# Microwave Imaging – Scientific method

Explore publications, projects, and techniques in Microwave Imaging, and find questions and answers from Microwave Imaging experts.
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Question
How to calculate normal components of the propagation constant
Thank you all for your answers, I have attached here a 4-page IEEE paper, in the second page the author defined kiz as the normal component of the propagation constant. I have highlighted the sentence with a yellow color. I do not know how the authors calculate it. Please, your help is very necessary!
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Different between voxel model vs homogeneus model?
good info tq
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how can i design a 3D antenna array for microwave imaging in HFSS to calculate all radiation pattern
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I need some useful references to parallelize my FDTD Codes. I'm currently working on imaging and scattering analysis of random rough surfaces using numerical methods (FDTD, MoM and etc). In most 3D problems (with large dimensions) there are some restrictions related to memory and CPU time. As a result we need to use fast methods or to parallelize our conventional codes. please give me some simple,fast and useful references which i can utilize it to parallelize my codes. I'm beginner in parallel processing and need help.
Thank you all... specially Mr. Omar Bouattane Because of the parallel solvers. I went to the " https://sourceforge.net/directory/?q=fdtd " and downloaded the parallel FDTD solver. Now I should learn how to use them... Is there any references to tutor me how to use such solvers? are they easy to use?
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If the antenna designed has UWB then after immersing in coupling medium will its bandwidth upgrade or degrade?
The coupling medium does not enhance the bandwidth of the antenna. The coupling mechanism shall certainly have reactive elements even though negligible but finite values. It acts as a filter and therefore the overall bandwidth will become narrower.
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In the domain of MIMO RADAR, a mathematical development can be achieved to show that a MIMO setup can be replaced by an equivalent SIMO virtual array. It's a great way to optimize the real antennas position, to get a large equivalent aperture with no spatial redundancy and a satisfying spatial sampling. However, this development seems to be valid only for a far field approximation. Examples : Presentation of Dan Bliss from the MIT: http://www.ll.mit.edu/asap/asap_06/pdf/Presentations/02_Bliss_P.pdf Thesis of Xiaodong Zhuge from Delft  (p.61):... more
sorry I do not have the expertise to answer this question.
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I am trying to find some basic ones, to help me understand the mechanism behind it!
There is review on Microwave synthesis & you can  find out from google search on internet. You can search
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Classification based on spectral signatures or apriori probabilities of an area with remote sensing imagery of 50m resolution or better vs using texture as one of the support information. How significant is the change in classification accuracy observed?
Will depend on the features of interest and your classification system, but the use of texture to improve classification accuracy is well established in the RS lit.
Zongjie Wang
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Article
Gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel is a promising bioink for biofabrication applications due to its cost-effectiveness, ease of synthesis and biocompatibility to allow cell adhesion. However, the GelMA synthesized from a widely used porcine skin gelatin has the thermal gelation problem at room temperature. Here, we present thermally stable GelMA hydrogels at room temperature while maintaining the mechanical and biological properties comparable to porcine GelMA. The novel GelMA hydrogels were synthesized from fish skin and cold soluble gelatin. We systematically characterized the...
Kai Ren
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Article
A shadow projection approach for near-field microwave imaging is developed to distinguish the size and shape of objects embedded in layered media. An ordinary microwave image may only present a small portion of the front surface of an object due to the lensing effect of refraction at the boundary between two adjacent layers with a high dielectric contrast. Therefore, instead of looking at the primary image, the projection onto the interface behind the object is investigated to better discern the object's true size and shape. A diffraction tomographic algorithm is modified to accentuate the...
Project
Goal: Estimation of ET during cloudy conditions when optical date will not be of any use is aimed through this project. Optical and microwave Vegetation indices and ANN will be used for this purpose and will be demonstrated over Carvery basin, India.
Shuiqing Li
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Article
Altimeter radar backscatter intensity, in terms of the normalized radar cross section (NRCS), is known to be modulated by surface wind forcing and the state of wind-sea development. Based on a data set of collocated altimeters (including Topex/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2) and in situ measurements, different responses to various wind speeds and wave ages (i.e. the state of wind-sea development) were illustrated for altimeter dual-frequency NRCSs (Ku-band at 13.6 Hz and C band at 5.4 Hz), which can facilitate the retrieval of wind speed and wave age parameters. A statistical parametric...
Project
Goal: Developing a flexible substrate for wearable antenna
Igor Bisio
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Goal: Study of electromagnetic interaction of different geospheres and nonlocal correlations of the natural large-scale random dissipative processes; investigation of time-reversal component of these correlations and their forecasting applications.
Andreas Pedross-Engel
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Emerging metasurface antenna technology enables flexible and low cost massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) millimeter-wave (mmW) imaging for applications such as personnel screening, weapon detection, reconnaissance, and remote sensing. This work proposes an orthogonal coded active illumination (OCAI) approach which utilizes simultaneous, mutually orthogonal coded transmit signals to illuminate the scene being imaged. It is shown that OCAI is robust to code amplitude and code phase imbalance introduced by imperfect transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) hardware, while also mitigating...
Project
Goal: Microwave Imaging of Breast cancer.
Md. Naimur Rahman
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Article
A resonator based metamaterial sensor to detect unknown materials is proposed in this article. The metamaterial structure consists of a resonator, which is surrounded by a partial ground frame and excited by a microstrip feeding transmission line. Having a geometric size of 30 × 30 mm², the metamaterial is printed on Rogers RO3010 (tm) substrate with the relative permittivity of 10.2. Numbers of unit cells are needed for traditional metamaterial design, whereas the proposed metamaterial structure has only one cell, which can achieve the metamaterial properties. The aim of the study is to...
Project
Goal: The objective of this study is to create numerical models for sterilization process by using microwave oven and figure out appropriate conditions for processing various liquid enteral nutrition formulas to ensure safety while maintain its nutritional quality.
M. Tarikul Islam
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Article
A new efficient, comprehensive, and compact breast phantom measurement scheme with microstrip patch antenna is presented. The radiating element of the antenna is modified by cutting slots in both patch and ground plane for enhancing the electrical length and achieving omnidirectional radiation pattern with high gain. This methodology increases the operating frequency and as well as gain and efficiency without affecting the dimension of the antenna. The overall dimension of the antenna is 23 mm × 21 mm. The fractional bandwidth of the antenna is near about 117% (3.1–12 GHz) for −10 dB...
Project
Goal: Permittivity extraction of unknown dielectric and liquid solvents using different imaging techniques and antennas designed for the application. One-dimesnional and two-dimensional imagng to reconstruct the reflectivity images.
Jinzu Ji
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Jürgen Sachs
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Article
Wideband microwave imaging is of interest wherever optical opaque scenarios need to be analyzed, as these waves can penetrate biological tissues, many building materials, or industrial materials. One of the challenges of microwave imaging is the computation of the image from the measurement data because of the need to solve extensive inverse scattering problems due to the sometimes complicated wave propagation. The inversion problem simplifies if only spatially limited objects—point objects, in the simplest case—with temporally variable scattering properties are of interest. Differential...
Md. Naimur Rahman
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Article
This paper deals with the microwave measurement system to measure salt and sugar concentration in water using microstrip technology based on dielectric properties of the solution. The measurement system includes a microstrip patch antenna which is made of a S‐shaped resonator‐based ring patch. The antenna is printed on Rogers RT/duroid 5880 substrate with a thickness of 1.57 mm. The substrate has a relative permittivity of 2.2 and a dielectric constant of 0.0009. The antenna has a compact physical size of 24 × 18 mm. Being used as a sensor the microstrip antenna measure the salt and sugar...
Bo Zhang
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Hossein Aghababaee
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Article
This paper deals with the compensation of phase miscalibration in the general context of tomographic synthetic aperture radar image focusing. Phase errors are typically independent of one acquisition to the other, thus leading to a spreading and defocusing in the multidimensional (3-D, 4-D, and 5-D) imaging space. Coping with this problem in presence of volumetric scattering is generally a complex issue. In this paper, we consider the approach for phase calibration characterized by the advantage, with respect to classical phase calibration algorithms, of not requiring either the...
Sherif Sayed Ahmed
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Book
Microwave imagers featuring a fully electronic scanning are highly demanded in security, industrial, and medical applications. Planar multistatic arrays operating at close ranges offer exceptional image resolution and illumination coverage compared to conventional far-field imaging. Novel solutions for synthesizing multistatic arrays for close range imaging with a scalable topology are introduced in this work along with detailed experimental verifications in the millimeter-wave range. Consequently, an electronic microwave imager based on modern digital-beamforming techniques has been...
Alessandra La Gioia
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Kai Ren
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Project
Goal: Design and demonstrate a novel real-time 3D microwave imaging system for planar media which can nondestructively investigate cracks, voids, erosion and embedded objects inside realistic stratified environments, such as buildings, pavement, walls, bridges, to avoid catastrophes.
Ozlem Ozgun
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Article
A coordinate transformation based finite element method (called CT‐FEM) is presented for detecting contours of breast cancer tissues in the context of microwave imaging. The geometry and location of a single or multiple cancerous tumors inside a breast tissue are identified by constructing an inverse problem based on the genetic optimization algorithm. The expensive forward solution phase during repeated cost function evaluations is accelerated by placing a transformation medium inside the finite element mesh. This allows using a uniform or rectangular mesh even when irregular tumor...
Zhonghan Wang
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Article
In this paper, we propose a new technique to generate a range-angle dependent transmit beampattern by introducing a nonlinear frequency modulation scheme based on arctangent function in the frequency diverse array system. The propagation process of the transmitted signals is usually neglected in most of the existing range-angle dependent transmit beampattern synthesis schemes. More specifically, the time variable is considered to be a constant value or defined from 0 to T, where T is the pulse duration for pulsed FDA. As a result, such schemes cease to focus the signal power at a desired...
Project
Goal: Designing an UWB antenna for early breast cancer detection
Rachita Lahri
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Article
Purpose: Microwave imaging/sensing is an emerging technology that shows potential for healthcare diagnostic applications, particularly in breast cancer detection. This technique estimates the anatomically variant dielectric properties of the breast. Similar to other imaging modalities, nanoparticles (NPs) could potentially be utilised as contrast agents to increase contrast between healthy and malignant tissues. Methods: In this study, aqueous suspensions of NPs such as surface modified single walled carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide, and silicon dioxide are studied to assess their potential...
Xiaoli Liu
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This paper is concerned with the inverse scattering problem of time-harmonic elastic waves by an unbounded rigid rough surface. A direct imaging method is developed to reconstruct the unbounded rough surface from the elastic scattered near-field Cauchy data generated by point sources. A Helmholtz-Kirchhoff-type identity is derived and then used to provide a theoretical analysis of the direct imaging algorithm. Numerical experiments are presented to show that the direct imaging algorithm is fast, accurate and robust with respect to noise in the data.
Daniel Tajik
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Two real-time reconstruction algorithms, quantitative microwave holography and scattered-power mapping, have been shown to be successful in the imaging of compressed tissue of relatively small thicknesses such as 1 cm and 2 cm. In both cases, planar data acquisition of frequency-swept transmission coefficients has been employed. Despite the fact that these algorithms are based on a linear forward model of scattering, they have been capable of providing quantitative estimates of the tissue permittivity due to the experimentally derived kernel of the scattering integral. Here, we demonstrate...
Thomas Fromenteze
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Numerous prototypes of computational imaging systems have recently been presented in the microwave and millimeter-wave domains, enabling the simplification of associated active architectures through the use of radiating cavities and metasurfaces that can multiplex signals encoded in the physical layer. This paper presents a new reconstruction technique leveraging the sparsity of the signals in the time-domain and decomposition of the sensing matrix by support detection, the size of the computational inverse problem being reduced significantly without compromising the image quality.
Linna Chai
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The matrix doubling (MD) model is a numerical solution to the radiative transfer equation. It can achieve better accuracy in simulating microwave signals from vegetated terrain by considering multiple-scattering effects. However, it is difficult to apply the MD model to retrieving work due to its high complexity. This letter presents a case study performed on corn to demonstrate a multiangular (5°-65°), multiband (1.4/6.925/10.65 GHz) microwave emission model considering multiple-scattering effects by parameterizing the MD model. The simulated emissivity differences between the theoretical...
Reza K Amineh
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Three-dimensional (3D) microwave and millimeter wave imaging techniques based on the holographic principles have been successfully employed in several applications such as security screening, body shape measurement for apparel industry, underground imaging, and wall imaging. The previously proposed 3D holographic imaging techniques require the acquisition of wideband data over rectangular of cylindrical apertures. Requirement for wideband data imposes limitations on the hardware (in particular at very high or very low frequencies). It may also lead to errors in the produced images if the...
İbrahim Ölçer
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Conference Paper
Distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) based on phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) is being widely used in several applications and attracting significant research interest. The main challenge in coherent detection-based phase-sensitive OTDR systems is the speckle-like background noise which impacts the detection performance and conventional techniques are not suitable for detecting weak vibrations under strong background noise. Recently, we proposed a temporal adaptive filtering (AMF) technique to reduce the background noise in phase-sensitive OTDR systems. The AMF...
Hui Shen
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Wave-ice interactions are important in high sea state conditions, when waves propagate from the open ocean into the marginal ice zone (MIZ) and the pack ice. In situ observations of waves and wave-ice interactions can be obtained at a small number of MIZ locations in costly and challenging experiments, whereas remote sensing using satellite RADARSAT-2 SAR (synthetic aperture radar) images can observe waves throughout the MIZ, in all weather conditions. We present a methodology to retrieve MIZ wave parameters from polarimetric SAR data. As an application, we describe the characteristics of...
Shilong Sun
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Article
Cross-correlated contrast source inversion (CC-CSI) is a nonlinear iterative inversion method that is proposed recently for solving the inverse scattering problems. In CC-CSI, a cross-correlated error is constructed and introduced to the cost functional, which improves the inversion ability when compared to the classical design of the cost functional by exploiting the mismatch between the data error and state error. In this paper, the multifrequency inversion for electromagnetic waves is considered and a multifrequency version of CC-CSI is proposed. Numerical and experimental inversion...
Declan O'Loughlin
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Conference Paper
Microwave imaging has seen an increasing amount of clinical trials in the last two years, including on-going and planned commercial development. The rapidly increasing number of studies with patient imaging is encouraging researchers to focus on the challenges of translating microwave imaging algorithms to clinical use. A large number of imaging algorithms have been proposed for radar-based imaging, however few detailed comparisons of these algorithms using realistic experimental or patient data have been published. This paper looks at two leading radar-based algorithms in experimental...
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A prototype of a bias-switched active sensor was developed and measured to establish the achievable dynamic range in a new generation of active arrays for microwave tissue imaging. The sensor integrates a printed slot antenna, a low-noise amplifier (LNA) and an active mixer in a single unit, which is sufficiently small to enable inter-sensor separation distance as small as 12 mm. The sensor’s input covers the bandwidth from 3 GHz to 7.5 GHz. Its output intermediate frequency (IF) is 30 MHz. The sensor is controlled by a simple bias-switching circuit, which switches ON and OFF the bias of...
A. Mase
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Significant advances in microwave and millimeter wave technology have enabled the development of a new generation of imaging diagnostics as a visualization tool in this frequency region. Millimeter-wave imaging diagnostic system is expected to be one of the most promising diagnostic methods that measure profiles and fluctuations of magnetically confined plasmas. It successfully measures the time evolutions of both radial and axial profiles of density and electron temperature and their fluctuation components in a tandem mirror plasma as well as tokamak plasmas. This paper presents the...
Sollip Kwon
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[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2016/5054912.].
Bo Zhang
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It is well known that the modulus of the far-field pattern (or phaseless far-field pattern) is invariant under translations of the scattering obstacle if only one plane wave is used as the incident field, so the shape but not the location of the obstacle can be recovered from the phaseless far-field data. In this paper, it is proved that the translation invariance property of the phaseless far-field pattern can be broken if superpositions of two plane waves are used as the incident fields for all wave numbers in a finite interval. Based on this, a recursive Newton-type iteration algorithm...
Y Marini
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We analysis the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) data to monitor the sea surface temperature (SST) of Indonesia waters for a decade of 2005-2014. The TMI SST data shows the seasonal and interannual SST in Indonesian waters. In general, the SST average was highest in March-May period with SST average was 29.4°C, and the lowest was in June – August period with the SST average was 28.5°C. The monthly SST average fluctuation of Indonesian waters for 10 years tends to increase. The lowest SST average of Indonesia occurred in August 2006 with the SST average...
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The use of solid cavities around electromagnetic sources has been recently reported as a mechanism to provide enhanced images at microwave frequencies. These cavities are used as measurement randomizers; and they compress the wave fields at the physical layer. As a result of this compression, the amount of information collected by the sensing array through the different excited modes inside the resonant cavity is increased when compared to that obtained by no-cavity approaches. In this work, a two-dimensional cavity, having multiple openings, is used to perform such a compression for...
Sid-Ahmed Boukabara
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Article
Traditionally, space-based microwave imagers have been used exclusively for providing total atmospheric water vapor along with hydrometeor and surface parameters, using a combination of window channels. These channels operate away from the strong water vapor absorption lines used for atmospheric moisture sounding. Nevertheless, they are sensitive to the vertical distribution of moisture in the atmosphere. This is due to the fact that the water vapor absorption continuum varies monotonically, and the wing effect of the strong absorption lines has a nonconstant effect, across the microwave...
Declan O'Loughlin
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Article
Objective: Microwave breast imaging has seen significant academic and commercial development in recent years, with four new operational microwave imaging systems used with patients since 2016. In this work, a comprehensive review of these clinical advances is presented, comparing patient populations and study outcomes. For the first time, the designs of operational microwave imaging systems are compared in detail. Methods: Firstly, the current understanding of dielectric properties of human breast tissues is reviewed; considering evidence from operational microwave imaging systems and from...
Shunjun Wei
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Article
Confocal Microwave Imaging (CMI) for the early detection of breast cancer has been under development for over two decades and is currently going through early-phase clinical evaluation. The image reconstruction algorithm is a key signal processing component of any CMI-based breast imaging system and impacts the efficacy of CMI in detecting breast cancer. Several image reconstruction algorithms for CMI have been developed since its inception. These image reconstruction algorithms have been previously evaluated and compared, using both numerical and physical breast models, and healthy...
Stephan Dill
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Conference Paper
For high-resolution active or passive remote sensing systems a main challenge is the availability of appropriate broad frequency ranges without or at least minor interference or jamming. The disturbing impact may occur in both directions, either the own system is interfering other systems, or the own system is degraded by signals from other sensors. High resolution for active or high sensitivity for passive MW and MMW remote sensing systems is mostly achieved by large system bandwidths of few to even several ten GHz depending on center frequency. At the lower MW region (< 30 GHz) such...
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A method for super-resolution Direction of Arrival (DoA) estimation of correlated signals using a circular array is presented. This is accomplished in two steps: 1) the directions of arrival and amplitudes of signals with angular spacing larger than the array beamwidth are detected using the Array Signal Segregation using an Iterative Approach (ASSIA) 1, and 2) signals with angular proximity smaller than the array beamwidth are separated using a novel Closely-spaced Nulls Synthesis Method (CNSM). It is demonstrated that the proposed ASSIA-CNSM is superior to the other super-resolution DoA...
Liang Li
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Bo Zhang
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Preprint
This paper is concerned with the inverse obstacle scattering problem with phaseless far-field data at a fixed frequency. The main difficulty of this problem is the so-called translation invariance property of the modulus of the far-field pattern or the phaseless far-field pattern generated by one plane wave as the incident field, which means that the location of the obstacle can not be recovered from such phaseless far-field data at a fixed frequency. It was recently proved in our previous work \cite{XZZ18} that the obstacle can be uniquely determined by the phaseless far-field patterns...
Giuseppe Di Massa
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Chapter
Near-field data are used as diagnostics tool to reconstruct the aperture field distribution of conformal array antennas and identify any defective element. The problem of inversion and regularization of the resulting matrix is addressed. A sampling method is proposed and successfully compared, in terms of computation time, with other existing approaches.
Xiaoxu Xu
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Preprint
This paper is concerned with uniqueness in inverse acoustic scattering with phaseless far-field data at a fixed frequency. In our previous work ({\em SIAM J. Appl. Math. \bf78} (2018), 1737-1753), by utilizing spectral properties of the far-field operator we proved for the first time that the obstacle and the index of refraction of an inhomogeneous medium can be uniquely determined by the phaseless far-field patterns generated by infinitely many sets of superpositions of two plane waves with different directions at a fixed frequency under the a priori assumption that the obstacle is known...
A. Raffo
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Chapter
Techniques for contactless detection of vibrations claim a wide range of applications in both civil as well as biomedical contexts. In this work, two Doppler radar signal processing solutions, respectively based on single-channel and quadrature receivers, are implemented and compared as alternative to standard sensors for contactless identification of vibrations. The detection ability at different target ranges is tested through numerical simulations.
Luca Brocca
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Article
Measuring precipitation intensity is not straightforward and over many areas, ground observations are lacking and satellite observations are used to fill this gap. The most common way of retrieving rainfall is by addressing the problem " top-down" by inverting the atmospheric signals reflected or radiated by atmospheric hydrometeors. However, most applications are interested in how much water reaches the ground, a problem that is notoriously difficult to solve from a " top-down" perspective. In this study, a novel " bottom-up" approach is proposed that, by doing " hydrology backwards" ,...
Antonio Costanzo
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Chapter
In this work, we propose a Visible Light Communication (VLC) system dynamically adapting, through a decision-making process based on a simple fuzzy-logic, the transmitting color selection to the external environmental conditions. Transmitted Signals are opportunistically treated through softwarization approaches by using basic hardware (i.e. Arduino boards and inexpensive LEDs in the transmitting stage) in order to implement an effective, end-to-end, adaptive communication system. In particular, we will show that, if a low environmental noise is added, the system keeps to be...
Andrea Francesco Morabito
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Article
In this article, we propose a method based on the aperture antennas theory to understand the limitations of orbital angular momentum (OAM) antennas in far-field links. Additional insight is also given by analyzing the properties of the operators relating source and farfield distributions for a given order of the vortex and emphasizing additional drawbacks. The degrees-of-freedom (DoF) of the fields associated with the different orders of the vortices are also discussed.
Richard Obermeier
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Article
It is well established in the compressive sensing (CS) literature that sensing matrices whose elements are drawn from independent random distributions exhibit enhanced reconstruction capabilities. In many CS applications, such as electromagnetic imaging, practical limitations on the measurement system prevent one from generating sensing matrices in this fashion. Although one can usually randomized the measurements to some degree, these sensing matrices do not achieve the same reconstruction performance as the truly randomized sensing matrices. In this paper, we present a novel method,...
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