Minerals - Science topic
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Questions related to Minerals
Kindly let me know if anybody has expertise in the geochemical modeling of arsenic using PHREEQC or similar geochemical models. I need to calculate the saturation indices of some arsenic-bearing minerals.
Currently, I’m studying the literature on the relation between the PRAL value of food and how this affects cancer patients. Very interesting but what I cannot find is how the body mechanistically handles the acid base balance. I understand the role of proteins and phosphates but how can a higher intake of the three minerals potassium, calcium and magnesium lead to positive PRAL values and therefore alkalizes the body? It has to do with exchange of ions but is there a paper or book that explains the mechanism?
How do organic matter and minerals affect the water holding capacity of a soil and does manure increase water holding capacity of soil?
What is the method of measuring sulfur for minerals such as metal oxide or molybdenum oxide through Leco furnace (or similar furnaces) at different temperatures, times and weights after leaching and after cleaning by titration method (gravimetry)?
The APS minerals in my samples (the major composition is dickite) could be divided into two kinds, including aggregations (acicular and scale-like) and zoned structured crystals (mainly cubic). And we have already obtained the chemical compositions of the APS minerals in our samples.
I learned from some articles that APS minerals may form through intense weathering or hydrothermal fluids. So I wonder whether we could judge their genesis from their morphologies (maybe combined with their component information).
I would be really grateful if any specialist could answer my questions. Thank you so much.
The similar sediments can be deposited at the river and lake system. Is there any detrital mineral difference of these similar sediments (such as mudstone) between the fluvial and lacustrine facies?
In which stage would minerals be added during the formation of soil and recycling of matter between living things in the environment?
How do organisms respond to environmental factors and role of microbes in the weathering of minerals and soil formation?
Dear, there are hundred and one food items in the world. Every item is rich in 1 Carbohydrates, 2. Proteins, 3 Lipids (Fats and Oils), 4. Vitamins and 5. Minerals. So eat ALL but restrict to 4 or 5 items daily. No diabetes.
I apologize for disrupting you.
I would like to ask about how to calculate the amount of Hedenbergite and Johannsenite from the EPMA analyses of pyroxene minerals.
Many thanks and regards.
What are the roles of microbes in waste and role of useful microbes in recycling minerals and nutrients?
I have precipitated minerals using artificial seawater and attached a SEM image of the resulting minerals. Initially, I thought they were aragonite. However, based on the XRD analysis, they appear to be vaterite. I'm wondering if vaterite can form as shown in the attached image, particularly if magnesium is involved in the process.
There are many large tourmalines in Aplite, and the core of tourmalines is replaced by the hydrothermal solution to form fine Epidote and other minerals. There are also some Magnetite in aplite and very few fluid inclusions in quartz. I'm not sure which specific geological processes this rock has gone through.
I am studying the formation process of minerals (i.e., Ca2SO4) on polymer-coated surfaces. For my results, the frequency changes for different overtones are slightly different. In literature, n=3 is typically used. Can I use n=5 or n=7?
What causes the Shrimp larval rearing tank culture water turns into GREEN COLOR ? which has (live Thalassiosira weissflogii microalgae& industry standard Probiotic & other growth minerals). Also Vorticella infestation problem occurred it leads to high mortality rate in shrimp early post larval stage. Any suggestion to prevent/ reduce VORTICELLA in larval rearing tank
Does movement of energy similar to movement of nutrients & microorganisms feed on dead & decaying plants & animals & recycle minerals?
What is the difference between intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks and kind of sedimentary rock is made from dissolved minerals?
What happens to the minerals as the rock temperature increases and what happens when rock is heated?
What will happen to a rock if the temperature rises above the melting point of all its component minerals?
How does melting affect rocks and what occurs when the temperature on a rock is high enough to melt only some of the minerals in the rock?
Why do rocks crack due to change in temperature and process occurs when different minerals in rock melt at different temperature and pressure?
What is the process of extracting minerals from deep under the soil called and metals above carbon being extracted from its ore?
What are sediments become glued together and minerals grow between sediments and glue them together into a new rock?
I obtained orientation data of Minerals by using the EBSD single point setting of the Aztec Software. Usually, I proceed the data with the HKL Channel 5 Software (Mambo pole figures, Tango Maps and so on). To this end, I export the data obtained with the Aztec Software to Channel 5 compatible cpr-files. Since a few weeks during the Channel 5 Export of EBSD Point measurements the option to choose between cpr and ctf-files is faded out and inhibited and I can not proceed my raw data to pole figures. Is anybody familiar with this Problem?
What kind of rocks forms when minerals that are dissolved in a solution crystallize and factors contribute to a water molecule having polarity?
sobre los métodos de extracción que hay o que esta en estudio de los minerales en el fondo marino de la Zona, establecida por la Convemar
Up until now didn't need to quantify minerals, a qualitative analysis was enough, but I wonder if needed what are the best and more feasible/acessible methods to quantify the percentage(even approximately) of different phases in a mineral precipitate?
I know there is one method that if we know that one ion is only present in a mineral in our sample, ththenan we may infer how much of that mineral is present, but is still based on suppositions so I wanted to avoid it and doesn't give a full picture.
The other one I know of is the Rietveld method using X-Ray Diffraction that allows quantification. But I guess if the sample has amorphous materials it leaves those minerals out right? and is it common to be able to perform this method in any XRD devices or only the most recent ones?
What other methods are there that maybe of use, that aren't excessively expensive or hard to find where to perform them? Even if it mainly gives us a distribution of the percentage of each of the known phases.
I'm researching a series of U-REE-Cu-Au deposits in Australia, which host REE in epidote-group minerals. Following the approach of Deer, Howie and Zussman, I calculated the chemical formulas based on EPMA data using 12 ideal O, 8 ideal cations and all Fe as Fe3+.
I tried correcting the total Fe content for Fe2+ and Fe3+ following Droop (1987). However, this approach doesn't seem to work well. I think it's because the minerals are slightly metamict and contain vacancies.
I'm also trying to recreate the REE vs Al plot of Petrik et al (1995) and use it to estimate the Fe3+ to total Fe ratio. However, I can't find formulas to calculate the ratios of Fe3+ to total Fe based on this plot. Does anyone have the formulas or could recommend a publication that explains the workflow?
I am preparing synthetic sugarcane wastewater but in literature, the composition of minerals and trace elements are very diverse so want to ask on what basis should it be decided, is there any rule similar to CNP ratios? or any other source for deciding the Trace element composition?
As a Russian, I easily get confused by how these terms are applied in petrography. This is because Russian 'structure' and 'texture' swop their meaning when translated to English. At least that's what I thought until today, when I decided to describe a metamorphic rock, something I haven't done in a while and never in English, and did some reading online to check my use of terminology. To my surprise, I came across multiple uses of the words 'structure' and 'microstructure' in places where I've learned to say 'texture'. Here is a quote of Ron H. Vernon advocating this approach:
"because ‘texture’ means ‘preferred orientation’ to most materials scientists and an increasing number of structural geologists, it would be best not to use it instead of ‘microstructure’ as many petrologists do"
However, I have a couple of problems with this suggestion. Firstly, the same book by Ron H. Vernon defines 'foliation' using the word 'structure', so what's the point of abolishing 'texture' then? Secondly, and this is a much bigger issue to me, how to describe textures of individual crystals then? Surely, calling say tartan twinning a feldspar structure would be rather confusing... And if 'texture' is reserved for such cases, what would be a consistent use of the word 'texture' in application to rocks? Would foliation be a texture then, which would be consistent with the Russian use of this word? What about things like (micro)layering and (micro)folding? And would 'porphyritic' become structure then, as in Russian?
My background is in geology/geochemistry so I have never dealt with preserved organic specimens before. I recently acquired some preserved modern crinoids that I would like to process and analyze for major/trace element concentrations (mainly Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn) and calcium isotopes. I will be analyzing the mineralized skeleton of the crinoids, which are composed of high-Mg calcite, and have an established procedure to eliminate the organic mater from the samples involving a multi-step treatment with HCl and hydrogen peroxide. However, this procedure was established for calcified algal mats that were stored in water in a fridge, and not alcohol/formaldehyde.
These crinoid samples were collected in the early 90s and have been sitting in alcohol/formaldehyde for the past ~30 years. While alive many crinoids are brilliant in colour (reds, oranges, yellows, etc); however the preserved samples I have are dull brown or pale white in colour. Does this mean the preservation solution has leached or broken down some of the organic pigments? If the preservation solution is leaching/breaking down the organic matter, would it also affect the mineralized skeleton? I will be analyzing the crinoid sample on an ICP-OES, so maybe it would be worth it to analyze some of the preservation solution?
Thanks for any help or insight!
Hi, I'm studying a rather peculiar mafic sample that contains a good amount of oxides (titanomagmetite mostly) but also some iron oxides that contain up to 4wt% NiO. The rest of the minerals are quite depleted in Ni. This is quite outside of my field. Which process can result in Ni-enrichment in iron oxides?
Combining feed enzymes, and minerals with probiotic microbes will affect the efficiency of microbes??
How to make the Composition by mixing the 3 of them?. (Probiotic, Feed enzymes, Minerals)
I am running some flotation experiments with limited sample availability. One alternative i have is to recombine the products, destroy the chemicals and use it again as feed in other flotation experiments. I wonder if there is any method that can be used to destroy the chemicals absodbed on the surface of minerals effectively. The collector that i use is an alkyl hydroxamate (Aero 6494).
What is the role of minerals in soil health and why are minerals in the soil so important to produce healthy crops?
I found most of the papers used magnetic survey (airborne or ground) to explore new gold mine. However, almost all papers uses additional geophysics method (IP, SP, Conductivity, resistivity, EM etc.) to support the magnetic data.
I wonder why do we need support since the magnetic data can gives precise reading on the magnetic anomalies of those associate minerals (Sulfides especially) in the field.
Thank you so much in advance.
Baddeleyite is crucial to date mafic-ultramafic rocks. However, it is difficult to separate by physical processes. In a unique study, Guo et al. (2022) (https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsomega.1c06264) showed that baddeleyite can be very efficiently separated by digestion of relatively small amount of rock (19 gram) using acids (HF + HCl + HNO3) in which baddeleyite grains did not go into solution. SIMS dating (op. cit.) suggested that the U-Pb age of the separated baddeleyite grains were not affected by the acid based processes.
My question is that do you expect any disturbance of the U-Pb isotope systematics of baddeleyite by the acids in general? Should we use commercial grade acids (as done by the above authors) or purified acids? The aim is to date the baddeleyite grains by spot analysis (Ion probe or LA-ICPMS). Should't the relatively greater amount of acids used in the separation (120 mL 22 M HF and 60 mL 8 M HNO3) create some handling problem? If you have any experience with acid-based separation of baddeleyite, please share.
Thanks in advance.
I would like to know what is a reasonable price for rare earth minerals (e.g. cerium fluorocarbon, monazite, ionic, yttrium phosphate, brown yttrium niobium, etc.) in the international market, putting aside all political biases?
There seems to be a disagreement between the world's largest rare earths exporter (China) and other rare earths demand countries on this issue, (in fact I don't want to use the politically charged terms "China" and "West" to divide the two academic communities) In the "Chinese" academic community, scholars often criticize that the international trade market for rare earths is now a "buyer's monopoly" market, the export price of rare earths is so low that it cannot compensate for the environmental pollution and losses caused by mining. This is tantamount to China providing implicit subsidies to sellers at the cost of environmental pollution. (Luo et al., 2022)
However, the more dominant view among academics in REE-demanding countries is that the international REE market is a "seller's monopoly" and that China's REE trade policy is aimed at maximizing profits. (Muller et al., 2015) What's more important is that rare earth prices are significantly and negatively correlated with the extent of new energy promotion (Massari & Ruberti, 2012)
Let us discuss this question without bias, whether there is a reasonable price in the international trade market for rare earths such that.
1, for rare earth exporting countries, a price that compensates the user value and environmental value of non-renewable minerals while meeting the development costs and normal profits
2, for the importing countries, this price will not hinder the development and promotion of industries that depend on rare earth minerals (such as new energy, etc.).
And, most importantly, what is the literature that discusses the relationship between the two and calculates the possible appropriate price for rare earths?
I think we have to explore this issue, after all, for all countries, maximizing welfare is the ultimate goal of trade, not political interests.
- How does the porosity and permeability of saline formations affect hydrogen storage efficiency?
- Can the use of different injection methods improve hydrogen storage efficiency in saline formations?
- How does the depth and temperature of saline formations impact hydrogen storage efficiency?
- Can the addition of certain minerals or compounds enhance hydrogen storage efficiency in saline formations?
- How does the pressure of hydrogen in the saline formation affect its storage efficiency?
- Can the use of multiple layers of saline formations increase the overall hydrogen storage efficiency?
In a project, the bedrock foundation for the ECRD dam is gneiss (quartz feldspathic/muscovitic/
micaceous quartz). Also, the rockfill was made up of the same gneiss. Some leakage captured downstream shows contents of sulfate. What is occurring in the leakage and why is the sulfate appearing? It’s worth to note gneiss has the following minerals: biotite, sphene, epidote, granite, and zoisite, among others. The reservoir water is Calcium-Bicarbonate type (according to Piper Diagram). The main recharge for the leakages mentioned before is the reservoir, according to hydrogeochemical studies, isotopic studies, and geoelectrical tests.
Please can anyone help us with the following? In an acidified headwater catchment underlain by paragneiss, we are using Mg, Ca and Sr isotope ratios to identify the proportion of these elements of geogenic and anthropogenic origin in the runoff. We isotopically analyzed 11 catchment compartments, including several organic pools and are aware of Mg, Ca isotope fractionations. We have the isotope composition of the main rock-forming and accessory minerals in addition to whole-rock isotope signatures. Individual minerals exhibit a wide range of Mg, Ca and Sr isotope ratios. For a rigorous interpretation of the data set we would need to know the relative dissolution rates of apatite, biotite, muscovite, albite, orthoclase and ilmenite. The reviewers will likely request a kinetic model to estimate the order of these six minerals from the fastest weathering to the slowest weathering mineral. We are aware of the complexity of such kinetic modelling. We believe a general sequence of weathering rates of these six minerals with some in-depth discussion of the uncertainties would do. As a rule, the reviewers are mostly sceptical about the relevance of equilibrium modelling, such as PHREEQC, and/or just invoking the Goldich (1938) and Bowen (1956) scheme. Would you know of a publication that would for any paragneiss site report kinetic modelling of mineral weathering considering as many minerals as possible, preferably also including ilmenite?
We are looking to destroy ferrocyanide and are trying to figure out under what conditions it might occur
I am working on a petrographic analysis, and I have a thin-section database, referred to partially metamorphic rocks such as meta-basalt, meta-andesite, meta-gabbro and so on.
In the thin-section results, I have got the percentage of several main minerals such as Quartz, Epidote, Feldspar, Chlorite and some other minerals which are significantly varying among samples from one to another. For example, Quartz is fluctuating between 0 and 59 percent in various samples.
In my research, I need to categorize the mineral percentages in three ranges: Low range, Middle range and High range. For example, when we say that there is a high quantity of Quartz in a metamorphosed rock, what exact percent we are dealing with?
I would appreciate if you could share your ideas about this question.
The Katanga basin of the Central African Copperbelt is a significant source of sedimentary-hosted copper deposits. The stratiform and vein-type deposits are distinguished along the belt. unlikely like porphyry deposits where the geochemistry of some hydrothermal minerals (e.g., chlorite) are applied to track the core of the orebody, such minerals seem to be lacking in CAC. Based on a specific prospect or deposit, how to develop a geochemical predictive tool for sedimentary hosted copper deposit? What can be elemental geochemical pathfinders for prospecting sediment-hosted copper deposits?
Commercial iron(II) sulfide (FeS) is available from several distributors, usually in powder form or as "sticks". But what minerals in what quantities does it actually contain? From XRD I found both troilite and pyrrhotite as mayor constitutents, but is there also possibly mackinawite (difficult to see in conventional XRD) as one of the components?
Dear fellow researchers,
I have been looking to buy some updated database for Raman spectroscopy of different organic, inorganic minerals, polymers etc., (updated with new entries at least in 2020). Could any of you suggest some sellers or links for the same.
Thank you all in advance.
Would you give me a detailed protocol of liquids analyses by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (minerals: mg, fe,N,P,K.........) .?
I am working on basaltic rocks and I want to do sample preparation for chemical analyses (XRF, ICP-MS and Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd determinations). There are some vesicles and fractures which filled by secondary minerals such as zeolite, calcite and rarely chalcedony. After crushing I should eliminate the fragments of zeolite, calcite and chalcedony. If they are coarse it will be easy. In some cases the vesicles are fine and distributed in the rock. So the elimination of secondary minerals will be impossible. In the second state, I want to know the existence of calcite will be influenced in Rb-Sr determination?
Is it required to wash the crushed basalt samples with HCl 0.1 molar to eliminate calcite in vesicles and fractures before preparing powdered samples, in order to obtain more accurate chemical and isotopic analysis results?
If there is any references to do this washing method please let me know.
For performing Creep analysis by the application of Norton's Creep Power Law in Finite element analysis, three creep constants for Mineral Glass are required.
I am facing a problem with Fe(III) minerals that I cannot dissolve with my usual approach using oxalic acid solution and iron EDAS. I am studying bacteria that oxidize iron. In order to do some analysis, I need to remove the Fe(III) minerals formed in my system. In my current setup with ziro valent iron as source, the formed minerals do not dissolve easily. Adding, for example, 6 M HCl would probably also destroy my cells, so I would not be able to examine them. Therefore, I am looking for ideas to solve this problem. This could be a special fixation method, or reducing agents that dissolve iron without being extremely acidic.
Thank you very much for your comments!
I want to estimate the ultimate strength of Calcite using MD simulation with LAMMPS. I already did some simulation on random pure metals with usable potential file in pair_style. But, for minerals like Calcite, I studied few papers on that mineral, unfortunately couldn't get any proper idea about suitable potential for Calcite. And also found it hard to write anything on pair_style command. I am expecting help from you since I am new to learn this kind of simulation. Thank you.
Many articles use the EXAFS data of pure minerals as a reference when doing linear fitting.
However, they do not have raw EXAFS data for reference compounds in supportting.
I have only found EXAFS data for some common minerals (eg goethite and leucophyte), but no data for strengite.
Can someone share a EXAFS data of strengite? I am in urgent need of the data for reference.
I want to separate minerals for spot analysis such as quartz, and feldspars. biotite, muscovite, garnet, zircon, and other minerals that I am not familiar with their shapes under a binocular microscope, is there any atlas that can help separate mineral grains?
Spectrum Explorer from mtholyoke.edu
Useful web database of Mössbauer spectra of various iron compounds and minerals. Figures of the spectra are given, as well as the spectral data in ascii format, including calibration and counting in channels. It can be used to teach specialists in Mössbauer spectroscopy, as well as to compare and verify compounds by their spectra.
Located at web address: https://mossbauer.mtholyoke.edu/
Are plants able to uptake nutrients as a low molecular mass organic form like Cys and Met, or as attached to DOC or DON, intact??
plants uptake nutrients from the soil solution as minerals, and ions. but what if these nutrients were not in a mineral form, but in a very simple organic form? can the plant uptake the nutrients intact with the low mass simple organic form such as Cys and Met?
Why is fertilizer important for feeding the world and why does the application of fertilizers become essential for better crop yield?
Fertilizers are food for plants. Fertilizers replace the nutrients that crops remove from the soil. Without the addition of fertilizers, crop yields and agricultural productivity would be significantly reduced. That's why mineral fertilizers are used to supplement the soil's nutrient stocks with minerals that can be quickly absorbed and used by crops.
I'll be starting a project soon with researchers from the life sciences who are looking at minerals within microbes. My colleagues commonly prepare their microtomed samples with uranyl acetate or Pb citrate staining. I've only studied non-stained samples with the TEM, so I'm wholly unfamiliar with how the staining will affect my interpretations. Are there any advantages to using the staining if I'm only interested in the minerals present in the microbes? I'll also being doing EDS, so I figured minimizing the amount of elemental artifacts would be a plus. Any thoughts would be very much appreciated for a biological-TEM neophyte!
Likewise, there are many other minerals, they do have dual or more ways of structural formula calculations on the basis of n number of oxygen atoms per formula unit. how it is governed?