Science topic

Middle Ages - Science topic

Middle Ages are discuss Late Medieval History here, roughly related to the sphere of northern europe, North and Baltic Sea's neighboring regions and larger powers' influences. You may bring into discussion topics of any sub-discipline, e.g. cultural questions, power issues, history of arts, theoretical concerns and so forth - as long as you stick to late medival times. This phase is set here from ca. 1250 to 1550 A.D., having soft boundaries in mind of course.
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Old Comedy of the 6th & 5thCenturies BC often made fun of a specific person and of current political issues. Middle Comedy of the 5th& 4th Centuries BC made fun of more general themes such as literature, professions, and society. New Comedy of the 4th & 3rd Centuries BC usually revolved around the bawdy adventures of a blustering soldier, a young man in love with an unsuitable woman, or a father figure who cannot follow his own advice. During the Middle Ages, Kings’ Court Jesters were not to be in competition with the Kings.
So most often they were deformed midgets with humped backs and bug eyes. They acted stupidly and wore strange clothing—cap and bells, motley clothes, and pointed shoes.
Their scepters were made from pig bladders as parodies of the King’s scepter of power.
In many plays, the fool is smarter than the King, but because of his appearance he could be critical of the King and the Kingdom. There are both foolish and wise fools in Shakespeare’s plays. Contrast the dead fool (Yorrick) in Hamlet with the wise/foolish women in The Taming of the Shrew and Much Ado about Nothing. Street jugglers and street musicians came out of these Renaissance traditions. So did England’s “Punch and Judy” shows, Italy’s “Commedia d’El Arte,” and France’s “Comedie Française,” as well as England’s “Comedy of Humours,” and “Comedy of Manners,” and America’s ventriloquists and political cartoonists. The eighteenth century saw the rise of a new kind of humorous author: the wit.
A wit is usually a person who can make quick, wry comments in the course of conversation.
Durilng the 19th Century, on the American western frontier, wise fools, con-men, and tricksters like Johnson J. Hooper’s Simon Suggs and George Washington Harris’s Sut Lovingood were employed to portray the rough and unsophisticated American as an ironic hero. Suggs was lazy and dishonest, and he knew it was “good to be shifty in a new country.” The golden age of humor was often considered to be the 1920s but would be more accurately placed from the end of WWI to the early 1930s. During this golden age, we see the development of the “little man” in Casper Milquetoast, Andy Gump, Jiggs, Mutt (of “Mutt and Jeff”), and Dagwood (of “Blondie and Dagwood”). The humorous comic strips that were revived after the Second World War (1940s) included Walt Kelly’s “Pogo,” and Al Capp’s “Li’l Abner.” Kelly’s swamp fables were allegorical ‘swamps’ themselves, loaded with social and political commentary lurking behind the antics and interactions of the familiar cast of animal characters. Al Capp’s “hillbillies” gave access to Capp’s views on topical events, government, and American values. So, how important is humor in determining the zeitgeist of the various periods of human history?
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Fatima: I totally agree. Here is a PowerPoint about "Humor in Music and the Performing Arts." Enjoy.
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Thanks to micromorphological analyses, glass crafts were identified at three different sites in Switzerland (2 x Medieval, 1 x Iron Age). What was surprising, however, was that at all three sites, in addition to ashes, charcoal, small glass drops and fragments of the oven constrution, guano from chickens was detected with striking regularity. For me, this raises the question of whether guano (from chickens) might have had a specific use in glassmaking. Does anyone have any idea what guano might have been used for in glass craft?
Many thanks in advance!
David
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Hello David Brönnimann re: use of chicken droppings in ancient glass craft?
The following is far from an ancient usage, but it may be of use in showing the feasibility. The project used "...a combination of sodium borate (Borax) and dehydrated chicken manure..." and "...created glass beads using a Bunsen burner.[1] ..." and "... larger glass pieces were also made in a glass furnace.[1] Further, "It was discovered that adding chicken manure to the batch mixture makes the glass stronger"
Creating Glass from Chicken Manure | RePicture {projects of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) researchers https://www.repicture.com/project/creating-glass-from-chicken-manure
Abstract Gallina Glass was designed to utilize chicken manure in order to reduce the environmental impact of the Pennsylvania poultry industry. Using a combination of sodium borate (Borax) and dehydrated chicken manure, the team created glass beads using a Bunsen burner.[1] In collaboration with Ursinus College, larger glass pieces were also made in a glass furnace.[1] Both the beads and larger pieces were demonstrated to be strong enough to bend a steel plate during stress testing.[1] It was discovered that adding chicken manure to the batch mixture makes the glass stronger! Additionally, the larger pieces were made into glass jewelry with the intent to explore the production of marketable products.[1]
  • Werle, B. (2020). Creating Glass from Chicken Manure | RePicture [Career advice for science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) careers]. RePicture. https://www.repicture.com/project/creating-glass-from-chicken-manure
  • Werley, B., Pauley, E., Zepiora, X., Clark, S., & Manbeck, J. (2019). Fabrication of organically-based glass as a solution for Pennsylvania poultry waste crisis (Gallina Glass). Unpublished manuscript.
  • Werley, B., Pauley, E., Zepiora, X., Clark, S., & Manbeck, J. (Presenters). (2019, May 10). Fabrication of organically-based glass as a solution for Pennsylvania poultry waste crisis. Lecture presented at 2019 Pennsylvania Governor
Cheers,
Leo
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Why are there still people in the 21st century who in some countries do not accept the prevailing knowledge confirmed by scientific research who believe that the Earth is not round is only flat or that the Earth is the center of the Solar System, not the Sun or negating the process the evolution of the origin of various life forms on Earth, etc.?
In my opinion, it is not a question of faith but a lack of knowledge confirmed by scientific research. It is strange, however, that in the 21st century, in the face of the facts widely confirmed in the media, confirmed in many aspects scientifically, on the basis of experiments carried out, space expeditions are still people who ignore this widely available knowledge in the media and create their unjustified theories.
No wonder that even a few centuries ago and before, i.e. in a situation of widespread illiteracy and lack of universal access to knowledge and information, in the absence of media it was easy to maintain, promote anachronistic and illogical theories to implement a specific information policy for the needs of maintaining absolute power, which one of the attributes was access to knowledge and information deliberately restricted for a large part of society, and in some epochs, such as, for example, in the Middle Ages, deliberately limited research possibilities and deliberately placed barriers to the development of science. In such realities, totalitarianisms are easily formed and it is easy to carry out indoctrination of the society by propagating even illogical, unjustified ideologies that are not supported by any scientific research.
Therefore, nowadays access to knowledge and results of scientific research should be universal and unlimited. A large positive role in this matter is played by the Internet and Internet portals such as the Research Gate portal.
Do you agree with my opinion on this matter?
In view of the above, I am asking you the following question:
How has the significance of scientific knowledge changed over the centuries from the point of view of the present day?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Best wishes
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A very interesting topic, thank you. In my opinion, all scientific discoveries established during the previous centuries such as mathematical equations serves as the basis for the actual mathematical approach. Another example would be the geographical works of antiquity which have served both as a scientific model and also as a corpus of data which could be used for modern purposes.
Best wishes,
Sabri
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The Renaissance by the end of Middle Ages in Europe was so important great event that not only emancipation of humanity, but also speeding up the developing of science and technology. At same time to emancipate humanity from religion, I self believe of God indeed exists, and also advanced science and technology. Now the problem is what were the main factors to develop science and technology since the Renaissance?
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نعم حققت طفرة نوعية وكمية في الدراسات الإنسانية والعلمية
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I would like to start a paper on the relation and development of early Christian symbolism and authority within the Early Church. I'm looking in particular for a recent index of symbols. Could you recommend me any? Thank you!
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Perhaps you could consult Ildar Garipzanov’s Graphic Signs of Authority in Late Antiquity an the Early Middle Ages (OUP 2018), https://global.oup.com/academic/product/graphic-signs-of-authority-in-late-antiquity-and-the-early-middle-ages-300-900-9780198815013?cc=cz&lang=en&
And also the volume edited by the same author and alii published by Brepols:
Also invaluable and classic is the Lexikon der christlichen Ikonographie in 8 volumes published by Herder:
Lexikon der christlichen Ikonographie. Hrsg. von Engelbert Kirschbaum (Bände 1–4) und Wolfgang Braunfels (Bände 5–8). 8 Bände. Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau u. a. 1968–1976, ISBN 3-451-22568-9.
Of interest could be also:
Diefenbach, Steffen
Römische Erinnerungsräume
Heiligenmemoria und kollektive Identitäten im Rom des 3. bis 5. Jahrhunderts n. Chr. (De Gruyter 2007)
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From former researches, I knew Majorcan Jews dealt with gold from Sudan and that a Jewish community was living in the desert (they were mentioned in the Cresques map, appearing as a coma on the desert highway). From my Balearic island of Formentera, I could not go on further. But, promoting my historical work about Algiers on Algerian History Forums, this amazing Latin 1447 letter popped up, conserved in La Genizah’s archives, the great synagogue from El Cairo, because it contains the name of God in Hebrew (la Genizah’s archives collects all the texts that mention the name of God in Hebrew). It’s Antonio Malfante, Genovese merchant in Majorca in 1447, on the track of Majorcan Jews, looking for the lost Jewish tribes in Touat desert. Can any Latinist help me to translate the letter? Touat-en.docx is an article I wrote for Diario de Mallorca but wasn’t published.
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touat-en is a 4 pages text but if you have time, I'll be very pleased to read your review.
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In the Early Middle Ages (the period from 6th to 12th century) animals accompanied human societies. Birds started every day with a choir of their songs, big mammals were hunted (or bred) for meat and skins, and dogs were kept for protection. Several animal species held important roles during the various pre-Christian rituals, and after the conversion some of them become symbols linked to Christian religion.
Recently, during excavations on archaeological sites in Europe, numerous bones of inter alia mammals and birds have been discovered in various contexts. They were found on settlements or on the beds of lakes (or rivers). Moreover, their bones have also been discovered in various inhumation and cremation graves of men, women and children. After Christianisation, these creatures were no longer present in the graves, but their depictions appeared in ornamentations on grave monuments (e.g. hogbacks or shrines).
The variety of animals, as well as fantastic beasts or fauna, were depicted in simplistic or more detailed way on numerous artefacts. They were part of the complex pre-Christian ornamentation on weaponry, jewellery and Christian art (e.g. illuminated manuscripts, liturgical paraphernalia, architectonic details).
This session will explore different aspects of human-animal relations in Europe in the Early Middle Ages. Its aim is to discuss the roles of animals in pre-Christian and Christianised societies (e.g. Anglo-Saxon, Vendel Period, Viking Age or Western Slavic societies) from interdisciplinary angles. The meaning of various fauna in farming, craftsmanship, trade and rituals will be taken into account.
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Chris De Vos Of course. Thus, we can underline the link between astronomy, astrology and divine understanding: even if astrology had been seen as an esotheric knowledge for many centuries, we can’t ignore that the contemplation of the stars - and of the sky as a whole- defined the will to reach a better comprehension of God. Since early antiquity, we can see how this attitude was shared in the Jewish tradition, in particular during the first six centuries BCE. I do think that this aspect became important also in almost all the Western civilisation, especially in its theological dimension.
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I have read many books and articles which consider the XIIth century a moment of great changes in the culture of Middle Ages, a moment where the writings and manuscripts become more used and important. The so-far oral predominance has been increasingly reduced towards the so-called written culture. Do you agree? Does you research is any how related to this topic?
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Martha's comments encapsulate to me the definition of "written culture", we have the use of written law codes, charters and commercial documents, as well as Church material, 'secular' histories and even fiction being written down, this suggests that the organs of society had embraced the written word to the extent of primarily functioning through it, this to me is more important to define a "written culture" than is worrying about the % of literacy in that society, in this respect the Medieval West stands comparison with other undeniably "written culture(s)" such as Classical Athens, Imperial Rome or Pharoanic Egypt
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These sources can be St. Bernard himself and/or any individuals that have ties/ relationships with the Knights Templars. The time period must be 1100-1200.
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Tammy, you may find this book useful:
St. Bernard of Clairvaux : the story of his life as recorded in the Vita prima Bernardi by certain of his contemporaries, William of St. Thierry...[et al.] / a first translation into English by Geoffrey Webb and Adrian Walker.
Other Entries:William, of Saint-Thierry, Abbot of Saint-Thierry, approximately 1085-1148?
Webb, Geoffrey.
Walker, Adrian.
Published:London : A. R. Mowbray, [1960]
Description:130p : port ; 19cm.
Subjects:Bernard, of Clairvaux, Saint, 1090 or 1091-1153.
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Searching for articles that include Slavic cremation burial rite in Croatia. Also, it will be fine having something similar, even though my paper should include territory of Croatia.
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Siniša hvala Vam! Upravo ono što mi treba. Pregledaću i citiranu literaturu.
Dear Maria, I am interested in Middle Age (7th century and onwards). But my work should include Slavic cremations on the territory of Croatia. It is okay having similar papers so I can do comparison. Sinisa found what I need. I am familiar with Mesolithic cremation at Vlasac, but that period is not for my paper.
Thank you!
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religious groups, churches, monks...
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Dear Yusuf Polat:  By your question, religious structure of Europe in (the) Middle Ages (in the 11th to 12th century), we refer to "secular" and "monastic" buildings, including churches and domestic structures.    
By "secular," we mean such buildings as cathedrals, where bishops and archbishops had their seat, the "cathedra" from which the expression "cathedral" derives, as the head churches of dioceses, and parish churches for the care of parishoners operating within a diocese under the ecclesiastic jurisdiction of a bishop.
As for the "monastic" buildings, they consist of the monastic church as the center, surrounded by both official and domestic structures, such as the chapter house, dormitory, refectory (dining room), lavatory, and buildings necessary for self-sustaining monastic life, including kitchen, mills, baking house, brewing house, etc.  The chapter house, refectory, dormitory and lavatory are all clustered around a cloister, a square or rectangular open area defined by roofed passages on all four sides.  
The Western medieval monastic settings are ultimately based upon the Rules of St. Benedict.
Here, I offer a short list of basic references to the ecclesiastic buildings of the Romanesque (10th,11th to mid-12th century) and Gothic (from the mid-12th century to up to the early 16th century).  [Note that both the beginning and ending of the Romanesque and Gothic periods depend of where we are in Western Europe.  But the dividing line between the two periods can be set at around the middle of the 12th century, when Abbot Suger of St. Denis Abbey just north of Paris, the mausoleum of the French kings, began to replace its Carolingian (9th century) abbey church, starting from the west end complex between 1137 and 1140, and then working on the eastern end, the crypt, choir and ambulatory, between 1140 and 1144.  (Abbot Suger had planned to complete the middle of the middle section of his abbey church, the nave, but he died in 1151 and we have to wait until the mid-13th century, when the rebuilding of the nave together with the remodeling of the choir took place in the latest Rayonnant Style Gothic.]
1. For the Romanesque period architecture:
• Conant, Kenneth J. Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture, 800-1200. 4th ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992 (in the Pelican History of Art Series).
• Kuback, Hans E. Romanesque Architecture. New York: Electa/Rizzoli, 1988. 
• Stalley, Roger, Early Medieval Architecture, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999 (in the Oxford History of Art series).
2. For the Gothic period architecture:
• Bony, Jean. French Gothic Architecture of the 12th and 13th Centuries. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.
• Branner, Robert. Gothic Architecture. New York: Braziller, 1961.
• Coldstream, Nicola, Medieval Architecture, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002 (in the Oxford History of Art series).
• Frankl, Paul. Gothic Architecture. Revised by Paul Crossley. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001. (In the Pelican History of Art Series).
• Grodecki, Louis. Gothic Architecture. New York: Electa/Rizzoli, 1985. 
• Scott, Robert E. The Gothic Enterprise: A Guide to Understanding the Medieval Cathedral. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003.
• Simson, Otto von. The Gothic Cathedral: Origins of Gothic Architecture and the Medieval Concept of Order. 3rd ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.
• Wills, Robert. Architectural History of Some English Cathedrals, 2 vols. 1846. Reprint, Chicheley: Minet, 1972.
• Wilson, Christopher. The Gothic Cathedral: The Architecture of the Great Church, 1130-1530. 1st paperback ed., with revisions. London: Thames and Hudson, 1992.
3. For some specific buildings and concepts:
• Panofsky, Erwin. Abbot Suger on the Abbey Church of St.-Denis and Its Art Treasures. 2nd ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979.
• ———. Gothic Architecture and Scholasticism. 1951. Reprint, New York: New American Library, 1985.
• Tatton-Brown, Tim and John Crook. Salisbury Cathedral: The Making of a Medieval Masterpiece. London: Scala Publishers, 2009.
• Webb, Geoffrey. Architecture in Britain: The Middle Ages. 2nd ed. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1965. (In the Pelican History of Art Series).
4. On construction technologies:
• Fitchen, John. The Construction of Gothic Cathedrals: A Study of Medieval Vault Erection. Phoenix paperback edition, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.
• Gimpel, Jean. The Cathedral Builders. New York: Grove, 1961.
Mark, Robert. Experiments in Gothic Structure. 1st paperback ed. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1984. 
5. Select articles:
a) On Romanesque sources of Gothic architecture, and the concept of the Gothic:
• Branner, Robert. “Gothic Architecture 1160-1180 and its Romanesque Sources,” in Studies in Western Art: Acts of the Twentieth International Congress of the History of Art, vol. 1, Romanesque and Gothic Art., ed. Ida E. Rubin, 92-104. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963.
• Frankl, Paul. The Gothic: Literay Sources and Interpretations through Eight Centuries, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1960.
b) On Notre Dame Cathedral of Paris, considered as the first major 12th-century building which benefitted from the use of flying buttresses around 1175:
• Bruzellius, Caroline A. “The Construction of Notre-Dame in Paris,” Art Bulletin 69/4 (1987): 540-569.
• Clark, William W. “The First Flying Buttresses: A New Reconstruction of the Nave of Notre-Dame de Paris,” Art Bulletin 66/1 (1984): 47-65.
• Murray, Stephen. “Notre-Dame of Paris and the Anticipation of Gothic,” Art Bulletin 80/2 (1998): 229-253.
c) On Romanesque and Gothic in England:
• Bony, Jean. “French Influences on the Origins of English Gothic Architecture,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institute 12 (1949): 1-15.
• Crook, John and Yoshio Kusaba. “The Transepts of Winchester Cathedral: Archaeological Evidence, Problems of Design, and Sequence of Construction,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 50/3 (1991): 293-310.
• Crook, John and Yoshio Kusaba. “The Perpendicular Remodelling of the Nave: Problems and Interpretation,” in ed. John Crook, Winchester Cathedral: Nine Hundred Years, 1093-1993, 215-230, Chichester: Phillimore, 1993.
• Kusaba, Yoshio. “Some Observations on the Early Flying Buttress and Choir Triforium of Canterbury Cathedral,” Gesta 28/2 (1989): 175-189.
5. I also offer for your interest a two-part article on understanding how Gothic buildings work from the structural points of view, using the pointed arches, rib vaults and flying buttresses.  This was written in 2010 for non-specialists in the interest group on medieval Salisbury in England, the Sarum Seminar, which is also associated with Stanford University in Palo Alto, California.
If you have any questions, please let me know.  
Yoshio Kusaba, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, History of Art
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Hi Everyone
I,m looking for analogies to this bronze cauldron. I think it is from middle ages or from beginning of modern period.
Especially I'm looking an analogies from Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia.
Best Regards
Maciej Wawrzczak
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the answer from Nikolaus Boroffka is exxcellent. For bibliography, if you cannot buy and order my last book, send me an email privatly and I could send you references for Europe...
for datation, it's very difficult to date this artifacts, because the morphology does not change really from 13th to 16th c. (in fact you can find similar later in 18th-19th c.)... and we lack well-dated archaeological contexts...
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The pictured cross slab is from Kilsharvan (Cille Sarbhán) near Duleek, Co. Meath, Ireland.  The site is associated with the abbey of Colp near Drogheda and had de Lacey patronage in the early medieval period.  The present church ruin is 13th century and reconfigured in the 17th century before being abandoned.
Kilsharvan (Cill Searbhain, or Cell Serbáin[1]), a townland in the barony of Lower Duleek in County Meath is well known locally for its graveyard and church (SMR ME027-009) and a number of local historical figures are interred therein. The graveyard is a stop on the local tourist route[2] (Beamore – Kilsharvan Trail, Meath County Council). However, the tourist literature makes no mention of the rough-hewn stone (Figure 1.) with a representation of three crosses.  Gothic Past[3],  holds no record for Kilsharvan and whereas the National Monuments’ Service[4] records the church and graveyard, no mention is made of the rough-hewn stone.  The dedication of the site to Searbhain (“The Bitter Tongued”) or Serbáin (St. Serban?) is unusual if either is taken as correct.  The former and the one most commonly linked to Kilsharvan is a epithet for St. John the Baptist who complained ‘bitterly’ of the moral rectitude of the Herodians in Jerusalem, this is the explanation the tourist and local history favours; on the other hand Monasticon Hibernicum[5] lists a Serbáin (‘male’) as the association to Kilsharvan, but no such saint appears in the martyrologies and it is not a name known in Irish.
Kilsharvan church is thought to date to around 1300, but, there is a reference to the tithes of Kilsharvan being allocated to the new Augustinian monastery at Colpe in 1182 when it was built by Hugh de Lacy (the Irish house of the Abbey of Llanthony Prima in Wales)(Mullen, 1988/9).  Hugh (born c. 1124 – 1185) came to Ireland with King Henry II and was granted the Kingdom of Meath (as Earl).  His son Hugh de Lacy (Earl of Ulster, born c.1179 - 1242) was a substantial benefactor of Llanthony Prima Abbey in Wales as was the de Lacy family in general.  It is not known if a church existed prior to 1300.  The importance of the tithe reference is that it places Kilsharvan, as a place at least, earlier on the ecclesiastical landscape.  The calvary stone might predate the current ruin, but what is its date?
[1] According to Monasticon Hibernicum (http://monasticon.celt.dias.ie)
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Thomas,
The original orientation of the stone was likely the prone position.  At some point in time, likely centuries ago, it was erected as it is today by a local farmer or early archaeologist, in the belief that it was originally a standing stone. There are numerous documented cases of this. During my studies of Neolithic and Bronze Age rock art panels in Ireland and the UK, I’ve come across several which have crosses on them, which were without question added millennia later. That said, I’m curious as to whether there are any other carvings on the stone, though given the fact that it’s been exposed to weathering, they may be impossible to see with the naked eye. You might want to contact the NMS, the Discovery Programme or UCD to see if someone might be interested in laser imaging the stone, as has been done with many of the panels of rock art within the Boyne. The reason for suggesting this, are the markings just above the crosses, which are either plow marks or possibly Ogham script, examples of which have been found on orthostats with Site 1 at Knowth, in both the Eastern & Western passages.  (see attached photo)
Approx. 1km southwest of the cemetery, are a number of enclosures and ringforts, though whether they have any association to the inscribed stone would be impossible to say.
ME027-085---- Ring-ditch
ME027-086---- Ringfort
ME027-100---- Ringfort
ME027-101---- Ringfort
ME027-069---- Enclosure
ME027-070---- Enclosure
ME027-071---- Enclosure
Ringforts are a ‘product’ of the Iron and Medieval Ages, so the crosses could date to the Early Christian Period. However, in a great many cases that classification is incorrect, as monuments are known to have been adopted millennia later and remodeled. As such, the monuments may date to the Neolithic or Bronze Ages.  Case in point are An Forradh and Tech Cormaic at the Hill of Tara, which are believed to date to the time of Cormáic mac Art (254 – 277 AD).  However, based on geophysical evidence and my interpretation of the motifs on L.2 within the Mound of the Hostages, those two monuments were originally multivallated ring barrows dating to the Neolithic.
Regards,
Sean
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I am doing research on the use of Schlagbaum (boom barrier) to enclose entrances to villages and towns in Western Europe in the Middle Ages and modern times. Does anyone know anything about this?
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Not straight away. But from own research experience you could contact the state archives in Bremen, Hamburg, Stade and Luebeck. They are very helpful and could not only provide primary sources but dozens of books and articles
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If there are any links to articles I would be grateful on them.
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Dear Siniša,
to get good overview you can find many articles related to settlement burials from Czech Republic and Slovakia in proceedings (Graves, burials and human remains in prehistoric and medieval settlements): Tichý, R. - Štulc, O.: Hroby, pohřby a lidské pozůstatky na pravěkých a středověkých sídlištích. Živá archeologie - Supplementum 3, Hradec Králové 2010.
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In both the Queen Mary Psalter (f.162) and the Luttrell Psalter (f.152v) there are bas de page images of men (one Seated and one standing) with one foot pressed against the opponents foot in what looks like a form of foot or toe wrestling.Is that what is happening in these images? Has anybody heard or seen  anymore about about this kind of thing in Medieval life?
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"This feat tests a man’s stamina and balance. Clasp hands under your right knee and raise it up. Place your toes against your opponent’s toes. Push with your toes and try to force your opponent to lose his balance. First person to unclasp their hands loses."
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I am looking for information on the chapels/chantries housed in the Church of Our Lady of Calais [Église Notre-Dame de Calais] and the parish Church of St. Nicholas during the fourteenth century. I have been unable to find any sources for this information, and am rather at my wits end with how to go about further efforts. Any help at all would be greatly appreciated.
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Dear Benjamin,
I'm afraid you will find the main informations in France.
Notre Dame de Calais is protected as an historical monument :
From this website, you can contact people for more informations.
Inrap and other archaeologists (in the 60's or the 70's) made some survey, maybe you can ask informations in our Service régional de l'Archéologie
and ask for a login to consult INRAP reports :
(please contact the archaeologist. before using the datas)
And maybe you can find informations here :
Costenoble 1963
Costenoble C., « Histoire de la paroisse Notre-Dame à Calais », Bulletin historique et artistique du Calaisis, 15, pp. 15‑27.
Costenoble 1967
Costenoble C., « Histoire de Notre-Dame de Calais », Bulletin historique et artistique du Calaisis, 28/35, pp. 214‑224.
Rodière 1931
Rodière R., « Statues de l’église Notre-Dame de Calais », Bulletin de la Commission Départementale des Monuments Historiques du Pas-de-Calais, 6, pp. 137‑139.
Verrier 1961
Verrier J., « L’église Notre-Dame à Calais », Congrès archéologique de France, 119, pp. 213‑223.
In this university report, you can find some interesting layouts and an historical analysis :
Buissard 1983
Buissard M., La construction d’une paroissiale pendant l’occupation anglaise. Notre Dame de Calais des origines à 1558, Mémoire de Maîtrise, s.l. : Université Lille 3.
You can consult this document in the Georges Lefebvre library in Lille 3 university.
To find some pictures of Notre Dame (and maybe books or articles)
and
The archives municipales of Calais and the archives departementales du Pas-de-Calais may have some interresting documents for you.
I'm sorry, I don't have any information about Saint-Nicolas.
Sincerely yours,
Christine
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A small lutheran community coming from Germany exists in Lyon from the 16 century. This group owned a church, settled in Geneva from 1707.It was mostly composed of traders who went to Geneva four times a year for the holy communion. But, from 1770 onward, when the Calvinists from Lyons got their priest, the Lutherans went more and more to that church, letting down Geneva. For about 75 years, the Lutherans disappeared from Lyons. At the turn of the eighteen and nineteen centuries, the community spent her life in the shade of the Calvinist church. Between 1800 and 1850, the immigration movement of swiss, germans and Alsatians was quickening. In 1851, after multiples fruitless tries during the last fifty years, the Lutheran reverend Georges Mayer create an evangelic german church which is quickly linked with the Augsburg Confession. The german community managed the church for nearly 30 years until the arrival of the first French vicar in Lyons .For another 30 years, the relations were stormies between the two communities. The first world war marked the death of the german parish. The French church survived with difficulties during the twenties and thirties. The “renaissance” was due to two extraordinary personalities: André Desbaumes and Henry Bruston The Lutheran church became an inescapable part of the Lyons’s oecumenism and opened itself to the world.2007 marked the beginning of the merger between the Calvinist and Lutheran churches.
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Dear Stephen,
Thanks for your answer.
I wish you a happy new year 2015
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I'm interested in (medieval) cases where burials with people who had leprosy were not isolated, but were included in the settlement's graveyard, thus perhaps showing some sort of care for the sick etc.
There's a case in Croatia where 4 leper burials were found in a single graveyard of all together 112 burials. The leper burials were obviously not isolated, the artifacts found in the graves didn't differ from other graves and there were even two dual burials (sick female + healthy male).
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Thank you Steven, I found a newspaper article about the woman but no relevant publication. I'll keep looking!
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See above
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Christian Krötzl in the University of Tampere has made his dissertation concerning to pilgrimage and traveliing during Middle Age. Christian.Krotzl@uta.fi
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I wonder if some legal (both: Church and civil) regulations were more important than social and economical processes?
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I couldn't say about the time you are asking, but for the early middle ages, and especially carolingian times, we have some episcopal estatutes that order the establishment of parish schools (you can download my articles about schooling in the early middle ages, they are however in Spanish). Apart from that, for mere practical reasons, parish priests needed to offer some sort of education to local boys, even if just to ensure the continuity of the religious services. Besides, I must remember you that one of the spiritual works of mercy is precisely "instruct the ignorant".
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The grant of the dukedom of Guienne to Gaunt was specifically "for life", yet C.Ch.R. iv. 318, dated 16 February, 1390, provided by charter the continuance for his heirs of the liberties granted to him personally. Does this mean that, in addition to the seizure of the Lancastrian estates, Richard II was also re-seizing the dukedom of Aquitaine in his ill-fated move to seize Gaunt's estates after the magnate's death? Or had the dukedom reverted to the crown upon the duke's death?
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Of course, in the end, you're right— any theoretical ideas of the powers of the royal person are overshadowed by the realities of what happened. But the theoretical aspect of what "ought" to have happened may lead to some interesting revelations. Thanks very much for all your help!
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Metamorphoses book 13 and 14
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I would look at book XV of Pierre Bersuire's (Petrus Berchorius's) Reductorium Morale, otherwise known as the Ovidius Moralizatus. Though the encyclopaedic work was written in the middle of the 14th century, it was quite popular and widely read throughout the 15th century, especially book XV dealing with the moralizations of the Metamorphoses. Engels prepared a typed edition in 1962 which is fairly widely available, and Glaucus appears on p. 170.
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Specifically, the routes, origins, and destinations. And who the merchants were
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Both of Gavin Menzies books are considered to be fictitious by most historians of the period.
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I'm interested in any data on this subject, be it documental or archaeological. What I'm looking for: steel or steel products import; mercenaries of unknown (perhaps 'savage', 'heathen' or similar) origin.
Point of departure: an oddly large number of King Stephen's coins in Estonian hoards of the period; development of iron production in the same region as the hoards in the 11th century.
Thanks!
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Appena troverò notizie invierò materiale.