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To define quantitative analysis as such in a mixed methods approach, is it necessary to include a regression analysis?
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I agree with Afzal Muhammad Tanveer , i.e. you conduct apt statistically analysis for each approach, and then integrate the results. So you may or may not conduct regression analysis for your quantitative data, which is dependent on your research questions or hypotheses.
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How do you write an OBJECTIVE with a Moderating variable, considering that its a mixed method study?
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The concept of variables is usually considered to be part of quantitative research, where a moderating variable predicts that an interaction effect will occur. As such, it is a hypothesis. You could specify something similar with the qualitative portion of the study by saying that two or more subsets of your participants will differ in some specific way.
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There seem to be a scholarly debate on the specific difference(s) between multi-methods and mixed methods. To what extent does multi-methods differ from mixed methods?
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some of the main benefits of integrating different data sources in your market research projects.
Improve respondent experience.
Improve data quality.
Detect the top of mind.
Understand why people act the way they do.
It enables you to get the whole picture.
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I'm conducting an explanatory mixed methods study, which requires me to select my qualitative phase participants from my quantitative phase.
I have two sets of data for my quantitive study: a large national dataset from 2009 and a contemporary (smaller) dataset from distributing the same survey.
I'm wondering if 1) it is acceptable to add the new participants to the larger data set before doing quantitative analysis and 2) if I could then choose my qualitative sample from the contemporary participants as a purposive sample? I recognize I will need to address all of this in my limitations section (merging data that is 10 years apart, etc.) but I'm more interested in the technicality of "can I do it?"
For additional context: my current sample is small and recruitment has been going poorly so I'm trying to find a solution that keeps me moving ahead in my study but won't be an issue later.
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Thank you for the question and the answers are very useful.
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Please recommend an article.
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Thank you Michelle Horton for the attractive question and all professors for the excellent answers.
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Mixed Methods Study
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A Mixed Methods Approach to the Analysis of Bias in Cross-cultural Studies
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Hi, I am using interviews and questionnaire in my exploratory research. I know it is called exploratory sequential research. But I am confused if I can call it pragmatic approach as I am using mixed methods? Can someone please justify it? Thanks you
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I think the key is to understand that starting with a qualitative study to generate a questionnaire (qual --> QUANT) is an exploratory sequential design. The word "design" is what is essential here, because it specifies how you will use your research methods to meet your research goals.
In contrast, pragmatism is a much more general orientation to how to do research (a paradigm). It emphasizes taking action as the way to generate knowledge.
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What is the best technique to determine the sample size for a mixed-method, e.g., quantitative, qualitative, quantitative and qualitative? Considering a mixed method is employed for a complementarity purpose?
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Look! I personally place benchmark s on data collection stages after which I run the appropriate model. Normally first I run the model after collecting data from 50 objects then 100 and so on. It helps you keep track of various trends in results that whether you should keep on collecting data from the area of the same etc. I keep on running model on the data until the start to emerge similar after results.
Of course there are also statistical procedures as referred by @Sunday Joseph Duntoye.
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I would be interested in what you see as the advantages and disadvantages of mixed-methods research in the social sciences. Do you do research with a mixture or combination of e.g. qualitative and quantitative research? Do you combine different quantitative or qualitative methods?
What challenges do you face (e.g., sampling, implementation, scope) and where do you see the limitations of the combination?
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Hello,
I am conducting a qualitative study with semi structured interviews (N=10), and the method of analysis is thematic analysis. In my questionnaire, I included 3 dichotomous questions related to participants' knowledge, education and experience. I would like to present the data on a likert scale. Could that be possible? Preferably, I would not like to change my method to a mixed method analysis.
Thank you very much.
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Alexia,
This sounds to me like you have 2 datasets, one qualitative and the other quantitatative. So, I'm assuming that both datasets are on the same topic, such as the qualitative data were used to build the survey, or some other variation but are meaningful together. If my assumptions are right, then you can present both datasets together without having to change your study design. While you might be doing all things mixed methods (i.e. integration of both qual & quan datasets), there is no need to declare it as one.
I'm also making the assumption that your question was about presentation of findings (based on your question) and not really trying to transform qualitative into quantiative. Therefore, I'm imagining a table of findings such as:
Themes || Low || Moderate ||High
Knowledge Quan % Quan % Quan %
Vignettes Vignettes Vignettes
* You can also consider including the qual numbers for each column also.
Of course, pure assumptions. Hope this was helpful.
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Dear fellow researchers,
Usually we use lavaan for continuous variable, so can we still use lavaan for categorical variable (e.g. high and low ethnic diversity composition)?
Thank you very much!
Best,
Edita
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Hello Edita,
A categorical variable having only two levels (e.g., coded 0/1) can be used in any linear model as an IV or antecedent variable.
If such a variable is the DV, however, it likely makes more sense to switch from linear to logistic models.
Good luck with your work.
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Exploring challenges and prospects of online assessment at higher education. I want to explore challenges by students and prospects by teachers so please guide me accordingly
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The three most common designs in mixed methods research are convergent designs (Qual + quant, qual + Quant, and QUAL + QUANT), exploratory sequential designs (qual --> QUANT), and explanatory sequential designs (QUANT --> qual).
You can read about these in the textbook by Creswell and Plano-Clark.
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In an Exploratory Sequential Mixed Method Research, I have done qualitative research in stage 1.
I found some new construct, and discover linkage between the new found construct and the constructs under study. After that, based on the findings of qualitative research, I proposed a conceptual framework and I was able to offer some hypothesis.
After that I empirically verified few hypothesis by conducting a Quantitative research.
Now the thesis reviewer criticized that in Literature Review, I should discuss the conceptual framework and the relationships (proposed in the hypothesis). But I found that relationships after I concluded my qualitative research. How should I supposed to know them when I was writing the Literature review.
Please, someone guide me, where I am wrong.
Someone, please guide me, how to write literature review for Mixed method Research.
Regards,
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It is not unusual to discover links to the existing literature, once you have the results from an exploratory qualitative study. Unfortunately, there is no standard solution to how you should report this in either the qualitative or mixed methods fields.
I recommend to my students that when this occurs, they present it in the Discussion section. If your thesis supervisor is not willing to accept that as a compromise, then you will probably have to accept the power differential and do what you are being told to do -- for your thesis. Then, you will be free to do as you wish when you publish your research.
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Greetings, I am a student enrolled in a research class for Arizona State University, and we are discussing the topic of research and evaluation. For this discussion we are drawing from Mertens (2020) Research and Evaluation in Education and Psychology. While I believe there is a link and they overlap, research is how we find related tops and information, while evaluation is how we add validity. Mertens stated that research is knowing and understanding while evaluation is the applied inquiry process.
I think we use a mix method approach in our research, to see what may be factual and biased and what may be just theory.
Through different approaches, how can we still maintain the discipline of being objective while not falling into a biased opinion, where we only post, follow or research an opinion that we agree with? Out of the for theories, postpositivism, constructivism, transformative and pragmatic, which would be the most effective in being open and unbiased?
Thank you for your time
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Research is the pathway of passing the knowledge for the readers & the students , which remain a guiding factor for the students in their study & also in their knowledge . Education covers the basic path of the prescribe study matter for which student of higher education may take the advantage of knowledge of research .
This is my personal opinion
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Could someone provide some practical examples for the explanation, as I am doing the research as part of my MSC safety and risk management degree? I have chosen mixed-methods surveys, and I was trying to learn about integrating data analyses obtained by surveys and interviews; the participants are kept anonymized.
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If your interviews and surveys are done separately and cover similar topics, then this amounts to what the Creswell and Plano-Clark textbook refers to as a "convergent design."
Another good source on integration is Fetters, Mixed Methods Research Workbook.
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I am conducting an exploratory mixed methods Ph.D-level investigation that focuses on situating management in online learning and concerns two phases.The concluded qualitative phase (QUAL) yielded a testable framework for the quantitative phase (quan). I need to test the factors that explain learning success when learners study partially or fully in an online environment. The link below gives access to the measurement instrument with items requiring scale responses. https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSe2xERY-IX6Cx8aOs5hJw82Xe4f0eoeNYLycS9IQy13Gy8mFA/viewform?usp=sf_link  
Given the insular nature educational institutions, I need the help of research practitioners to reach persons who have studied fully or partly online or are doing so. All persons around the world aged 13 and above who have completed all or part of their academic- or professional units, courses, or programs online, and those who are self-taught using online repositories, are eligible to participate in this study. Respondents' identities will be kept secret and their responses will not be divulged to third parties. Only the aggregated data from the entire study shall be analyzed to answer the research questions.
Thank you for your willingness to support this cause.
Warmest regards,
Victor Avasi Ph.D. Candidate Instructional Design and Open Learning Euclid University, Gambia
avection"at"gmail.com
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Hi, I am writing a project on the impact of COVID 19 on consumer buying behaviour and initially i was going to use a qualitative research method coupled with a secondary data collection but i noticed from most of the available research online, scholars have used various methods such as quantitative, mixed method etc to approach their objectives. What i would like to know pls is what is the best research method to approach my topic, should i use a systematic literature review and do i necessarily need a peer group to carry on with this, if so what are the best alternative option available. A reply will be much appreciated as i have a limited time to carry out this research
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Here, the answer is mainly focused on the literature search what is commonly called literature review that can be used by the most of the researchers in the world.
Both Qualitative or Qualitative research need the proper literature review for the particular research undertaken by the researchers.
The peer review is the process of checking or selecting the most appropriate literatures are mainly pertaining to the research titles.
The researchers have never considered the peer review process while doing research. It is the duty of the publication office to monitor those mistakes before publication.
AA
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All quant/quali research project have a literature review component which selects relevant literature for writing Introduction or discussion part. However if one is using scoping review as well as qualitative interviews to answer the research question and the methods are clearly written in the methodology section with an aim to present the results of both scoping review and qualitative research, can this be called a mixed methods research. Or is the use of two methods like this rational at all in terms of study design.
We are intending to do this for our student research but have not seen examples of these kinds of methodology so far.
Can you good people share your thoughts and also share some papers if you think this is reasonable and have seen this being done somewhere?
Thank you
Shyam
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In my opinion, no you can't.
Literature review cannot objectively answer a research question. On the other hand, systematic reviews, are research projects by themselves and can answer research questions. They are conducted based on stated methodology. There are several types of systematic reviews (systematic reviews of effectiveness studies, systematic reviews of prevalence studies, Systematic reviews of qualitative evidence, scoping reviews, systematic reviews of mixed methods studies, systematic reviews of diagnostic studies, etc).
Just like primary studies, we can have systematic reviews of mixed methods studies (e.g, to synthesize evidence of effectiveness and evidence of meaningfulness and [resent in a single article). Nevertheless, it does not mean that we combine literature reviews with primary studies and call them systematic reviews. Neither does it mean that we can combine systematic reviews and primary studies. I do not see the advantage of mixing them when we can present them separately. The scoping review may help you to identify gaps in evidence, information on how the subject has been investigated by others, and how the subject of interest has been conceptualized. Even if it helps you this way, it cannot constitute a component of a methodology in your report of primary study. You may use the evidence to present the rationale for the conduct of your study. You may mention why and how you conceptualized your primary study based on the evidence you found from the scoping review. That does not mean that you are using mixed methods. If you want, you can report both works in separate articles/chapters.
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Good day,
I'm currently working on defining the research design for my master's thesis and unfortunately I'm struggling a bit. In my master's thesis, I want to research a possible positioning of a start-up in the coffee market. I would like to interview potential customers to get an understanding of their wants, needs, etc. and then finally define the USP, the value proposition, or the positioning against the competition. I have already read some of the literature and the mixed method theory makes sense to me because I can bring more certainty to my research. However, I now have the question of which approach I should choose here? I thought it would make the most sense to first conduct an explorative interview, from which I can then derive concrete requirements and then formulate hypotheses, such as: With coffee, it is more important to me that it is sustainable than that it is cheap.
However, I have read in the literature that this approach is called a pre-study when, for example, a questionnaire is developed in psychology. I think the word pre-study irritates me because I don't want to do one. Do you think that the proposed research design could apply to my application?
I say thank you for your help in advance!
Kind regards,
Sam
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Sam Bre Mixed techniques can also be qual-qual or quant-quant. Any quantitative component has the capacity to assert hypotheses; however, this is not necessarily the case. It can alternatively be a question or a statement, depending on how descriptive the quantitative data is.
The findings of your qualitative inquiry will be utilized to influence your next proposal for a quantitative study in a mixed-methods approach (like developing a new survey measure). You may discover that you need to conduct another qualitative study to understand the findings of your quantitative research.
If your research approach indicates that quantitative or qualitative data alone will not adequately address your research topic, mixed methods research may be the best option. In a mixed methods study, quantitative and qualitative data are collected and analyzed in the same study.
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I am conduction an exploratory sequential design study, and the students in the experiment are 30. Can I conduct a questionnaire to the same students as a quantitative instrument THOUGH THE NUMBER IS NOT THAT BIG AS A QUANTITATIVE STUDY.
THANKS ALREADY
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The small sample size (n=30) is more appropriate for the reliability testing of the instrument (pre-testing) and may not be suitable for inferential statistics to explain in general for prediction analysis. However, comparing between pre-test and post-test or t-tests for a two-group design is possible.
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I am a qualitative research newbie. This study is for my doctoral dissertation. I am interviewing music professors about their experiences working with student musicians who have an occupational injury. I wish to understand and discuss the themes that emerge most frequently from the interviews of my 15 subjects. Does analysis of my interview data using the code frequency method mean that my research is both qualitative and quantitative?
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Please refer to any published study where it is shared that frequency calculation in a qualitative study does not qualify it as a mixed-method study.
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I have a question about what constitutes mix methods research. If a research project uses a case study methodology and also analyzes statistical data, can this be considered a mixed methods approach. On one hand it seems that it might because it uses the qualitative method of a case study (the qualitative part) with some analyzing of statistics (the quantitative part). However, if no actual qualitative data was collected or analyzed, would this research simply just be considered a case study with some statistics?
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In my opinion, a case study could be contributed to a quantitative or qualitative study. So mix-method is feasible for a case study either.
Kind Regards,
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Mixed-methods researchers promote pragmatism as a paradigm by suggesting that it is directly linked to the needs of mixed-methods research. Scholars maintain that pragmatism provides a philosophical foundation for social science research, in general, and mixed-methods research, in particular (Morgan 2014a).
Many researchers still believe that mixed methodology should be done separately.
What is the take on the pragmatic approach where mixed methods adopt the use of both methods using one instrument/tool to collect data at the same time? This will either be QUANT+qual or QUAL+quant.
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Actually, I do not know that mixed-method has limitations. Thank you for the useful RG link.
Kind Regards,
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Looking for quant or mixes method psychological distress measures to assess climate or environmental distress in extractive settings. Any recommendation most welcome.
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Hi,
I use two research methods in my thesis (quantitative and qualitative), which focus on different samples (the offer side and the demand side).
How should I organize the research methodology section in this case?
Should I (1) divide it in two sections (one for the first research methodology, the second for the second one), or should I (2) keep the standard outline and just introduce the two approaches, data collection methods and samplings one after the other within these sub-sections?
The second option seems less optimal in my opinion, as it can create confusion, but I am afraid choosing the first one is not standard enough.
Sorry in advance if this is a basic question.
Thanks!
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The methodology section in mixed methods research (MMR) should elaborate on the MMR appropriateness considering the study objectives. It should identify and define the type of MMR design. It should also point out the quantitative design and qualitative approach to inquiry employed within the adopted MMR design. Besides, it should render a rationale for collecting quantitative and qualitative data, highlighting the added value of integrating the findings from the two data sets. You could refer to Chapter 8 of the textbook by Creswell and Plano Clark (2018), fully cited below, for detailed insights into the structural outline of writing an MMR thesis.
Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2018). Designing and conducting mixed methods research (3rd ed.). SAGE. https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/designing-and-conducting-mixed-methods-research/book241842
Good luck,
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Hi,
I am designing my study which will use Hall's encoding/ decoding model. I am using mixed methods to answer my research question which is :
Q1 How are social media platforms are used compared to what the developers intended?
My research design is as you can see have four phases( attached) phase 1: will analyse the platforms by a qual methodology, phase two will analyse the usage of the platforms (Quan), phase three will analyse the perceived meaning (Qual) and phase four will be the integration of the data.
My question is: What type of mixed methods is that? and as I am not following any mixed-methods typology, is it acceptable?
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Agree with answers above
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The thesis comprise of three papers:
1. Paper 1 survey data
2. Paper 2 semi structured interviews
3. Paper 3 semi structured interviews
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The standard philosophical paradigm associated with mixed methods research is pragmatism, which is pluralistic and focused on what works best to address the problem under investigation. You might consider the following for further germane insights.
Alise, M. A., & Teddlie, C. (2010). A continuation of the paradigm wars? Prevalence rates of methodological approaches across the social/behavioral sciences. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 4(2), 103–126. https://doi.org/10.1177/1558689809360805
Allmark, P., & Machaczek, K. (2018). Realism and pragmatism in a mixed methods study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 74(6), 1301–1309. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.13523
Creswell, J. W. (2022). A concise introduction to mixed methods research (2nd ed.). https://us.sagepub.com/hi/cab/a-concise-introduction-to-mixed-methods-research/book266037
Molina-Azorin, J. F., & Fetters, M. D. (2022). Books on mixed methods research: A window on the growth in number and diversity. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 16(1), 8–16. https://doi.org/10.1177/15586898211068208
Good luck,
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Hi all,
Kindly seeking clarification. When writing a PhD thesis, following a mixed method approach and quan-qual convergent design with regard to objectives, hypothesis and research questions, what is acceptable? Can one only have objectives and corresponding hypotheses or is it ok to have both hypotheses and a research question covering the qualitative data.
Will appreciate your feedback
Joshua Weru
Assistant Lecturer,
Chuka University, Kenya
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Also keep in mind that some researchers view mixed methods as incompatible (not me) because of different (in general) philosophy of science underpinnings. Knowing the arguments (pro and con) should help you in defending your work if a committee member or journal reviewer challenges you. Best!
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Hi
I am conducting mixed-methods cross-cultural research on an organizational phenomenon in two different countries, specifically an exploratory sequential design.
However, I managed to finalize the interviews in one country but could not find a sufficient number of interviews in the other country. Thus, due to the time limit, I was thinking of considering the interviews I have in hand in country A (where we have no idea about the phenomena), analyze them and inform surveys to be distributed in country B along with country A to see whether the participants in country B perceived the phenomena the same way it's perceived in country A.
But, as far as I know, in mixed methods, we need to apply both methods (e.g., interviews and surveys) in both samples, meaning we can't use one method in one sample but not in the other one.
So, my question is: is it possible to do what is suggested above? or will the samples be underrepresented in this case? What other solutions I can adopt to overcome this weakness?
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Nidaa Al-Barwani In a mixed-methods study, quantitative and qualitative data are collected and analyzed in the same study. Because various methodologies may answer diverse issues on their own, combining them can offer you more in-depth results.
Combining data sets can help the investigator obtain a deeper knowledge of the problem and provide more complete evidence — the investigator gains depth as well as breadth.
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can I use a combination of a vignette (for one variable i.e. dependent variable) with a self-report survey questionnaire (for all other variables IVs, Mediators, and moderators)? if I can what types of analysis and software for that analysis I may use? if I can't what should I do? (scale development is not a good solution, neither scale for survey research is used nor available in previous research for that Dependent variable). I mean can I use a vignette for one variable with a self-report scale for all other variables in combination (it is somehow a mix of experimental and self-report methodology).
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Hi Ijaz,
I am assuming you would be using the vignette to set the stage for asking questions or seeking responses about it. If that is the case, the answer is yes, you can use a vignette as part of a survey questionnaire. Regarding what analysis or analyses you could use, that depends on the nature of your sampling and responses, the research questions you are asking, and the viability of your assumptions. Analyses could range from simple frequencies to much more complex statistics and even qualitative methods.
Good luck,
J. McLean
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I'm trying to analyse some data from my last experiment, where I grew two varieties of potato in a range of pot sizes with well-watered and water-restricted conditions, to see if the size of the pot would affect the relationships between water restriction and measures of plant morphophysiology over time.
Unfortunately, I have absolutely no idea how to analyse these data, which looks like this (5 pot sizes, 2 genotypes, 2 treatments, and about 11 dates)... Each combination of factors was replicated in triplicate. To be honest, I'm not even sure what I'm trying to look for, my brain's not great with numbers so I'm just sitting staring at Minitab. Any help at all would be amazing. Thanks.
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Cindy – I presume someone is supervising your experiment. It's time to investigate the statistical support resources available to you.
You also need to write your results section now – I'm not kidding about this. Look at papers that have done similar experiments and see how they presented the data, and how they wrote it up. Use this as a template. Write the results section drawing up blank tables to show your results and leaving gaps in the text awaiting the appropriate result.
I say this because with repeated measurements you need to define your study endpoint precisely. Are you interested in how big the plants are at a given time point, or how long it takes them to reach a given size? And indeed, is size what counts? Measured how?
You can also be getting a better feel for your data by graphing the results. Draw line graphs for each plant's growth, coloured to show which group they belong to. Do this for each variable separately – water level, genotype, pot size etc. Look out for peculiar data points! They can have devastating effects on mean values.
So read similar studies and dummy up your analysis plan, meanwhile making lots of graphs. Then make an appointment with your local friendly statistics service to discuss how you implement the analysis in whatever software you are using.
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I need to assess the perception and compliance of people about the COVID-19 vaccine.
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There are two types of methodologies namely quantitative and qualitative can be used. A good thesis should be in mixed methodology but with more quantitative through justifications with logical outputs rather than being more linguistic and leant to qualitative. Because quantitative approach are simple for reader to understand and they become more precise. But for a neat flow of your quantitative outputs you need to be qualitative for a decent extent.
Hope you find it helps
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I'm doing my BA dissertation on generation Z’s perceptions of social media advertising and how their multiplatform usage affects their advertising interactions. I have designed a methodology but now I don't know what type of analysis to do. I have a mix method survey in which there are likert scale questions (strongly disagree-strongly agree) and open ended questions for them to explain their experience with social media and advertising on these platforms. I have looked at thematic analysis, sequential explanatory design, rank correlation etc but i am getting more confused on which method to use to find the relationship between consumer’s social media usage and social media advertising behaviours.
Any ideas?
thank you!!
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There are two types of methodologies namely quantitative and qualitative can be used. A good thesis should be in mixed methodology but with more quantitative through justifications with logical outputs rather than being more linguistic and leant to qualitative. Because quantitative approach are simple for reader to understand and they become more precise. But for a neat flow of your quantitative outputs you need to be qualitative for a decent extent.
Hope you find it helps
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The study aims at investigating the scope for implementing certain types of activities at the higher secondary level and to verify this the researcher wants to visualize what the samples existing perception about these.
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Convergent parallel designs can be problematic because they say very little about how you will actually integrate the results of the two studies. I recommend that you start planning how you will compare your data, right from the beginning.
One useful tool is a Joint Display. You might also look at a recent book by Fetters, The Mixed Methods Research Workbook.
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Mixed method research design.
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The Triangulation Design (Figure 4.1a) is the most frequent and well-known technique for mixing procedures (Creswell, Plano Clark, et al., 2003). This design's goal is to "collect distinct but complementary data on the same issue" (Morse, 1991, p. 122) in order to better comprehend the research challenge.
It entails gathering both types of data at roughly the same time; assessing information using parallel constructs for both types of data; analyzing both types of data separately; and comparing results using procedures such as a side-by-side comparison in a discussion, transforming the qualitative data set into quantitative data.
Exploratory sequential mixed methods, on the other hand, is a way of integrating qualitative and quantitative data gathering and analysis in a series of phases (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2018).
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I am conducting a longitudinal case study to explore a new phenomenon and gain better insights into participants' views. Quantitative data is required to check any preconceptions participants have through the use of questionnaires. The analyzed data will provide input for QUAL data. So, it is a sequential mixed-method approach yet it is exploratory not an exploratory case study. Is it possible or am I missing out on something?
Your help is highly appreciated
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There are many terms for how to characterize a mixed methods study. John Creswell uses four simple types. You should read his book A Concise Introduction to Mixed Methods Research. Your design sounds like explanatory; there are many ways to characterize it, but have a well-developed question and desired answers first.
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What are the other ways in which I can do mixed methods? I'm just a beginner in the research arena. Maybe, you could provide also some resources here which can help me. Thank you!
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Dear Louie Giray,
Yes. It is considered mixed method when you use this combination. The point here is what kind of mixed method design and what are the function of each question.
I will offer a chapter that I think is one of the best to describe it. I don't know the authors personally, but they are very very good.
Creswell, J. W., & Clark, V. L. P. (2010). Choosing a mixed methods design. In J. W. Creswell & V. L. P. Clark (Eds.), Designing and conducting mixed methods research (2nd ed., pp. 53–106). Sage. https://doi.org/1412927927
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Dear all,
As a part of my phd work, I plan to construct an assessment tool for a clinical population using a mixed method sequential exploratory design (I plan to use a grounded theory approach to build a theory, based on which the instrument will be developed). The instrument that I plan to develop is going to be a 45-60 minutes semi-structured interview which will have standardized scoring.
Since the tool is targeting clinical population and is quite lengthy, it won't be possible for me administer it on a large sample in the quantitative phase (planning to recruit around 100). And this might further cause a challenge in running Factor analysis for validation.
1) I wanted to know what could be some other ways to establish validity with such limitation.
I will be establishing content validity in the first phase itself. I am not administering any other standardized tool due to paucity of time and resources.
2) can factor analysis be done for a small sample i.e. within 100?
3) If not, then can I just establish reliability, and content validity and skip construct concurrent validity all together?
Thanks!
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Technically speaking, factor analysis is a way to establish reliability rather than validity. For construct validity, you need to test a predicted pattern of correlations, including other items where you expect positive correlations (convergent validity) and negative correlations (divergent validity).
With regard to factor analysis as a way to determine how many dimensions your items measure, I agree that a sample of 100 is not likely to be enough if you have a large number of items.
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The combination of mixed method research and the specific order of whether to go qualitative first followed with quantitative vice versa and the reasoning needs a clear explanation
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Just to add to Jérémie Richard's answer, beginning with a smaller qualitative study to develop a larger quantitative study is known as an exploratory sequential design (qual --> QUAN), while using a smaller qualitative study to follow up on quantitative results is known as an explanatory sequential design (QUAN --> qual).
The best knows textbook on mixed methods is undoubtedly Creswell and Plano-Clark, 2017 (3rd edition).
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Dear all,
I plan to develop a tool specific to a clinical population using a sequential exploratory mixed method design- the first phase will be Qual (FGDs and in-depth interviews and literature review). Second Quan phase will be focused on constructing the instrument and psychometric properties.
However, there isn't any specific theory from which I can entirely borrow the tool items or even define the variables. So I plan to consider different existing theories for item generation and definition of my variables.
I would like to know if I need to develop a particular model based on my qualitative analysis to build my tool on. If yes, how can it be done? If not, do we call it a pan-theoretical scale or what?
Eager to get your valuable inputs!
Thanks :)
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Hi there,
There is nothing wrong with taking/applying constructs from various models (more than one) towards building your own model. However, if you really wish to develop a model and claim it as a new model, it would usually come from the quantitative results rather than the qualitative. This is because it would require significant testing such as Structural Equation Modeling to confirm if the model would work. You can however use qualitative statistics to support the quantitative results/model for added validation.
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hi!
I plan to develop a semi-structured interview tool using sequential exploratory mixed design. Qual - Quan. The semi-structured interview will be assigned a scoring/rating.
I would like to know if there are studies existing where similar methodology has been used for semi structured tool construction.
Thanks
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I think its fine, You need to do your own or work on already available one
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I am conducting qualitative evidence synthesis for my dissertation. Some of the included papers used mixed method which have some insights about my research question.
Thank you.
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for sure ...it depend on inclusion/exclusion criteria.
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Hello, I am a researcher in Psychology, who is gradually getting more and more interested in mixed methods research. My area of interest is trauma and gender based violence, with a focus on South Asia. Recently, I have been trying to understand if we can map GBV in South Asia on to a continuous trauma structure, and assess mental health and well-being from that perspective. For this my initial plan was to use a sequential exploratory mixed methods design, with a qualitative study informing a larger, quantitative study with well validated questionnaires. I had initially conceptualized the qualitative study as a post-positivist (aka Boyatzis 1998) analysis.
The interview schedule was very open and we have collected quite a bit of data. I recently found out, one of my students have already analyzed some of the data using reflexive thematic analysis (aka Braun and Clarke 2006-2021). Now I am in a bit of a fix, because I do not want to lose the interview data we have collected, yet I do not see how the social constructionist position used in reflexive TA fits into the quantitative parts of the study , which will involve variables etc.
Now, here are my specific questions
1. Can I have the collected data (transcripts), re-analyzed from a post-positivist position, using reliability coding TA, by another researcher? (We haven't published the reflexive TA analysis)
2. Can a qualitative study with a social constructionist position ever be used in a mixed methods study- if so, how? If there are good references here, I would be grateful if someone can lead me to those.
thanks in advance.
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The question of "additivity" in mixed methods has generated a number of options, based on what should be the result of integrating different methods.
Fetters & Freshwater (2015) proposed that 1 + 1 = 3, essentially arguing for a "synergy" approach.
Onwuegbuzie & Hitchcock (2018) proposed that 1 + 1 = 1 by arguing for full integration at every stage of using the two methods.
For a qual --> QUAN design, where the sole goal is to increase the effectiveness of the quantitative design, I would argue that 1 + 1 = 1.5
The picture is less clear if the design is QUAL --> QUAN, where the goal is to produce a stand alone set of qualitative results as well as a more effective quantitative design. So, perhaps 1 + 1 = 2.5?
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For the fabrication of the counter electrode (activated carbon (95%) and PTFE (5%)), I am using the mortar pestle mixing method and the overnight stirring method followed by a rolling or doctor blade on the glass slide. But in both methods when I peel it off it got cracks or breaks down. I continuously repeating it and it's not working.
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Robb Engle Thank you so much for the suggestion and finally, I am succeeded in getting a free-standing film of the counter electrode
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I've been asked to give feedback on a study that used a survey with the option for comments in each question. Some participants decided to share additional observations and thoughts for some questions. I've found that these additional comments carry rich qualitative data so I'm suggesting they analyze them and integrate them into the results (since they're currently not).
However, I'm not sure how to justify this methodologically (or even if it's appropriate). Even though these comments add insightful information about the participant's perceptions, they only account for a portion of them.
Options I'm currently considering:
(1) Use a common theme analysis for the qualitative data and relabel the study from quantitative to mixed-methods.
(2) Still define it as quantitative, but mention that some qualitative data was gathered as optional comments and analysed as well (would this be methodologically correct?).
(3) Do not use the qualitative data for the results, since it doesn't come from all participants.
Any thoughts?
Thank you very much in advance!
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Of course, they should be added and used (qualitatively) -- it's data, and respondents felt a need to add them, so we should report them. Since the researcher did not ask for comments, it doesn't make sense to call it a mixed method study. It's a quant study with supplemental comments. You add a section to the report describing qualitatively, what was said, including areas of convergence and divergence if the sample is large enough, and with some representative verbatims in any case. You should also include the % of respondents who added comments, for context.
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Hi, All:
I plan to conduct a mixed-method study which will start with a questionnaire followed by qualitative interviews. I will purposefully select interviewees based on the questionnaire data. I am wondering if there is anyway to identify the participants from the questionnaire and keep the questionnaire anonymous at the same time? I would appreciate your feedback!
Lisa
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Mixed methods studies combine qualitative and quantitative components to produce a whole that is superior to the parts. As for the size of the samples, you should be guided by the guidelines that exist for qualitative and quantitative methods. I suggest the following: Focus group: From 6 to 12 participants per group.
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i can't do a simple correlation studies. topic must have a strong research methodology. it does not matter with quantitative or qualitative research. you may suggest mixed method research topic.
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For getting an overall view of teacher education research, it could be useful to read some review articles from the leading journals in this domain, like Teaching and Teacher Education, Journal of Teacher Education and European Journal of Teacher education. Also the articles that Kenneth Lui-ming Ngie proposed include good ideas that can help you to find an appropriate topic.
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I have collected my qual data in my sequential explanatory study and am considering the best approach for analysis. I see there are hybrid thematic analysis approaches, but they differ greatly in their approach in the literature. Any advice?
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Adopting explanatory sequential mixed methods design, a study starts with a structured process (i.e., a quantitative stage), followed up with a semi-structured or unstructured process (i.e., a qualitative stage). For analyzing the data from the latter, you could use directed content analysis (DCA) which uses the key concepts or variables identified in the quantitative stage as initial coding categories of the qualitative data. If flexibility is sought, deductive thematic analysis, in which specific questions underpin the coding process, could be used. You might refer to the following for further insights.
Armborst, A. (2017). Thematic proximity in content analysis. SAGE Open, 7(2), 2158244017707797. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244017707797
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
Fereday, J., & Muir-Cochrane, E. (2006). Demonstrating rigor using thematic analysis: A hybrid approach of inductive and deductive coding and theme development. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 5(1), 80–92. https://doi.org/10.1177/160940690600500107
Hsieh, H. F., & Shannon, S. E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qual Health Res, 15(9), 1277-1288. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732305276687
Good luck,
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Dear all,
I am in the process of developing an energy behaviour maturity model for organisations in my PhD. So far, I have conducted expert interviews and focus groups on developing factors and maturity level descriptions (for 5 maturity levels against the factors). The structure of the findings so far is given below.
As the final step, I am going to develop the tool further as an assessment tool. Therefore, I am seeking ways of assigning weights for each main factor and sub-factor (Reason: The main factors/subfactors identified seem to have different impact levels for the energy behaviour maturity. Therefore, if I can assign weights that can be reflected in the results of the maturity assessments conduct using this model in the future)
Note: There are no subfactors for some of the main factors. Altogether, under the 3 Areas, 15 main factors and 5 subfactors are available. If required, the 3 areas can also be assigned with weights.
The structure of the current findings is as follows:
Area 1
  • Main factor 1.1
  • subfactor 1.1.1 ------------ Level 1 to Level 5 maturity descriptions against factors
Area 2
  • Main factor 2.1
  • subfactor 2.1.1 ------------ Level 1 to Level 5 maturity descriptions against factors
Area 3
  • Main factor 3.1
  • subfactor 3.1.1 ------------ Level 1 to Level 5 maturity descriptions against factors
I would be grateful if you could provide your thoughts on this matter.
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You may try with Fuzzy logic theory or multi-grade Fuzzy approach.
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This is to have an idea about what such a design is best used for.
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The following articles could be good examples of using explanatory sequential mixed-methods design in EFL research. Here are the full citations.
Bakla, A. (2019). A mixed-methods study of tailor-made animated cartoons in teaching punctuation in EFL writing. ReCALL, 31(1), 75–91. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344018000046
Ebadi, S., & Rahimi, M. (2018). An exploration into the impact of WebQuest-based classroom on EFL learners’ critical thinking and academic writing skills: A mixed-methods study. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 31(5–6), 617–651. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2018.1449757
Li, J., McLellan, R., & Forbes, K. (2021). Investigating EFL teachers’ gender-stereotypical beliefs about learners: A mixed-methods study. Cambridge Journal of Education, 51(1), 19–44. https://doi.org/10.1080/0305764X.2020.1772720
Zhang, L. J., & Cheng, X. (2021). Examining the effects of comprehensive written corrective feedback on L2 EAP students’ linguistic performance: A mixed-methods study. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 54, 101043. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2021.101043
Good luck,
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I am undertaking a SR using COVIDENCE. I am at the data extraction stage. The studies that meet my inclusion criteria are diverse and of a heterogeneous nature which means that a mixed method analysis and synthesis will be required. Do I include an excellent paper that is a reflective 'personal narrative' rather than a study. The experience is rich and meaningful but is it too bias?
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Good answers here. As Ahtisham suggests - 'it depends'. At this time, there is a lot of confusion and semantics around SRs. You can turn to the likes of Cochrane and JBI for, probably, the most robust sources for 'specific' process and appraisal. However, I would look to your discipline and the types of target journals that you intend to submit to. Examples in those may lead you to see that the process is 'looser' - as are the terms i.e. scoping reviews, umbrella reviews, narrative reviews, integrative reviews etc easily facilitate what you are asking here - and that 'systematic' reviews may not be all that systematic. If reviews are using terms - such as meta-analysis, meta-synthesis, meta-aggregate etc - then they should not contain articles such as personal narrative/opinion etc.
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  • I am fabricating ceramic-polymer composite by solvent mixing method.
  • During synthesis process ultra-sonication (bath Sonicator) treatment is given to ceramic filled polymer (mixed solution) for homogeneous dispersion of ceramic in polymer matrix.
  • As per the literature the dispersion quality is checked by AFM, SEM, or TEM after the fabrication of material. Also I found that zeta potential also gives the dispersion quality, but 'zetacizer' or 'zeta potential analyzer' equipment's are much more expensive.
  • Is there any other feasible method is available, which helps to check the dispersion quality during synthesis process? So that we can give the right and proper time, for sonication treatment.
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Theoretically, light transmission and light dispersion should depend on the distribution of the particles in the polymer. If your polymer matrix is translucent, you can try to implement the quality control using an optical device (measurement of the luminous intensity of transmitted light or the reflection / refractive index).
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Please I need your guidance. I am doing a study on eliciting students’ misconceptions in electric circuit. I intend using a four-tier diagnostic test instrument to elicit the students’ misconceptions. Those identified to have misconceptions from the four-tier test are subjected to an interview using a semi-structure interview items to probe further on their misconceptions and if possible see if other forms of misconceptions could be unraveled. Data from the both instruments will analyzed to answer my research questions. Please which type of mixed method design could best fit this study?
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I agree that this sounds like an explanatory sequential design (QUAN --> qual), where the goal of the follow-up qualitative study is to help understand the results of the original quantitative study.
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I'm currently collecting longitudinal repetitive quantitative measures (survey tool has been developed based on initial qualitative data - exploratory sequential) from the same population (n=39) to understand patients' perception of a health problem, once they experience it during a 14-month trajectory. Also, my idea is to use the initial qualitative data (used to develop the tool), to contextualise the prospective longitudinal information about health problems obtained from this quantitative tool. Considering that the health problems, their severity and their perceptions experienced along the trajectory are very individualistic, are there any mixed-method approaches that allow interpretation of findings at an individual level? Can one simply present, interpret and discuss individual data from the whole sample?
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Rather...I should have asked whether there are any methodological approaches in guiding the selection of individualised cases (quantitative data) from a group of individuals, to contextualise data through the embedding of qualitative data, obtained at the initial point. I would like to select particular cases for interpretation through a mixed-methods approach, as my qualitative data indicate that perceptions are individualistic, dynamic and temporal, with no one trajectory being the same as the other.
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When it comes to Mix-Method Research it's a bit challenging to engaged both the qualitative and quantitative research together, besides, it's difficult to portray accurate results and critical analysis to the given data/hypothesis. How to manage this emerging kind of Research and understand its nature, Is there any special treatment for this to succeed? I cannot thank you enough for your creative suggestions.
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Muneeba Zakaria Mughal, I strongly feel that finding an answer to your question requires a good understanding of the research designs used in mixed-methods research. We don't do mixed-methods research just for the sake of it - it's rather a rational choice depending on the kind of research question(s)and research problem(s) you are working on. Please consult the following sources for a basic understanding of these mixed-methods research designs.
Leech, N. L., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2009). A typology of mixed methods research designs. Quality & quantity, 43(2), 265-275.
Hibberts, M. F., & Johnson, R. B. (2012). Mixed methods research. Research methods in educational leadership and management, 122-139.
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If I am doing a Mixed Method approach, Can I start the research by doing a questionnaire with students followed by interviews with lecturers ? or should I only do the interviews with students?
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You could do a mixed-methods sequential explanatory design with teachers of the students in your original sample. There is nothing about this design that requires the same sample in the follow-up sample as in the original sample. As always, however, you would need to have strong reasons for doing this that correspond to your research goals.
An alternative to the sequential explanatory design would be a convergent design, where each sample answered a separate interview. The main issue that arises in this design is the integration of the results. So, you would need to have solid connections between the content of the two interview guides.
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I have designed a framework to minimise execution challenges in B2B market segmentation. I plan to use exploratory sequential design qual - QUAN. Would this the correct choice or should I use explanatory sequential design qual-QUAN. I would appreciate a prompt response from an expert on Mixed method. Thank you you in advance.
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Using either relies on your intent. The explanatory sequential design should be followed if you intend to use qualitative data to explain the quantitative findings—be it significant, insignificant, surprising, or confounding. If your intent is using the findings of the qualitative method, done in the first stage, to help develop or inform the quantitative method, done in the second stage, you could go for the exploratory sequential design. You might check out the book by Creswell and Plano Clark (2018) for relevant insightful inputs. Here is the full citation.
Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2018). Designing and conducting mixed methods research (3rd ed.). SAGE. https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/designing-and-conducting-mixed-methods-research/book241842
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After reading Mertens' Introduction to Educational Research, I have a preliminary understanding of the four main research paradigms of research, which are post-positivism paradigm, constructivism paradigm, transformational paradigm and pragmatic paradigm. In the future, I plan to focus on the education direction of adult lifelong growth and learning. In this direction, I think the pragmatic paradigm will be more helpful to the education and research work I want to do. There are three reasons as follows:
#1 I focus on the growth and learning of adults, whose needs for growth and learning also change with the development of the times. The axiology of the pragmatic paradigm is that knowledge is acquired in the process of pursuing expected goals, and it is necessary to contact with multiple groups to obtain different understandings (Morgan 2007). This is suitable for the study of adult education in different Settings.
#2 The ontology of the pragmatic paradigm emphasizes the creation of knowledge through lines of action, pointing out that different people or groups can work together to complete "joint actions" or "projects". The emphasis is on the actual actions (" courses of action "), the beliefs behind those actions (" guaranteed claims "), and the possible consequences of different actions (" maneuverability ") (Morgan 2007). In my opinion, the personal growth and learning of growing people is the change of their beliefs or beliefs to action, and the positive feedback brought by the action promotes the occurrence of continuous learning. So at this point I also think that the pragmatic paradigm is more suitable for the direction of adult growth and learning.
#3 The epistemology of the pragmatic paradigm proposes that researchers need to interact with different members of society to understand problems in order to determine wise courses of action and determine the appropriateness of these actions, once implemented, to solve problems. The researchers did not position themselves as distant observers. Educational research on adult growth and learning requires interaction with group members, and researchers themselves are also part of the group, so they cannot be merely observers.
reference
Mertens, D. M. (2020). Research and evaluation in education and psychology : Integrating Diversity with Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methods (5th edition). ISBN:9781544333762
阅读完Mertens的《教育研究导言》,初步了解了教育研究的四个主要的研究范式分别是后实证主义范式、建构主义范式、转化型范式和实用主义范式。我打算未来专注在成人的终身成长学习的教育方向上,在这个方向上我认为实用主义范式对我想做的教育及研究工作会比较有帮助。理由有三,如下:
#1 我关注的是成年人的自身成长学习,成年人本身成长学习的需要也是在时代的发展中也是变化的,实用主义范式的价值论是在追求预期目标的过程中获得知识,需要与多个群体接触,从而获得不同解度的理解(Morgan 2007)。这对于在不同环境下的成人成长教育的研究会很适合。
#2 实用主义范式的存在论强调通过行动路线创造知识,指出了不同的人或群体可以共同完成“联合行动”或“项目”。重点在于实际行为(“行动路线”)、这些行为背后的信念(“有保证的主张”)以及不同行为可能带来的后果(“可操作性”)(Morgan 2007)。在我看来,成长人的自身成长学习正是基本其信念或信念的改变,到有所行动,以及行动后带来的正向反馈促进持续学习的发生。所以在这一点上我也认为实用主义范式更适合用于成人自身成长学习的方向。
#3 实用主义范式的知识论提出研究者需要与社会的不同成员互动,理解问题,以确定明智的行动方针,并确定这些行动一旦实施后的适当性,解决问题。研究者没有将自己定位为有距离的观察者。对于成人的成长学习的教育研究,是需要与群体成员互动,而且研究者本身也是群体之一,无法成为仅是观察者的角色。
参考文献
Mertens, D. M. (2020). Research and evaluation in education and psychology : Integrating diversity with quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods(第 5 版)赛奇出版社。ISBN:9781544333762
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Hello everyone,
I am looking for a mixed method to measure religiosity, particularly among Muslim migrants in the Western societies. I am familiar with Glock, 1962; Sethi and Seligman 1993, and El-Menouar 2014. Can you recommend some more insightful studies?
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-I-
Religiosity is a variable inherent to the Hominization and Humanization of the Human Being; By virtue of this, there are not a few Researchers who have been interested in it and have designed various Methods to evaluate it; in this sense, I would suggest that we read our various contributions here in "RG"; specifically the "R Scale" -of Religiosity- by Raja R., Gala FJ. et al, with a PSYCHOMETRIC structure, using a Likert-type questionnaire; In this way, they can see, among our other contributions:
-HEALTH AND FAITH
-PSYCHOSOCIAL, SPIRITUAL AND CULTURAL ASPECTS THAT INFLUENCE THE CARE OF THE SICK AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT AT THE END OF THEIR LIVES
-SPIRITUAL, PSYCHOSOCIAL AND CULTURAL ASPECTS IN PEOPLE IN A SITUATION OF DEPENDENCE AND IN THEIR FAMILY ENVIRONMENT AT THE END OF LIFE
-Religious beliefs in Nursing Professionals (PE) according to a descriptive-correlational study
-RELIGIOUS BELIEFS IN NURSING PROFESSIONALS (PE). ACCORDING TO A DESCRIPTIVE-CORRELATIONAL STUDY
-INFLUENCE OF RELIGIOUSNESS ON THE ATTITUDES OF HEALTH PERSONNEL TO DEATH
-ATITUDES TOWARDS THE DEATH OF NURSING PROFESSIONALS ACCORDING TO THEIR RELIGIOUS BELIEFS
-Influence of religious beliefs on the attitudes of Nursing Staff to death
-Psychological attitudes towards death and grief. A conceptual review
-Influence of religious beliefs on attitudes in health personnel (HCP) towards death
-Psychological attitudes to death and grief
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Hi everyone,
I'm currently conducting a research project for my MA; long story short there was something wrong with the wording in one section of my questionnaire that made the meaning ambiguous. I've changed it now but the first 15 participants might have been influenced by that wording to answer differently. I'm thinking of doing this:
1. Anyone after the 15th participant will get to answer the edited questions.
2. Some participants who answered the misleading questions have agreed to the second phase of my research, which is either an open-ended survey or oral interview. There, I will ask them to answer the edited questions before proceeding with the 2nd interview.
3. The participants who answered the misleading questions and declined a second interview, I will have to disclose somewhere in my write-up why I'm not including their answers in my analysis.
However, point 3 doesn't feel right to me because I keep thinking it'll affect the analysis of the data. Would it be worth just scrapping that entire section? Also, I wanted to ask if anyone had any tips on how to actually go about writing this up in the report itself?
Thank you for your time.
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Dear Ashley,
Hello There. I agree with Dr. Razina Ma'am to use that as some sort of pilot study or validation of the questionnaire using a focus group of 15 participants. If it were not 15 and had you completed data collection then I would have advised you to keep it as is and as future prospective research you could have suggested the finer modifications of the language to remove the ambiguity.
In my research group, we always send the questionnaire for pre-study pilot testing to check the ease of understanding the questions and to gauge the average completion time. This would very much help in finding out and the subsequent removal of minute language errors and other ambiguities which might have slipped the authors.
So, my suggestion is redo the data collection for that part only and exclude from analysis the data of those participants who refused to redo it for the second time. Once all the collected data is on the same page I don't think it warrants any type of justification as it was not included in the final analysis all together.
All the Very Best and God Speed.
Kind Wishes,
Nabeel
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Hi,
I am doing my dissertation on the effects of complaints on sonographers in obstetric ultrasound.
I am doing survey as a mixed methods design. So a convergent design (questionnaire/data validation variant). I was advised to use descriptive statistics only for the quantitative data analysis. I cannot find any justification for this. Is this acceptable? Creswell seems to suggest I should be using inferential statistics as well.
I know its standard for surveys to be used a quantitative data only but I have done a lot of work on the justification for using it in a mixed methods study.
Also is thematic analysis standard in this type of study for the qualitative data analysis?
Many thanks
Gina
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Without seeing your questionnaire and research question/hypothesis it is difficult to answer your question. However, if you are simply wanting to find out the impact of a complaint on sonographers and are not testing a hypothesis or aiming to generalise your findings (depending on the level of study) I think it is acceptable to use descriptive stats. Also, thematic analysis is often utilised for qualitative survey data but whether it is appropriate for your study depends on the research paradigm. Hope this helps and good luck with your dissertation.
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I have conducted open ended surveys for which the responses I am analysing qualitatively/thematically. There are some questions in the survey which are yes/no answers that then follow up with a further question asking for further expansion and detail on it. My question is twofold, should I conduct descriptive statistical analysis on these yes/no, gender etc questions, or should I focus on the qualitative theme analysis? And if I do conduct descriptive statistics should I call my method "mixed" and include the SPSS outputs in my results section, because I will not be running any inferential tests.
My issue is that I will not be using the descriptive data in any depth in my analysis, it will simply be more of a n=xx xx% of participants said yes they had completed disability hate crime training, then I will go onto to discuss this training within my theme. Within the theme analysis I will refer back to these figures but the statistics will simply be as a description.
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Usually mixed methods contains the Triangulation Design, the Embedded Design, the Explanatory Design, and the Exploratory Design. Also, a mixed methods research design is a method of collecting, analyzing, and “mixing” quantitative and qualitative research and methodologies in a study.
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I am using a Mixed Method Research approach (online survey to gauge perceptions as school stakeholders, and a semi structured interview with a small sample). The survey and interview data will be used to converge findings, and happen concurrently.
Can I use an Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis for my data analysis, or should i use a different approach?
Mt study is in the interpretivist paradigm as I am gauging (survey) motivations, and also delving deeper for meaning with the interview. I believe meaning is subjective and not constrained by time or place.
TIA
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Yes you can, but your IPA will be more dependent on the Qualitative. Hence, use the qualitative as the primary, and the quantitative as a support.
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I am researching parenting styles practiced in a particular country and the relationship it has on academic achievement. I used a single case study (a class of students to examine the grades of the students in relation to the parents style of child rearing but I also included other participants from the wider society to analyze other variables such as age and gender. I need direction please
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Thematic Analysis or Grounded Theory Analysis principles may be incoporated
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In Mix methods the respondents for quan should they be the same that will be selected for the qual part or select different respondents for the qual part before results are compared ?
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If your design is sequential explanatory (QUANT --> qual), then it often helps to draw a purposive sample from the original participants, in order to help understand the quantitative results. However, this is not a necessary requirement, and you can use an equivalent sample from a new set of participants.
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I am a PhD student. I want to integrate results of systematic review, qualitative and quantitative studies. The designs i see are mainly QUAN and QUAL. Please how do i address SYST+QUAL+QUAN? They are separate studies with different aims and i conducted the studies concurrently due to time and funding constrains.
I reached out to John W Creswell. He referred me to his book "Please go to my book, "A Concise Introduction to Mixed Methods Research" (SAGE, 2015) to see the mixed methods designs possible. Thanks. John W Creswell".
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Mixed methods research consists of integrating the results from qualitative and quantitative research. A systematic review might serve as the background for such research, but it is not a method and thus not a formal part of a mixed methods research project.
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Hey guys,
So I'm running an explanatory sequential mixed methods study and I want to use thematic analysis. Only thing is I'm struggling to find any papers with guidance on which type, I have considered codebook ta due the the fact that I already have some idea of what themes will come up due to my stage 1 quant however I also like the idea of using relflexive ta to give a more in depth description and not assume what my participants want to say to me...any advice?
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My opinion is that you should recognize be able to saturation during the interview process. For me, this goes beyond simply finishing with the sense that I have not heard anything new. In addition, during the interview, you should feel that you can almost predict what the person is going to say next, so that you not only have "heard it all," but also have a strong sense of how it all "fits together."
This version probably comes close to "theoretical saturation," but for that you really need to be doing coding during your data collection.
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Research philosophy ?
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Research philosophy doesn't exist. Philosophy is not a science, but before all sciences and knowledge since Philosophy teach us how to think. The area of Philosophy dealing with the differences between "common" knowledge and "scientific" knowledge is epistemology. Nowadays, it is almost forgotten by this rampant offensive against humanities and philosophy coming from the disastrous commodification of education and research transforming universities in business. Most of the answers have already stressed that research always is researching what we don't know; thus, in any research, the key is to formulate an original research question or problem. Thereafter, there will be decisions on methodologies and techniques for gathering data, selecting, and analyzing. Those loud labels that you find in countless textbooks of introduction to research, methods, and so forth - neo-positivism, pragmatism, phenomenology, etc. - will not help if you don't build up an original research program. Don't worry about those labels and their normative suggestions. Find your research problem, and then you will decide the king of methods needed.
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I used quantitative (questionnaire) as my main research procedure and both qualitative (interview) and quantitaive (pretest posttest) as my supporting.
Does my research consider as multi method or mixed method?
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Hello Sachin,
There already is a thread which answers this question:
Hope this will be helpful.
Ivan
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I used mixed methods for assessing modular distance learning to propose a program for the coming school year. I have three respondents (10 learners, 10 parents, 10 teachers) and used a questionnaire and an open-ended question for my respondents. What is statistical treatment should I used?
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The idea is in the number of groups, not the variables
Determine the number of groups and independent variables
Determine the measurement tools to be used
The mixed curriculum depends on the type of tools
Quantitative Method Observation Tests Survey
Qualitative Curriculum Portfolio the interview,rubric
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Goodmorning
In a recent qualitative research, we are constructing purposeful sampling, we are thinking to use a specific scale to select a small group of participant. I think that this scale can help us (credibility criterion) is to select the participants that a specific emotional experience. How do you consider this methodological strategy? Uncommon? Should I describe this operation as a mixed method strategy?
Thank you for your attention
Kind regards
Alfonso Santarpia (Université de Sherbrooke, Canada)
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In mixed methods terminology, this would be a quant --> QUAL design, which unfortunately is not as well known as some of the other combinations in mixed methods research.
If you need a citation for this form of purposive sampling, I devoted a chapter to it my book, Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Methods.
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Since the dissertation is led by research questions in the first qualitative phase and hypotheses are formulated only later, before quantitative phase, I wonder about the structure of the dissertation - should hypotheses be presented together with research questions in the same chapter? Or qualitative and quantitative phases should be entirely separated from the beginning - having also research questions and hypotheses in different chapters? For the moment, I separately describe methodologies and results of two phases, but introductory chapters (incl. research questions and hypotheses) are written together. Thank you!
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A sequential design points to independent stages of data collection and analysis. In a sequential exploratory mixed methods design (QUAL > quan), the first stage, which is prioritized, is for gathering qualitative data which is used to construct a theory or a hypothesis to be tested using quantitative data. Logically, answering your question, your hypothesis should come after you analyze qualitative data. You could refer to the book by Creswell and Plano Clark (2018) for enriching inputs. Besides, the article by Schoonenboom and Johnson (2017) could be an interesting read.
Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2018). Designing and conducting mixed methods research (3rded.). SAGE. https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/designing-and-conducting-mixed-methods-research/book241842
Schoonenboom, J., & Johnson, R. B. (2017). How to construct a mixed methods research design. KZfSS Kölner Zeitschrift Für Soziologie Und Sozialpsychologie, 69(S2), 107–131. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11577-017-0454-1
Good luck,
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Mixed methods literature reviews could be segregated, integrated, and contingent. Segregated involves separate synthesis of qual and quan studies and then integrating the results. Integrated involves parallell synthesis of qual and quan data based on their findings. In contingent reviews, analysis and synthesis of one type of studies leads to the generation of question for the next set of studies. You can use the following paper to develop more in depth understanding of all these designs.
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Hi all.
We are conducting a systematic review looking at varies research designs, some mixed methods and mixed studies. Through previous experience the MMAT is applicable Microsoft Word - MMAT_2018_criteria-manual_2018-08-08.docx (pbworks.com).
But wonder if there any other tools out there that can be recommended please? Something generated in the last 5 year if possible. Or if the MMAT is recommended as a framework to review such studies.
Many thanks
Kris
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Here is a review article on this topic: Fàbregues & Molina-Azorín (2017) Addressing quality in mixed methods research: A review and recommendations for a future agenda.
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Hello,
I'm researching the effect of a self-compassion intervention on well-being. There are 2 groups (intervention and control) and 3 time points (pre, post and follow-up).
Since I have multiple dependent variables (life satisfaction, positive affect, psychological well-being, optimism, negative affect, depression, stress) I wanted to run a Mixed MANOVA instead of a Mixed ANOVA but can't seem to find how to include multiple dependent variables in Mixed Models in SPSS.
Is this the correct study design and is it possible to run the Mixed MANOVA in SPSS or do I have to run multiple Mixed ANOVAS?
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Bruce Weaver thank you for bringing up Thom Baguley post in the other thread!! These are really crucial points and why I do not really like the MANOVA approach. I really cannot come up with an example from my area where I am really interested in the compound variable in the first place and not the univariate analyses.
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Mix method research
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Parallel and sequential research designs are very different approaches to mixed methods research, so you would need to develop different kinds of questionnaires that suit your purposes. In particular, there is no specific kind of questionnaire that matches either parallel or sequential designs. Instead, you to determine what your research goals are and create a questionnaire that meets those goals.