEVELOPMENT FOR THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN PARABOLIC TROUGH SOLAR POWER SYSTEMS”, Energy Sustainability 2008, ES2008-54174, A.S.M.E.
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Is there any method available to keep the salt being molten efficiently?
Take an example of sodium-nickel-chloride battery (ZEBRA battery): It operates at temperature of about 245°C where molten sodium aluminum chloride is used for electrolyte with melting temperature of 157°C.
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Pavel is right in that the joule heat from the charging or discharging current passing through molten salt is a desirable way of heating. Then, the job is down to a good engineer to balance heat transfer in all aspects, but use of a minimal amount salt is surely crucial.
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Normally impedance spectra are used for computing electrical conductivity of molten salts, whose conductivity is a few S/cm. I want to know a simple approach which can measure the conductivity of a molten salt directly, like aqueous solutions.
Kindly assist.
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To Dr Sivakumar
It is not so easy as you have mentioned. One has to consider many factors, cell geometry, instrumentation and ultimately polarisation effect. Due to these limitations direct conductivity measurement suffers a lot of set back.
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I need vapor pressure data or calculation of vapor pressure for molten salts.
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You can use Antoine equation. Parameters needed for each compound can be obtained in handbooks or databases. For example NIST data base is very complete. As an example:
for KCl. You can find parameters to apply the Antoine equation to get the vapor pressure at the desired temperatura.
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I am interested in analyzing molten salt mixtures for which I require its spectral properties such as optical constants or complex refractive index (real and imaginary values, n and k respectively).
The spectral range of interest is the visible spectrum (preferably 300nm to 800nm).
I am interested in exploring the following salt mixtures;
1. Ternary eutectic (25.9 wt% LiNO3, 20.06 wt% NaNO3, 54.1 wt% KNO3)
2. HITEC (53 wt% KNO3, 40 wt% NaNO2, and 7 wt% NaNO3) i.e. nitrate-nitrite ternary salt mixture.
3. Solar salt (60 wt% NaNO3, 40 wt% KNO3)
4. Hitec XL (45 wt% KNO3, 48 wt% Ca(NO3)2, and 7 wt% NaNO3) i.e. calcium nitrate salt.
Could any one please shed light as to where I could obtain such data?
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Hi Sarvesh,
The absorption coefficient at the 400-800nm range of nitrate and chloride salts can be found in this dissertation http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/62706
Hope it helps,
Georgios
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Any books, references, links available?
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V. Jayaramakrishnan saw you mail thank you very much its really useful