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Minerals - Science topic

Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
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Dear fellow researchers,
I have been looking to buy some updated database for Raman spectroscopy of different organic, inorganic minerals, polymers etc., (updated with new entries at least in 2020). Could any of you suggest some sellers or links for the same.
Thank you all in advance.
Best regards
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hey.. please check out
but only limited to inorganic materials, not for polymers...
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Hi there,
I am working on basaltic rocks and I want to do sample preparation for chemical analyses (XRF, ICP-MS and Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd determinations). There are some vesicles and fractures which filled by secondary minerals such as zeolite, calcite and rarely chalcedony. After crushing I should eliminate the fragments of zeolite, calcite and chalcedony. If they are coarse it will be easy. In some cases the vesicles are fine and distributed in the rock. So the elimination of secondary minerals will be impossible. In the second state, I want to know the existence of calcite will be influenced in Rb-Sr determination?
Is it required to wash the crushed basalt samples with HCl 0.1 molar to eliminate calcite in vesicles and fractures before preparing powdered samples, in order to obtain more accurate chemical and isotopic analysis results?
If there is any references to do this washing method please let me know.
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Why you should eliminate the fragments of zeolite. I used basaltic pumice (Skorya) as an adsorbent in my doctoral thesis. However, I did crystallographic (xrd, xrf, sem-edx, BET and ft-ir) analyzes without interfering with its natural state. If I interfere with its structure, its name changes. Depending on the ordinary situation, it becomes modified scoria or actived scoria.
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For performing Creep analysis by the application of Norton's Creep Power Law in Finite element analysis, three creep constants for Mineral Glass are required.
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The generalized equation is ϵ˙=Aσntm, where A= C1, n = C2, m = C3.
The below links could be helpful to have more idea about considering the values for creep constants.
Power Law Creep Equation - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
Norton’s power law equation Archives - iDESIGN (idesignbest.com)
PII: B978-0-08-043637-1.50003-X (concordia.ca)
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Commercial iron(II) sulfide (FeS) is available from several distributors, usually in powder form or as "sticks". But what minerals in what quantities does it actually contain? From XRD I found both troilite and pyrrhotite as mayor constitutents, but is there also possibly mackinawite (difficult to see in conventional XRD) as one of the components?
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The question is what are you going to use it for? Like the "nutrition facts" each chemical compound has its specifications showing the purity grade of lab reagents.
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Dear community,
I am facing a problem with Fe(III) minerals that I cannot dissolve with my usual approach using oxalic acid solution and iron EDAS. I am studying bacteria that oxidize iron. In order to do some analysis, I need to remove the Fe(III) minerals formed in my system. In my current setup with ziro valent iron as source, the formed minerals do not dissolve easily. Adding, for example, 6 M HCl would probably also destroy my cells, so I would not be able to examine them. Therefore, I am looking for ideas to solve this problem. This could be a special fixation method, or reducing agents that dissolve iron without being extremely acidic.
Thank you very much for your comments!
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See the review of Voelz et al. 2019 (10.1021/acsearthspacechem.9b00012) for different iron mineral dissolution methods.
It depends on which iron minerals you want to dissolve but a dithionite exraction seems promising to me as long it its not magnetite .
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Is there anybody suggest or describe this maize disease (cause) or Deficiency of minerals? This days common on some maize farmers in Ethiopia.
Thank you!
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Zinc deficiency photo University of Nebraska on maize.
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I need Hyperspectral remote sensing data for land degradation assessment and Mineral exploration.
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There are tons of archived EO-1 Hyperion data at USGS Earth Explorer or you may order something from PRISMA.
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As the question is, in many natural gem stones, the color distribution is not uniform, so is there a suitable method to separate and quantify the color clusters?
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Ziyuan Lau!
输出表单的截图:)
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I want to estimate the ultimate strength of Calcite using MD simulation with LAMMPS. I already did some simulation on random pure metals with usable potential file in pair_style. But, for minerals like Calcite, I studied few papers on that mineral, unfortunately couldn't get any proper idea about suitable potential for Calcite. And also found it hard to write anything on pair_style command. I am expecting help from you since I am new to learn this kind of simulation. Thank you.
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At a glance, I found three different models for calcite. They are all fairly complicated combinations of electrostatic terms, Buckingham, Morse and Lennard-Jones potentials, and harmonic bond/angle/torsion terms. You will need to use the "hybrid" pair_style in LAMMPS, and subsequently define the pair_coeff separately for each component of the potential. https://docs.lammps.org/pair_hybrid.html
For the most recent of these potentials, by Raiteri et al. (2015), the authors provide a LAMMPS input file. Apparently you will need to request some modifications to the LAMMPS source code from the authors as well.
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Many articles use the EXAFS data of pure minerals as a reference when doing linear fitting.
However, they do not have raw EXAFS data for reference compounds in supportting.
I have only found EXAFS data for some common minerals (eg goethite and leucophyte), but no data for strengite.
Can someone share a EXAFS data of strengite? I am in urgent need of the data for reference.
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Please see separate message I sent you with file scans for strengite. In most cases, if you find a published paper with a needed reference spectra, please contact the corresponding author. The synchrotron community is generally very helpful.
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I want to separate minerals for spot analysis such as quartz, and feldspars. biotite, muscovite, garnet, zircon, and other minerals that I am not familiar with their shapes under a binocular microscope, is there any atlas that can help separate mineral grains?
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There is only one way to learn to recognize and identify the mineral species you mentioned with their physical and optical properties such as color, crystal shape, grain shape, cleavage, fracture pattern, mineral association, host rock assemblage etc., use :
and learn!
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I need opinions about why frother is not used for microflotations in the Hallimond tube.
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It depends on what you are trying to test.
Some frothers can behave like collectors by themselves, and so if you are trying to test an actual collector, the presence of a frother can complicate things.
The presence of a frother is not necessary for a mineral to attach to a bubble in the presence of collector and then and float. While the froth may not be stable in the absence of a frother, the attachment of mineral particles to bubbles can still be observed.
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Spectrum Explorer from mtholyoke.edu
Useful web database of Mössbauer spectra of various iron compounds and minerals. Figures of the spectra are given, as well as the spectral data in ascii format, including calibration and counting in channels. It can be used to teach specialists in Mössbauer spectroscopy, as well as to compare and verify compounds by their spectra.
Located at web address: https://mossbauer.mtholyoke.edu/
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Большое спасибо!
С уважением АС
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Are plants able to uptake nutrients as a low molecular mass organic form like Cys and Met, or as attached to DOC or DON, intact??
plants uptake nutrients from the soil solution as minerals, and ions. but what if these nutrients were not in a mineral form, but in a very simple organic form? can the plant uptake the nutrients intact with the low mass simple organic form such as Cys and Met?
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Yes, they can, if you consider phytosiderophores are "small" enough:
See also, my article on phytosiderophores:
I'm sure someone has looked at Cys and Met specifically, but I'm sure it can be found with a google scholar or Web of Science search.
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Why is fertilizer important for feeding the world and why does the application of fertilizers become essential for better crop yield?
Fertilizers are food for plants. Fertilizers replace the nutrients that crops remove from the soil. Without the addition of fertilizers, crop yields and agricultural productivity would be significantly reduced. That's why mineral fertilizers are used to supplement the soil's nutrient stocks with minerals that can be quickly absorbed and used by crops.
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Because ferttlizes are supplying essentionl elements reqired for better crop growth development thereby increading biomass yield
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For example: How is the Full-Scale XRF sorter mechanism? Is it possible to use it to sort low-grade copper minerals?
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Dear Ali Behrad Vakylabad many thanks for posting this interesting technical question. As a synthetic inorganic chemist I'm certainly not a proven expert in this field of research. However, I can suggest to you the following potentially useful article which might help you in your analysis:
XRF – New Applications in Sensor-Based-Sorting Using X-ray Fluorescence
The paper is freely available as public full text (please see the attaced pdf file). Also please see this Open Access article:
Sensor-Based Ore Sorting Technology in Mining—Past, Present and Future
This article has been posted by the authors as public full text on RG, so that you can easily download it as pdf file.
I hope this helps. Good luck with your work and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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I'll be starting a project soon with researchers from the life sciences who are looking at minerals within microbes. My colleagues commonly prepare their microtomed samples with uranyl acetate or Pb citrate staining. I've only studied non-stained samples with the TEM, so I'm wholly unfamiliar with how the staining will affect my interpretations. Are there any advantages to using the staining if I'm only interested in the minerals present in the microbes? I'll also being doing EDS, so I figured minimizing the amount of elemental artifacts would be a plus. Any thoughts would be very much appreciated for a biological-TEM neophyte!
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If your colleagues prepare their material for sectioning using 'standard' biological TEM preparation methods, Osmium will also be present in the sections. Osmium tetroxide is used in the double-fixation method for standard Epon embedding.
The UA and Pb staining are used to help contrast and easily visualize the biological material within the sections. For your ESD purpose, you will get a cleaner signal of the minerals within the microbes if UA and Pb are not used for staining the sections. Unstained sections can be viewed within the TEM but this makes them harder to visualize. The minerals present within the microbes will be a higher atomic number than the elements that make up the microbes (C, H, N, O etc) which may aid you to find the microbes within the sections by their contrast. Osmium is also a high atomic number stain and so will further aid you in finding the microbes within the non-UA and Pb stained sections.
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How can type 1 cement be anti sulfated using natural minerals? How much is it used ?
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Thanks a lot.
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I have a little confussion about the major soil minerals of rhizosphere of a tree species. Please address me, what are the major minerals like, essential, micro and macro elements...
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Dear Bipul,
First of all you should mentioned about which part of India you are talking about! As different parts of India has different types of soils with various types of minerals. As you are studying in Tripura University so here I am assuming that you talking about Tripura soils. So in Tripura mostly it is red soils. So there you will get Kaolinite (1:1) minerals with abundant amount of hematite ( iron oxides) with sesquioxides (aluminium and Iron oxides). And you are asking for elements. So better mentioned essential nutrients (17) rather than elements. As red soils of Tripura are mostly acidic in nature so definitely Al and Fe will be there along with Mn. Lowland Rice soils will face Zn deficiency. Nitrogen along with phosphorus will be deficient. But still you should mentioned about type of tree.. whether coniferous or deciduous!
Best regards
Deb
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Likewise, there are many other minerals, they do have dual or more ways of structural formula calculations on the basis of n number of oxygen atoms per formula unit. how it is governed?
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It doesn't matter if the formula is calculated on 4 or 16 oxygen atoms. The monazite formula contains 4 O, but there are 4 formula units in the unit cell. If vacancies are not expected, the formula can also be normalized to 1 cation.
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if any research article
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For any rock identification the more analysis one can do will give clues to the origin of the rock. There are so much data and research done around the world that one can compare with known data for better identification.
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We are looking to destroy ferrocyanide and are trying to figure out under what conditions it might occur
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Both ferrocyanides and ferricyanides will disassociate in the presence of ultraviolet light, this is an equilibrium reaction.
In solution, if the pH of the solution is raised to around 11 then the ferric ions will form insoluble ferric hydroxide, thus driving the equilibrium to completion with formation of ferric hydroxides and soluble cyanide complexes.
Ferrocyanides will slowly form ferri complexes by oxidation from dissolved oxygen in the water thus forming ferric hydroxides and soluble cyanide complexes.
UV can be supplied by natural sunlight or by artificial uv sources.
As uv light is a poor penetrant of water the reaction can be sped up by agitation of the liquid to bring the ferro/ferricyanide complexes to the liquid surface where they are readily reacted with any uv rays.
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Why organic-inorganic interactions between hydrocarbons and minerals occur at elevated temperatures, what is the essence?
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Dear Dr. Yuan,
could you please cite or describe some of the reactions between OM and minerals to form organo-mineral compounds in nature. I only know low-temperature reactions between organic material and poorly crystallized “mineraloids” such as oxalic acid and As, Cu- bearing solution to in gossans and so-called post-mining mineralizations (see 1). These are pre-stages of minerals. Ongoing recrystallization favors purification in the course of recrystallization and OM and mineral matter to go different ways. Both enhance their states of crystallization and may at the very end form graphite and special minerals dependent on the solubles (see 2).
1. DILL, H.G., MELCHER, F., KAUFHOLT, S., TECHMER, A., WEBER, B. and BÄUMLER, W. (2010) Post-Miocene and bronze-age supergene Cu-Pb arsenate-humate/ oxalate- carbonate mineralization at Mega Livadi– Serifos, Greece.- Canadian Mineralogist, 48: 163-181
.
At the opposite end of the scale at high to very high temperatures hydrocarbons convert into epi-, meso- and cata-impsonite and then through semi-graphite into well-crystallized graphite. In other words, the inertness of the organic compounds and obstruction of such reactions mentioned by you increases.
2. DILL, H.G., KUS J., GOLDMANN S., SUÁREZ-RUIZ I., NEUMANN T., and KAUFHOLD S. (2019) The physical-chemical regime of a sulfide-bearing semi-graphite mineral assemblage in metabasic rocks (SE Germany) – A multidisciplinary study of the missing link between impsonite and graphite. International Journal of Coal Geology 214: 103262.
In essence OM and minerals tend to react with each at lower and pristine stages rather than at elevated temperatures. Otherwise, you could not use graphite crucibles in your lab.
HGD
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I am working on Opaque phases of mafic dykes, and need to know whether Ilmenite and Sphene are Ferro, Ferri, Para, Dia, Antiferro or Antiferro magnetic minerals. Anyone with insights will be very helpful.
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Titanite (sphene) will be paramagnetic, but with ilmenite the situation is more complicated. Ilmenite is not usually pure, it often contains an excess of Fe instead of Ti. De facto, it can be considered as a member of the ilmenite-hematite isomorphic series. Excess Fe affects the magnetic behavior. Completely pure ilmenite is superparamagnetic, slightly substituted is weakly ferromagnetic. Hematite is then antiferromagnetic.
10.1103 / PhysRevB.81.224423
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Dears researchers,
Recently i'm starting a little investigación and i would like to receive some advices or comments about the use of Pb Isotopes in Mineral Exploration.
The use of these Isotopes in ore minerals, magmatic rocks, and their significances of the results
Maybe if you can share me some papers or books, i'll be grateful.
JC
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As with all geological systems you need to understand the data and let the data inform the interpretation, not make an interpretation then use the data to support it.
Many studies have reported Pb-isotope analyses with the data used to: develop standards, global and terrain-specific growth curves and dating techniques (Cooper et al. 1969, Cumming & Richards 1975; Stacey & Kramer 1975, Gulson 1984); to distinguish between groups of deposits within a single terrain (Stanton & Russel 1959, Cannon et al. 1961, Gulson & Mizon 1979, Gulson et al. 1985, Carr et al 1995 etc); and, to highlight the time difference between lode formation within a single system (Broken Hill, Pinnacles; Parr et al. 2004).
Lead isotope studies can provide insights into tectonic and mineralising events and improve the understanding of events within a given terrane (Carr et al 1995, Huston et al 2016). Major magmatic, thermal and hydrothermal events typically result in the loss of 238U, 235U and 232Th and homogenise Pb isotope values unless overprinted by later high-Pb events, or by the addition of radiogenic Pb (Doe & Stacey 1974; Faure & Messing 2005). The addition of radiogenic Pb may modify the initial ratio of a sample, leading to Pb isotope signatures higher than the initial (primary) ratio (Cannon et al. 1961). In high-Pb samples, including galena and samples with >700 ppm Pb, there is generally insufficient 238U, 235U and/or 232Th present to significantly change the “initial” Pb-isotope value through radioactive decay (Gulson 1986) 9although there are exceptions - the MVT mineralisation in the Adelaidean overlying the palaeoproterozoic Broken Hill area). By contrast, for low-Pb samples the breakdown of even small amounts of 238U, 235U and/or 232Th may (and often will) significantly change the “initial” Pb-isotope ratio and such samples need to be treated with caution.
Pb isotope data is a powerful tool in the identification and discrimination of mineral systems. However, you need to understand what you are trying to establish. For example, If you are trying to discriminate between gossans and/or high Pb soil anomalies resulting from the weathering of mineralised veins vs false anomalies resulting from weathering related processes you need to have data from both the target system as well as the zones that you are interested in (see Gulson 1986 and related papers). However, as clearly demonstrated in a recent paper by Fitzherbert et al (2019) for the Cobar Basin NSW Australia, you need to be careful. New dating of mineral systems in the Cobar Basin supported by high precision Pb and other isotopic data has clearly shown that instead of a single mineralising event there was a near continuous series of events with mineral systems evolving and telescoping, often within the same structure over a 40 My period with epithermal > intrusion related Cu-Au > reduced basinal fluid Pb-Zn systems with systems migrating spatially over time. It took the combination of high precision dating using several techniques together with high precision Pb isotope data to resolve the what was happening over a +150km zone that hosts a massive amount of metal.
Having worked on many Pb isotope datasets over a 30 year period, some words of caution:
  • Don't assume there is only one mineralising event within the area, that has yet to be demonstrated
  • Where possible get new/recent Pb isotope analyses for the target system(s) rather than rely on old published analyses. There are several reasons for this including:
  1. There has been a significant shift in the precision/accuracy of Pb isotope analyses over the last 10+ years, and many older analyses are no longer of sufficient precision/accuracy/metadata on the analytical work undertaken to be directly comparable to more recent analyses (its still valid data but you are comparing two different things and caution is required). You are looking for clusters plotting within error. Data that is plotting within multiple clusters may represent multiple events/overlapping systems. I usually try for 5+ analyses from a single system/zone with additional analyses when necessary. Single analyses can be meaningless and should not form the basis for an informed interpretation.
  2. Many older analyses in the literature are poorly documented and/or located. My data set has over 4500 analyses for NSW but many older analyses are poorly located and/or there is significant doubt as to what was submitted for analysis by the individual/company. Fortunately (for me,) many of these analyses were carried out by a single group (CSIRO) which makes that dataset internally consistent.
  3. Pay for the best analyses you can and work closely with the individual undertaking the work.
  4. Understand that growth curves will reflect differing mantle/crustal inputs (see Car et al 1995, Huston et al 2016) and that the commonly used growth curves (Cumming & Richards 1975; Stacey & Kramer 1975) may not be the best fit for the terrain/area you are interested in. The ratios still work but individual terrains/zones have their own specific average µ (µ = 238U/204Pb).
  5. The position of Pb isotope data on isotopic ratio plots relative to growth curves for crustal- and mantle-derived lead (noting 4 above) provides additional information as to potential source(s) of Pb, possible timing of mineralisation and likely tectonic setting of the deposit.
Peter
Carr G.R., Dean J.A., Gulson B.L. & Suppel D.W.1991. Lead isotope signatures of Ordovician to Permian mineralisation in the Lachlan Fold Belt — genetic and exploration implications. Geological Society of Australia, Abstracts 29, 6.
Fitzherbert J. A., Downes P. M., Blevin P. L., Huang H., Matchan E., Waltenberg K., Wall C. & Phillips D. 2019. Refining the Cobar-type mineral system: new insights spawned from direct dating of mineralisation. Discoveries in the Tasmanides 2019 (Mines and Wines 2019), AIG Bulletin 69
Gulson B.L. 1986. Lead isotopes in mineral exploration. Amsterdam, Elsevier, 245 pp.
Huston D.L., Champion D.C., Mernagh T.P., Downes P.M., Jones P., Carr G., Forster D. & David V. 2016. Metallogenesis and geodynamics of the Lachlan Orogen: new (and old) insights from spatial and temporal variations in lead isotopes. Ore Geology Reviews 76, 257–267
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During the melting of a metabasaltic rock at variable depths, the Ti budget in the anatectic granitic/intermediate melt is determined by the presence of Ti bearing minerals like Titanite, rutile, ilmenite etc. in the residual and/or fractionating assemblage. How the depth of melting/pressure of melting influences the stability of these minerals?
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Garnet The shales of Arghun Mountain have the mineral assemblages of quartz, feldspar, mica and garnet. The chemical composition of plagioclase, biotite, muscovite, chlorite and garnet shows that plagioclase is rich in albite, white mica is rich in the final members of muscovite, chlorite is more rich in the final members of amethyst and sedite, and phlogopite-anilite is basic. Garnets are rich in almandene and spesartine. In this study, the pressure and temperature of the upper limit and the lower limit of rock metamorphism were calculated using conventional geothermal-barometric methods. Using the Fe-Mg cation exchange thermometer between garnet and biotite, assuming a pressure of 4Kbar, the highest calculated temperature is 615 and the lowest calculated temperature is 429 ° C, and for 8 Kbar the highest calculated temperature is 644 and the lowest calculated temperature is 452 ° C. Using the multiple mineralogy equilibrium method, the calculated pressure and temperature for the upper and lower limits of metamorphism were about 801 ° C and 9kbar pressure, and 450 ° C and 7kbar pressure, respectively. This complex has been affected by two metamorphic and metamorphic phases of rocks. The second deformation in the region has been accompanied by the peak of metamorphism. A decrease in temperature of about 351 ° C in exchange for a decrease in pressure of about 2 kbar is observed in the metamorphic clay rocks of the study area.
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Dear all,
we are experiencing problems with hydroponical cultures of rice. A month ago, we started using a new growth chamber. Since then, the plants started to accumulate crystals of minerals at the leaf tips and the tips get burnt. The crystals are visible to the naked eye, however, we check it under the microscope and they are definitely crystals. The solution is the same as ever, and so are the conditions. Only the growth chamber brand is new. We will for now try to increase the humidity (which is set at 60% at the moment), but I have been wondering, if you have anybody experienced the problem, or if you have any ideas what could be causing it.
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And what to try water adjustment via Grander System?
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What is the effect of increasing carbonate minerals (calcium and magnesium carbonates) on the value of the cationic exchange capacity (CEC) of the soil ?
If calcium carbonate was coated soil particles and its percentage is not less than 25%.
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If the formation of carbonates is of pedogenic origin due to rise in temperature and decline in rainfall then the soils will be moderately to highly alkaline and would lose the productivity even when their CEC is remarkably high.
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Is it permissible to use a soil sample (Bulk Sample) without removing carbonate minerals, organic matter and iron oxides in the mineral examination with a diffracted X-ray device, or by examination with a polarizing light microscope or a scanning electron microscope ?
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No.
Soil scientists follow a specific analytical protocol to get knowledge of the presence of primary and secondary minerals in soil samples. You may refer to Jackson, M. L., Soil Chemical Analysis – Advanced Course, University
of Wisconsin, Madison, USA (Published by the author),
1979, 2nd edn.
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Is it permissible to use a soil sample (Bulk Sample) without removing carbonate minerals, organic matter and iron oxides in the mineral examination with a diffracted X-ray device, or by examination with a polarizing light microscope or a scanning electron microscope ?
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For primary and other minerals petrographic microscope can help but not the scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM only provides the morphology of minerals not the nature and composition of minerals. For clay minerals XRD can be very useful but it has a altogether a much different analytical protocol with regard to separation of soil particles, saturation with cations and laying on glass slides. Please refer to Jackson, M.L. (1979) Soil Chemical Analysis - Advanced Course. Published by the author, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA.
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Hello
Is there a modern method to remove carbonate minerals from a soil sample for the purpose of conducting an X-ray examination?
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Hi Layth,
a common way to remove carbonates from a soil sample is a treatment with dilute HCl or H3PO4. You can find other useful information in the attached papers.
My best regards
Michele
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my work is on determining the mineralization potential of pegmatite and I am interested in suing the XRD and XRF for my geochemical analysis. How can the graph of intensity vs energy be to quantitatively determine ore minerals present in the rock?
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You can use the characteristic elements of your pegmatite in case of a so-called rare-element pegmatite (Be, Li, Nb/Ta..) and analyze these elements with XRF (more advanced- level methods) and determine your ore minerals with quantitative XRD. The crucial point is the sampling campaign and the mapping in the field supported by drilling operations. In this case big-back samples are necessary or channel samples perpendicular to the zonation of the pegmatite. This is valid the more so in case of pure feldspar-quartz-mica pegmatites. All your measurements with the most highly sophisticated equipment are in vain if the sampling and mapping is done in a slobby way.
If you only want to write another paper about a new mineral you can conduct random sampling only hunting for the mineral and finding it by chance.
HGD
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I want to estimate minerals percentage from soil XRD pattern. Can anyone please suggest me the Method/procedure or any good software, by which I can estimate minerals quantity with good accuracy?
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Clay samples usually contain different clay minerals which in turn are fine dispersive and have different defects (mixed-layering, stacking failts, microstrains, etc.). Therefore classical quantitative XRD methods are not useful for such samples. The effective way is the simulation of the XRD pattern for each individual clay phase in a sample (taking into account its actual crystal structure) and then comparison of the experimental XRD pattern with the optimal summation of the calculated XRD patterns. The best result could be obtaind for several state of a sample (air-dried after Na, Ca, Mg or K - saturation, glycol saturation, heating at different temperates etc.) if one and the same structural model for each phase was used for different sample teratment. Close ratio contents of clay minerals for each sample treatment also will indicate to realistic resuts.
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Are there any references for Estimated Average Requirement (for minerals and vitamins) of infants less than 6 months?
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You can check this: https://www.nrv.gov.au/introduction for more information
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Diamond exploration uses certain kimberlitic indicator minerals like G10 garnet (pyrope), magnesiochromite, picroilmenite, Cr-diopside, forsteritic olivine and zircon. Are there any other indicator minerals in regard to non-kimberlitic diamondiferous rocks like olivine lamproite and orangeite?
Ioannis Kamvisis
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You are right. A compilation of diamand deposits you will find in the both "Chessboard articles....."
DILL, H.G. (2010) The “chessboard” classification scheme of mineral deposits: Mineralogy and geology  from  aluminum  to zirconium.- Earth Science Reviews, 100: 1-420.
DILL, H.G. and WEBER, B. (2013)  Gemstones and geosciences in space and time. Digital maps to the „Chessboard classification scheme of mineral deposits“.- Earth Science Reviews , 127: 262-299 plus supplementary material (99 maps showing gemstone deposits by country, geology and geomorphology) related to this article to be found on-line at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2013.07.006.
HGD
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I have an XRD pattern with vesuvianite to do Rietveld refinement in Topas. Number of structures of the mineral I used equalize the most prominent peaks of the mineral and do not refine the pattern. What I can do with the structures or settings to have a refinement of this mineral?
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You need to generate a new set of equivalent xyz positions. This can be done by specifying the space group P4/nnc:2 instead of P4/nnc.
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I am considering the suitability of geochonological studies of heavy mineral concentrates from a sedimentary formation that is devoid of fossils and fall within a "magnetic reversal-quiet zone". One would expect the age of the heavies to be those of the parent rocks (and hence give indication for the provenance materials), but authigenic minerals (diagenetic in origin) could give and indication of sedimentary rocks formation age. The question is, how scientifically justified is this and how can authigenic minerals be distinguished from rock forming minerals when carrying out heavy mineral analysis
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The radiometric dating of heavy minerals (HM) using, e.g., U/Pb, Sm/Nd, Sr/Sr and K/Ar (Ar/Ar) is as delicate as these methods applied to hard rock samples taken in the source rock or provenance area which should of course be known as to their age data when a correlation of, e.g., HM in stream sediments with potential source rocks is performed.
Dating HM (transparent , e.g., zircon, monazite, apatite, orthite, fluorite and opaque, e.g., columbite-tantalite s.s.s., cryptomelane) needs a twofold approach. Firstly, you have to fuel in all your sedimentological, geomorphological and hydrographic-topographic experience and knowledge and secondly, your mineralogical , and crystallographic-morphological ones. It makes a difference where the allogenic grains have been laid down as to the distance from the potential source rock (fluvial, marine, aeolian) and what the physical-chemical regime was like when it comes to the selection of fluorite, baryte, celestite (Sm/Nd, Sr/Sr) which are common authigenic cement minerals.
The final part will be either a meticulous picking of mineral grains different as to color and grain morphology under the stereo-microscope for the classical methods or a SEM/EDX- and/or EMPA- based microchemical analysis for the Laser-Ablation-Inductive-Coupled-Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Both preparatory measures pave the way to the singling out of HM communities among the zircon, monazite, fluorite….suites.
Dating detrital minerals such as mica (LM+HM) for basin analysis be it allogenic or authigenic material is state-of-the art. In this case the granulometry of the phyllosilicates targeted upon plays a significant role and grain size separation from sieving to the centrifuge plus settling tube is a must.
The detrital HM and LM approach is very effective for basin analysis provided you have a good experience and knowledge in the disciplines mentioned above. The preparatory work is paramount and requires a good geoscientist, the subsequent radiometric dating can be done by a commercial lab.
The results obtained thereby depend first and foremost on the geoscientific preparatory field and lab works.
HGD
P.S. You can browse my list of publication for U/Pb, Sm/Nd, Ar/Ar-K/Ar, Sr/Sr and Ca/Ca dating as well as studies of the various depositional environments fluvial, marine, and aeolian. Glacial and mass wasting do not play any part considering the issues you referred to in your question.
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Can we judge the crystallization sequence by the degree of euhedral of different minerals? For example, if plagioclase phenocryst is more euhedral than pyroxene, can we say surely that the plagioclase began to crystallize before pyroxene? Is it certain that the earlier the crystallization of phenocryst minerals, the more euhedral?
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Hello,
Tracking success relationships can be difficult. In general, it is probably true that successively older minerals have a higher degree of restriction than younger ones, but there are many complications. For example, cases of crystal melting are known from igneous rocks. Then it is necessary to pay attention to possible pseudomorphic transformations and to the presence of several generations of the same mineral. In addition to the degree of idiomorphy, it is necessary to monitor which mineral is overgrown by which mineral.
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Is there somebody around who is interested in collaborative research on Se-bearing minerals? We have here some expertise in the study of these ore minerals and are part of professional networks that are required to comprehensively characterize mineral species. Thus, if somebody has samples containing rare or even unknown Se-bearing minerals (or has samples that are perspective bearing such species), don't hesitate to get in touch with me.
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The procedure is simple: If somebody has perspective samples we will negotiate the details.
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Tsumeb is notable for the huge mineralized pipe that led to its foundation. The origin of the pipe has been hotly debated. Is Tsumeb a magmatic, hydrothermal, porphyritic ore deposit or something else. If so, why? There have been a lot of papers explaining the paragenesis of the Tsumeb ore minerals but without a direct answer as to what type of ore deposit it is.
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The Cu-rich “Tsumeb-type” deposits can be taken as reference of a special type of base metal deposit. The type – deposits is hosted by Neo-Proterozoic platform
carbonates of the Otavi Group, Namibia.
Complex Ge–Zn–Pb-bearing limestone-hosted Cu deposits occur within dolomites and calcitic limestones, within clastic sediments and evaporites of tidal (sabkha), lagoonal or lacustrine depositional environments which evolved in a rifted continental margin and intracratonic platform geodynamic setting.
Germanium occurs as Cu-thiogermanate minerals (e.g. germanite, reniérite, Ge-colusite) in massive As-rich Cu ore (tennantite–enargite association). Deposits formed by the reaction of hot fluids passing a variety of aquifer systems, where they became saline and enriched in metals. Eventually, the metals were precipitated in karst pipes and breccia horizons.
Lead may increase at the expense of Cu, new elements such as V entered the scene and thereby opened up a new field of carbonate-hosted base metal deposits as at Senge, DR Congo where V was seeping down from overlying carbonaceous schists and giving rise to descloizite–mottramite. Many small stratabound carbonate hosted Zn–Pb deposits within Aaleno-Bajocian dolomites near the Morocco-Algerian border region of northern Africa may be attributed to those deposits.
They bridge the gap to carbonate-hosted Pb–Zn deposits, especially to the so-called Alpine-type deposits where Mo is held to be a marker element.
HGD
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As we know, one of the best estimation methods for valence band and conduction band energies of semiconductors is using electronegativity of elements. In the enclosed power point file, we summarized the equations applied for this purpose and justified using the below mentioned reference. Please give your experience about these equations and ideas about this method or other alternative methods for calculations of these band energies. For more information, please refer to the following good reference:
Xu, Y. and Schoonen, M.A.A. (2000), The absolute energy positions of conduction and valence bands of selected semiconducting minerals. American Mineralogist, 85, 543-556.
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DOI: 10.3390/catal11020293, an open access article provides a succinct and practical approach for the calculation of bands alignment, from UV-vis and electronegativity data. The approach is particularly useful for quick estimations for the conduction and valence band potentials. Regards
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Mineral structural formula is computed for silicates after cation calculation. I want to know, can the same be carried out for sulphide ores?
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The question concerns sulphides. For sulfides, the conversion is very easy. The condition is that we know what mineral it is. It is based on the atomic percent of the elements and this composition is only normalized to the required number of sulfur atoms in the formula or to the number of cations.
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I am interested in the minerals particles suspended in seawater. What are the minerals? Carbonates, silicates, what more? Which clays are the most common? Could someone provide articles related to the study of mineralogical composition in sea water suspension, that is derived from shallow water bottom sediments and from river detritus?
Thanks in advance!
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What the books told us about this subject are out of date. Today, suspended particles includes plastics and denim material from old decayed jeans.
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I mean, I can use XRD to determine the crystal structure of minerals/identify them and see if they're changed during an experiment, and I can use SEM to 'see' the surface of a mineral or soil sample. But as far as I can tell neither of these techniques is very good for identifying or 'visualizing' organic molecules/material sorbed or otherwise associated with the material.
I am doing column experiments with organic material, and I can measure what's going in and what's coming out, but I am not sure how to 'see' or characterize what is retained in the soil. Is there a method for doing so? (I am looking for one besides a solvent extraction+characterization; I am hoping for something that allows me to see not just what is in the soil but how it's in the soil)
Any suggestions would be appreciated.
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Dear Alexandra, this is a very interesting technical question. As an inorganic chemist I'm not a proven expert in this field. However, I can suggest to you a few potentially useful articles which might help you in your analysis. Please have a look e.g. at the following papers:
In situ visualisation and characterisation of the capacity of highly reactive minerals to preserve soil organic matter (SOM) in colloids at submicron scale
Unfortunately this article has not been posted as public full text on RG. However, most of the authors have RG profiles. Thus there is a good chance to request the full text directly from the authors via RG.
Organo–organic and organo–mineral interfaces in soil at the nanometer scale
This paper has been published Open Access and can be freely downloaded as pdf file (see attached).
A conceptual model of organo-mineral interactions in soils: self-assembly of organic molecular fragments into zonal structures on mineral surfaces
(also attached)
I hope this helps. Good luck with your work!
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When I wash cells with PBS, what happens? Why does PBS sometimes cause confluent cells to peel off? Is washing with PBS always necessary before splitting or freezing cells? What is the functional difference between PBS with calcium and magnesium and PBS without those minerals?
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Your questions may be answered by Amer Basile under this ResearchGate question: https://www.researchgate.net/post/Why_are_calcium_and_magnesium_free_PBS
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I am looking for sources, articles, books about natural pigments from plants and minerals, which were used in medieval textile production in Europe.
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Dear J. M. Sobota thank you for posting this very interesting technical question. For a useful initial overview about medieval dyes please have a look at the following link which might help you in your analysis:
Medieval fabrics and the use of color, part 2
Part one of this link is entitled "Medieval fabrics and it's uses, part 1".
Also please have a look at this interesting link:
Medieval dyeing and ideas about colour
I hope this helps. Good luck with your work and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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I am trying to study the mechanical properties of shales by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation. However, I have had some problems with measurements becuase some minerals (which compose the shale matrix) are so hard for instrumental sensitivity.
Has anyone measured shales mechanical properties by this technique?. Could you share you experience?
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In general, it is better to use special nanoindentation instruments to examine such hard objects. In AFM the applied force is limited with cantilever stiffness (force constant) and cannot be very high. It is possible to try it with a very hard (up to 100 N/m) cantilever, perhaps it will be enough for indentation, but it is very likely that the tip or cantilever will be damaged. I would find a nanoindentation system around rather than torture the AFM.
Good luck!
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While was measuring Th of a LV fluid inclusion in fluorite, the bubble disappeared at a certain temperature (~80C) but it reappeared at ~120 and disappeared again at 180C. It happened for several other inclusions in the same FIA but at different temperatures.
Can it be due to host expansion and FI volume change?
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Dear Yury Igorevich Klyukin and
Ioan Pintea
thank you very much for your great answers! It is much appreciated!
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  1. Minerals filled through the veins show a distinct contralateral growth pattern, suggesting that the minimum stress (σ3) direction is nearly vertical, but the surrounding sulfide mineral foliation and residual breccias in the surrounding rock show a dextral horizontal shear movement.
  2. How to understand the formation of such structure, whether it is the result of progressive deformation or the effect of multiple stages of different stresses, how to confirm it, or how to further verify it?
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The three pictures not only show a certain ("this") structure but a large number of different structures. The images represent two-dimensional sections through deformed and undeformed mineralization.
But, a detailed analysis of the relationship between crystallization and deformation of the individual sub-areas is only possible by examining representative thin sections and polished sections, including the third dimension!
The thin sections and polished sections must be taken from both the deformed and the undeformed mineralization. It is important that the entire mineral content must be determined, and then the internal (deformed or undeformed) structure of each individual mineral species must be clarified!
The statement of Khaliq Hussain "The structure is mylonite, and it's formed by progressive deformation" is by far too general. It may apply to certain small areas. But, as I said, that can only be clarified with thin section and polished sections.
Best regards,
Günter Grundmann
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Hello,
I have the data/results from XRD and EDX. The EDX data shows chemical %age, e.g. SiO2: 73.653 % , Al2O3:14.426 % and other etc including some other details. The XRD results include, peak data Chart (2θ vs I unit cps); 2θ, d and counts table and peak %ages etc.
what is the procedure to calculate the minerals %age, specifically, quartz and montmorillonite and other minerals. Please try to have a simple and concise answer/procedure. If you have a flow chart or outlined procedure or an example data, would be much helpful.
Thank you.
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Dear Mazhar, many thanks for asking this very interesting technical question. In this context please have a look at the following relevant link which might help you in your analysis:
Use of TEM-EDX for structural formula identification of clay minerals: a case study of Di Linh bentonite, Vietnam
This paper has been published Open Access and is freely available as pdf file (see attached).
Good luck with your work!
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Initiated actions - Train traffic, Drilling, Tunneling, Excavations, Construction (underground), Extraction of minerals, etc.
Note: The answer may also consider upper or on the ground initiated actions as well.
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Yes, to some degree, these type activities may affect soil stability and also soil vibrations in some instances and for some distance. Quakings maybe. I dont know about volcanic eruptions, that seems a far reach. But the activities mentioned can also influence groundwater flow patterns.
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Can anyone please help identifying the following?
The red mineral is prestented in different forms, has a strong relief, slightly pleochroic and presents, sometimes, cleavage.
The brownish, oxidised mineral however, is very abundent but doesn't show much.. rarely, we find it surrounding the pyroxene.
It is a mafic volcanic rock.
Thanks
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The mineral at the center ("limonite", "leucoxene" ?) is rimmed by an intergrowth aggregate of an opaque to semiopaque mineral which according to your descripton is brown to red and forms small isometric spots which are dissiminated in a matrix of a mineral arranged perpendicular to each other. The entire shape of the aggregate is subhedral with beveled edges. Given it is found in an oxidized zone, it is a pyroxene undergoing supergene or hypogene/ oxidizing alteration. For the oriented trasnparent minerals I suspect of Mg-enriched phyllosilicates of the chlorite- and/or serpentine group following the original cleavage of the Px. The black spot are the oxidized residues taking the remaining trivalent Fe and tetravalent Ti which are not accommodated into the lattic of the clay minerals.
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After fitting Mossbauer spectra for Fe(II)-silicate heated at air to 700degC, I observed uncommon, very high quadrupole splitting parameters for Fe3+, I suspect in very disordered environment (?). When for minerals (silicates) so very high QS : ~2.16 mm/s for Fe3+ can be observed (IS = 0.5 mm/s) ?? What structural constraints could this influence?
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What silicate are you studying?
It may be that the article to follow collaborates in your investigation:
EFFECTS OF THE ELECTRONIC SPIN TRANSITIONS OF IRON IN LOWER MANTLE MINERALS: IMPLICATIONS FOR DEEP MANTLE GEOPHYSICS AND GEOCHEMISTRY Jung-Fu Lin,1 Sergio Speziale,2 Zhu Mao,1 and Hauke Marquardt2
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What is the mechanism and method of making the steel fibers used in reinforcing concrete and what are the residues or wastes or losses caused from the manufacturing stage ?
Are there detailed industry instructions that can be obtained ?
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Dear Ahmed Mousa,
Steel fibers are short discontinues strips of specially manufactured steel. Generally, their inclusion in the concrete improves the mechanical properties of concrete significantly. As the most common matrix, which is now mostly use in construction industry is Reinforced Cement Concrete. Main Reinforcement purpose is to resist bending due to applied load.
Ashish
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Hello,
How to calculate CaO* from CaO Total ?
Thanks in advance!
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maybe this table will be useful to you
Element-simbol-atomic weight-atoms-percentage
Calcium-Ca-40.078-1-71.4691
Oxigen-O-O-1-15.994-1-28.5309
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I have a mine tailing which appeared to be tremolite initially. But at closer look using XRD, at higher angles, I observed a slightly shifted profile. Now, I feel like the material sample I have is a combination of actinolite and hornblende. (Please bear with me as I do not have a background in this topic).
Usually, I perform Rietveld refinement to quantify individual phases. In the refinement, I would like to be more precise instead of calling it a tremolite -actinolite- hornblendite mineral. I would like to know if it is possible to perform a bulk phase quantification using Rietveld refinement so that each of these minerals can be identified individually. What other methods would you suggest for complementary analyses?
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Dears. I would like to point out that the correct identification of minerals of the amphibole supergroup is now possible only through chemical analyses (preferably WDS microanalyses). The XRD-based differentiation of tremolite, actinolite, hornblende etc. is only fiction, even with the Rietveld method. Amphiboles have minimally of five independent substitution positions.
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I need to calculate solubility constants for some minerals, I intend to use them for geochemical modeling. I've searched for these contants in EQ3/6, Thermoddem and SUPRCTBL, however some minerals are missing on the databases, for example Andesine, which is one of the key minerals on my simulation.
I have seen that in some papers, the the log K values are derived using SUPCRT or EQ3/6. The authors use the mineralogical characterization (from microprobe data for example) and theoretical formulas, either using a solid solution approach or directly, however the detailed methodologies are not explained. The available information in this regard is also scarce. I am able to calculate log K values for defined minerals (in the databases) in SUPRCTBL but I do not know how to calculate the values for new minerals.
Any advice in this regard is warmly received, bibliography, tutorial......
Thanks in advance.
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Hi! I'm an alumni of the GEOPIG group at ASU and might have some useful info for your search. The database in the SUPCRT92 url posted cannot be edited and also has the drawback of occasionally spitting back the wrong output if other users happen to be running a calculation at the same time (it's not super common, but it can happen).
One suggestion I would make is to use CHNOSZ, the R-package tool developed by Dr. Jeff Dick.
If you can find the thermodynamic properties for your minerals of interest, you can include them during your session (imported as a CSV file) while running CHNOSZ and then perform a SUPCRT92 calculation. You will need to find literature that lists the thermodynamic properties for your minerals of interest so that they can be estimated by the HKF equation used in SUPCRT. I've helped Jeff run workshops on CHNOSZ and am planning to create modules from those materials at some point, but the progress is slow for now. He has included very thorough documentation through the website above though, so you should be able to find the info.
Also, the GEOPIG group are starting a series of workshops on using various thermodynamic tools and databases. Again, that will take a little time, but it is in development.
In addition, there are ways to use these tools through the ENKI portal.
The ENKI project allows easier access to a variety of different database tools through a JUPYTER notebook interface, so if you know python, that is another place you should check out.
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To perform Gaussian calculations of the system involving minerals (fayalite, chalcopyrite, zinc ferrite etc) Z-matrices or atomic stricture are required that are time-consuming to prepare. Are there ready-made libraries of Z-matrices for Gaussian calculations?
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Dear Muntadar A H Al-Yassiri,
thank you for your answer. But, the problem is, it is difficult to draw the mineral (for example, zinc ferrite). The unit cell of zinc ferrite consists of 8 zinc cations, 16 iron cations and 32 oxygen atoms. Each zinc cation is located in the center of the tetrahedron and is surrounded by 4 oxygen anions. Each iron cation lies at the top of the octahedron and is surrounded by 6 oxygen anions. Each oxygen anion belongs simultaneously to one tetrahedron and three octahedra. All tetrahedra are isolated from each other. To build such a structure, you must have an outstanding imagination (and not only).
Regards,
Rashid Nadirov
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Mostly varius heating rates are used to perform dosimetric studies of natural materials . can we set a general standard heating rate value ???/
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????
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Barite is used as aggregates in concrete industry for the purpose of biological shielding against radiation. It is a highly dense non-metalic mineral. I wonder about the APF value of this mineral?
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A straight forward calculation can be done using the equation for the sum presented in the following web page: https://msestudent.com/atomic-packing-factor/. After a short search, I see that Baryte has a an orthorhombic crystal system and that its corresponding space group is " Pnma ".You should also check materialsproject.org , there you can find accurate information regarding this crystal system and so you could easily calculate the atomic packing factor (APF).
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I need to make a zinc chloride solution of density 2.0 for Pollen separation in sediments. I have the zinc chloride in powder form in a 500g box. Any help for chemist and those who use this method to separate pollen from other minerals will be very well appreciated.
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Thank you for your input. I really value it
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Dear all,
I have to mineralize milk samples for trace metal analysis
Really small amount are available so I would like to use the 64mg5 rotor of Anton paar microwave but all the litterature I found use larger vials
Do somebody have a protocol using mg5 vials?
Best,
Amandine
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Please I'm working on the effect of NPK fertilizer on grapes and wants to find out besides the individual determination methods of the minerals, is there any possible method that can be used to determine the mineral contents collectively?
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♥Rec0mmended♥Following♥
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I've started a thesis(bachelor) on a Mn mine in Poggio S.Vicino(IT), i went for some field researches and to collect minerals in situ(Mn oxides) usually found as Coatings on other minerals such as Quartz and Calcite. Fe is present aswell in the form of Goethite, probably indicating that Mn was not totally separated from Fe during deposition. Stratigraphy of the area is the typical Umbro-Marche succession(Limestones) covering an interval from early Jurassic to early Miocene. The Mn deposit is located on Calcare Massiccio(180Ma). My question is about the causes that led to the deposition of these metals, assumed to be occurred in shallow seawater.
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The sedimentary Mn-deposits may be categorized as follows:
(1) Sedimentary manganese deposits
(1) Shallow marine Mn deposits with /without remobilization in subaerial regimes (8a I-8a K)
(1) Clastic-hosted deposits (8a I)
(2) Carbonate-hosted (8a K)
(2) Mn deposits in black shales (8c J)
(3) Mn nodules in deep-marine depositional environments (in parts endogeneous) (8a M)
(4) Supergene manganiferous deposits (8a H)
(1) Bog iron ores on siliciclastic bedrocks
(2) Manganiferous replacement deposits hosted by calcareous rocks
See: DILL, H.G. (2010) The “chessboard” classification scheme of mineral deposits: Mineralogy and geology from aluminum to zirconium.- Earth Science Reviews, 100: 1-420.
Your type may most suitably be described as follows:
• The Fe-(Mn) deposits of the "Hunsrueck-type" were derived from the products of extensive chemical weathering of basalts, greywackes and shales in the Variscan basement complexes of the Rhenish Massif (Waldalgesheim D), (Bottke 1969).
• Oxide hydroxides of Al, Fe-bearing silcretes, goethite, poorly-hydrated Mn oxides and manganomelane are the main components of these supergene deposits
• Ore types: (1) ferricretes sensu stricto, (2) pebble Fe ores, (3) ferruginous conglomerates and breccias (Fe-Mn cement), (4) Fe-Mn replacement ores, and (5) limonitic gossans (Dill 1985). The Fe-Mn enrichments, irrespective of their host rocks, were taken as remnants of hydromorphic soils of non-lateritic origin (Plio-Pleistocene).
• cavity fillings, limonitic bed-load deposits in Tertiary shallow valley, vein-like deposits on calcareous rocks. No sharp mineralogical boundary between supergene Fe-Mn deposits and limonitic gossans underlain by manganiferous siderite deposits (Romanèche-Thorins (France)
• K/Ar and Ar/Ar isotopic dating of ore-forming events (25 to 1 Ma, Miocene and Pliocene) (Hauptmann & Lippolt 2000).
• Vein-like deposits of Ca and Al-sulphate-phosphates (APS) in karst pockets on limestones (e.g. Lahn-Phosphorite (Germany)) and in clay deposits (e.g. Lohrheim Kaolin deposit) on the Devonian rocks of the Rhenish Massif (German et al. 1981, Dill et al. 1995, Dill 2001) with carbonate-fluorapatite (francolite), With their extremely low values for Sr and anomalous high iodine contents (mean value 0,044%), the Lahn phosphorites differ basically from marine phosphorites.
• APS minerals: gorceixite BaAl3(PO4)2(OH)5·H2O, florencite-(Ce) CeAl3(PO4)2(OH)6, goyazite SrAl3(PO4)2(OH)5·H2O.
See also:
DILL, H.G. (1985) Terrestrial ferromanganese ore concentrations from Mid-European Basement Blocks and their implication concerning the environment of formation during Late Cenozoic (N Bavaria / F.R. Germany). - Sedimentary Geology, 45: 77-96.
DILL, H.G., PÖLLMANN, H. and TECHMER, A. (2013) 500 Million years of rift- and unconformity-related Mn mineralization in the Middle East: A geodynamic and sequence stratigraphical approach to the recycling of Mn.- Ore Geology Review 53: 112-133.
DILL, H.G., WEBER, B. and BOTZ, R. (2013) Metalliferous duricrusts (“orecretes”) - markers of weathering: A mineralogical and climatic-geomorphological approach to supergene Pb-Zn- Cu-Sb-P mineralization on different parent materials.- Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Abhandlungen, 190: 123-195.
Literature is available on the RG server
H.G.Dill
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I am using XRD test for indentification of minerals and amount of it.
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there are several free software already available to search among minerals databanks, for instance:
VESTA
several others are available in the literature, search the IUCr site.
Demo versions for a limited time of use:
There are also proprietary softwares like:
Match! - Crystal Impact GmB
Crystallographica from Oxford
HighScore from Panalytical
TOPAS from Bruker
Software from Shimadzu, and several others.
The X-Ray lab where you got your experiment may have some proprietary identification software installed for users.
It would be necessary to download a databank to use them; again, there are free databases like COD - Crystallographic Open Database, and commercial ones like CCDC that incorporate the previous JCPDF.
Nevertheless, whatever is the choice, please spend some time in tutorials; a good understanding is essential not to waste your time in mineral search engines.
Good luck
WNM
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In glauconite bearing sand stone sample other mica group minerals(illite, muscovite etc.) are also present. I want to quantify the amount of glauconite and othermica group minerals. How, I can do it using XRD analysis. Is their any other analytical technique for this?
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Glauconite is a clay mineral belonging to the illite group of clay mineral as they both have quite similar XRD peaks. Muscovite, biotite are two mica minerals which also show almost similar peaks. So care must be taken while carrying out XRD analysis. Quantification and identification of glauconite can be done with the aid of the following literatures:
Moore, D. M., & Reynolds Jr, R. C. (1989). X-ray Diffraction and the Identification and Analysis of Clay Minerals. Oxford University Press (OUP).
Odin, G. S., & Matter, A. (1981). De glauconiarum origine. Sedimentology, 28(5), 611-641.
Banerjee, S., Farouk, S., Nagm, E., Choudhury, T. R., & Meena, S. S. (2019). High Mg-glauconite in the Campanian Duwi Formation of Abu Tartur Plateau, Egypt and its implications. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 156, 12-25.
Li, X., Cai, Y., Hu, X., Huang, Z., Wang, J., & Christidis, G. (2012). Mineralogical characteristics and geological significance of Albian (Early Cretaceous) glauconite in Zanda, southwestern Tibet, China. Clay minerals, 47(1), 45-58.
Clay minerals and micas with similar structures are generally differentiated first under the microscope and then using XRD. Even if petrography is not possible (for fine grain size), XRD should be the first analysis because without the idea of the structure of the clay, no other analytical method can precisely determine which clay mineral is present. If carefully done, in different orientation, XRD will be enough for differentiating those minerals.
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Currently I´m working on the petrology of ophitic intrusions, intruded in red clays of Keuper facies. The outcroop is from a diapir in the Baque-Cantabrian Basin. These sample is composed of 70% plagioclase, 15% clinopyroxene, 10% opaque minerals and 5% chlorite.
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The presence of augite in mafic dyke rocks displaying an ophitic texture is common, but different colors are not resulting from different generations of CPx but from chemical zonation of one generation of CPx. Therefore, I assume that only one CPx is present. Apart from the lath-shaped plagioclase there are amgydules and marginal alteration zones mainly of chlorite. The semi-opaque hexagonal outlines of the XX around make me suspect of an Fe-enriched amphibole with "limonitisation". This, however, can hardly be proved by the current micrograph.
H.G.Dill
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Input is a Hyperion hyperspectral image. I followed steps Preprocessing, MNF, ppi, nD visualizer and SAM. Also spectral anayst used. I found minerals by spectral resampling of imagery spectral library and library obtained through field analysis (FieldSpec4). Please guide me how to mapped minerals identified on a map.
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Geological anomaly of mineral deposits can only be determined by borehole analysis. Then the data can be input to MNF, ppi, nD visualizer and SAM & also by spectral anayst.
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I've put a photo of mineral that I do not know.
This mineral generally occurred near the contacts of chromite lenses on the surface of serpentine foliation like sheet Silicates. The color shows copper or bronze and metallic luster but it is a very strange formation such a mineral in a sheeted form especially in serpentinized dunite!
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I have attached an excel file with the quantification of a mineral I conducted EDS on. I have more excel files of minerals too as I know EDS spectra for only 1 sample will certainly not be accurate at all. But I was wondering if there's any way to determine a chemical formula or the relative % of each element within the mineral?
I tried looking online and am struggling to understand the K-ratio? the data I have uploaded is directly from the software used for SEM-EDS.
Wt&, At% and K-Ratio is given along with Z, A and F.
If it is possible to obtain a chemical formula, would someone be able to explain how?
Thank you!
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In general, it is not a good idea to use EDS to find a chemical formula. Especially for a naturally occurring samples. Technically, it is possible, but such data cannot be called reliable.
In addition to Vladimir's answer:
EDS takes only a thin (about 1 um) layer from the surface of the sample. Obviously, it means that it is extremely sensitive to contamination, oxidation, selective erosion, and other factors which make the surface chemically different from the volume. To minimize this effect, the surface should be as clean as possible (fresh cleavage, FIB milling right before the analysis, etc) and it is necessary to get EDS spectra for as many points from different parts of the sample, as possible.
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For weight loss we really something want which is high in vitamins and minerals and Vitamins and minerals are not available in all types of whole grains. But yes, you can try brown rice which is popular for weight loss. It is a bowl of whole-grain rice with only the hull removed, thus the fats between the remaining layers cause it to spoil more easily than white, and this rice has been milled and stripped of all its layers and nutrients. It is good for overall health. This is only the variety you must switch if you want to lose weight. Moreover, it is full of dietary fiber which boosts your metabolism. In your weight loss journey, you can add khichdi which is the healthiest way to use rice for weight loss.
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It depends on quantity of consumption. Low consumption of carbohydrates affect body weight.
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Froth Flotation has truly changed the mining/mineral/ metal industry and is one of the most revolutionary surface chemical separation technique. Temperature effects strongly influence the flotation performance both physically and chemically. Flotation operations in cold climates are therefore objective of my research work. Any valuable feedbacks in term of reference material and/or suggestions are highly appreciated.
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In my opinion, there is no clear influence of temperature on the flotation process. I am sending you an article (in Polish) on the influence of temperature on the flotation kinetics of copper shale. Fig. 2 shows the copper yield as a function of time for 3 different foaming agents at 15, 25 and 35 oC. Figure 3b shows the direct dependence of the Cu recovery as a function of temperature for the reagents C2E2, C4E2 and C6E2. Generally, it can be concluded that the copper yield in the flotation process decreases with increasing temperature.
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Hello, I am currently analyzing properties of some minerals such as Bi2O3 by MD using Materials Studio, I need to obtain the cohesive energy density (CED) to obtain the solubility parameter, unfortunately the CED value gives me negative for which I cannot obtain the parameter solubility. I wanted to ask your help to find a way to obtain this parameter.
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