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Questions related to Mobility
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Hello all,
actually I am looking to calculate the mobility for 2D materials using BoltzTraP code.
If anyone know about it, I will be highly thankful.
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Ahmed Azzouz Rached You can use the EPW software. https://epw-code.org/
With this, it is possible to calculate the charge carrier mobility (both holes and electrons) at a specific charge concentration.
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With the increasing number of push and electric powered bicyclists and the increased uptake in micro-mobility devices such as electric scooters there is a need on many corridor for either a third speed corridor (for those doing 15 to 30km/h) or the operating speeds on the roadway or footpath/sidewalks need to lowered through speeds limits.
Q1 Has anyone had experience with setting footpath/sidewalk speed limits?
Q2 Is there any experience dropping speed limits to 30km/h on roads because of micro-mobility demands? - in conjunction often with bicycle boulevards
Q3 What changes need to be made to footpaths to make them micro-mobility/bicycle friendly (e.g. around heights of fencing etc)?
Q4 Has anyone come up with a suitable name for this third lane? Also possibly changing the name of footpaths - other than shared paths!
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Dear Dr. Shane Turner ,
I suggest you to have a look at the following, interesting reference:
My best regards, Amir Beketov.
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We have been working on smart glasses with multiple sensors and the research point is how to improve the battery usage while using streaming data from sensors all the time
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Dear Ahmed Ismail Ebada,
see my answer to this question:
How can I calculate using of energy by WSN node?
Maybe my answer to this question can help you a little.
Best regards
Anatol Badach
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I am trying to extract series resistance (Rsd) of MOSFETs based on FDSOI/Bulk Technology, size range of these devices are 22nm/28nm to 40nm/100 nm respective of the technologies mentioned above. I am following these research articles:
These articles follow similar method for finding total resistance, even though they don't explicitly say how they figured it out. From my understanding (I might be wrong!), I chose single Id-Vg curve for Vds=~0.1 V and find Rtotal= Vds/different Id (for a specific range say when Vg>>Vth). Is this the correct approach?
I also have electrical characterization data at different temperature (Cryo to Room Temperature). My ultimate goal is to have a plot showing Rsd Vs Temperature for different technologies. With Article 1 and 2, I am getting increasing trend from low to high temperature for different sizes of Bulk devices. But for FDSOI, following article 1 is giving me mixed trend whereas with article 2, I am getting an increasing trend as well. I am not sure what to make of these trends. Basically, at low/cryo temperatures, mobility should increase, that could explain decreasing trend in resistance but there could be carrier freeze out which could increase Rsd at low temperature. There's a reference for bulk tech here (Chakraborty, W. et. al. “An Empirically Validated Virtual Source FET Model for Deeply Scaled Cool CMOS”, accepted in IEDM 2019) where they show increasing Rsd trend.
If anyone could help me out that would be great. Also, If someone could explain the method of Rsd extraction based on the papers/any other resources that could be helpful as well.
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I can't give the exact answer to your query but RDS is actually calculated as shown:
RDS is the drain to source resistance which is a hindrance to the flow of charge carriers from the source to drain(VDS/IDS) when the device is in ON state(VGS>VTh).
RDS=VDS/IDS at a particular VGS>VTh
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using BTE how do we get mobilities and conductivity ,more calculation(mathematics) oriented answers would be helpful.
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Found this useful,
Refer to chapter 1(Low field electron transport) of Rode's book 'semiconductor and semimetals' . It has a thorough explanation for mobility and conductivity calculations.
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Information-centric networking brings novel benefits of managing traditional networks by addressing content by names and exploiting in-network caching. Although it brings benefits of efficient content management, I am interested in knowing the challenges it may cause in managing traditional networks.
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When moving from traditional IP networks to ICN new caching, routing security strategies should be conceived. Indeed, several research works focused on defining new data caching strategies for ICN networks. However, ICN has several advantages and is a very interesting paradigm for IoT networks.
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I wonder if there is any data platform that provides data regarding the shared mobility, e.g. use of car sharing, ride hailing, etc. for the EU member states, for free.
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I'm looking for a vehicular mobility dataset. My research is about VANETs, and I'mlooking for vehicular mobility dataset.
I already found:
In the data set, is need have the position (coordinate X and Y) and the time of vehicle, how in the data set above.
.I need more. Can someone help me?
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Due to solute atoms diffusion, substitutional atoms diffuse by vacancies diffusion, so I am asking, if the concentration of solute atoms increases, so what will be the effect on vacancies mobility ?
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If you are referring to solid state diffusion, there are a number of standard monographs which give the underlying theoretical treatments, which are well developed, e.g.
Shewmon, P. (Ed) (2016) Diffusion in Solids Springer
J. S. Kirkaldy (John Samuel) ; David J Young (David John)
Diffusion in the condensed state
London ; Brookfield, VT, USA : Institute of Metals, 1987
For the liquid state:
H.J. V. Tyrrell and K R Harris, Diffusion Liquids, Butterworths 1984
E L Cussler, Diffusion, Cambridge UP
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I'm looking for research on factors that influence the public acceptability / acceptance / support and the political feasibility of regulatory ("command & control") policy instruments mainly addressing / affecting consumers (not producers) - mainly in the field of environmental policy, i.e. instruments regulating consumption choices and behaviour regarding, e.g. energy use, mobility, food, waste; but also related fields from which lessons might be drawn (e.g. anti-smoking policies).
I would like to know more on the importance of different influencing factors such as problem characteristics, distributional issues, actor constellations, discourses & narratives, windows of opportunity, or policy design issues (e.g. tightening rules over time, accompanying measures...).
I'm aware of the general (mostly political science) literature on policy processes, actors, power, etc., of literature dealing with instrument choice and pros & cons of different policy instrument types, and of literature dealing with acceptance of environmental policy in general and of eco/CO2-taxes in particular...
... but it looks as there is hardly any literature that systematically compares public acceptability and political feasibility - and the role of different influencing factors on them - for different policy instrument types in comparison (apart from the simple distinction between hard and soft/voluntary instruments) and for "command & control instruments" in particular !!??
I'm looking forward to your comments and suggestions!
Best regards,
Dirk Heyen
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Dirk Arne Heyen, I have gone through your stated illustrations. In my point of view, based on your topic, it would be better not to limit your search based on "consumer perspective". If it would be only about policy acceptability then you could focus on the only stakeholder (i.e., consumers). But in your case, you also wish to identify the factors affecting feasibility of regulatory environmental policies, which involves another stakeholder (i.e., the governmental setup). The feasibility might depend on several non-consumer factors, including institutional factors, political factors, and producer-related factors. Therefore, I alternatively suggest you to narrow down your topic or problem statement. And then, target the literature accordingly. I suggest the following steps: a) first narrow down your problem statement, b) next, try to find the most related single article, c) read that single article and go to the bibliography of the same article, d) find the related articles from its bibliography, download them, and read them. I think it will facilitate your search for related literature.
One more thing I would like to suggest is that, at one time, you should stick to policy instruments related to one dimension, such as food, energy, mobility, waste treatment, etc. In this way, you will be able to get good command over them, enabling yourself produce good research works.
Good Luck!
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Existing transport and mobility restrictions are: reduced public transport services (number of buses, metro), reduced capacity (number of passengers) by social distancing inside the public transport vehicles, deactivate public transport services or shared mobility modes like city bike (bike sharing), carsharing, deactivate buses, trains, flights between cities and countries, car-traffic ban between cities and countries, etc.
  1. How "transport and mobility restrictions during the Pandemic and COVID-19 period" impact on travel and mobility behavior (habit) of elderly people and persons with disabilities? considering the concerns to be infected in public transport vehicles or shared mobility modes.
  2. These (probable) travel behavior changes will continue after the Pandemic? or they will return back o their normal travel behavior/habits?
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a research project entitled "Identification and quantification of the significant factors affecting consumers’ satisfaction of bus-based park and ride service " designed to identify and quantify the main factors affecting consumers’ satisfaction of bus-based park and ride service in Madinah City, Saudi Arabia. The study is being conducted by Dr. Valerian Kwigizile and Mohammed Albalwi from Western Michigan University, Department of Civil and Construction Engineering. This research is being conducted as part of the dissertation requirements for Mohammed Albalwi. This survey is comprised of 4 parts asking questions about the socio-economic characteristics, travel information, your satisfaction and preferences toward bus features, bus station features, parking lot features and travel features.
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Although current volumes are limited, E-Mobility is expected to grow in a big way. Primary questions on top of investor's mind are : Is this the right time to invest in E-Mobility? If so, where?
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Good question, follow
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Dear researchers,
Let's share our opinion about recent attractive topics on communication systems and the potential future directions.
Thanks.
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FANET
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organic diode, effective mobility,I-V measurements
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Dear colleague,
Have you already found the answer to the question?
It is interesting to compare the results for mobility from the IV measurements with the results of the time-of-flight technique and theory for bilayer organic structure. Please, take a look at the following works
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I am trying to understand the affinity between BH3 protein complex and mitochondrial outer membrane in order to have more information in pore formation during intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. I have read that protein complex binding can be delayed/inhibited by changing the mobility of membrane proteins, and I am looking for a technique to measure the affinity between these. I would appreciate suggestions very much. Thank you!
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If you can purify intact mitochondria and BH3 protein, then you could mix them together, with a fixed amount of mitochondria and varying concentrations of BH3. Then pellet the mitochondria by ultracentrifugation and measure the amount of BH3 protein bound to the mitochondria. You might be able to do this by measuring the residual BH3 concentration in the supernatant, or you might have to do it by measuring the amount of BH3 in the pellet. You could then make a plot of total BH3 concentration versus bound BH3. Fitting this plot to a binding equation would give you a measurement of affinity.
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Assume that we have two n-type and p-type semiconductors (in solar cell) with equal light absorption, resulting in equal photogenerated electrons within them. Each excited electron results in a hole, so we should have equal amount of photogenerated holes in both of them, as well. Since the minority carriers are electrons and holes in p-type and n-type semiconductors, respectively, the order of increase in electron density in p-type semiconductor and hole density in n-type one are more sensible than increase in hole density in p-type semiconductor and electron density in n-type one, respectively. The mobility of electron is more than hole, so electrons as charge carriers can be more effective in solar cells.
My question is this: Although the amount of photogenerated electrons is equal in p-type and n-type semiconductors, we consider p-type semiconductor as the absorption layer. Why?
Does the number of electrons differ in the n-type and p-type semiconductors? Does the photogenerated electron of p-type semiconductor has more freedom of action than that of photogenerated electron in n-type one?
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Dear Milad,
welcome,
Both the n- and p-type silicon layers will have the same generation rate as the absorption coefficient is independent from the doping. It is the mobility of the electrons that makes the difference between the two materials assuming the two materials have the same minority carrier lifetime.
So, the diffusion length of the electrons is greater than that of the holes. Accordingly electrons can be collected from larger thickness than the holes in in n -type substrate. This is required for silicon since the longer wavelength in silicon near the cutoff wavelength is relatively large.
If the diffusion length is smaller than the penetration depth of the solar radiation then which amounts to the thickness of the n-type material then generated electron hole pairs in this region will not be collected and the collection efficiency will be smaller.
In addition the dark current will be smaller in p-type materials.
Best wishes
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Hello,
Can anyone point me to a database of self-diffusion rate or atomic mobility of common metals?
I'm particularly trying to assess the the diffusion rates of Au, Ag, and Cu in an adjacent organic layer. Since there is probably no easily accessible data on that, I'm trying to use self-diffusion rates as a rough indicator.
Thanks,
Pouyan
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Hello Pouyan,
You know, sometimes the thing I am looking is right in front of my face. I just checked the CRC Handbook of Physics and Chemistry, 50th Ed. 1969-1970 and it has a very complete table of self-diffusion coefficient for metals. The table is entitled "Tracer Diffuse in Metals, Self Diffusion" by John Askill, pp. F-48 -F-54. This table also includes citations for each entry.
Note, there is a second table, "Diffusion of Metals into Metals" by Rudolf Loebel, pp. F-55 - F-56, which also has some self-diffusion data in the case where Column #1 "Diffusing metal" is the same as Column #2 "Metal diffused into". However, this table does not have citations.
I am sure these tables were duplicated in subsequent versions of this handbook.
Sorry, It took so long to find the database you were seeking. It was one of those "Duh!" moments for me.
Regards,
Tom Cuff
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I first state that my domain of interest lies in the understanding of distances in the spatial, geographical domain. This does not involve distances in statistical non-spatial analysis.
Distances in the mathematical sense are characterised by the properties of positivity, separation, symmetry and triangular inequality. In the literature this last property is often wrongly interpreted. I state the hypothesis that the triangular inequality (d(AC) <= d(AB) + d(BC) whatever B) has for main purpose to guarantee the minimal nature of distances. I have so far listed three errors:
1. confusion with with the non-euclidean nature of geographical distances : the fact that distances are not following the straight line is accounted for triangular inequality as in Müller 1982 ("Non-Euclidean geographic spaces: mapping functional distances" Geographical Analysis vol 14). This is clearly a misunderstanding of the non euclidean nature of the transport and mobility realities.
2. considering non-optimal sets of measures (the word "measure" is used to avoid considering them as distances) containing triangular inequalities as in Haggett 2001 p 341 ("Geography a global synthesis" Prentice Hall). This argument is not consistent with the idea of minimality that I mentioned earlier: what can be a sub-optimal distance? Does it exist in spatial analysis of transport such distances?
3. the existence of rest-stops along transport routes creates the possibility that the additivity of time-distances (for instance) is not guaranteed. On the optimal route from A to C passing through B, if there is a need for a stop (for rest, for energy refuelling or other similar purposes) in or around the point B then the addition of time-distances AB and BC is inferior to the overall AC distance creating an apparent violation of the triangle inequality. This idea can be found in the reference article Huriot, Smith and Thisse 1989 "Minimum cost distances in Spatial Analysis", Geographical Analysis, p 300. This argument could be surpassed by using a non-continuous time-distance function to overcome the sub-additivity paradox.
All this discussion brings to the idea that distances are optimal in nature, and that in the spatial analysis of transport and mobility, the concept of distance contains an idea of optimality. This idea could link geography and economics through the principle of optimisation in the distribution of activities and the functioning of transport systems.
I would like to open here a discussion to test if my reasoning is consistent and solid: I welcome any counter arguments, examples, illustrations.
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" All this discussion brings to the idea that distances are optimal in nature, and that in the spatial analysis of transport and mobility, the concept of distance contains an idea of optimality. This idea could link geography and economics through the principle of optimisation in the distribution of activities and the functioning of transport systems "
Interesting work ..... you are probably aware of the fact that the solution to a linear programming "transport problem" links activities with transport systems, and provides a set of prices (dual variables, or shadow prices) that relate to, and are derived from, the transport costs --- those transport costs do not have to obey the triangle inequality.
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What happens to your knuckles when you crack them?
This video explains the process, and mentioned a case report of one scientist cracking one hand and the other hand as control, with no long term sequel:
Is this scientifically proven? Is such habit "safe" or can that lead to arthritis on the long-term?
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Mohamad-Hani Temsah I worked as a hand surgeon for most of my career. I believe that many joints can make various sounds and may be annoying but not harmful. Popping from knuckles is probably caused by gases coming out of solution under pressure and exploding causing bubbles to suddenly form. So I think the video is true. I don't think any of the sounds from joints directly leads to any form of arthritis but may lead to some transient synovitis and weakness of grip. see
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How can I check if greater levels of accessibility inevitably result in greater participation in activities or more mobility?
What methodology can I use? What are the most appropriate accessibility measures?
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You will need to closely define your term accessibility.
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Erasmus Plus (Erasmus+) exchange program, is one of the most popular, successful and common ways of student mobility all over the world or Mevlana Exchange Programme is a programme which aims the exchange of students and academic staff between the Turkish higher education institutions and higher education institutions of other countries. Do you know any other ways for student mobility in the world?
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1) Turkish Tubitak
2) Swiss Eskas
3) German DAAD
4) Finnish CIMO
5) Dutch Nuffic
6) Austrian OeAD
7) Chinese CSC
8) UK British Council
9) Hungarian MOeB
10) French CampusFrance
.... Those just came across my mind. Hope this info helped a bit.
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Whether WIDE energy band-gap semiconductor have less mobility and less power dissipation.
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The mobility mu depends on the effective mass m eff. The effective mass depends on the curvature of the energy momentum relation at the conduction band minimum and the valence band maximum. Specifically the effective mass is inversely proportional to the curvature. So, it is independent of the energy gap Eg. The intrinsic conductivity sigmai= q mu ni is the quantity which depends on the intrinsic concentration ni. ni^2 is proportional to exp -Eg/kT . So as Eg increases ni will be very reduced and the conductivity will also decrease.
If the power dissipation p= V^2/R,
V is the voltage and R is the resistance of the material R= L/sigma A, L is the length of the resistor and A is its cross section. If the material is intrinsic sigma= sigmai and the resistance will increase with increase of Eg meaning less power dissipation for same Land A.
In fact the as Eg increases to large values about 8 eV the material will be insulator
and the power dissipation will be very small.
For more information please refer to the book:https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236003006_Electronic_Devices
Best wishes
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Dear all
I want to know your opinion about the most useful and state of the art mobility models in the context of Internet of Things applications (specially in Smart City Applications), and whether there is any data and online information on your suggesting model or not.
Thank you
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Hi,
It is an interesting topic; "An increasing amount of valuable data sources, advances in Internet of Things and Big Data technologies as well as the availability of a wide range of machine learning algorithms offers new potential to deliver analytical services to citizens and urban decision makers". So, you may check the following references.
- Strohbach, Martin, Holger Ziekow, Vangelis Gazis, and Navot Akiva. "Towards a big data analytics framework for IoT and smart city applications." In Modeling and processing for next-generation big-data technologies, pp. 257-282. Springer, Cham, 2015.
- Jin, Jiong, Jayavardhana Gubbi, Slaven Marusic, and Marimuthu Palaniswami. "An information framework for creating a smart city through internet of things." IEEE Internet of Things journal 1, no. 2 (2014): 112-121.
- Su, Kehua, Jie Li, and Hongbo Fu. "Smart city and the applications." In Electronics, Communications and Control (ICECC), 2011 International Conference on, pp. 1028-1031. IEEE, 2011.
Best,
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I've been working on plagiocephaly for the last decade (night and day)... and I'm just about ready to start a new project measuring effect of treatment. The mobile app is exactly what we need!
Tell me if there anything I can help with and who should I contact for more information about the firts mobile app to be tested...
Thanks so much for your contribution to this subject,
Best regards,
Sylvie
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Dear Mrs Lessard.
A prototype of the Craniometer-App is now available. Please provide your personal information by E-Mail via
and we will hand a version out for validation purposes.
Best regards
Falco Wilbrand
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Hello,
Here is the chemical mobility for a Fe-Cr binary alloy given by Darken's equation (Refer - Effect of applied strain on phase separation of Fe–28 at.% Cr alloy: 3D phase-field simulation):
M = (Ccr*Mfe + Cfe*Mcr)*Ccr*Cfe/Vm
1. How did the terms (Ccr*Cfe/Vm) arrive in this equation, since the inter-diffusion coefficient is just given by D = Ccr*Dfe + Cfe*Dcr?
2. What is the unit for mobility? For a mono-Vacancy mechanism, the diffusion coefficient is given by D=R*T*M. If the diffusion coefficient is given by m2/s , then can I just assume the corresponding mobility also has units in terms of m2?
It would be great if you provide any fundamental text books for understanding this.
Thank you.
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The connection between diffusivity and mobility M=D/kT is known as The Einstein- Nern
st equation in the absence of the chemical factor, which may be easily derived from the drift-diffusion equation in the presence of the additional driving force, which is a gradient of the applied external field at the steady state considerations,only!!!.
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Hi,
I got confused and I think it is better for me to ask it here, I want to find the effective mass in different directions in real direct space (x, y,z), but the formal effective mass is defined by k-space direction(for instance Gamma to M). I do not know how to define the direction in real space mapped on direction in k-space inside a crystal. for instance, in a monolayer MoS2 ( just for learning) as I attached, which direction in the k-point represent the green one and which one represent the red one as illustrated in the attached figure?
thanks
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The effective mass in certain reciprocal point k-space which hkl system is a hkl plain in real space for example if 100 as hkl is in the x-direction then the other two planes will lies in y and z directions the other planes are between them.
But to calculate values for effective mass is not as simple as this since you work with the reciprocal lattices represented by k and this needs a computer codes
The most suitable program for this is
materials studio
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I am particularly interested in evidence based studies that support or refute the claim that MaaS has many benefits such as decreasing costs to the user, reduce city congestion, and reduce emissions as more users rely on public transit components or electric, autonomous vehicles.  
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Still interested? Evidence on the effects of MaaS remains limited. However, if you have not read the reports from the UbiGo pilot in Gothenburg, I would recommend reviewing them (Jana Sochor, MariAnne Karlsson, Helena Strömberg). For on overview of MaaS-related papers and reports, please visit https://kompis.me/bibliotek/.
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We have been trying to quantify diclofenac with LC-MS using acetonitrile and methanol, in addition to 0.5mM ammonium acetate but keep getting 2-3 peaks. We are looking into changing the method to create a more acidic mobile phase, possible using acetic acid or formic acid, and an acetonitrile : water mobile phase instead but we are having trouble.
Any suggestions on methods that have had success in the past where we can work from would be greatly appreciated.
Thank you
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Dear Wolfram
There are numerous methods for diclofenac analysis from standards, formulations and from numerous biological fluids covering both LC-UV and LC-MS methods so scouting for conditions is not required, the LC methods are already reported.
For LC-MS methods where ESI ionisation is used care should be taken with the use of TFA and should be avoided if positive mode ionisation is being done as it scavenges the positive ions reducing the sensitivity of the method and if used should be less than 0.1%
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I am designing a Link Budget for Smart Watch to BTS. The gain of designed Lambda/2 dipole antenna is approximately 2dBi. But in most link budget calculations, the gain of transmitting antenna (uplink) is taken to be 0dBi. Why is it not considered to be 2dBi?
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The 2dBi figure is the maximum under ideal conditions. You need to reduce this gain because of antenna pattern considerations, absorption into the body and polarisation mismatch to give the required signal level margin. Under the circumstances 0dBi seems very optimistic to me. I would be inclined to play safe and go for -10dBi!
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Electron mobility is decreasing with doing concentration. If the carrier in the active region of QW semiconductor laser is injected through the contact layer then what is the effect on mobility?
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Hi Ravi
One of the good books is "Semiconductor Lasers" by Govind Agrawal and Niloy Dutta. It address your question.
Best wishes
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Hallo we are a group of farmers, butcher, veterinarians and research people - and our project is "slaughtering without transporation of the living animal" here in Germany, Hessen, Kassel. We are in train to develop a mobile part of a slaughterhouse to do the first steps on the farm (fixation, stunning, bleeding). We would like to come into exchange with you.
A student, is working on the time between stunning and bleeding 60s and would like to have access to your phD.
My contact is: afk@agrar-regional-buero.de or +49-561-27 224
best wishes
Andrea
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Dear Faru Andrea Fink-Kessler, Unfortunately, I have not had time to answer your question. Your project about Slaughter without transportation is interesting. You can write with me at the following E.Mail address shehadeh.kaskous @ yahoo.de
Best regards
shehadeh kaskous
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which is the tool to be used for mobile sensing and information aggregation related reseach
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Hi Jeen,
OpenDataKit(ODK) is a good solution for mobile sensing and information aggregation. You can deploy ODK in Google engine or you own server with Apache tomcat. By using 3rd party app you can collaborate sensors as well.
Best
Niroshan
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I tried c18 and platinum columns also ion pair and B_CD were used, no separation was observed.
Mobile phase , 90:10 v/v aqueous to organic solvent with and without buffer were not effective.
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That is a wide-open question! So many molecules and they all behave differently. Peptides fit the description of a molecule with amide and carboxylic acid groups, for example, and there are many others.
What were the results of your chromatography? Broad peaks? Fronting or tailing? Compounds co-eluting? What buffer was used? pH? The question doesn't list enough information for for us to generally help.
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can any one tell me how to find out mobility and optical transparency,absorption of CdO based nano particles
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UV-VIS spectroscopy
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It's based on what I learned from the open resources and combine all of what I learned, I have an idea to let everyone can use the wormhole to traveling around a different dimensional universe.
As you know, I am not in the physics field. If I have anything stated wrong, besides answer my question, please also correct me. Thanks.
  1. Our living space of 3 dimensions (not count for time) is overlapping with higher dimensional universes.
  2. Wormholes link different dimensional universes.
  3. Wormholes are surrounding all of us.
  4. High conscious people have a higher frequency. Everything in the universe can be represented as a frequency.
  5. When one has a higher frequency, can have more mobility. When the mobility is high enough, it can penetrate the invisible boundaries to traveling around and/or change the existing forms.
So, it's an interesting question for all to express your opinions. I also have my own opinions. I would like to share with you later even though, it's at the germination period.
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#1 is an interesting and intriguing idea, which has existed at least since the beautiful novel by Edwin Abbot, http://www.gutenberg.org/files/201/201-h/201-h.htm. Although this idea has been seriously investigated by theoretical physicists since the 1920's, there is to my knowledge absolutely no experimental support for it's truth.
#2-3 are fairly natural possibilities if one accepts #1, with the same qualifications with respect to possible existence.
I.e., #1-3 are mostly pipe dreams, but as such quite enjoyable ones.
#4-5 are absolutely wrong --- extremely wrong --- horribly wrong!!!
The universe, and any subset of it, is much more complex and interesting and beautiful than anything describable by a single number like a frequency (or even a distribution of frequencies, like music).
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With regard to small scale fading of a received signal in a mobile/wireless environment, I wonder if some kind of statistics are available which may tell us about the relative importance of different types of small-scale fading. In other words, in a given geographical area of certain type (let us say), what are the (approximate) respective percentages of (i) signals which are Rayleigh-distributed, (ii) signals which are Rice-distributed, (iii) signals which are Nakagami-distributed?
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Practical channel does not have any of these distributions, but what is usually done is to measure channel and then fit a random distribution to it.
Nakagami has more degrees of freedom than Rayleigh, thus Nakagami will always provide a better fit to measurement data than Rayleigh. But many people ignore this fact for analytical simplicity and to avoid over-modeling. Both these models are for non-line-of-sight channels where there is zero mean.
Ricean fading is used when you have line-of-sight propagation, with a non-zero mean. So you need to figure out how often users are in line-of-sight. I think I've seen some 3GPP document saying that the probability of that is 1-distance/200 for distances smaller than 200 meters and then it is zero. At least it was something like that... At the end of the day, it depends on the actual scenario you are interested in simulating.
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Dear All
I need a dataset of Mobile service providers that contains number of basestations, base station controllers, amount of Internet data, Ip addresses, Handoff etc.. The dataset is more like a trace data of a mobile phone service provider.
Thanks for any help
Keywords: dataset, 3G, 4G, data network.
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Thanks dr.Renaud Di Francesco I will try
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What are the current and future challenges in the field of Software Defined Networks in the process of their integration with Global Mobile and Wireless Networks?
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can explain more about research area in SDN
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How to put scale on images or photos taken by good quality mobile camera. If we have a physical dimension of component and image of same component, can we put scale manually ?
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Dear Hitesh,
At least we should get one physical dimension of the different elements in the images, then only we can get the scale for that image.
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I'm using a PDA detector HPLC unit, I was wondering whether it is possible that the retention time can change for a particular compound when the detector is set at a different wavelength, all other parameters like mobile phase an flow rate remaining constant.
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Dear Satadru
The retention time is a chromatographic parameter that is dependent on the equilibrium of the solubility of the analyte between the mobile and stationary phases and should not change for a given analyte run under identical conditions. Some problems can result in shifting retention times such as flow rate changes, leaks in the system after the injector, changes in mobile phase composition, accumulation of contaminants on the column, changes in the sample solvent and injection volume etc but these are not related to the collection of the signal at the detector.
The shift in retention time cannot be related to the detector parameters.
You do not mention the actual sample origin so if comparing a pure standard made up in a solvent to the same analyte in a complex mixture or biological matrix there could be retention time shifts due to interfering compounds or matrix related co-eleution that is not seen at the wavelength monitored for the analyte.
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Mineral
Rocks
Fungi
Solubilization
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The majority of acid-producing filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus and Penicillium. For more info:
Biotechnological solubilization of rock phosphate on media containing agro-industrial wastes
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 61 (5-6), 435-440;
Application of encapsulated Penicillium variabile P16 in solubilization of rock phosphate
Bioresource Technology 73 (2), 157-162;
Biotechnological tools for enhancing microbial solubilization of insoluble inorganic phosphates
Geomicrobiology Journal 31 (9), 751-763
Good luck!
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Web technology?
Mobile application?
Computing facilities?
?
?
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Of course, mobile applications have made great progress with the arrival of smartphones and Android, and will continue to .
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The extract is in fact that of an endolichenic fungus. I do realise that the solvent combination would differ depending on the type of secondary metabolite I wish to extract. I just want some pointers in general.
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You can't tell for sure, the metabolites from fungi can range from non polar to moderately polar compound, but in general you can run series of TLC using Hexane: Ethyl acetate with ratio , Methylene chloride: Ethyl acetate or Methylene chloride : Methanol , use general visualizing agents such as Iodine , Vanillin/Sulfuric or potassium permanganate. to idnetify non UV -active compound GOOD Luck.
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While globalization promotes mobility and opportunities to work in different countries, cultures and traditions in the world. Often some degree of adaptation is required to make sure that one present a valuable contribution to academic institution.
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I think individuals has the chance to form the culture and lead by example, and great leaders contribute the most in that way. Adaptation is also important, sometimes the role and success in work needs more adaptation than shaping the current culture. I arrived from business environment (18 years leadership and executive experience) the academic faculty and environment seem very rigid from cultural perspective than the business, but sometimes academic faculty is more tolerant to ex-centralism than the business (I know this contradicts :)).
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I have been searching for articles addressing health related issues about mobile pastoral populations or groups, but have only found a very small number. I have also used the words nomades and herding populations without any better outcome.
Is there anyone who know about litterature within this field or who can give me advices about better searching procedures ?
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Thank you. The Chernobyl article is interesting, don't know why I have missd it. There is maybe a misunderstanding regarding the Sámi population and the Sámi reindeer herding population, since the latter is a small subgroup, the mobile pastoralists. Therefore, most litterature about the Sámis do not address the mobile-pastoralist-spesific health risks. For example, exposure after the Chernobyl Accident due to high intake of reindeer meet was a threat to members of rendeer herding households. In addition, when doing research including reindeer herders we face some methodological challenges related to the combination of mobility and marginalization which seemes interesting in relation to the quality of the collected data.
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There are so many wars and/or potential wars in the world. Are you staying in the war area? How do you handle your assets? Keep real estate properties or keep assets mobilizes? Or whatever you feel it is important to take action?
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Will go and pray to GOD.
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In thin films, how resistivity concentration and mobility of charge carrier are inter related?
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μ = σ/nq
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I am new to NS2 and learning from a tutorial of Marc Greis. For wireless mobile nodes, he has provided a code which doesn't run and produces warning as:
num_nodes is set 2
warning: Please use -channel as shown in tcl/ex/wireless-mitf.tcl
INITIALIZE THE LIST xListHead
Starting Simulation...
channel.cc:sendUp - Calc highestAntennaZ_ and distCST_
highestAntennaZ_ = 1.5, distCST_ = 550.0
SORTING LISTS ...DONE!
NS EXITING...
Anybody who can help me resolve this issue. Code can also be shared if required... Thanks in anticipation
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Hi this forum might be helpful for you , try to read all errors type also
good luck
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I´m currently doing research about 5G networks and in order to accomplish my research goals I need real-life data about macrocell (or any type of) base station geo-locations (coordinates if possible) to run realistic simulations. Data about any country would be great, even data of a city would be enough help. I actually need data I can extract through an API or something, because I need as much locations as possible.
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Is it possible to calculate exposure to microwaves produced by Internet, mobile and electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere to determine their effect on the increase in cancer?
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Hi Ali,
are you search for a detector using for detect the microwave exposure?
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I have fabricated graphene transistor. But I need to know how I can simulate graphene surface mobility (either using Monte carlo simultion or Tsuprem4)? Which simulator will be easier?
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Dear Ali Farmani, thank you sir, for your valuable suggestion.
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Hello everyone, I would really appreciate your help with an issue I am having. i working on bacterial production of alpha ketoadipic acid.i conform my standard through mass.i using hitachi chromaster IR hplc.i use my mobile phase H20+H2SO4.i detect standard peak 8.623,sample 1 peak 8.676 and sample 2 peak 8.697. can i consider it my target?if not please suggest and explain solution.thanks
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HPLC requires some standard i.e. methanol.Run the HPLC chromatogram of solvent &then that of solutionin methanol or suiable solvent . Then compare hplc peak of standard and sample comparing retention time.
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Hi, I am looking for any forum / groups / association where researchers who are working on Mobile Text Input / Text interactions, Virtual keyboards, Multi language keyboards, translation, transliteration, etc. If so kindly provide reference. Thanks.
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We should talk! I have medicinal uses of crocodile in Nubia that I am about to publish in Anthrozoos. Happy to contribute to your project. My email is jlacey@amnh.org
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I am relatively not acquainted to electronics portion of physics. I wish to plot conductivity vs back gate voltage, resistivity vs back gate voltage and mobility vs back gate voltage of a graphene FET device, based on data obtained through lock in amplifier instrument? Could kindly help me out with the correct approach and equations to get started?
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Dear colleague Avi Mathur,
Have a nice time and good day.
Herein fined attached files teach you easy how to characterize electrical properties.
Dc Conductivity measurements
This part deals with the detailed description of the method used for measuring the conductivity of films specimens as a function of temperature in the temperature range from 175 to 373 K.
A current source consisting of Keithley 240 A power supply (Es) is connected in series with a known resistor RS, generates a current I which flows through the sample of thickness 200 ± 2% nm. The resultant voltage drop across the sample was measured with an Electrometer Keithley 614 C, and the value of the sample resistance can be measured. Schematic diagram for the used circuit illustrated in Fig.1.
The measurement of the electrical properties of thin films were performed at different temperatures starting from low temperature to high temperature using liquid nitrogen up to 373K. The measurements were achieved by using cryostat which is shown in Fig.2.
The cryostat consists of a Pyrex body, having two impeded copper- constantan thermocouple and electrode terminals. The later connected to the investigated thin film sample through two isolated copper wires electrically isolated. The cryostat and its isolated cover container its designed to fit each other so that low vacuum could be achieved. Rubber insulator protection was supplied to prevent the fraction between the Pyrex and the container.
The ambient specimen temperature could be decreased by liquid nitrogen addition to the dewar flask. A Stable constant reading of the calibrated thermocouple- placed adjacent to the sample- could be achieved after enough suitable time. This time is the time required to get the thermal balance between the liquid nitrogen cooling and the ambient temperature. The electrical conductivity of the thin film samples at this condition could be measured. The temperature was controlled manually and measured using digital temperature indicator.
Several film specimen designs were used in the preliminary
experiments included gap, sandwich and comb configurations. Different metals were examined as electrodes. The results for the electrical measurements were obtained using gap specimen design and Cu electrodes. The geometry of the film samples is shown in Fig.3 and Fig.4. All samples were deposited on ordinary glass substrate (microscope slide). A co-planar geometry was used, the inter-electrode gap of 2 mm width being obtained by using a metal mask. The gap cell geometry has been used in order to avoid the problem of the contact between the electrode and the sample, as well as avoiding the surface metal electrode transmission. Cu evaporation as electrodes was carried out in the same vacuum chamber used for film deposition at a pressure of 10-5 torr.
I wish this is useful and help you.
Yours
A. EL-Denglawey
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Effect of the mobility of solute atom on the dislocation mobility
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How the solute atoms effect the dislocation movement in a material depends how they interact with the dislocation and its surroundings ( other defects inhibiting its motion). They can facilitate or inhibit dislocation motion.
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Passenger drones are sometimes heralded as the new miracle solution to traffic congestion. But one can just as well argue that, together with other automated transport technologies, they will just induce new traffic and congestion will move from the roads to the skies. I wonder whether there is any systematic thinking about this ongoing already, both in terms of policy work and in terms of transport modelling.
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Thanks for the tip Scott.
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I have prefabricated some interdigitated electrodes on SiO2/Si substrates (300 nm SiO2, heavily p-doped Si). Then I spin coat perovskite quantum dots on it and dry in vacumm oven. I can kind of get a decent ouput characteristic, however, the current changes little when I change gate voltage. And the current quicky decrease and can not stablize. Did anyone have experience in organic field effect transistor?
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In my opinion, it may because of your Perovskite QD is not stable by applying the external voltage to your FET devices. This also happen in my case when I synthesis and fabricate poor QDs material in Solar cell case. Have you tried other QD materials instead of Perovskite QD? Or you can do annealing after depositing Perovskite QD layers.
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How to purify mono-BOC-ethylenediamine or N-tert-butoxycarbonylaminoethylamine (EDA-BOC) by Column cromatography? I used ethylacetate (100% ) over silica gel to purify but it does not work. EDA-BOC either dicomposed or stuck in silica gel. Some one told me to use triethylamine with mobile phase but I am not sure about it. I have sythesized EDA-BOC by following Luminescence 2011; 26: 264–270, doi 10.1002/bio.1223 but still geting some impurities. Anyone suggest me best way to purify EDA-BOC with appropiate reference?
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Purify mono-BOC-ethylenediamine or N-tert-butoxycarbonylaminoethylamine by Column chromatography, you can try chloroform methanol 95:5 % by volume as an eluting solvent. first see separation on TLC , then go to column.
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I want to prepare aqueous solution of mobile phase of o.o4M Brij-35 and this mobile phase has to be adjusted to pH 7.4 with o.5M phosphate buffer which will be prepared with NaH2PO4 and Na2HPO4 solutions.
so, Can anyone help me to prepare phosphate buffer solution of 0,05M using NaH2PO42H2O and Na2HPO4.7H2O with pH of 7.4 ?
waiting for your favorable response,
thanks
serge
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Use the following attached information and see if you can use the same method for your experiment
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Can anyone to download me the paper intituled "Signal strength as support to mobility detection on failure detectors", SAC 2017?
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Maybe you can use SNDL ? Or send an email to the authors
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I'm trying to purify my enzyme from mixture of extracellular proteins using Agilent HPLC system, C18 column (ZORBEX matrix), with Water:ACN gradient mobile phase, I tried water:isopropanol gradient mobile phase too. But due to organic solvents my enzyme fraction doesn't show any activity in collected fraction, I want an active, purified protein fraction. Very slight activity is also work since it is just required to confirm molecular weight on native PAGE. Is there any way of getting it? Or anybody can suggest how to re-nature the denatured proteins in collected fractions.
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I would actually change your purification method to ion exchange or size exclusion, use a salt gradient elution and negate the use of organic solvents at all.
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hi everyone,
I have problem with hplc machine (hitachi elite lachrome). I started running my sequence, but the first sample the alarm rang and showed error_z means there are obstacles. I stoped the autosampler by pause. However, the pumpA raised the pressure more than limit. I turned of the system, check the autosampler, change mobile phase, but the pump still has high pressure. I do not know what happen. Anyone had similar problem before? Please give some advice to fix this.
I also attached 2 errors that the machine showed me! 
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Flush the pump separately. Start taking away components and check their functions individually
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If a material had a relative permittivity less than 1 the charge stored would be less than with air/vacuum. the polarisation would have to be reversed so that the dielectric accumulated surface charge of the same polarity as the adjacent plate.
This separation of charge it isn't going to happen naturally in a material. it would require an external energy source to 'force' it's mobile charges or polar molecules to do this.
For this reason there isn't a material that inherently has a relative permittivity that is less than 1. However, covering a metal plate with a material of relative permittivity 0 on one side. Then place a charge on the metal plate. The system as a whole will accelerate towards the metal side since there is no flux on the covered side and so the charge is accelerated in the direction of the uncovered side. This is a violation of the conservation of energy principle, so it is impossible. Extending the argument to relative permittivity simply less than one instead of 0, there will be less flux on the covered side, so again the charge is accelerated in the direction of the uncovered side. So this must also not be possible. But we do have materials with relative permittivity greater than one, and I could use the same argument in that case. Why can I not, or why is it invalid to extend the argument for 0 permittivity to finite permittivity?
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Dear Mohammadmahdi, 
As Petr mentioned above permittivity of a macroscopic medium
depends on frequency. It is well known that permittivity of noble metals
is negative at optical frequencies (plasmons). The same is true for
gaseous atmospheric plasma at MHz frequenies. Also permittivity of superconcductors is negative at microwave frequencies (IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 23, NO. 2, APRIL 2013. p. 1501011).
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Could VEINS/SUMO display a mobility scenario having a mobility trace file as input?
I have a mobility trace file for V2X scenario. How can I use it to display it using VEINS and/or SUMO?
If not possible, do you recommend any other tool for that?
Many Thanks,
D.
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Your question is not clear. If your question is
"I have a SUMO generated trace file, how can I visualize it?" then the answer is that you can use "SUMO-GUI"
However, if your question is:
"I have a GPS trace file or a custom mobility file that is not generated by SUMO and I wand to display it." then you will have to first convert it to a mobility format that is suitable for SUMO and then display it using "SUMO-GUI"
Helpful links:
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We have multiple mobile vehicles and multiple stores. We want to distribute inventory to stores through mobile vehicle such that vehicle serve the nearest store. Hence, multiple stores can get inventory at the same time through nearest mobile vehicle. Location of mobile vehicle is not fixed. How to formulate mathematical model for it? (How assign multiple options in one equation)
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Dear Faisal,
I suggest you to see links; attached files and attached publications in topics
-Facility Location in Supply Chain Design - CiteSeerX
-The Capacitated Mobile Facility Location Problem - TerpConnect
-Strategic facility location: A review - Zoomin
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Hi, I want to ask how to analyze hplc result which it gave unseen peak but shows retention time in chromatogram. Is there any suggestion to this matter ? I am analyzing phenolic compound using mixture mobile phase of ACN,water and acetic acid
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Mr. Safri,
The abbreviation raw means 'Read and Write'. You upload figure. So, could you upload the population or groups values?
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Dear All,
I need some help in developing an mobile application that can be used for life sciences. I need some developers with regards to this. Kindly update me if any one interested.
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I think computer/software engineers will be the best candidate for this stuff.
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Dear Colleagues:
Our research team wants to do a work to assess the importance of public and private communication systems (social networks, websites, blogs, scientific forums, among others) to foster collaboration with scientists from a country abroad and support their return. I would be grateful if you could provide us references of this interesting topic.
Best Regards
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Kindly see this reference (Paper title: Social Media, Collaboration, and Scientific Organizations).
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What are the differences between adaptive TDMA and distributed TDMA? Can we use both protocols in case of mobile adhoc networks? 
Please elaborate the difference. Could not find best explanation for adaptive TDMA and distributed TDMA for mobile adhoc networks. . Thanks
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The attached paper has a good explanation regarding your question.
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Some sections of my university promote m-learning. M stand for mobile, which is the expression in Fiji are cell phone (mobile phone). Do you know what I mean and do you have any experience of this form of learning?
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You may want to give a look at this link:
I'm offering mobile learning video lectures from various perspectives.
 
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Quantum Hall Effect can be observed, if magnetic energy (Landau levels) is more than electric energy (that is, (mobility) x (magnetic field B) > 1 , see Klaus von Klitzing - Nobel Lecture, page 327 (attached)). However, in Phys.Rev.Lett. 2011 (attached) etc, it was obtained that , the energy of Coulomb interaction for electron is about 10 eV, whereas in magnetic field (B=10Tesla=10^{5}Gauss) this electron (with effective mass of m) has magnetic energy (Landau level) about heB/mc = 0.1 eV). In that case, Quantum Hall Effect can not be observed because just the Coulomb energy (10 eV) will determine the energy of electron. Moreover, this value (10 eV) of Coulomb energy is one, averaged in quantum sence. Therefore even the instant variation of that Coulomb interaction can be much more than the magnetic energy 0.1 eV. Thus, could we conclude that Quantum Hall Effect can not be observed, if Coulomb interaction equals 10 eV?
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No-the premise of the question is incorrect. Incidentally, the integer quantum Hall effect is a one-particle effect. 
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Mobile data offloading
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Dear Meenaxi, do you already know the attached paper on matter?  Gianluca
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Do polar solvents effect the MS unit and are they ionisable in ionisation unit of the hyphenated MS unit???? 
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For HPLC applications, the liquid must be removed from the sample before the MS detector can be used (in GC/MS there is no liquid to start with, just gas so no need for this step). HPLC analysis requires that we infuse solutions (i.e. mobile phase liquids) directly into an evaporation chamber of an LC-MS system. We do not infuse liquid directly into a MS source (that would be very bad!).  Heated gas sources and atomization of the liquid are all used together to desolvate the liquid away and just leave the clean dry gas with the ionized particles (samples). Mass can only be measured when the molecule is converted to an electrically charged gas-phase ion. MS analysis is effected by the chemistry of the mobile phase (might be polar or non-polar) and the sample type(s).
* For more information, please do a keyword search on the web for an explanation of LC-MS and MS analysis OR read an intro article or two on the same subject. *One of the best ways for you to learn is to spend time researching the answers to such basic questions on your own (yourself). Reading about the technique will teach you far more than having others provide just the answers for you.
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I am interested in knowing about architectural and urbanistic experiences related to noise control in cities near 150,000 inhabitants?. The relationship with mobility systems, driver behavior and legislation applied to reduce noise in cities. Thanks for your attention
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Dear Jeamil Burneo 
Urban planning is a complicated process, many parties are involved, the stakes are high, and the decisions have a long lasting impact. Although several other impacts of road and railroad traffic on the environment must not be neglected, it is clear that noise annoyance is a major dissatisfier in residential areas. In many countries, therefore a system of noise limits is in force. Noise poses a multitude of health and safety concerns on such aspects as productivity, comfort, and functionality. Sound quality is considered a key contributor to the development and enhancement of the ecological/sustainable quality of open urban spaces. Please find the attached articles.I hope you will find them useful.
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Could anyone please suggest me some sensor node deployment models for various environmental monitoring applications apart from "Disaster Area Mobility Model"
Thanks
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Thank you for your help Dr. Ehab