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A cutoff frequency in the high frequency range (microwaves, etc.) is usually defined for band-pass, low-pass, and high-pass components in an easy way when they can be modeled with a circuit. On the other hand, when testing materials by means of antennas, or trying to have an effective value for permittivity and permeability of a component, the experimental results should be processed starting from the S-parameters to obtain the effective quantities. The models developed by Nicholson-Ross-Weir and re-elaborated at NIST or by technology providers like Rodhe and Schwarz and Keysight in their instruments, make use of a cutoff known value derived directly from the device under test (DUT) or from a material under test (MUT), which are distributed structures. How this datum can be determined before using the formulas in both situations, namely DUT and MUT?
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For passive device and in absense of frequency source tryout of unit step response for filter model can lead to estimate cut off frequency.
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Can I ​ ​get ​updated ​allometric models developed for Ethiopia to estimate above-ground and below-ground biomass?
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Usually I consult GlobAllomeTree (http://www.globallometree.org/) which is an open source database - you just need to create a free account.
You could download the raw data and then filter for Ethiopia.
Attached the complete list of allometric equations for estimating biomass (mainly AGB) of different tree species in Ethiopia.
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In a model developed by me, most of the variables estimates are insignificant at 95% significance level.
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How to explain insignificant results of a model? Is everything OK? For example, are the necessary assumptions fulfilled? The answers to these questions may provide direction on how to proceed.
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Where could I find python script examples or information in general where heterogeneous reactor kinetic models have been developed? In particular, I am trying to replicate a theoretical model to describe the catalytic process of biogas dry reforming.
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I have developed a logistic regression based prognostic model in Stata. Is there any way to develop an app using this logistic regression equation (from Stata)?
Most of the resources I found require me to develop the model from scratch in Python/R and then develop the app using streamlit/Shiny etc.
However, I am looking for a resource where I could use the coefficients and intercept values from Stata based model rather than build model from scratch in python.
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Hey everybody!
I'm implementing a Bayesian Negative Binomial using STATA 17. Because of some colinearity or convergence issues, I needed to put my variables in different blocks in the modeling process. Yet, it is a bit confusing to choose the most optimum number of blocks (and also their exact set of variables) for a model. Do you have any idea about it?
Apart from that, what criteria do you suggest (DIC, Acceptance rate, Efficiency, variables significance, etc.) for comparing models developed using various number of blocks?
I appreciate any help you can provide in advance.
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I don't quite understand the "blocks" portion, but if you are trying to split variables it may be the case that the pathologies you have observed (poor convergence) that you should Google more about "identifiability" in the context of modelling.
I may be too far removed from academia since leaving for industry, but quite frankly all the criteria you mentioned are garbage. What is important is what the posterior distribution looks like (which you already have as a precursor to those criteria) and how it behaves. So take the samples and do that fun part of science where you "play" and look into what the predictions do and change when you fiddle with things and try to gain insight
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Hi. I am struggling with the mouse animal model. I found that the subcutaneous tumors are extremely uneven in my mode. I injected the same volume of tumor cells (human cell line) suspension s.c. in balb/c null mouse and the size of the tumor show uneven after 1-2weeks. This has a great impact on the following treatment. So, I wonder what is the best practice for subcutaneous tumor inoculation? Or, are there any ways to prevent uneven tumor growth?
Thanks a lot!
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1) I hope that by "the same volume" you also understand the same number of tumor cells.
2) Try to prepare suspension of cells just for a few mice (depending on your expertise) to minimize the time of cells waiting on the bench in PBS before being injected. Then prepare a second vial of cells for another couple of mice and so on.
3) Be careful not to go too deep with a needle- in case like this tumor may infiltrate the muscle and from the outside, by eye, it may look like the tumor is smaller than it actually is.
4) If for some reason the size of the tumor is essential for your therapy then don't focus on starting the treatment on the same day- just set a volume of the tumor on day 1 of the treatment and start the therapy when each of the tumors will reach a given volume.
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Hello,
I was reading the following paper:
Oxygen transfer model development based on activated sludge and clean water in diffused aerated cylindrical tanks.
and I found that the authors have calculated Reynolds number and Froude number using the equations attached. What they did is that they used the volumetric flow rate of the air instead of the slip velocity of the two phases to calculate the Reynolds and Froude number.
The second question is:
What is the significant of Froude number in an aeration tank?
Thank you very much.
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kLa is a very important design parameter for wastewater aeration. I have studied the energetic optimization and adaptive control of the dissolved oxygen concentration in aerobic fermenters by numerical simulation. The parameters of the usual KLa correlation were estimated on-line and at real-time through the recursive least squares algorithm with forgetting factor, most effectively when a small sinusoidal disturbance was imposed to the manipulated variables (stirring rate and/or air flow). The power dissipated by agitation was accessed by a torque meter (pilot plant). This investigation was reported at (MSc Thesis):
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I am trying to establish a target forest revenue model using 21 years past revenue generated. a former model developed tend to overestimate the figures, so i can discard the old and use the new which is close and based to past generated revenue
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Maybe you can consider the recursive least squares algorithm (RLS) with forgetting factor (RLS-FF). RLS is the recursive application of the well-known least squares (LS) regression algorithm, so that each new data point is taken in account to modify (correct) a previous estimate of the parameters from some linear (or linearized) correlation thought to model the observed system. The method allows for the dynamical application of LS to time series acquired in real-time. For the RLS-FF algorithm, acquired data is weighted according to its age, with increased weight given to the most recent data.
Application example ― I have applied the RLS-FF algorithm to estimate the parameters from the KLa correlation, used to predict the O2 gas-liquid mass-transfer, hence giving increased weight to most recent data:
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Hi!
I'm trying to develop a prediction model for a type of cancer. My end-point is cancer specific survival. I have around 180 events, and an event-per-parameter analysis gave that I can consider about 9-10 parameters to include in the model.
Now, I have dozens of candidate variables, many of which are collinear and some are more truly independent from each other. Some variables are well known risk factors for cancer death, some are more novel but still merit more research.
In my field there is a well-established risk classification system that uses cancer histological grade, stage, lymph node status and tumor size. This classifies cases into 4 risk categories, with increasing risk of death. These four variables have not previously been included in a survival model and there is no published survival regression formula/function with beta-coefficients and intercept for a model with this variables included. Instead, the four risk categories are based on mostly clinical reasoning, expert opinion, experience, and survival rates of the four groups.
My question is if when I'm developing my model if I should include this four variables as separate independent variables, and also add another 4-5 candidate variables that I want to investigate or can/should I include these four variables as a singel composite independent four-tier categorical variable and thus save up degrees of freedom to include more candidate variables? What pros and cons are there with each approach?
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Hi Take a look at this method. It really works well for your application.. program available from my co-author Ozgur. Best wishes, David Booth
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Hi,
I am developing Deep learning model(s) for a binary classification problem. The DL works with a reasonable accuracy. Is there a reliable way to extract features from DL models built with 'Keras' pipeline? It seems that the feature contribution are distributed among several layers.
Thank You,
Partho
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With all due respect, the link you proposed to inspect is not about extracting the features given by hidden layers but about feature extraction using a pre-trained model. This approach allows one just to use the output features in contrast to the features "distributed among several layers" that the topic starter asked a way to extract.
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I am looking for BL/6 mice to develop HCC model. or anyone already working on such model, i need guidance from that PI.
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no one i think ...still
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Hi,fellows
Have you heard of SLIP (Shallow Landslides Instability Prediction)model? This model is a simplified physical model developed by the University of Parma for the evaluation of the safety factor of slopes which are potentially at risk of a soil slip. If you know it,could you share how to download this model
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Hi Mankay,
I do not know if exist a program that use SLIP model. But I suggest for you to program the model using Python, is relatively easy to develop if you have skills programming.
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In the process of energy model development i need the O&M cost of different transformers according to voltage levels (i.e. EHV, HV, MV, LV). If any one have some idea or know some documents regarding this please share with me.
Thank you for your help soon.
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Thank you Jorge Morales Pedraza and Hassan Nasser for your answers. I partially found the answer for my questions but for model input i need the numbers e.g. percentage of investment cost or absolute rough number.
If any one has these numbers please share with me.
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A PLAXIS user-defined code was written about 10 years ago by the Geo-Group at McGill in association with a research project related to modeling excavations in natural clays. The soil model takes into account the inherent and induced anisotropy, hardening, and bonding degradation effects under both loading and unloading stress conditions. The model was implemented into PLAXIS finite element program, successfully calibrated and used to simulate the construction of a tunnel in sensitive clay material.
Please let me know if you would be interested in incorporating the source code (written in Fortran 90) into PLAXIS to analyze a similar problem or modify the code to fit your own needs.
A version of the source code along with the associated paper are now posted on RG at:
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I wrote a user model just to be able to monitor the condition of certain elements during analysis. It was essentially a "phantom" soil that you would place in a copy of the "real" mesh set that would occupy the same nodes. The phantom soil would write deformation data to a text file to view later, or just write it out to the working window for every computation iteration. That way you could check on stability of the solution.
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I am a beginner to the DSSAT model and getting deeply interested in this model. Most DSSAT model users begin to entitle their journal articles, book chapters, proceedings etc., using the phrase " Modelling of...". To the best of my knowledge, I think this is wrong b/se they are not modellers (model developers), but they are model users (secondary) instead. Therefore, they must have begun by " Simulation of...." or "Model simulation of ..." etc. This is becoming a trend (knowingly or unknowingly) in most cases and is confusing young researchers in the modelling era. Am I right?
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Nice question.
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I have some questions about the main principles in drug resistant cell models development.
After determination of IC50 whatever cytotoxic assay is used. I knew there are 2 schools; those who prefer to do a dose-escalation of anti-cancer drug concentrations, and this consumed a lot of time to develop (increase the drug concentration gradually.)
The second, those who prefer to start with a high dose (higher than IC50) and then keep changing the media (drug-free) every week/ 2 weeks.
So how can the one be sure in these weeks (while putting a drug-free media), all cells won't lose the resistance they develop or in other words, why we didn't keep putting drug to cells every week? In order not to kill them all or just mimics what happened in the clinic?
In drug resistant models development, Is there transient vs stable phenotype of drug resistance? How can we really distinguish?
And also there are any methods except for what I said?
Thank you!
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I think these two methods are designed to do two different things.
In the first method, in which the cytotoxic drug concentration is gradually increased from a level that permits substantial cell survival, the purpose is to allow time for resistance mutations to occur, and even to accumulate, during the course of the treatment. An example might be the gradual amplification of the gene for a multidrug resistance transporter.
In the second method, in which the cells are treated for a short time with a high concentration of the cytotoxic drug that kills nearly all the cells, then grown in medium without the drug, the purpose is to select for a rare, stable, preexisting mutation in the cell population that confers high-level resistance. An example might be a mutation in the drug target (such as topoisomerase) that reduces the binding affinity of the drug.
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See above
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You may read this article, I think it may help you, based on practices.....
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The Boundary Equilibrium generative Adversarial Networks (BEGAN) is supposed to have partially controlled the diversity of generator by influencing the discriminator. Is there any model developed after that which has better capability to control the diversity of generator?
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Many thanks Mr. Praveen. But i could not download the second one.
Can you provide a soft copy!!
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I invite you all to give your views on the following finding
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Great , need to show tasking
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Dear Scholars,
I working on my PhD at the moment and part of my model development involve The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) . I have gone through several research article but unable to find a solid one which talks critically when The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) was used in advertising. If anyone happen to comes across one can you please share it with me.
Regards
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As a model of persuasion - advertising or otherwise - ELM quite well fits data so it would be hard to make a compelling argument critical of it. You might look to the competing dual process model, Heuristic-Systematic Persuasion (Chaiken et al., 1989). If you're looking for a more distinct alternative perspective, maybe consider Motivation & Opportunity as Determinants (MODE) Model (Fazio, 1989). Hope this helps, Muhammad. ~ Kevin
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For instance, in a situation where we are measuring the motivations behind the ratings and reviews of the products on e-commerce portals, the normative beliefs may not be important at all (my presumption) since it is an individual act on my internet device (cell phone or laptop or desktop) wherein the external/social influence may play no role at all. So, in such a scenario can we test only behavioral beliefs in a model, based upon TRA? What would be the justification for skipping the normative beliefs from the model altogether? Please share any relevant citations.
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Yes, and your justification would be provided from the other model (TAM)!
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Although I have successfully experienced to run the simulation regarding a model which has been already developed in OpenModelica in the environment of MATLAB, it is very challenging to do so with a model developed by means of another library such as SolarTherm. I was wondering if someone already had done this procedure and like to transfer me his/her experience in this field.
Best regards
Navid
#OpenModelica #MATLAB #SolarTherm
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Hi Navid, I was wondering if you ever used automated verification to validate some cyber-physical system. I read your question and I am not a expert in Modelica. But I do realize about your use of SolarTherm to generate electrical energy, and I am interested in this subject (electrification). I use automated verification to validate an off-grid PV system.
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1) Check the job diagnostics.
Open the odb and select tools>job diagnostics. Job diagnostics gives all warnings and errors, as well as residual and contact information. One of the most useful features is the highlight selection in viewport check box. In the warnings tab, the user can see the location of numerical singularities and zero pivots (if applicable), which may give an idea of what causes these warnings.In the residuals tab, the node with the largest residual can be visualised. Looking at this node for the iteration that convergence difficulties arise, often shows the region of the model that is causing problems. Is anything unexpected happening in this region? In the contact tab the location of the maximum contact force error and the maximum penetration error can be viewed. If contact is causing the problems, this will likely show where.
2) Pay attention to warning messages.
Look at when the warning is issued and whether it is likely to point towards the problem. For example, if the solver tries a first attempt with a big increment and gives a warning related to a negative eigenvalue and then cuts back the time increment and obtains convergence in the next increments without any difficulties or warnings, it is likely that the warning was simply a consequence of trying a too big time step. If the warning message repeats itself and repeated cut-backs occur, it may indicate a stability issue (see point 6).
Some warnings are very specific, others can occur with different underlying causes and require more experience to work out the problem.
3) Check boundary conditions
One cause of non-convergence is inadequate boundary conditions. Unreasonable boundary conditions can lead to local extreme deformations. A model can also be over or under constrained. With an under constraint, not all rigid body motion is suppressed, leading to one or more degrees of freedom with zero stiffness and usually zero-pivot warnings. Over constraints also tend to cause zero-pivot warnings. Though Abaqus checks for over constraints and tries to solve them, this is not always possible, for example if the over constraint starts occurring after some time due to contact. It is recommended to check all warning messages related to over constraints. Do not assume Abaqus will correctly resolve the over constraint, but correctly define the constraint yourself. Also, look at the location of zero-pivot warnings (are there over or under constraints there?).
4) Check contact
Contact is also a major contributor to convergence difficulties. Come to think of it, this is not so strange, as the onset of contact gives a discontinuity in the force-displacement relationship, which increases the difficulty of finding a solution with Newton’s method. That’s why Abaqus uses separate severe discontinuity iterations when contact is changing.
One possible source of contact non-convergence is the initial state of the contact. If a problem relies on the contact for stability and initially no contact is present, the simulation may have trouble starting. This is especially the case load control is used: basically a load is applied to something without a stiffness and rigid body motion can occur. (Initially) using displacement control to ensure contact occurs usually resolves the convergence issues. Abaqus also offers contact stabilization to help automatically control rigid body motion in static problems before contact.
This can be defined within contact controls, by using automatic stabilization. It is necessary to specify that the contact controls are to be used in the interaction definition. With automatic stabilization, damping is applied when the surfaces are close to each other but not in contact, so there is a resistance to displacement of the loaded part and rigid body motion is no longer possible. Because this is meant to allow surfaces to get into contact, the damping is ramped down, by default to 0, during the step in which it is applied. It is recommended to check if viscous dissipation is not too large, e.g. compare ALLSD to ALLIE. The techniques to resolve instabilities mentioned in point 6 can also be applied.
Another potential source of contact non-convergence is that no contact is defined for surfaces which are actually in contact, which can lead to unrealistic results, very large deformations and non-convergence. A self-contact can for example easily be overlooked. This normally does not happen when Abaqus’ powerful general contact is applied.
5) Check material definition
Convergence issues can occur when the stress in the material does not increase when the strain increases (the stiffness is not positive). This could happen when experimental data including damage are used to define the model, without including a damage model. Check the (maximal) stresses and strains in the model to see whether damage is expected to occur.
If Abaqus’ material fitting options for hyperelastic models are used, there may be limits to the stability of the material. By right-clicking on the material and selecting ‘evaluate’ it is possible to view the stability limits calculated by Abaqus.
When a plastic material model is used and the loading reaches the end of the defined curve, Abaqus extrapolates the curve with a horizontal line: the (plastic) strain can increase, but the stress does not (perfect plasticity). The stiffness is zero in this case. If this happens in a single element, often the simulation will run without problems. When large parts of the model undergo perfect plasticity it can become a problem. This often indicates the load is too much for the material.
6) Include damping to resolve instabilities
Possibly the most common cause of non-convergence is the presence of an instability. One of the principles of model development, is that a model should not be more complex than necessary to describe the behaviour of interest. With this in mind, it seems reasonable to decrease the complexity of a model by assuming it behaves statically, when the process is slow. Interestingly, however, this simplification can make the model more difficult to solve. In general, the behaviour of material under load is described by Newton’s second law:
F= m x a (force equals mass times acceleration.)
When static behaviour is assumed, the acceleration equals zero, so the sum of all forces must equal zero: there is force equilibrium. The static assumption is valid when the system moves from one equilibrium state to the next and all in between states are also in equilibrium. But is this always the case?
Take the example of two parts not initially in contact with load control. Why is this situation possible in reality? Because the initial displacement of the loaded part will be determined by its inertia. The inertia, the effect we had simplified out, actually stabilizes the problem. Including some kind of inertia or damping effect can often help to obtain a converged solution. There are several methods to do this.
And if nothing works?
Try Explicit. Though the simulation may take long, in some extremely non-linear cases it is just not realistic to obtain a converged solution with Abaqus/Standard. With Abaqus/Explicit, at least you can be certain you won’t have any convergence issues.
And who knows? It may be more efficient to let your computer spend more time solving your actual problem, than to keep modifying the model hoping that this last change will be the trick that gets you to the end of the step.
Are you ready to throw the towel in the ring and need help with your convergence challenge?
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Hello, I am looking for the model (developed in Comsol Multiphysics) for the salt rejection using membrane/nanoparticles.
Thanks
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Hi, have you found the answer of your question?
this is my question too
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As N-methyl-N-nitrosourea is a carcinogen used to induced mammary tumor in rats for breast cancer model development and we ran out of carcinogen what could be the possible alternative or the promoters that could help us in tumor induction imparting no other side-effects?
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Many answered correctly ?
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I have a dataset showing the CTR degradation of a commercial optocoupler 4N35 under a gamma field. My aim is to find a data driven/hybrid degradation model on which Particle filter will be applied for Remaining Useful Life Prediction. How do we go about this model development is my primary question .Other questions related to the same topic are
a) Is it necessary to make a new model for each component or a parametric linear/ exponential degaradation model can be used for estimation + RUL ?
b) What Data driven methods are preferredm E.g ARIMA
Any pointers or link to literature will be highly appreciated
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Two PLS regression models are developed from a set of spectral calibration data. For each of the model RMSE of cross validation (RMSECV) and RMSE of prediction (RMSEP) is calculated. Which model (out of these two) should finally be chosen (i.e. model with lowest RMSECV or RMSEP, or somewhare in between)?
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Biswanath Mahanty RMSECV is used to construct the model and RMSEP is used to vet the model against "new" data that the model has not seen. RMSEP should be used if "new" data that the model was not build using, is used to predict. If you are just trying to explain the data and are not predicting new, unseen data then use RMSECV. RMSEP will always be greater than RMSECV.
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Anyone suggesting the number of urban air monitoring stations required for land-use regression model development?
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also regarding to your accuracy that you looking for
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Hi,
Can anybody please suggest me if there are open access data for the cyber security specially for energy delivery systems or smart grid systems? If there are data from PMU or testbeds that would be very helpful. I want to use the data only for my model developing purpose for my PhD work.
Thanks,
Md Ariful Haque
PhD candidate,
Computational Modeling and Simulation Engineering,
Old Dominion University
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I am going to build causal loop diagrams about obesity and participants are not English speakers (Arabic participants).
Can anyone suggest software that supports Arabic language?
THX
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Dear Alharbi, You can used Vensim. It is used with various languages.
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Hello,
Does anyone have questionnaire for Information Acceptance model developed by Erkan and Evans (2016)? I'm trying to apply it in hotel booking intention and struggling with developing a good questionnaire. Thank you!
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You may benefit from this review:
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I am working on a Data Mining Project that will involve using Neural Network to predict some atmospheric variables. The works involves Big Atmospheric Data and am trying to adopt a data structure that will be suitable.
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Ibrahim Aishat Musa . You mentioned that you are going to predict variables (are there multiple variables you are predicting?). The simplest structure would always be a fixed set of features with well defined labels. Even if they are not in the right structure, you can always do some preprocessing (with extra pain) and fix it; but most important part would be choosing data that makes sense (and not put everything and use black box to predict).
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For the descriptor based QSAR model development, we need IC50 value. so my question is:- how can we obtain or calculate IC 50 value for hypothetical structure ?
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You can estimate the IC50 value by building a QSAR model. Once your model is calibrated and validated, you use the same model to estimate the IC50 of a new molecule. To do this, you draw the new molecule and introduce that molecule into the model to estimate the IC50.
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Dear all,
My research is on ICT influence in family functioning. I adopted a research model developed by Hertlein. Totally there are 3 main factors and 6 sub factors (for 2 main factors, i.e. 2x3=6) are present in the model. But no standard questions are found out for the factors mentioned in the model. So i developed the questionnaire for the factors. I did exploratory factor analysis and got the required result. When i proceeded to do the SEM model, amos is not giving the model fit value. So I am confused to use amos or Smart PLS. Because at some books i read that smart PLS is suitable when there is no established questionnaire . I have a doubt whether lack of established questionnaire is the reason for no fit in amos?
Because in my case the relationship between factors are present in the model but only the established questionnaires are not present.
In my research i have one independent and 7 dependent variable. I want to check the influence independent variable on the dependent variable.
So Kindly suggest me which software to proceed. Amos or Smart PLS?
Thanks in advance
Regards,
J Dinesh Kumar.
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For CFA the best option is AMOS!
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What are the main components for designing a Projectification process model for developing corporate entrepreneurship?
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I understand projectification as the process of developing a company from traditional to project-based organizational forms. How this process is structured depends on what the starting point for the process is. In his older, but widely quoted paper,
Christophe Midler described four phases of project identification:
- Functional organization and informal project coordination
- Centralized project coordination
- Empowerment and autonomy of the project management structure
- Transforming the permanent processes of the firm
In addition, Midler describes the need for change (e.g. changes in the relationship, changes in tools, changes in career management). In my opinion, these points can be a starting point for your design of the main components of a Projectification process model.
You can download the article from www.sciencedirect.com/science/
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Dear researchers, What software tools are best used for teaching mathematics (construction of dynamic models, the development of spatial thinking, etc.). What are the advantages and disadvantages of using Geogebra? Please recommend some in your comments. Sincerely
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Thank You!
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For countries which are less developed(developing countries), urban traffic has a small kind of transport modes(that means, most transport mode alternatives are not too much saturated in the city).
In such a case, mode choice will not be a willingness based rather it is obligatory based.
so, is it realistic to do transport mode choice model in urban traffic of developing countries?
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The answer is yes. Trip makers in both developed and developing countries makes their modal choices as to weather to use or not to use any of these available modes ( walk, bike, car, bus, train and etc.). It important to note that, people makes their modal choices to suit the activities they want to participate. In order words, activity is primary and travel is secondary. So, modal choice model could be used in both developed and developing countries, to solve the problems of traffic congestions pollutions and emissions. Therefore, it realistic to use transport mode choice model in a small city of developing countries for transportaction planning.
For viewing full article of  Dr Hazael Brown, please access the following link:
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I'm looking for the publication or document-specification, where I can learn about main characteristics of scenarios/models, developed by the above-listed research centres. First of all, I mean the methodology and input data, which were utilized under elaboration of the models for climate change.
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I would probably try looking at CMIP6 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6) and go from there.
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I came up with this topic for my research proposal
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A person trying to survival by engaging in buyjng and selling, either through his own products or seervices or those produced by others, is no more then a mrchant. He/she that does so by adding value through creativity and innovation is said to be entrepreneurial. As the enterprise expands and the "entrepreneur" becomes successful, he/she transforms the activity into an enterprise, i.e. SME. As the entreprise becomes more successful, it is transformed into a formal organization. Here we see 2 things in the development: the person and the activity. The activity is created, but the entrepreneur is born. The likes of Bill Gate, Steve Job, etc. are born in a culture that nurtures entrepreneurship, no school can produce them. Any such an attempt or claim is but quackery. What theory can do is to explain how an organization performs and behave differently when these entrepreneurs works inside the organization. An entrepreneur does not cease to be an entrepreneur when the activity is firmalized into an organization.
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I am using Multi-Gene Genetic programming model developing an equation for a given problem.How can I determine relative importance value of input parameter ?
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There are some algorithms for input parameter selection such as "Relief Attribute Evaluation" and you can use them in advance for choosing the most important input parameters which have higher effects in increasing the prediction accuracy.
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Innovation itself is not easy to measure but innovation in research, implementation and investment projects is measured instrumentally. The simplest method in the absence of advanced measurement models is the development of a scoring system based on the diagnosed determinants of innovation, for which point scales are created. In this way, innovation, i.e. a qualitative concept, acquires a quantitative dimension and can be quantified. The indicated quantitative dimension can be used to evaluate innovation as a subject of the transaction and a key factor of production in innovative startups and technology companies in which research works are carried out and new innovative technological, process, product and other solutions are created.
I invite you to the discussion
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Dear Dariusz,
iI did a lot of work in quantifying innovation based on remarand up to now I have the impression that this never can be done seriously.
. First of all you need to check th potential od your idea
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My research area is Entrepreneurship. I have a new research proposal on how Entrepreneurs can finance their projects through crowd funding. Literature search revealed that U.S.A is already adopting this novel finance model. Therefore, I need to collaborate with researcher(s) from U.S.A, Europe or other International organizations, for research grants/aids especially in area of data collection since I am comparing the model in developed and developing countries.
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Interesting research area. However, crowdfunding yet not popular in developing countries.
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urban lakes are the most abused . They are the natural preserves/reserves in the urban context. But the development of lakes are done for recreational purposes with little concern to the natural processes. a more comprehensive approach would serve bothe the natural process and the recreational aspect. any suggestions of study in this line of thought.
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Thank you sir
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Please can you tell me the coordinates ( x, y and z from bregma ) to inject the cells for orthotopic GBM Model development using U87 cell line?
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Apurva's answer is right for an orthotopic model. However drug delivery into the brain is particularly difficult, and we've done U87 xenografts (http://altogenlabs.com/xenograft-models/brain-cancer-xenograft/u87-xenograft-model/) ectopically with stable growth curves varying based on drug treatment. We do our injections into the hind leg, which is an easy spot for treatment regimens and the like.
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If nothing to motivate, then why?
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I particularly agree with Randall Gray's last sentence. Modeling rules requires a priori knowledge. I see two main reasons for utilizing machine learning of agent behaviors.
1) Limited observability of the environment / limited agent perception.
2) Dynamic changes in the environment.
From an agent's perspective, limited observability (1) means that the agent might interact with others that have unknown behavioral strategies (even unknown to the modeller). If the agent tries, e.g., to maximize its utility, it has to come up with a best response to that behavior. It is difficult to develop simple if-then rules in advance for any such situation. Especially when the other agents' strategies only manifest in an agent's observations of its own activities' success or failure. For instance, consider agents playing a game of rock-paper-scissors. They must select their actions without knowing which actions their competitors will select and can only evaluate their decisions a posteriori. However, they can learn best responses to their competitors' strategies from their experience (if, e.g., an agent tends to prefer a particular action, they can exploit that strategy).
Similar considerations hold for dynamic changes (2). If we modeled rules as best responses to particular agent behaviors or a specific environmental setting, changes in an agent's environment (including other agents) would render these rules sub-optimal. Learning of behaviors can help with that problem by allowing for the agents to adapt appropriately. Then, of course, one is faced with the problem of balancing exploration of alternative strategies and exploitation of past experiences.
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I want to examine the relationship between A and B. I did some qualitative work and found that there are some variables that are worth examining as mediators and moderators. Indeed, examining these variables is my contribution. The problem is that the structure followed in my uni as as follows:
1- intro
2- Q and O
3- Literature
4- Model development
5- Qual
6- Quan
Now, when I present the model in the section of “Model development” the moderators and mediators look as if they come from “no where”! I tried to mention that these variables were added based on the qualitative findings and more explanation would be provided in Qualitative section. However, I got some feedback suggesting that the structure was difficult to follow and rather confusing! Additionally, I found myself repeating some sections when I discuss the mediators and moderators in Model Development section and in Qualitative section again!
Any suggestions of who can I structure my thesis, please!
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Dear Saleh,
Hello there,
You know that, from the perspective of statistical analysis, all your qualitative variables should be made somehow quantitative to be analyzed. However, you would like to find any correlation between these two variables. For this purpose, you need to somehow quantify each variable. To quantify each variable, you should characterize each variable by a set of measurable indices. You do require to find some indexes which can characterize each of your concerned variable. For these purposes, you need to go through the literature as well as points of views of elites and senior experts who are relevant to your research interests. However, to measure identified indexes, you could simply utilize the likert scales (although you could benefit from the fuzzy logic in that regard as well). After that, you will have two set of indices corresponding to your interested variables. Now, using canonical correlation method, you can easily and accurately find the amount and significant of correlation between your concerned variables. Finally, for the purpose of find a proper structure for the model of your research, you could benefit from structural equation models (SCM) to significantly examine the relationships and, finally, present a structural model that can significantly support the conceptual model of your research.
Hope it helps!
Good luck!
Ali
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I'm developing a bio-optical model for water quality monitoring. As much as I would like to follow standard procedure, the availability of laboratory instruments, time and financial constraints have limit my model development to water quality parameters measured using AAQ Rinko and water spectral reflectance data measured using Ocean Optics. In order to develop my optical model, I'm planning to use the chlorophyll a and turbidity (NTU) measurements from the AAQ and statistically relate it to water reflectance from the ocean optics. However, as the two instruments differ in variable type , one being discrete (AAQ measurements) while the other being continuous (spectral measurements), the development of statistical relationship could be difficult or even impossible. With this, I would like to ask possible methodologies to transform the variables to comparable variable types or suggest related studies that have developed a relationship between these measurements (AAQ and ocean optics hyperspectral measurements. Thank you!
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As a solution to this problem, I will only be using spectral signature of water at 675 nm with the AAQ Rinko chl-a measurements.
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I developed a regression model using remote sensing data to predict volume at plot level. I had 120 sample plots (105 plots of 50 x 50 m; 15 plots of 25 x 50 m in size).
If I want to apply the model at grid/pixel level (10 x 10 m size), what would be the best method to scale down the model to pixel level?
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Hi Sadeepa,
The easiest and simple option will be to covert you all data to 25x25 grid and use it to generate the regression model. In second step convert the image to 25 x 25 m grid and apply the regression model using rater calculator in ArcGIS.
The other thing which will be important to know is the type of regression model. Are you using linear regression? Multilinear regression or polynomial or what?
I would prefer to use random forest regression as it is more accurate and handle the nonlinear relationship.
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Suppose a variable A depends directly on B,C variables and indirectly on D,E variables. At the same time B depends on D, C and D depends on E.
So, initially this model is developed by using observed data. Then, if I want to see the effect on A by changing E, is it possible to do so? If possible can I use Amos software to do that?
Thank you very much in advance
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Are you asking whether you can predict the values of the endogenous variable if you have scores on the exogenous variables? If this is the questions, the answer is 'maybe'. If the path model is like a multiple regression where you have some variables directly predicting the endogenous variable then you can specify the equation and use that for predictions. The problem arises when you have more than one endogenous variable, that means you'll need more than one equation to represent the model. John Loehlin's book (Latent Variable Models: An Introduction to Factor, Path, and Structural Equation Analysis) has a few chapters at the start that are great at explaining how models can be decomposed.
Cheers
mark
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How do I create a model for Zener diode in Simulink? Is it possible using a MATLAB file, or configuring an existing diode model, and if so, then how do I proceed?
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there is no Zener diode in Simulink library. Just type "power_zener" in command prompt. then a readymade Simulink model of zener will open in Simulink. from here u can use Zener diode in ur model.
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The most promising combination of models for freight transport forecasting and evaluation in my view is a fast and relatively straight forward policy analysis model, developed as a system dynamics model and/or a model integrating outputs from other more detailed models.
Can you share research papers related to this.
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Hi,
I'm looking for a global scale stem area index data in order to test a new model development which improves stem area index representation in earth system models. Here the stem area index represent for any above ground biomass that does not assimilate carbon- thus, branches, stems and dead leaves are all included. Thanks a lot.
Ming
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NIR Spectroscopy
Seed priming
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Bruce Neagle has it right.
I have done this exact protocol many times!
B.I. Pettersson,PHD,MDO
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Many small animals are sacrificed for scientific research. Though they are bred separately for such purpose, but the pain received by the animals during experiment and loss of resources for such activity should better be avoided.
The software based alternatives of use of animals in such purposes are discussed for more than a decade.
What is the present status of use of this technology?
What are the problems in adopting this technology?
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Very significant question and very relevant as in this era research is going on how to eliminate use of animals in research experimentation.
I think computer methods - Simulation techniques have been successfully implemented- these techniques replace the use of test animals being absolutely unethical to use them for our research. This is called Vivo (in test tube-cell culture outside the body) experimentation using CADD and SARs tools. But there are limitations and simulation model for all activities are not possible.
Ideally we need human body to study human.MacLennan & Amos, 1990 said as under:
"There is no doubt that the best test species for humans are humans. It is not possible to extrapolate animal data directly to humans due to inter species variation in anatomy, physiology and biochemistry. "
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Dear friends,
I am submitting a manuscript with following highlights. Would you please take look to them and give me your opinion?
· Energy flux and mixing process mechanistic model, i-Tree Cool River, was assessed in steady and unsteady conditions.
· The warming effect of urban storm sewer on the river during storm events.
· The cooling effect of riparian vegetation shading and subsurface inflow in the summertime.
· Linear interpolation, Gaussian Elimination function, in C++ for matrix operation.
Best,
Reza
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Dear Reza, in the two middle sentences I am afraid there's something missing, a verb? Probably can end more easily readable if you reformulate them. For example,
Urban storm sewer had a warming effect on rivers water during storm events.
Riparian vegetation had a cooling effect.....
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I would like to model the development of AFm phases in low water environments with the addition of metakaolin, but i don't know how to input non crystalline materials in the GEMs software.
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Send me a PV message and I can send you my contact details ;)
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I need to implement multilateral model in my research, which focusing on generation revenue. I need more mathematical models to develop my innovative economic transaction. I would be grateful if you could recommend practical references such as a paper/ journal of this modelling.
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Hi, am a maasters student in SDSU, I am currently looking for a course project to do for the semester in my modeling and simulation class using matlab.
i find your topic intersting. Do you have a publication or updates or report on it.  i need to know from the literature review and introductory part, to how the mathematical model is developed. I f u used numerical methods, and simulink. I havent used simulink before. but i intend to learn. Hopefully every detail and support will count. thanks
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  1. First you derived the mathematical model that represents your system dynamic.
  2. Secondly represents the system model in the Matlab simulink and simulate and analyze the system response.
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What precise value of coefficient of friction to be used in all the stages of rolling a wire rod ,for 3D model development? Whats the method to calculate the value of coefficient of friction for all stands?  
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Hi,
Inclined surface test is used to measure static friction of material. In context to rolling of wire rod its a dynamic process under the influence of many variable parameters in each stages of rolling so how do to find coefficient of friction in this case? There are many empirical formulas to find the coefficient of friction. Which formula is widely used and provides the most reliable result?  
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What is the minimum concentration of carbon dioxide or ion of carbonate that leads to occur the carbonation in concrete ? or the concentration of Ca( OH)2.
As the article (Carbonation in concrete infrastructure in the context of global climate
change – Part 1: Experimental results and model development) byS. Talukdar a,⇑, N. Banthia a, J.R. Grace
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I thank you .
Can I get a copy soft of this chapter because there is no access of download in my University of it .
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Dears, In membrane ultrafiltration, i am seeing the fouling models are well established for constant pressure operation rather than constant flux. I guess the constant pressure models cannot be used used for constant flux, simply based on the J = TMP/u*R relation. Could you please suggest me any dedicated model developed for constant flux? Or let me know if there is a way to convert the constant pressure model.
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Dear Tamilarasan,
The attached file contains a study which demonstrate that constant transmembrane pressure is comparable to constant permeate flux (see Figure 8):
Comparison of membrane fouling at constant flux and constant transmembrane pressure conditions
Daniel J. Miller, Sirirat Kasemset, Donald R. Paul, Benny D. Freeman
Journal of Membrane Science 454 (2014) 505–515
Abstract:
Membrane fouling is often characterized in the laboratory by flux decline experiments, where an increase in transport resistance due to accumulation of foulants on and/or in a membrane is manifested as a decrease in permeate flux with filtration time at fixed transmembrane pressure. However, many industrial microfiltration and ultrafiltration applications operate at constant permeate flux, and there are few reports comparing these modes of operation. In this study, emulsified oil fouling of polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes was studied using both constant permeate flux and constant transmembrane pressure experiments. Mass transfer resistance changes during fouling were compared between constant flux experiments and constant transmembrane pressure experiments performed at an initial flux equal to the flux imposed during the constant flux experiment. At low fluxes, the transport resistance and its change with permeate volume per unit area agreed within experimental error regardless of operational mode. In contrast, at high fluxes, the change in membrane resistance with permeate volume per unit area was much higher in constant flux than in constant transmembrane pressure experiments. The threshold flux, defined recently as the flux at which the rate of fouling begins to increase rapidly, separates the regimes of good and poor agreement between the two types of experiments. The weak form of the critical flux, below which spontaneous adsorption is the only significant resistance imposed by foulant, was also observed.
Hoping this will be helpful,
Rafik
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Request help in updating myself with the latest developments in DEA. Are there any comparable models that are developed beyond dea. SFA, DEA are productivity assesment tools. Kindly suggest any developments in the area of productivity measurement. 
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I am looking for a model to estimate the solar radiation of a place using its meteorological data as input like maximum and minimum temperature, humidity, wind direction etc..
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Dear Jayapandiyan,
Programs calculating the theoretical amount of solar radiation exist if you know position day month year and hour in entry. Then you have to modulate according to your atmospheric data the influence of nebulosity, humidity with statistics by adjustment corresponding to your own place and data (by comparison with a solid data set). This is the simplest way to do it. If not, the only way is to use a complex model including radiative transfert parameterization, parametrization of cloud and so on.
I can provide you a fortran code for computing the theoretical solar radiation if that helps you!
Regards, G.C.
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I want to develop speed of vehicle using multiple linear regression model. For instance, I have 457 of sampling. I used 300 of sampling for model development and keep 157 sampling to check model accuracy. Based on proposed model, I compute predicted speed. Then which test can I perform to compare predicted and observed speed?
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You could use an indicator like RMSE to evaluate accuracy.
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Dear Researcher,
i am developing a Regression Model(Prediction) at a location
Situation A:
Number of n 1100,  variable 7.
Situation B:
Number of n 2600, Variable 9. 
Question is, do i have to have same number of N at the same location, or the Central limit theorems (CLT) is applicable when dealing with large data  for model development ( for normality and validity of the data)
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Dear Tuan,
When each of your sample sizes are big enough, you are allowed to use CLT. There is no condition for equality of your sample sizes.
Only equality of variances could be important, which is also not discussed in case of large sample sizes.
Thus, you are absolutely allowed to use CLT. However, don't forget this is an approximation and no guarantee for normality of your data.
Good luck
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Sediment bed load transport. Except the particle characteristics will there be any other changes?
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Thank you so much ! Abhishek & Alexander.
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Hi all. For my final thesis I’ve to evaluate a model to predict the in-plane errors of a plunger approximated with a cylindrical shape. In particular, I’ve to analyse the shape deformation. For this reason, I collected a lot of data both in closed form and open form. The model will be created in the open one. What kind of model can I use in order to create a suitable model?
I will send my data if someone can help me. Thank you.
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I am not sure about your model. But, I helped about a thesis, which wanted to model a NASA-turbine rotor by using some data.  Data included errors. I used NSGA-II algorithm, which is a Neural Network algorithm. I used the half of data for learning the network. The other half for testing the network.  The learned network, predicted a function, as a model for NASA-turbine rotor designing.
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I've been working with rainfall-runoff modeling via HEC-HMS. In the simulation, when I tried to optimize my model with observed discharge flow, the difference is so high. My model is simulating over estimation as compared to observed flows. I utilized one year daily rainfall data for a drainage basin with the same year discharge data for the model optimization. Kindly let me know, if there is any possible solution for this. 
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Possible options:
- Put your attention on separation of base flow.
- Choose an appropriate coefficient for Initial abstraction (Ia).
-  Revise your estimated CN according to available standard CN tables in Eng Hydrology books.
- Choose appropriate method to determine the Effective/Net precipitation. 
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I need some help to integrate BIM Server with open source BCF server (as a plugin in wordpress).
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Yes, I have worked on Open standard BIM. Please let me know, how can help you.
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I am involved in a research project to develop an integrated water resource management model for Dublin City. Selection of a software package is crucial to the model development, and strong justification has to be made to back such selection. The project suggests the use of Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) software package, however before proceeding forward with I would like to ensure that WEAP strongly stands out against other available software. I am putting this question to investigate and narrow possible software that of comparable performance and scope of WEAP, to go a deeper tradeoff and analysis to draw the best fit for the project? Any suggestions or papers of help to this. Main emphasis are on the ability to place demand issue on equal footing as supply side, represent water quality and ecosystem preservation and requirement consideration!
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For our IWRM R&D projects in Vietnam and South Africa we developed GIS-based Planning and Decision Support Tools. Some publications can be found under my user profile.  WEAP ("Water Evaluation And Planning" system) is a further user-friendly software tool that takes an integrated approach to water resources planning.
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Is there any Model developed for the interpretation of the Detritus on foreland basin's provenance by using the DZ U-Pb geochronological data? I have DZ U-Pb data and want to extrapolate it in modelling, if available.
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Upendra-
I'm not entirely sure what type of modelling you're considering, but at its most basic level, DZ data is typically analyzed in terms of "known" source areas.  To the degree that you know the age distribution and relative zircon fertility of the orogen, you presumably could fashion basic models to assess the relative probability of which components are contributing grains to the foreland basin through time.  This could be useful if the data record a distinct unroofing sequence.  There are many examples of this approach--one that comes to mind is Lawton et al. (2010) in Geology.
Good luck!
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Hi, I want to try and model custom particle shapes (cubes, tetrahedrons, etc) make them capable of self-assembly, and then test the larger structures they form by applying forces such as shear, strain, pressure, etc. Currently exploring MatLab, OpenFOAM & Fluidix
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Hi, you might also have a look at the CFDEM coupling project (www.cfdem.com). They are coupling a DEM solver (LIGGGHTS)  with OpenFoam. The benefit is that LIGGGHTS includes routines for handling random particles (i guess based on a multisphere approach) very efficiently. I think they also working on a fragmentation model but I'm not shure if its already finished. You can find tutorials and a forum on that site for a fast entry into the software.
Cheers
Bernhard
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Can a model about an organizational phenomenon be build in a way so that it has some antecedent variables, mediating variables and consequent variables? Also, though all the variables in the proposed model are important but mediating variables are of greatest importance. Is this a good conceptualization to be tested empirically?
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