Questions related to Mineralogy
What salts differ in the mineralogical composition of the soil in the prevention of primary or secondary salinization of the soil?
Minpet——( a software for Mineralogical and Petrological data processing system), it can run under the Windows system XP or Windows 7. However, it can't run under the circumstance of Windows 8.1.
Does anyone have the lastest version?
Please contact with me, thank you!
My e-mail is email@example.com.
I am working on a petrographic analysis, and I have a thin-section database, referred to partially metamorphic rocks such as meta-basalt, meta-andesite, meta-gabbro and so on.
In the thin-section results, I have got the percentage of several main minerals such as Quartz, Epidote, Feldspar, Chlorite and some other minerals which are significantly varying among samples from one to another. For example, Quartz is fluctuating between 0 and 59 percent in various samples.
In my research, I need to categorize the mineral percentages in three ranges: Low range, Middle range and High range. For example, when we say that there is a high quantity of Quartz in a metamorphosed rock, what exact percent we are dealing with?
I would appreciate if you could share your ideas about this question.
I noticed that there was some sandstone interval contains some considerable amount of Siderite. I know that this is diagenetic. Could we attribute some specific depositional environment to these sandstones with some initial specific mineralogical &/or chemical composition that led to the transformation to siderite in time. ???
Spectroscopy is said be easier and cheaper for soil chemical property analysis. how well does it perform in mineralogical studies? also how well does the data set calibration and validation tests yields any relevant results through machine learning and artificial neural network in this field?
I basically belong to non programming background, I do know moderate application of R-Studio in PLRS and basic training set and validation set preparation.
To date, it is highly recognized the association between alkaline/calc-alkaline potassic rocks and gold and copper-gold deposits (Muller & Grooves, 2016; Muller, 2001; Jensen & Barton, 2001). Although not yet perfectly clear in some. I am now focusing on the Roman Magmatic Province (Italy), and I was wondering why, although in some districts (especially Sabatini and Vulsini) the whole rock composition and partially the mineralogy resemble those of some high-k rocks of gold-related deposits (Cripple Creek, for instance, where phonotephrites crop out ), this Magmatic Province didn't develop any precious metal mineralization. Obviously, whole-rock and mineralogical characteristics do not define the chance to develop or not a deposit, but they make comparable these rocks with other ones associated to dep worldwide.
I reach out just to open a discussion about this topic because I think it is very interesting and might lead to distinguishing, in some cases, the limit of the accepted model.
Food for thought! :)
I am trying to find out XRD (Phases present) with Match3 software from XRD data of sand powder, but whenever quartz sands are nearly pure, these two phases are also shown to be present. Is it due to their XRD patterns being very close, or is it due to material contamination?
These two images are 1.15 mm wide. Both types of magnetic particles have been extracted from river sand- the rounded ones from construction sites and more irregular ones from dried-up riverbeds. The rounded-grained samples have been subject to mechanical smoothing action pre- and post-extraction, while more irregular-shaped magnetic particles have not undergone any severe mechanical erosion. Both sand samples are need not be chemically the same. The rounded magnetic particle samples are likely to be magnetite as they are strongly magnetic. But the more irregular-shaped grains are weakly but certainly magnetic. What they can be - chromite, ilmenite, zircon, garnet, amphibole, pyroxene, or any other mineral?
Even if the exact mineral name cannot be said, can the mineral family be identified by observing its fracture and cleavage?
NASICON's and their common analogues use Na, K,Li or other alkali metals, Si, P and some other relatively common metals like Al, Ti, (Fe?) etc. NASICONs are with the formula Na1+xZr2SixP3-xO12with 0<x<3 . NA, Zr, Si are replaceable with isovalent elements and beyond. For example, LiTi2(PO4)3 is also considered a NASICON analogue, so is Li1+xAlxTi2-x(PO4)3. Both Sol-gel and Ball-milling then sintering techniques an be used for NASICONs.
While there are many common minerals like ZIrconia or Moissanite that shows fast ion conductivity, they act at quite high temperature. Silica is extremely common mineral, so is alumina, and apatites are quite common in sedimentary as well as some igneous environment. While complex silicates like Zeolites can exist in nature, why not NASICONs or their some sort of analogues? Does all of them react with moisture and Carbon dioxide relatively rapidly in geological scale? If they do exist, then what kind of geological environment would be conducive to their existence?
I am currently working on XRD results composite materials which need to be analyzed for mineralogical compositions
I found quite huge idiomorphic apatite crystals (up to 0,5 mm) in the Anisian shallow water limestones and they look pretty much like porphyroblasts with pressure shadows. Limestones are highly recrystallized with mylonitic texture.
Whether an increase in temperature can cause the growth of apatites from phosphorus rich limestones?
What is the origin of phosphorus?
Microscopic examination of a sample of low cretaceous igneous rock (alkaline bazaltoid or monchiquite?) revealed this foaming in the older generation of apatite (see photo). The central parts of apatite crystals are highly crowded with gas-liquid inclusions, the surfaces of crystals, just as younger generations are without them. Do you happen to know what that indicates? My timid guess is that it could be the release and decay of a supercritical fluid during crystallization, perhaps. I can't find anything like that in the literature.
Can we judge the crystallization sequence by the degree of euhedral of different minerals? For example, if plagioclase phenocryst is more euhedral than pyroxene, can we say surely that the plagioclase began to crystallize before pyroxene? Is it certain that the earlier the crystallization of phenocryst minerals, the more euhedral?
A free Simple windows based computer program software for XRD data interpretation with a complete mineral peak library ?
please let me inform about same programs.
Thanks so much every body.
Is there any software or excel sheet to calculate the mineral proportions (modal % of minerals) based on bulk-rock analysis. Your kind help is highly appreciated.
How can we distinguish a Charnockite and a Pyroxene granulites mineralogically?
what are the protoliths of both?
as Charnockite is Hypersthene bearing granulite, is it considered as a pyroxene granulite?
I need to calculate solubility constants for some minerals, I intend to use them for geochemical modeling. I've searched for these contants in EQ3/6, Thermoddem and SUPRCTBL, however some minerals are missing on the databases, for example Andesine, which is one of the key minerals on my simulation.
I have seen that in some papers, the the log K values are derived using SUPCRT or EQ3/6. The authors use the mineralogical characterization (from microprobe data for example) and theoretical formulas, either using a solid solution approach or directly, however the detailed methodologies are not explained. The available information in this regard is also scarce. I am able to calculate log K values for defined minerals (in the databases) in SUPRCTBL but I do not know how to calculate the values for new minerals.
Any advice in this regard is warmly received, bibliography, tutorial......
Thanks in advance.
I'm looking for a paper of Kuzel in 1969 entitled "Über die orientierte Entwässerung von Tricalciumaluminathexahydrat 3CaO⋅Al2O3⋅6H2O", published in Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Monatshefte.
Many authors cite this work, and I need it to check some information, but I can't find the full-text on the journal webpage or anywhere.
There are numerous databases for geochemical analyses for rocks like georoc and the National Geochemical Database of the USGS or purely mineralogical databases like mineralienatlas, mindat or webmineral. But is there a database for quantification of minerals in rocks?
Suppose one needs to find out room-temperature stable silicates chemical composition of a particular cation, suppose magnesium. Is there any rule to estimate which stoichiometric values of metal oxide: silica ratio would stabilize the binary silicate at room temperature? (i.e. in this example, how would I find out only Forsterite and Enstatite are of stable ratio, without empirically studying MgO-SiO2 phase diagram?)
At a first glance, the ratio seems to be consisting of any possible prime(and 1) numbers. Since its crystal structure is not known, Pauling's Rules also cannot be applied step-by-step to find out where silica tetrahedra are sharing corners, edges or faces.
Theoretical Computational and numerical simulation of phase diagram obviously can find out the stable ratios, but this is not what I ask for. I ask for tolerably simple chemistry rules like those provided by Hume-Rothery, Pauling or Goldschmidt, understandable with freshmen/sophomore chemistry/materials science/mineralogy knowledge.
Can someone suggest me a software or method for easily plotting compositional data (especially from chromite) in the spinel prism? I would like to show the raw material and its chemical evolution in this type of plot.
Thank you so much in advance!
Anyone knowing metamorphic geology would know the sequence of mudrock to gneiss transformation and its intermediate steps, including mica formation and growth (slate, phyllite, schist) and breakdown (gneiss) as metamorphic change intensifies. One may also refer to any standard petrogenetic grid to locate P-T curve for that transformation, since composition of gneiss lighter bands (plagioclase,...) and darker bands (pyroxene, amphibole...) are also commonly known. My questions are-
- Mica being phyllosilicates with layered structure, gain what kind of free-energy lowering advantage by growing normal to direction of maximum compression instead of being growing, say, in scattered or parallel to maximum compression direction? what are the chemical factors that affect the layer spacing?
- Similar question for generation of lamellar lighter and darker bands in Gneiss by decomposition of mica into feldspar and mafics (why layer instead of scattered blobs?). Why the free energy (magnitude and hence stability) of phyllosilicates drop at higher P/T and what is the molecular-level mechanism of this exsolution? how this transformation is different from and similar to eutectoid phase transition seen in metals? What are the factors that affect spacing of the layers (quantitatively?)
I have come through a few literature,were the presence of particular clay mineral has been validated through the Si:Al ratio obtained from EDAX analysis. But, I would like to understand the basic principle behind these classification based on Si:Al ratio. Is there any article that explicitly talks about such classification?
- for example: if you consider the d-spacing of plagioclase's main peak in XRD which is at the d-spacing value 4.02, is it possible that this value may be reported as 4.021 or 4.0222, 4.017 (possible to round off to 4.02 in all three cases) as reported by an XRD analysis software (using Highscore)
- Please find attached my XRD file (refer to T1 sample) where I am trying to calculate the semi-quantity of each mineral using "height of main peak=count of mineral".
- To calculate the ''count" of each mineral, I need to choose the correct d-spacing for each mineral in my data according to the literature's suggested d-spacing (using handbook of mineralogy)
- Question: but the problem is I am NOT sure which d-spacing value fits which mineral in my data because it is not the EXACT d-spacing value as in literature, so how do I choose the correct one?
- Note: my data is sulphide copper tailings XRD
I am in search of the minerals that have magnetic susceptibility and also minerals that show response to electrical conductivity... Will be so nice if someone can guide me in this regard as to search minerals one by one take time.
Thanking you in anticipation
1:1 mineralogy is easily dispersed under saturated conditions. Is by add organic matter/amendment can stabilize these soil and increase soil bearing
During a drillcore logging exercise, not long ago, I noticed how much confusion still exists regarding the use of the term "lamprophyre". This term tends to be somewhat overused in the mining and exploration industry and some mine geologists, including very senior ones, like to call almost every mafic dyke intersecting their deposit a "lamprophyre". This encouraged me to show some characteristic lamprophyre samples here (please see attached):
(1) The first image shows an amphibole-phyric shoshonitic lamprophyre under the polarisation microscope (crossed nicols). Please note the lack of free quartz in this rock and that the feldspars (mainly plagioclase in this case) are restricted to the groundmass.
(2) The second image shows a phlogopite-phyric alkaline lamprophyre with quenched margin at the lithological contact with a metasediment (under crossed nicols).
Lamprophyres are typically porphyritic, but only containing mafic phenocrysts, no free quartz, and their feldspars are generally restricted to the groundmass.
Geochemically and mineralogically, the studied granite shares all the characteristics of A-type granites but they contain inherited zircons. The Ti-in-zircon temperature of the granite is from 664 to 770 oC. Could you please share your experience on this question?
I am planning to work on the mineralogy of the rock and lateritic soil samples of the Bingo carbonatite complex in order to determine its REE-bearing minerals and determine its REE prospectivity. I would like to know which method I should use to get reliable results. Thanks for your answers.
Hi everyone, please, anyone can help me in a issue about the physicochemical stability of the silica? Actualy, I have cryptocrystalline silica veinlets cross cutting some supergene manganese minerals (eg., pyrolusite). So, is possible to precipitate silica under surface conditions?
All the best and stay safe guys!
Ladies and gentlemen, I have a favor to ask of you. If you've collected beautiful and back-corrected EBSD patterns of preferably non-cubic phases... could you send them to me along with the information about the projection center (pattern center + detector distance)? If this information is not available, it doesn't matter... It would also be nice to know the diffracting phase, but even that is not necessary if the pattern looks good. The resolution should not be lower than 400x300 pixels. In any case, it doesn't necessarily have to be high resolution patterns. The image format is irrelevant. I want use the patterns for tests regarding crystal lattice description (approximate lattice parameters and crystal symmetry). If I should use the patterns later in publications you can be sure that I will refer to you. Thanks in advance!
Charnockite is an opx (usually hypersthene), quartz and feldspar bearing meta-igneous rock, mostly acidic in composition, and metamorphosed under granulite facies conditions. It is commonly found in Gondwana fragments such as in Sri Lanka and India. One of the key characteristic features of chranockite is that minerals of feldspar and quartz in the rock have a greenish appearance. Is there any scientific explanation for the cause of this colour?
The order of crystal lization within a magmatic series allows us to deduce mineralogical evolution and also the initial composition of the magmatic fluid. Within plutonic rocks, this method is relatively easy where we based on the relationships between minerals. However, in pyroclastic rocks, the procedure is more complicated where minerals are broken. My question is, how can I deduce crystallization order within pyroclastic rocks?
I am a materials science (and metallurgy) student and geology enthusiast. Comparing these two subjects side by side, I have found out some interesting pattern.
Ironmaking slag has 40-45% CaO, 30-40% SiO2 , 10-15% Al2O3 , about 5% MgO and 1-2% FeO. Steelmaking slag can have 40-60% CaO, 10-25% SiO2, 2-10% MgO, 5-35% FeO and 0-25% P2O5.
Ironmaking slag can have, among many other minerals, Akermanite, Monticellite, Gehlenite ,Anorthite, Pyroxene etc, along with some spinels. In my opinion , it matches with some feldspathoids with slightly mafic character. Steelmaking slag is more close to alkaline earth mafic rocks and peridotites. It has a good amount of spinels, monticellite, merwinite, silicocarnite, periclase etc.
Answers from metallurgists and Geologists are welcome
Many geological descriptions of porphyry Cu-Au deposits use the term "potassic alteration". However, this is actually a rather unspecific umbrella term for three different secondary mineral assemblages: (1) biotite-magnetite, (2) phlogopite-magnetite, and (3) orthoclase alteration, respectively. The orthoclase alteration seems to be most common in the central parts of alkaline porphyry systems such as Cadia, Northparkes and Skouries, while the previous potassic alteration types are well documented in calc-alkaline porphyry systems throughout North and South America and the SW-Pacific. However, when you conduct more detailed studies, the biotite-magnetite alteration recorded at many calc-alkaline porphyry systems actually turns out to be a phlogopite-magnetite alteration assemblage (with a brownish rather than black colour).
Dear collegues, I look forward to your comments! Many thanks.
PS: Please find a sample from Grasberg attached.
I want to know the scientific cause/reasons to increasing the noise levels during drilling with increasing drill bit diameters, penetration rate, drill bit speed, except rock properties and mineralogical composition of rocks. In my investigations I came to know that the reason for increasing sound levels due rock properties and mineralogical composition of rocks. Apart from this, Is there any scientific cause/reasons?.
Recently, I have just started learning basic mineralogy and I found that it is quite difficult to master. It would help me a lot if you can share some tips on this field of study so that I can easily identify and describe accurately the minerals that is being observed using plane polarised light and cross polarised light.
Is there any (real) advantage of a hexagonal grid used during orientation mapping? And if yes, is there any paper which discusses and proves this in comparison to a regular map? And why all other companies do not use this (inclusive other mapping software like ASTAR in TEM) ?
Recent turbidite sediments are composed of sandy rhythmites and clayey rhythmites that alternate mainly with silt sized particles. I am interested to know the mineralogy of these types of sediments.
Hello, after the analysis of volcanic deposits from South-East Asia by DRIFT Spectroscopy, some peaks occur around 1300-1250 cm-1 (please see the attached image). Do you know to which mineralogical compounds they could be associated? How can we interpreted it from a mineralogical point of view? Also this shifting between the spectra (around 1300-1250 cm-1) seems like a slight variations in the crystalline structures. Do you agree?
Thank you in advance for you answers and contributions.
Hello Professors and colleagues
I am studying Neoproterozoic meta-sediments can i apply the indices of alteration on it or it has to be on sedimentary rocks only ?
Thanks in advance
I have a good quality x-ray powder diffraction pattern. For indexing, I tried different software, However, I am sure it can also be done more easily with TOPAS academic version. I know how to search peak with Le bail but I could not apply any indexing algorithms such as ITO etc. in TOPAS. I also use Jedit interface.
I could not find any good material or example on internet. I would be really appreciate if any one can help me or send me a tutorial link.
#XRD #Indexing #TOPAS #crystallography #mineralogy
spreading of oil on grains of oil reservoir rock at reservoir conditions (high pressure and high temperature) is undesirable phenomena, petroleum engineers try to free oil from frocks surface and alter rocks wettability to be water wet rather than oil wet, but before that we need to understand relation between rocks wettability and rocks mineralogy.
I am working on the chemistry and mineralogy of a weathered sandstone in South Africa and I have received some XRD results that don't seem to match the profile of the sandstone. The results of the XRD show that there is a much more frequent occurrence of muscovite as opposed to clay minerals such as kaolinite or some type of illite or smectite. Which I find strange because as I understand it, muscovite mica would only appear in highly weathered sedimentary rock if it is detrital muscovite. It would've broken down into clay minerals a long time ago had it been deposited there during the sedimentation phase of the rock.
Is it plausible to question the XRD analysis and it's interpretation? The quartz peaks on the XRD are very prominent which means that many of the other peaks in the patterns are relatively flat and poorly defined and therefore are quite difficult to interpret accurately. Is it possible that the muscovite has been incorrectly assigned? Is it possible that the peaks that have been assigned to 'muscovite' may actually be the peaks associated with kaolinite or montmorillonite? Any help would be greatly appreciated!
In a transition of mixed-layer illite-smectite from R0 to R1 with depth, can the process go the other way around? I guess there were always discussion about this. But what is the most updated conclusion?
I need to know what clay minerals is exist from raw XRF data?it is used in acidizing design
Invite a discussion on quantification of minerals in thin section and their correlation with XRD quantification using Rietveld Method for Quantitative Phase Analysis.
1. Different Approaches for quantification of minerals in thin section
2. Can we compare mineral quantification in thin sections with XRD quantification?
3. How to approach these techniques combined?
4. Or what is the relevance of other geo-chemical procedure such as Rittmann’s norm for stable mineral assemblage (or any other).
5. Accuracy of other mineral quantification techniques (when compare to thin section analyses) !
Rock: basaltic dykes
Problem: I only have one clinopyroxene phase (augite) and the olivine is not in equilibrium with the melt (whole rock composition). The models of Putirka 2003/2008 do not give reasonable results, most likely because there is not enough Al to stabilize a jadeite (aegerine instead) component which seems to be needed for the models. Any suggestions to solve this problem?
I have recently discussed with Zeiss about the existence of an online forum where automated mineralogy users (specifically in this case Mineralogic) can share ideas about applications and recipes. Do any Research Gate members know of any relevant fora/blogs/websites? A series of introductory posts by Petrolab are the closest I could find.
Could anyone help me to advice the exact name of this rock?The mineralogical composition is: K feldspar~60%, Plagioclase (oligoclase+albite-15%), Quartz-3-4%, Muscovite-5-7%, and 15-20% of isotropic brown colored mass of altered by Fe oxides.
- SiO2=57.6-5.26- according different type of analyses
Hope you are having a good day.
I need guidance regarding the interpretation of the smectite mineralogy from XRD Peaks data.
Kindly help me, how I may identify the peak of the smectite from .brml/.asc file of the tested samples.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and abiogenic in origin (not produced by life processes). A mineral has one specific chemical composition, whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids. The study of minerals is called mineralogy.
I am looking for a reference book to look up phase diagrams of binary mixtures of inorganic salts, for example KNO3-NaNO3, CaF2-MgF2, and so on. Any recommendation will be appreciated!
I've been measuring thermal conductivity of magmatic and metamorphic rocks with the FOX50 heat flow meter in the temperature range 20 - 180 ºC, and I've been noticing that some samples present an increase of thermal conductivity as a function of temperature. My question is, what are the possible causes for this increase? Can it be related with mineralogical composition? The % of feldspar, maybe?
15 years after the introduction of CCD-based EBSD detectors a new camera technology enters the EBSD world. It is hard to believe, the formerly demonised CMOS chips are now the saviours of the EBSD market. In contradiction to all prevously made statements CMOS are now not only faster but also more sensitive and less noisy. Well, companies are (primarily) not founded to make scientists happy. They need to sell in order to survive (or make their shareholders happy), and if the market does not increase as expected a new technology is very welcome to increase the business ono this way.
In fact, I believe that the spec sheets of the new detectors are credible, but how the detectors really work in practice? Are there some users which have direct comparisons? How profitable is the change if one considers the comparatively huge price?
GCDkit is one of the most versatile packages for igneous petrology. Writing scripts in 'r' for GCDkit has a steep learning curve. Tutorials may help to facilitate learning with feedback.
Among the clay minerals, which is the most adhesive in nature?
In coastal, estuarine and marine sediments, what is the role of clay minerals in the distribution of trace metals?
Kullerud et al. (2018) found that there was an immiscible gap in the Ag2S-Ag2Se system from 60 to 80 mole %, and obtained almost the same result as Pal’yanova et al. (2014). This immiscible gap (70 to 80 mole %) has already been reported by Sugaki et al. (1982) and Kitakaze (2016), both (In ReserchGate of Kitakaze, A).
[Kullerud, K. et al. (2018) Solid solutions in the system acanthite (Ag2S) naumannite(Ag2Se) and the relationships between Ag-sulfoselenides and Se-bearing polybasite from the Kongsberg silver district, Norway, with implications for sulfur–selenium fractionation. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 173, 1-17].