Science method

# Microscopy - Science method

The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
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Publications related to Microscopy (10,000)
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Article
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Rapid autofocusing is essential for many microscopic imaging applications. Existing methods either require complicated hardware implementations or slow z-stack image acquisition. In this work, we develop a new approach to achieve fast autofocusing using the neuromorphic event sensing technology, which detects the sparse brightness changes asynchron...
Article
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Terahertz (THz) near-field microscopy retains the advantages of THz radiation and realizes sub-wavelength imaging, which enables applications in fundamental research and industrial fields. In most THz near-field microscopies, the sample surface must be approached by a THz detector or source, which restricts the sample choice. Here, a technique was...
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In the long history of permanent magnet research for more than 100 years, three-dimensional magnetic microscopy has been eagerly awaited to elucidate the origin of the magnetic hysteresis of permanent magnets. In this study, we succeeded in observing the three-dimensional magnetic domain structure of an advanced high-coercivity Nd-Fe-B-based perman...
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We present a method to directly visualise a statistical analysis of skyrmion defect alignment at grain boundaries in the skyrmion host $$\hbox {Cu}_2$$ Cu 2 OSeO 3 . Using Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, we collected large data sets with several hundreds of frames containing skyrmion lattices with grain boundaries in them. To address the...
Article
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Mapping grain orientation in crystalline solids is essential to investigate the relationships between local microstructure and crystallography and interpret materials properties. One of the main techniques used to perform these studies is electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Due to the limited measurement throughput, however, EBSD is not suitab...
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Here, we describe a fluorescent in situ hybridization protocol named Yn-situ, standing for Y-branched probe in situ hybridization, to detect RNAs from mice tissue sections. We provide steps for the synthesis and quantification of preamplifier probe using nickase. We also detail the preparation of tissue section, probe hybridization, signal developm...
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Here, we present a protocol to selectively downregulate GABAB receptor (GABABR) expression in astrocytes of mouse medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We first describe the procedure of surgeries and viral injections. We then detail genetic, histological, and functional characterizations of astrocytic GABABR ablation using RT-PCR, imaging, and behavior...
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The ultrafast pump-probe microscopy has shed new light on the complex dynamics of laser-induced explosive phase transformations and highlighted the importance of close integration of experimental, computational, and theoretical efforts.
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Water plays a vital role in biological metabolism and it would be essential to trace the water content non-invasively, such as leveraging the vibrational absorption peak of the O–H bond. However, due to the lack of an efficient laser source, it was challenging to image the water content in the deep tissue with micron-level spatial resolution. To ad...
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Accurate depiction of waves in temporal and spatial is essential to the investigation of interactions between physical objects and waves. Digital holography (DH) can perform quantitative analysis of wave–matter interactions. Full detector-bandwidth reconstruction can be realized based on in-line DH. But the overlapping of twin images strongly preve...
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There is a perceptible opportunity to utilize eucalypts in value-added wooden products with structural features for construction. But, tests to determine the wood properties require specific equipment and technical training. As alternative, the study utilized optical microscopy to measure some anatomical elements of 10 eucalypt varieties to estimat...
Article
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Environmental and human-friendly welding is the need of the hour. In this context, this study explores the application of the regulated metal deposition (RMD) technique for ASTM A387-Gr.11-Cl.2 steel plates. To examine the effect of metal-cored filler wire (MCFW), MEGAFIL 237 M was employed during regulated metal deposition (RMD) welding of 6 mm th...
Chapter
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Cancer cells are characterized by an altered metabolism as compared with normal cells, on the point of view cancer as a metabolic disease, detected firstly by Otto Warburg in 1924, known as Warburg effect. Aerobic glycolysis is the central metabolic event involved in the carcinogenesis, and mitochondria are the main component of this process. The m...
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Abstract The study of the diagnostic anatomical signs of the dried leaf and flower of A. eupatoria has been conducted. As a result, a cross section and an examination under a microscope allowed to identify the following elements: simple hairs on the peduncle of the flower, rhombic crystals in the leaf, gandular and branched, curly and forked hairs,...
Preprint
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Single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) enables the detailed visualization of nuclear pore complexes (NPC) in vitro with sub-20 nm resolution. However, it is challenging to translate the localized coordinates in SMLM images to NPC functions because different algorithms to cluster localizations as individual NPCs can be biased without ground...
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Quantum-optical coherence tomography (QOCT) is an optical sectioning modality based on the quantum interference of entangled photon pairs in the well-known Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer. Despite its promise, the technique is far from being competitive with current classical OCT devices due to the long required acquisition times, derived from the lo...
Preprint
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Quantum gas microscopy has developed into a powerful tool to explore strongly correlated quantum systems. However, discerning phases with topological or off-diagonal long range order requires the ability to extract these correlations from site-resolved measurements. Here, we show that a multi-scale complexity measure can pinpoint the transition to...
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Objective We determined the malaria prevalence and ascertained the degree of agreement among rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), urine malaria tests, and microscopy in malaria diagnosis of adults in Nigeria. Methods This was a cross-sectional study among 384 consenting patients recruited at a tertiary health facility in southwestern Nigeria. We used st...
Preprint
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Quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) is often based on recording an object-reference interference pattern and its further phase demodulation. We propose Pseudo Hilbert Phase Microscopy (PHPM) where we combine pseudo thermal light source illumination and Hilbert spiral transform phase demodulation to achieve hybrid hardware-software-driven noise robu...
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Aim: miRNAs have been shown to improve the restoration of craniofacial bone defects. This work aimed to enhance transfection efficiency and miR-200c-induced bone formation in alveolar bone defects via plasmid DNA encoding miR-200c delivery from CaCO3 nanoparticles. Materials & methods: The CaCO3/miR-200c delivery system was evaluated in vitro (micr...
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Image segmentation is a central topic in image processing and computer vision and a key issue in many applications, e.g., in medical imaging, microscopy, document analysis and remote sensing. According to the human perception, image segmentation is the process of dividing an image into non-overlapping regions. These regions, which may correspond, e...
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This study examined the improvement of microscopy segmentation intersection over union accuracy by transfer learning from a large dataset of microscopy images called MicroNet. Many neural network encoder architectures were trained on over 100,000 labeled microscopy images from 54 material classes. These pre-trained encoders were then embedded into...
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Inline inspection is becoming an essential tool for industrial high-quality production. Unfortunately, the desired acquisition speeds and needs for high-precision imaging are often at the limit of what is physically possible, such as a large field of view at a high spatial resolution. In this paper, a novel light-field and photometry system is pres...
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Intensity diffraction tomography (IDT) refers to a class of optical microscopy techniques for imaging the three-dimensional refractive index (RI) distribution of a sample from a set of two-dimensional intensity-only measurements. The reconstruction of artefact-free RI maps is a fundamental challenge in IDT due to the loss of phase information and t...
Preprint
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The quality of microscopy images often suffers from optical aberrations. These aberrations and their associated point spread functions have to be quantitatively estimated to restore aberrated images. The recent state-of-the-art method PhaseNet, based on a convolutional neural network, can quantify aberrations accurately but is limited to images of...
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The scientifically backed conclusion that pollution with particulate matter presents an important negative effect on human health is the driver of the present study. Not only are the results presented herein a completion, and to some small extent a confirmation, of a previous study, but these findings are also a confirmation of the need to further...
Chapter
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Reconstructing 3D objects from 2D images is both challenging for our brains and machine learning algorithms. To support this spatial reasoning task, contextual information about the overall shape of an object is critical. However, such information is not captured by established loss terms (e.g. Dice loss). We propose to complement geometrical shape...
Preprint
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We propose WS-DINO as a novel framework to use weak label information in learning phenotypic representations from high-content fluorescent images of cells. Our model is based on a knowledge distillation approach with a vision transformer backbone (DINO), and we use this as a benchmark model for our study. Using WS-DINO, we fine-tuned with weak labe...
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Liquid-liquid interfaces offer intriguing possibilities for nanomaterials growth. Here, fundamental interface-related mechanisms that control the growth behavior in these systems are studied for Pb halide formation at the interface between NaX + PbX2 (X = F, Cl, Br) and liquid Hg electrodes using in situ X-ray scattering and complementary electroch...
Technical Report
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For the first time this report has described the preparation of microtomic thin sections for the analysis of automotive paints using FT-IR Microspectroscopy
Article
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It is well known that the spatial distribution of the carbon‐binder domain (CBD) offers a large potential to further optimize lithium‐ion batteries. However, it is challenging to reconstruct the CBD from tomographic image data obtained by synchrotron tomography. In the present paper, we consider several approaches to segment 3D image data of two di...
Article
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Quantum entanglement has emerged as a great resource for spectroscopy and its importance in two-photon spectrum and microscopy has been demonstrated. Current studies focus on the two-photon absorption, whereas the Raman spectroscopy with quantum entanglement still remains elusive, with outstanding issues of temporal and spectral resolutions. Here w...
Preprint
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Single-molecule localisation microscopy produces data in the form of point-clouds. Here, we present a tool for assessing the similarity of two such point-clouds, which, unlike measures such as co-localisation, is insensitive to differences that are not preserved between data sets. The presented method can determine whether two point-clouds were gen...
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New stricter regulations on lead (Pb) content in brass for use in certain applications is driving the industry from traditional leaded brass towards Pb-free alloys. However, machining induced surface integrity for such Pb-free alloys and related corrosion resistance are largely unknown. Two Pb-free brass alloys, CuZn38As and CuZn21Si3P, approved fo...
Preprint
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Animals use information about gravity and other destabilizing forces to balance and navigate through their environment. Measuring how brains respond to these forces requires considerable technical knowledge and/or financial resources. We present a simple alternative: Tilt In Place Microscopy (TIPM). TIPM is a low-cost and non-invasive way to measur...
Article
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Large increases in synchrotron brightness have brought notable breakthroughs in measurement techniques that exploit transverse coherence, such as X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS), coherent diffraction imaging (CDI), diffraction microscopy, and ptychography [...]
Preprint
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Understanding brain structure and function often requires combining data across different modalities and scales to link microscale cellular structures to macroscale features of whole brain organisation. Here we introduce the BigMac dataset, a resource combining in vivo MRI, extensive postmortem MRI and multi-contrast microscopy for multimodal chara...
Article
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Kaolinite nanoscrolls (NScs) are halloysite-like nanotubular structures of great interest due to their ability to superimpose halloysite’s properties and applicability. Especially attractive is the ability of these NScs to serve as reaction vessels for the uptake and conversion of different chemical species. The synthesis of kaolinite NScs, however...
Preprint
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We developed a physics-informed deep neural network architecture able to achieve signal to noise ratio improvements starting from low exposure noisy data. Our model is based on the nature of the photon detection process characterized by a Poisson probability distribution which we included in the training loss function. Our approach surpasses previo...
Preprint
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Organoids have emerged as a powerful technology to investigate human development, model diseases and for drug discovery. However, analysis tools to rapidly and reproducibly quantify organoid parameters from microscopy images are lacking. We developed a deep-learning based generalized organoid annotation tool (GOAT) using instance segmentation with...
Article
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The article describes the current possibilities of forensic medicine in the diagnosis of death by drowning, as well as reflects the different views of the authors and the evolution of approaches to this issue. Despite the constant interest of scientists in the topic of drowning and extensive research on this issue, there are still many white spots....
Preprint
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We propose ellipsoidal support lifting (ESL), a lifting-based optimisation scheme for approximating the global minimiser of a smooth function over a Riemannian manifold. Under a uniqueness assumption on the minimiser we show several theoretical results, in particular an error bound with respect to the global minimiser. Additionally, we use the deve...
Article
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Seven hundred and twenty sheep from various areas in Basra province were examined for tick infestation during the period from October 2020 to September 2021. The examined sheep were found to be infested by six species of hard ticks, namely Hyaloma anatolicum, Hyaloma exacavatum and Hyaloma scupense, Rhiphice palisturanicus, Rhiphice sanguineus and...
Article
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We present a joint experimental and theoretical study of the driven Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model implemented by arrays of evanescently coupled plasmonic waveguides. Floquet theory predicts that this system hosts for suitable driving frequencies a topologically protected edge state that has no counterpart in static systems, the so-called anomalous Flo...
Article
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Published in the Cell Biology section There is a significant current question regarding the viable copy numbers of nucleoporins required for the function of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) in eukaryotic cells. The NPC consists of approximately 30 different nucleoporins in an eight-fold symmetry, meaning that there are multiple duplicates of each nuc...
Article
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In addition to the surface quality and appearance, the near surface scanning strategy has an influence on the porosity beneath the surface of LBPF manufactured 316L parts. Furthermore, this porosity will influence the fatigue life of the part which will be pronounced on a flexural bending type of fatigue. In this work, the effect of scanning strate...
Article
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This paper investigates the bond behavior between a bio-aggregate and a cement-based matrix. The experimental evaluation comprised physical, chemical, image, and mechanical characterization of the bio-aggregate. The image analyses about the bio-aggregate’s outer structure provided first insights to understand the particularities of this newly propo...
Conference Paper
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Pendahuluan : Tuberkulosis tulang dan persendian (TB ekstrapulmonari) merupakan penyakit yang lama ada. Kejadiannya meningkat seiring dengan maraknya epidemi AIDS. Di Asia insidensinya berkisar 15-20%.. Kelainan ini harus dibedakan dengan tumor primer maupun metastasis. Osteosarcoma adalah tumor ganas yang berasal dari komponen mesenkimal, bersifat...
Article
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Although laser scanning microscopy is a pivotal imaging tool in biomedical research, optical scattering from tissue limits the depth of the imaging. To overcome this limitation, we propose a scheme called ultrasound-induced optical clearing microscopy, which makes use of temporary, localized optical clearing based on ultrasound-induced gas bubbles....
Preprint
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Ptychography is a technique widely used in microscopy for achieving high-resolution imaging. This method relies on computational processing of images gathered from diffraction patterns produced by several partial illuminations of a sample. In this work, we numerically studied the effect of using different shapes for illuminating the aforementioned...
Article
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Modern optical imaging techniques provide powerful tools for observing cortical structure and functions at high resolutions. Various skull windows have been established for different applications of cortical imaging, and each has its advantages and limitations. Most critical of the limitations, none of the current skull windows is suitable for obse...
Conference Paper
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I. PENDAHULUAN Giant-cell tumor of bone (GCT) adalah neoplasma primer pada tulang. Angka kejadian GCT of bone sebanyak 4-5 % dari semua tumor primer tulang 1,2,3. Penyakit ini termasuk tumor jinak dengan potensi perilaku yang agresif dan memiliki kapasitas untuk bermetastasis 1,2. Lebih dari setengah lesi ini terjadi pada dekade ketiga dan keempat...
Chapter
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Os impactos causados pelos microplásticos só podem ser efetivamente avaliados se as etapas de coleta, processamento e análises sejam realizadas de maneira apropriada. Hoje, a falta de normas, que deveriam delimitar os procedimentos metodológicos a serem seguidos, é, sem dúvida, uma grande limitação para o estudo desse contaminante. Apesar disso, um...
Article
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The ʽaccidentalʼ discovery of archaeological material represents an ordinary fact in today’s archaeology. Unfortunately, most of these discoveries have no archaeological context, thwarting the possibility of integrating the objects in more complex studies. In this context, based on the type of data that the archaeometric study of metal objects prov...
Article
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The current study presents the effects of strain and temperature on the mechanical response and microstructure evolution in AA7075-T651 at high strain rates. Compression tests have been performed at room temperature (RT), 200, 300 and 400 °C using a Split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) setup with strain rates ranging between 1400 and 5300 s ⁻¹ . For...
Article
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With the advent of ferromagnetism, two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) magnets have attracted particular attention in exploring topological spin textures, such as skyrmions used for next-generation spintronic devices. The discovery of magnetic skyrmions in Fe3GeTe2 (FGT) has sparked interest in investigating the spin configurations of skyrmion...