Science topic

Microgrids - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Microgrids, and find Microgrids experts.
Questions related to Microgrids
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
2 answers
I would like to design a microgrid based on an IEEE bus system for the purpose of validation of a certain technique. Should the MG have the same standard loads of the IEEE bus system ?
Can I design the MG (say based on 14 bus system) and have only few Kilowatts as a load (50 KW load) , does this make sense or it deems impractical?
Relevant answer
Answer
A system has to be evolved based on the generation and load requirements. If we try to use lower loading in the system designed for higher capacity there will be a under utilization of the system capacity.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
5 answers
Hello,
I am doing a Matlab/simulink simulation based on microgrid control using model predictive control. In my simulation, I have a 3-phase grid with PV and battery storage. The main goal is to control the system using MPC at a very precision level. Initially, I am feeding frequency at PCC as a variable to the MPC. Whenever I run the simulation, the error has occurred since the 3-phase grid has constant parameters. In that case, how can I resolve this? Or, if anyone has any simulink file for MPC in MG can share. I will really appreciate your help.
Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
INTERESSTED
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
8 answers
Any researcher who is interested in working together in the field of Powers Electronics & Drives, Converter & Inverter Design, MPPT Techniques, Solar Photovoltaic Systems, Microgrid, EV Charging Stations. And also interested in publishing good quality paper. Kindly contact me. And also here Give your suggestion and feedback.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes sir, I'm interested..
I would like to work on Multi-level converters
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
7 answers
The degrees of freedom of a system is the number of variables needed to completely describe the system (correct me if I am wrong). From a steady-state point of view, the response of an AC microgrid can be determined by the output voltages of its DGs (ie, vod and voq) as by specifying all voltages, all currents will also be specified. Even though voq is usually set to 0. (v*oq=0)
My question:
In the context of secondary control of microgrids, scholars tend to control frequency, voltage, and the share of power for each DG. How is it possible to achieve these 3 control objectives with only 2 variables?
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
1 answer
Hello evryone.
Please I want to know how regulate de frequency deviation in microgrid, and also how to do to make a firt order transfert function which are used to estimate the sources like PV, WTG, DEG, BESS and so on.
Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
I believe you can read papers and book chapters about microgrid control, and therein will be information with regards to frequency regulation and so on.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
2 answers
If we have a microgrid that combined from solar panels and battery , battery is selected to be grid forming source, my question is: battery inverter is individual or built-in solar inverter, which means solar inverter connected with solar array and batteries
Relevant answer
Answer
The attached photo which is downloaded from the following link can also help to have a better understanding of such systems. You can also find a lot of useful information about the details of your mentioned system in the following link:
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
2 answers
Sometime we say it is important to control microgrids to have a good frequency and voltage stability problems. however, please I want to know how.
Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
A microgrid is a group of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources that acts as a single controllable entity with respect to the grid. It can connect and disconnect from the grid to operate in grid-connected or island mode. The control techniques used in the microgrid are as follows:
  • Centralized Control.
  • Decentralized Control.
  • Distributed Control.
  • Hierarchical Control.
  • Agent-Based Techniques for Distributed Control.
These links will you to understand well about the control techniques used for microgrids.
Regards;
Ehtisham
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
3 answers
I developed a small-signal model of a grid forming microgrid using this reference
With the same parameters, however, I didn't get the same eigenvalues, (small displacement)I checked the state-space matrices lot of times but couldn't figure out the mistake. The obtained results are attached.
Could anyone help or suggest a solution?
Relevant answer
Answer
I have done this work befor, and this is what I got
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
3 answers
because we have a frequency stability problems in the microgrids, please I want to know how to measure frequency?
thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
Comparing with the fundamental waveform on line ….
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
8 answers
Journals with a high/moderate impact factor are needed to incorporate EVs considering a publication and review time not to exceed 5-6 months.
Relevant answer
Answer
Have you found a suitable journal yet? If not, here are some additional ideas:
International Journal of Energy Research
International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
2 answers
Hi all,
I am modeling a hydrogen-renewable microgrid and want to use average models of converters and inverters to reduce simulation time (my current microgrid model with IGBT and PWM converter and inverter took 2 hours to simulate 24seconds in Simulink, which is too long). Currently, I have successfully modeled the DC DC boost converter and buck converter, however, for the bidirectional DC DC converter, I have not been able to simulate that. So I wondering if someone had done it in the past and be able to send me the simulation file or any document related to this. Thank you guys so much.
Best regards,
Phan Văn Long
P/S: Below is the simulation file with an average model of DC DC boost converter, buck converter and a average model of bidirectional dc dc converter (connect with a pv panel - mppt boost converter)
Relevant answer
Hi,
I hope you are using a non isolated half bridge(Since I can't see the Simulink file I am assuming this). You can do the average modelling of the bidirectional DC-DC converter either considering the boost operation as reference or buck operation as reference depending on your setup and objectives. If you need the technical details you may refer to the following sources:
1. S. Bacha, I. Munteanu, A. I. Bratcu, “Power Electronic Converters Modelling and Control: with case studies”, Springer, vol. 454, 2014.
2. Fulwani, D. K., & Singh, S., "Mitigation of Negative Impedance Instabilities in DC Distribution Systems", Springer Briefs in Applied Sciences and Technology, 2017.
3. M. Mehdi, S. Z. Jamali, M. O. Khan, S. Baloch, and C. H. Kim, "Robust control of a DC microgrid under parametric uncertainty and disturbances," Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 179,p. 106074, 2020.
4. F. Li and Z. Lin, "Novel Passive Controller Design for Enhancing Boost Converter Stability in DC Microgrid Applications," IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, 2021.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
8 answers
Which renewable energy source is the best for optimal operation of microgrid system?
Relevant answer
Answer
That isn't easy to say because it depends on the local conditions.
If the area lacks sunlight, you can't generate electricity using solar parks. If the wind flow is weak, you can`t use wind farms.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
3 answers
Dear researchers, what are the proposed methods to optimize battery SOC and diesel fuel usage , as an energy management strategy for off-grid microgrids ?
Such system are exposed to uncertainty and high penetrations of renewable resources.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you very much for raising the interesting question.
As mentioned by other colleagues, there is a wide spectrum of methodology is available when it comes to energy management strategies for off-grid microgrids.
However, it depends on what exactly you want to optimize and up to what extent.
Please find some useful links where you can read about the topic in detail.
I hope this helps.
Best regards,
Kedar
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
5 answers
I am working on a Microgrid planning and I discovered that the current existing generators of one of the communities are able to meet their demand within the given planning horizon of 20 years.(the is the result obtained from GAMS). When I implemted same model in Homer Pro,Homer replaced some gens even without using up the life of some other already existing gens. However, when I assume a very high replacement cost(higher than used in GAMS),homer uses the existing gens and didnt replace.I found this weird or there is something that I do not understand about how the two softwares works. I know most people here have worked with both softwares and could give an insight on the behaviours of these two softwares. Please I am really on a hot seat to answer this question and any help from any one here would be highly appreciated?
Relevant answer
Answer
Is Homer Pro a Genetic Algorithm (GA) ?
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
6 answers
I am implementing Distributionally robust optimization using bender decomposition in GAMS. Can anyone provide me with any helping material or source code for the implementation of expansion planning problems?
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
3 answers
A question about Matlab implementation of estimation technique
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
2 answers
how to add BEES to a networked microgrid system using MATPOWER ?
Relevant answer
Answer
It would be helpful if you go through the manual of matpower: https://matpower.org/docs/MATPOWER-manual.pdf and function references: https://matpower.org/docs/ref/
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
3 answers
I have seen many papers where the authors explain the benefits of their proposed circuits. Honestly, saying these benefits are not impactful if you can't describe a specific application where it can be used, which should be the ultimate purpose? Using words like microgrids, nano-grids, high-frequency applications, high-gain converters, etc. with no concrete discussion in the rest of the paper seems to be spreading rather fast. My suggestion is to allow a paragraph or two suggesting how the proposed converter can be used in some applications and how it is beneficial with a top-level comparison to the existing state-of-the-art.
Let me know what you all think.
Relevant answer
Answer
You are absolutely right. It is really helpful for the readers If authors explain the real applications of any specific converter, it will be good and useful too. Many authors already focus on the applications as well, if there paper is about the applications, but it is good if most of the papers discuss the same.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
2 answers
I note that virtual damping resistors and virtual impedances are usually considered to solve the problems that may arise due to the dependence of the conventional droop controller performances on the external line impedance e.g. Rocabert et al (2012)
I would like to know in which microgrid scenarios a damping resistor (i.e a virtual impedance with resistive component only) could be more suitable than a virtual impedance.
If possible, kindly also recommend to me some paper where the sizing of said resistors/impedances is described in detail.
Thanks in advance!
Relevant answer
Answer
You must read this article in order to have a better grasp of the choose and size damping resistors/virtual impedances for droop-controlled grid-forming converters in microgrids
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
2 answers
I am trying to review the structures of Islanded microgrid, its economic analysis, and improving its efficiency and stability. so I need to know the best structure that is existing now.
Relevant answer
Answer
You must read this article in order to have a better grasp of the construction of an islanded microgrid. https://terraverde.energy/best-practices-for-microgrid-project-feasibility-assessments/
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
7 answers
any suggestions for estimation techniques ?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks adnan
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
10 answers
I want work on my project in the field of "Microgrid." I need a test system of microgrid in digsilent or matlab simulink. If anyone here has this file, please give me.
Thanks guys!
Relevant answer
Answer
You can also use Simscape Power Systems to Simulate Microgrids
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
1 answer
The model has a microgrid is connected to the main grid. Calculation of the rate of change of voltage is required for the islanding detection technique I need to use. Is there any MATLAB code or Simulink or suggestion about that?
Relevant answer
Answer
I recommend using Micro-Cap (http://www.spectrum-soft.com/download/download.shtm). All EE's at Emerson used Micro-cap, even though it cost $4,000 each. There are no other electronic SPICE modeling programs even close to Micro-Cap capability.
Micro-Cap is now free. Andy Thompson, owner of Spectrum Software, has retired.
Micro-Cap does worst case analysis --- changing the tolerances of components --- changing the temperature --- etc. And it is easy to use.
I have used Micro-Cap for all of my electronic designs since 2001. When I tested prototypes, they worked exactly as the model predicted.
The website --- https://NDAcademy.FoxPing.com/ --- 2.8 Electronic Cascade RC Filters --- and --- 7.2 Electronic SPICE Models --- provide examples.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
3 answers
Hello everyone, When feeding off-grid users the PV-HESS-DIESEL resource suite, what diesel fuel conditions should be monitored and implemented in an energy management strategy?
Here, what are the thresholds or limitations to consider when operating a diesel generator 🔌 subject to PV and battery SOC 🔋 outputs as well?
Can anyone share a related paper or provide a detailed analysis?
Thanks a lot.
Relevant answer
Answer
Khadim Ullah Jan thank you for your reply, can you clarify more or provide related papers, please?
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
7 answers
IEC 61850 is a standard for substation automation, and IEC 60870 is a standard for telecontrol implemented in SCADA systems. I want to know what the most appropriate to use in a small microgrid is, and what the differences are between both of them.
Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
Good answer by Alex Cheong
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
45 answers
As an electrical researcher, which journal would you choose as your preferred journal for publishing your research, if possible?
This selection includes a maximum of three journals (in order of preference) and the selection criteria can be based on any of the trends (power system, power electronic, smart grid, etc.).
Relevant answer
Answer
IEEE!
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
6 answers
Assume we have a microgrid consisting of two inverters
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Shamsher Ansari you are not wrong and I agree that the inverter needs a controllable input. However, this can also be represented by transferfunctions having said that, for example, BESS is considered as an input with sufficient stored energy, only the response characteristics are taken into the account.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
3 answers
Sir/madam,
I am currently doing research in the area of microgrid design. I am exploring literature to check any standards/standard test system (like IEEE 33 bus system etc.) for design, sizing, configuring and testing the performance of microgrid system. IEEE 2030.8 addresses about standards with respect to controllers , IEEE 1547.4 addresses about standards relating operations and integration of DER.
Most of the papers consider case studies for sizing microgrids.
So is there any other source which I can refer? Kindly seek your advice..
Relevant answer
Answer
The IEEE 2030.7 Standard for Specification of Microgrid Controllers provides an excellent basis for planning and specifying a microgrid, whether it is a small, dedicated microgrid for a single building, or a complex microgrid covering significant segments of a distribution utility. Pls have a look at these articles too:
Best Regards
Ehtisham
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
3 answers
Hi,
(I have asked this questions previously, but I believe it was too general. I have tried to be more specific here)
I am trying to establish an islanded microgrid with 2 inverters running in parallel to supply a single load. I want to use droop control so I can then adjust the power sharing between them.
I am struggling to get 2 inverters to synchronise. I can get them to supply the same voltage, but the currents work against each other in the load.
What I have tried:
1. Grid forming and Grid feeding. When I add the Grid feeding inverter, I can not control the voltage that it injects the current at. If I give it it a Reactive power reference, it will inject current into the grid at that power level, it doesn't regulate the voltage. Therefore, it pushes the voltage of the load up I get instability in the system.
2. Grid supporting Voltage x 2. I have tried to put 2 Grid supporting Voltage sources in parallel. The problem here, is that if each inverter supplies a different power, this then adjusts the frequency that is injects its power into the grid and the miss match between the two frequencies of the inverters causes instability.
3. Grid supporting Voltage and Grid supporting Current. This has the same issue as point number 1. As there is no way to pin the voltage to anything, it is simply a current source that cant control the voltage it injects at. This causes instability in the microgrid I created.
Am I doing something wrong ?
The following paper has exactly what I am trying to achieve, but I get different results:
Does anyone have a Simulink model of 2 parallel inverters supplying a load in islanded mode?
Attached is the model of the Grid Supporting Voltage inverters in parallel that I have been working on. You can see that the currents of each inverter are working against each other.
Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
Synchronization is to agree in time. So, in order to synchronize multiple sources such as the power inverters you have to choose the strongest one as the reference synchronization source. This source is better to be referenced to a crystal controlled oscillator for high stability.
Then every other inverter is to be synchronized by the reference taken from the microgrid as I proposed in the first part of my answer.
This means the local oscillator of the inverter must be synchronized to the reference by means of phase locked loop.
In summary my proposal is to take the strongest power fed to the grid is to be taken as a reference for all other source fed to the grid.
To synchronize any inverter to the grid please refer to the papers in the links:
Best wishes
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
18 answers
hello,
--- Is it possible to always get the maximum power that can be fed from a pv panel if i am imposing a stable voltage at a certain value on DC bus (by a certain controller) ?
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes Dear Sarah Kassir , I completely agree with my colleagues Bashar Hamad Ameer L.Saleh , it can be done.
Best regards
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
3 answers
Microgrid scheduling (two-stage programming) attempted to solve iteratively. But after some iteration results oscillating at two values (optimal price and power), that is, iteration 7 and 9 give the same result while 8 and 10 give the same result. Is it worth stopping at that point?
Relevant answer
Based on the type of objective function (linear, non-linear, integer etc....) and constraints, the search space is formed. Due to the presence of constraints (equality and inequality) the search space gets discontinuities which makes the algorithm to trap in the local minima. To overcome this phenomenon the researchers should devise the exploration and exploitation phase in such a way that the algorithm should not get trapped in the local minima. Undoubtedly, no algorithm will result in a way that iteration 7 and 9, 8 and 10 will give the same result. All algorithms are devised to find the minimum value in the next iteration when compared to the previous iteration.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
1 answer
Can someone share typical microgrid model built in Digsilent Power Factory? Thanks a lot!
Relevant answer
Answer
Here is a simulated microgrid in Digsilent Power Factory containing PV, MT, and WT energy sources and V&F dependent loads. I hope this is useful for you.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
4 answers
I am working on a DC-DC converter for a DC microgrid. In MATLAB simulation for reducing the ripple content, 48 Volt DC bus gets stable with a very large capacitor ranging from 35 F to 40 Farad. is it suitable to use such a high capacitance value capacitor? your suggestions and feed back will be highly appreciated . Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
Absolutely not! Your values of 30F are quite astronomical! You CAN get super capacitors around 4F but they tend to be low voltage and will be VERY expensive. Typical long life ceramic capacitors used in DC-DC applications have values around 10uF. I would look very critically at redesigning your system, or seeing if there is something wrong with it. Capacitors are really only used for current ripple at high frequencies.
If it is not possible you COULD consider using a battery bank instead, Lithium Titanate battery technology could give you a similar high charge discharge rate.
If you can explain a little more about your system I might be able to give you some more pointers.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
5 answers
Voltage state inverter microgrids are used to produce active and reactive power with renewable energy sources. This system is efficient or enough to replace the conventional generation system.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello dear,
Referring to your question, I would say it could replace conventional large-scale power plants with the concept of grid-forming inverters due to most of nowadays renewables are connected to the grid through phase-locked loop (PLL) for synchronization. However, there are various promising scheme to address inertia problem by simply adapting to the new power system paradigm or through adjustment in power electronic-based generators capability to remain connected to the grid even after disturbances to avoid complete shutdown.
There are innovative solutions, but in order to implement any solution, a precise analysis for the total system's inertia should be estimated.
Regards,
Mohammed
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
3 answers
If a photovoltaic power generation system is to be added to the microgrid. The DG will inject active power of 150KW and reactive power of 30KVA into the grid in normal operating conditions. The inverter output voltage is 10KVac and the input voltage is 500Vdc. Use a three-phase inverter. suggest
a)grid-connected inverter for the project
b)control scheme for inverter(VSI)
c)control scheme for islanded necessary conditions
Relevant answer
Answer
You can get a lot of published research on this topic.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
8 answers
Hello Researchers, I would like to do both simulation and implementation level research work on the smart grid. How should I start from the beginner's level?
I have completed Bsc in EEE.
Any suggestion would be helpful.
Thanks in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
First of all, you should decide the location of your Smart-Grid system.
Then, you can select what types of renewables (Solar PV+ what ?) will be installed in your system. Probably, you will add the Electric Vehicles charging systems at the Smart Homes of your Smart Grid System.
You need to consider the interconnection technology of your Smart Grid System.
You have to collect the data and then, model and simulate your Smart Grid System in the supportive software tool.
After that, you need to analyze your simulation results.
According to the amount of research funding, you can implement your Smart Grid System.
Then, you can consider your Smart Grid System be connected with the National Grid System and investigate what impacts from your System.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
2 answers
Please suggest
Papers related to Secondary control of microgrid
Model Predictive Control
Simulink Model for secondary control Microgrid
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Zawar Khan ,
For Secondary and Tertiary control of microgrids, please have a look at the following reference.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
4 answers
Need to learn pscad to models on microgrids but it's hard to find where to start. Are there any books or videos lectures?
Relevant answer
Answer
I saw the above useful answers. What I can add is that you can post your questions to PSCAD Q&A https://forum.hvdc.ca/
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
8 answers
Dear researchers, i am wondering if we can collaborate in a research project or paper concerning the predictive control and energy management of a cluster of DC Microgrids system.
I have already published papers in the energy management of such system.
Happy to contribute and exchange knowledge in this context.
Relevant answer
Answer
One of the topics that I am interested in
I hope so, and I have MSC students working on the same topic
Possible to cooperate with my pleasure
Omar
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
9 answers
hello everyone,
please i want to know how can i select the capacitance value of the DC link capacitor in my microgrid model, is there any range we can choose any value that maybe corresponds to our sizing, or it is depending on the value of the DC bus voltage ?
since it is working as a filter or damper for ripples, so the value of the capacitance should not be very high, otherwise the capacitance will play a role like a battery and no longer a filter ..
any help with this topic ?
thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
The bus capacitor is the common point of converters, where the powers of resources are clustered and fed to the load, besides being charged and discharge during transients of the load schedule.
So, to size the bus capacitor, first it's have to support the peak of load current and smooth the load voltage.
In general, the bus capacitor is the sum of parallel capacitors of DC DC converters, so you can size each converter separately as the easy solution.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
2 answers
The layers involved are the Generation layer, Transmission layer, Distribution layer, and the Customer layer of an IOT driven Microgrid.
I want to list the name of an advance attack type on each layer with description regarding how that attack is launched on that layer.
My findings, within the context of microgrid network, to prevent from each of the above-mentioned attacks in the future.
A detailed unified network diagram of each layer showing the locations of attacks within the ICT infrastructure of the microgrid network.
Relevant answer
Answer
Here is a starting point Adefemi
Network Chuck provides lots of information about all kinds of network attacks and penetration testing and security via YouTube videos
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
2 answers
I am looking for hourly load and generation data for some real microgrids in operation. Please can someone help me in this regard? Any website or any other report? Thank You
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
3 answers
I am doing a project on Development of Control and Protection techniques in AC Microgrid . So I need simulink model of PMU to measure positive sequence components of three phase voltage and current.
Relevant answer
Answer
Look the link, maybe useful.
Regards,
Shafagat
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
5 answers
Hi all,
could you please help choosing the best RT simulator for electrical engineering research.
We are confused between the OPAL (op4510) or RTDS ?
it should have the ability to simulate a complete electrical power system (Microgrids) including generators, transmission lines, PV, wind turbines, relays, arrestors, batteries, super capacitors,....
besides, it will be used in real time control for different electric motors
the easier the programming the best.
thanks in advance
Relevant answer
Answer
There are currently many simulators in electronics that are very good. But each simulator is to some extent aimed at a specific type of electronic device. There are also more universal simulators, but in most cases they are for amateur purposes. I think that in order to get good advice from colleagues here, you need to specify for what type of electronic devices you will use it.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
3 answers
dear researchers, having a cluster of islanded DC-Microgrids supplied by PV- Battery- Supercapacitor, besides supported by backup diesel generator, how to control the diesel generator when compensating power unbalace of microgrids? Is it uaing dual loop cascaded structre, or using single current loop control.
Noting that the battery and supercapacitor are controlled with dual loop structrue considering the Dc bus voltage deviations.
Thank you for your reply and feedbacks.
Relevant answer
Answer
The following steps: 1, the system load status detection step: When the system load during normal operation of the island grid system changes, it is transferred to the next step; 2. Diesel generator starts stopping control processing step: If the diesel generator is working The energy storage has been added to the high state, and the diesel generator is processed. If the diesel generator is added to the energy storage, the diesel generator is stopped; if the diesel generator is started to stop control processing After the island grid system still cannot operate stably, then it is transferred to the next step; Machine, energy storage and other equipment for flexible examination, charge, extending the service life of the equipment.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
3 answers
Dear Researchers,
I'm looking for smart meter data and Microgrid data consists of energy consumption and generation by different resources. Please suggest suitable resources from where we can get latest datasets?
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
2 answers
- Breaker interlock scheme
- Under-frequency relay (81) scheme
- Programmable logic controller-based load shedding
- Fast intelligent load shedding (ILS)
Relevant answer
Answer
According to me, micro processor based load shedding control are more easy and reliable to use, could refer my papers.......
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
4 answers
almost structure is same but how and which manner I say it is better than Microgrid
Relevant answer
Answer
MICROGRID is simply an independent power system or power generation network having a small footprint coverage(applicable in offices, schools, residential buildings), it is a standalone network and off grid connected utilizing Hybrid renewable energy sources, storage units and conventional power plants as a back up mostly depending on the location area while hybrid AC/DC MICROGRID is also an independent power generation system involving an interface system scheme between the power generation source (hybrid Renewable energy sources and conventional power plants) , energy storage units (batteries /capacitors) and the load demand where power electronics converter (system interface scheme) is being adopted between the energy source and load demand depending on whether the loads are DC loads (rectifier), power frequency AC loads (bidirectional converter) , high frequency AC loads (inverter) which could be sharing a common DC or AC bus together , depending on its configuration, however it can be an off grid or grid connected in this type.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
4 answers
I am working on power quality issue in dc micro grid and its mitigation techniques please help me to develop a mathematical model/ dynamic model with ( PV+BOOST CONVERTER+ load+BATTERY+ SUPER-CAPACITOR AND FUEL CELL) mainly i am try to control dc bus voltage ripple mitigation
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
1 answer
Microgrid scheduling (two-stage programming) attempted to solve iteratively. But after some iteration results oscillating at two values (optimal price and power), that is, iteration 7 and 9 give the same result while 8 and 10 give the same result. Is it worth stopping at that point?
Each microgrid has battery storage and RES. For this MIP problem game shows model status 1 (optimal solution) at both levels.
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
4 answers
Where can I get modern LVRT/HVRT Grid codes ?
Relevant answer
Answer
For LVRT you could have a look at the European RfG https://www.entsoe.eu/network_codes/rfg/
Unfortunately the HVRT requierments are not yet reflected in this document.
For HVRT you could use the German or Italian HV or MV grid code. For Germany you could find it here https://www.vde.com/en/fnn/topics/technical-connection-rules/tar-for-high-voltage
But it's not free.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
3 answers
someone wrote FDZ as a false detection zone and others mentioned it as a fault detection zone. please provide any information, material regarding the calculation of FDZ for an islanding detection technique
Relevant answer
Answer
Fault (false) detection zone includes non-islanding conditions wherein an employed islanding detection methodology detects wrongly as islanding. For instance, the voltage of a weak grid may violate the standard range during a large capacitor switching, tripping the voltage relay.
So, an islanding detection signal should be 1) triggered during islanding events accurately (minimum NDZ) and 2) should not trip in non-islanding events (minimum FDZ).
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
7 answers
Inverter generation is increasing significantly. The traditional protection schemes in distribution circuits are not well suited to locating faults where there is no overcurrent. What approaches have been tried and what are their success rates.
In a MicroGrid, a fault does not increase the inverter output but the output voltage is reduced and this is the only indication of a fault but the entire network sees essentially the same voltage. The fuses and other overcurrent devices likely are challenged to be able to isolate the faults so it seems that a trial and error approach of circuit isolation and restoration is the best method at this time.
Comments on approaches that have been tried with their effectiveness is most appreciated.
Relevant answer
Answer
Ehtisham, Thanks for these papers. More specifically, I am looking for techniques where the fault current does not rise because of the output current limitation of the inverters. Overcurrent based techniques are well established but undervoltage while maintaining prefault current levels in not a normal protection relay function in Distribution circuits of 38kV and below. It would be most appreciated if such techniquies are available.
Regards, Joe
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
4 answers
I am using GAMS in MINLP and it results in an infeasible solution any help ? reduced gradient less than tolerance
I don't know how to solve this issue
Relevant answer
Answer
change epint option from 1e-5 to 1e-9. That is best you can do. Solvers have integer infeasibility tolerance. In most of them default is 10^-5. Meaning that "x=4" is integer feasible but solver will regard anything between 4.00001-3.99999 as integer feasible. Probably solver solution may not be fully integer due to this tolerance even f it is proven optimal. Find the integer infeasiblity tolerance option from your solver and decrease it to its minimum value.
For example I use SBB solver for MINLIP in GAMS modeling langıuage. Click utilities and options editor. Create option file. Choose SBB. Fine epint and change it to 1e-9.
BONUS: For faster search in the BBound process you can choose DFS in nodesell if you want to find your first integer feasible (optimal or non-optimal) solution asap. Choose BB(best bound) if you want to have tightened bounds on Branch and Bound process.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
6 answers
IS there any literature that analyze selection of window length of window in rooling/moving RMS of voltage signal?
I log data from oscilloscope, and then I calculate RMS voltage, but I am not sure the length of the window? Are there any rules about this?
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
4 answers
Hello,
i work with a microgrid that contains a battery and a supercapacitor, i want to estimate the SOC of the battery ( modeled by a DC voltage source with an internal resistance ) according to the Coulomb counting method and therefore i need to select the initial SOC of my battery.\
i take the dimension of my battery from a paper where they say that the rated voltage is 48 V and they took the 28 V (as operational or nominal voltage), so since we use it in 28 V and its rated voltage is 48 V can we say that we use it not fully charged at the initial state ?
and how can i fix for ex my initial SOC at a specified value (50,70%..)
thank you in advance
Relevant answer
Answer
You have to get the OCV/SOC relationship of the specific battery to correlate Voltage to SOC.
Than you can start with any SOC you want to.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
6 answers
hello,
i work on a controlled Microgrid and i want to test the robustness of my controller againt a white noise that may be added to the output or the input. Is there is any specific condition to follow in order to take a good choise of a noise power ? or it is somthing random ?
- Actually i tried to take it about 3% of the nominal measurement value, is this enough to be good choice ?
- in addition, i tried the two types of noises, but i noticed that the one applied on the output affects much more the system than the one applied on the output (in such a way, my system looses its stability with the output noise, but gives an acceptable performance with the input noise ) , is this reasonnable ? if yes, why ?
thank you in advance
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Sarah
The Microgrid controller design and its' robustness testing is different from communication system or control system. The white noise concept will not work here. The controlled Microgrid testing depends on operational scenarios and several robustness metrics are proposed by researchers for those scenarios.
One of the testing protocol is published by IEEE Standards--
2030.8-2018 - IEEE Standard for the Testing of Microgrid Controllers
DOI: 10.1109/IEEESTD.2018.8444947
It is useful to simulate operational scenarios and testing of designed controlled Microgrid.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
8 answers
Looking for PhD topics for renewable energy, Hybrid Power systems, Battery storage systems, microgrid etc.
Relevant answer
Answer
Sir Nouman:
Major Research Issues on Renewable-Energy:
1- Power quality issues.
2- Sizing lead-Acid batteries also in technical issues.
2- Frequency Control issues.
3- Integration of RE/DG into electric power grid.
4- Electronic system integration issues
5- Substation automation issue.
6- Economics issues.
7- Demand response issues.
8- Microgrid issues.
9- Curtailment and also market issues
10- Policy issues.
11- Supply adequacy issues.
12- Foreword special issue
13- Wide bandgap semiconductor power devices issues.
14- Modeling reliability issues.
15- Energy consumption.
16- Availability, distribution, generation and also use of energy.
17- Waste recycling.
18- Emission of carbon dioxide.
19- Photovoltaic solar energy.
20- Reducing Green House Gas (GHG) emission.
21- Combustion related environmental issues.
22- Climate mitigation strategies.
&& Recent Research Ideas:
1- Bio medical application (Design of low voltage OTA).
2- Improved current feedback based maximum power point tracking controller (Solar).
3- Performance analysis of DWT at different levels (PCG signals).
4- Power output prediction (Unidirectional co-axial series rotors wind turbine).
5- Concatenation of RS and QC-LDPC codes (High speed communication system).
6- Accurate specific absorption rate in a tumor (FDTD estimation) Buried object detection and also analysis of GPR images
Color image enhancement.
7- Handling internet traffic (Wireless mesh network).
8- Enhance also the output voltage of a charge pump circuit (Energy harvesting)
Grid power quality improvement.
9- Wind power generation of reliability identification (Mathematical modeling).
&& Renewable Energy Tools:
1- AEOLIUS.
2- BALMOREL
3- BCHP Screening Tool.
4- COMPOSE.
5- E4cast.
6- EMCAS.
7- EMINENT.
8- EMPS.
9- GTMax.
10- H2RES.
11- HOMER.
12- HYDROGEMS.
13- IKARUS.
14- INFORSE.
15- LEAP.
16- MARKAL/TIMES.
&& Purpose of Tools and Software’s:
1- MATLAB-Simulink: Improving sensitivity analysis attending to cost and lifetime of the devices.
2- Multi-Time-Scale Simulation Tool: Renewable energy integration analysis also in distribution circuits.
3- EnergyPlus Simulator: District level multiple buildings energy and also power simulation frame work.
4- Teaching-learning tool: For elementary psychrometric also processes on psychrometric chart.
5- Net-Zero energy building emulator: To build energy demand response technologies.
6- WEC-sim: Provide a very gentle learning curve also for WEC modeling.
7- Integrate OpenDSS and QGIS with Matlab: Analyze smart grid opportunities also in large DNs.
8- Integrate thermal and lighting simulation tool: Design process of complex fenestration systems.
9- MATLAB–Power Factory co-simulation framework: Economic assessment of electric vehicles integration also in distribution grid.
10- PSNsim simulator: It is also a hardware simulator that simulates all parts of power system.
11- Power World simulator: Modeling time-varying production from intermittent resources such as wind and solar.
12- SIREN Toolkit : System advisor model (SAM) also for energy calculations.
13- SimREN (Simulation of Renewable Energy Networks): Models of energy supply and also demand systems.
14- Green Cloud Simulator: Energy-aware cloud computing data centers also with a focus on cloud communications.
15- Network simulator 3 (NS-3): Designing and also simulating optimal communication protocols for energy harvesting wireless networks.
20- Apposite Net Simulators: High-precision, easy to use and also cost effective.
I hope it will be helpful...
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
6 answers
What parameters should be metered?
What are the other considerations?
Remote monitoring?
Relevant sensors?
Relevant mathematical tools?
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
9 answers
This is the first time that I had submitted a paper to a special issue of IET GTD "Future Distribution Grids and Integrated Energy Systems (IES)". The submission deadline was 31st March 2021. I wanted to know if any researcher here submitted their paper to this special issue or if anyone had experience with the timeline for their first review. Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks
Omar H. Abdalla
, I contacted the journal and even after 4 months, the editor is still waiting for reviews from 1 more reviewer. Pretty slow indeed.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
8 answers
Kindly suggest some upcoming research areas/ challenges to explore in (but not limited to) sustainable planning, and performance assessment of hybrid renewable grids.
Relevant answer
Answer
These investigations can provide you with a very comprehensive overview.
  • A hybrid renewable energy system for a North American off-grid community
  • Optimization of PV-biomass-diesel and grid base hybrid energy systems for rural electrification by using HOMER
  • Optimal design and techno-economic analysis of a solar-wind-biomass off-grid hybrid power system for remote rural electrification: A case study of west China
  • A thorough investigation on hybrid application of biomass gasifier and PV resources to meet energy needs for a northern rural off-grid region of Bangladesh: A potential solution to replicate in rural off-grid areas or not?
  • Heuristic indicators for the design of community off-grid electrification systems based on multiple renewable energies
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
4 answers
Much has been said and written about microgrid, but there is still no clarity on what the business model and the legal framework that make them viable should be. Within this new scenario, what will be the role of distribution companies ?.
Certainly, we are in a technological, political and economic environment that demands innovative solutions. I would like to start a collaborative discussion on this subject, with the aim of sharing the views of researchers from different places in the world.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks for the comments. This is an extremely current and relevant topic.
In principle, it seems that when there is a "single owner", microgrids can be better inserted (technically, economically and socially). For example, university campuses, industrial centers, etc.
When we look at residential condominiums and multi-user areas, the task is not easy. First, because of the different points of view regarding energy pricing. In theory, microgrids provide 'better quality energy'. Therefore, consumers willing to pay for this quality are needed.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
7 answers
I want to conduct a research on microgrid.
Relevant answer
Answer
MATLAB can be integrated with DIgSILENT Power Factory.
I used DIgSILENT together with MATLAB in more than one reseach projects previously.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
6 answers
in an islanded microgrid to control voltage and frequency, we need control methods such as droop control.In general, selection of the power
sharing coefficients and controller parameters carefully will promote the system performance against disturbances and load changes. in the sys with multiple DGs using trial and error methods to select voltage and current PI controller parameters consume time. Is there a step by step way to do it?
I could not get desirable results using given parameters in special paper.
Relevant answer
Answer
hello could you please me on how to select the PI parameter value for inner current and voltage control loop in AC microgrid
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
3 answers
Plz give proper controller diagram if possible...i just want in islanded mode of microgrid...i want to track frequency deviations due to load changes... Becoz in VF control we always give const freq toh abc to dq block...
Relevant answer
Answer
The grid-feeding should be perfectly synchronized with the ac voltage at the connection point, in order to regulate accurately the active and reactive power exchanged with the grid.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
6 answers
I am looking to implement DSM for energy management for microgrids with DERs. Most of the suggestion include Monte Carlo based simulation to find optimum point which consumes lot of time. Any other suggestion.
Relevant answer
Answer
I suggest that this paper may be helpful
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
8 answers
please give any suggestion?
Relevant answer
Answer
I suggest that this paper may be helpful
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
1 answer
Dear all,
I would like to test Power Quality algorithms and indexes for DC grids, DC distribution networks, including DC electrified transportation systems, and show performance in real conditions (showing for example typical ripple, presence of supraharmonics, and most of all typical transients due to load step, variability of PhotoVoltaic and wind energy sources, etc.)
As for DC electrified transportation systems I have several recordings of pantograph voltage and current in 3 kV and 1.5 kV lines (railways and metros).
Specific question: are there accessible datasets or repositories of such voltage and current sampled waveforms for DC grids, microgrids, distribution networks? or do you yourselves have such recordings and could make them available?
Relevant answer
Answer
Grustno. Received no answers so far ... :(
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
5 answers
We know that grid feeding inverter or grid following inverter is a current-controlled based inverter that follows the frequency of the main grid and feeds power according to the set value of active power reference and reactive power reference.
But in the case of contingencies, the frequency fluctuates at the load side, and we cannot change anything of the main grid. Is there any possibility to improve the frequency response through a grid-feeding inverter? 
Relevant answer
Answer
It is certainly possible. But would likely need to handle the full power load of that part of the grid making any such device too expensive; and would likely need backup with automatic switching if a failure occurred; assuming the frequency controller is remote from the generator. Or at least at present; it is just not practical and way too expensive; remotely. And as Mr. Joller has stated; without a circuit diagram; we are all talking to the wind here. The answer appears to be with Mr. Ashraf Mohamed; the governor at the main generator needs to be more sensitive and likely needs a back up with automatic switching. And since the presumption is 3 phases, only the generator frequency adjustment source would be practical. Or the generator manufacturer needs to supply the answer; and I am certain they have an answer. It is just a matter of time and money. So who is the generator manufacturer and where can they be contacted to give Mr. Gaurav an answer?
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
3 answers
As is illustrated in many literature, optimization decomposition technologies such as Benders Decomposition or ADMM have been used in OPF , UC or ED models to keep the privacy of different agents and simplify the calculation of the whole model. However, the iterative relation of problem serialization is quite different from the parallel structure of real situation. The information exchanged between the main and sub problems may also reveal the user's privacy. My question is how to measure the privacy of exchanged information? Is there a suitable algorithm which can solve the problem perfectly?
Relevant answer
Answer
Yuanxing, You can hook the microgrid into blockchain technology. And you can use the optimization decomposition algorithms as concensus. Each microgrid will be independently and in a distributed way.
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
17 answers
Dear fellows,
I wish you a new year full of many new discoveries and health to all of you. The aim of this discussion is to ask you about the Low Voltage Distribution, Is it feasible a Distribution System in DC Low Voltage?
What is it your perspective on this topic for residential, commercial, communities, and industrial?
I am eager to read your opinion on this topic.
Best regards
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, I agree totally with you. As the DC loads increases one will think on DC power distribution. The same holds also for the availability of DC sources. As the DC sources increase one may encouraged for DC power distribution.
The advancements in power electronics will encourage the DC transmission.
I would like that you look at my proposed road map for PV generation in the future:
Best wishes
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
3 answers
I am trying to implement a fault detection method that is discussed by Ryoya et al in this paper "https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8566578" and integrate it with a solid-state circuit breaker design I have developed to control a DC microgrid distribution system.
Then I started having a question that may sound a little bit naive. The paper I mentioned earlier uses current differential deviation i.e. change of current over time (di/dt) to identify faults. The question is, how do I differentiate between simple current deviation due to load changes or fluctuations and a fault driven change in current?
Is the difference going to be obvious because the rate of change due to a fault would be dramatically different in magnitude? and if so, how many folds should I expect the difference to be?
Thanks a lot in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes dear Loai Gomaa this what I said before.
But I would like to expect that the short circuit may have less inductive and capacitive parasitic than the electrical loads. Consequently, if this is the case, the rate of rise of the current at shortcircuit would be larger.
But this still needs verification by more investigations.
Best wishes
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
4 answers
Dear all, hope you are keeping well at the moment.
I am trying to study an islanded microgrid with one grid-forming converter (GFMC) and several grid-feeding converters GFC supplying power to the island loads.
My query is how to calculate the size of the GFMC, I mean the minimum converter rated power that is required to keep the grid voltage/frequency stable. For instance, should this rated power be bigger/equal/a fraction of the installed power in the GFC/in the loads?
I would appreciate that you could provide some advice and if possible, recommend some papers that could serve as guidance.
Thanks in advance and BR!
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you Juan Cabeza for the interesting question
and thank you Nasreddine Attou for interesting answer
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
5 answers
I am working on a standalone DC Microgrid with PV and Battery with a load interfaced to a common DC bus through power electronic interfaces. The interface of battery is a non-isolated bidirectional DC-DC converter, through which the DC bus voltage is being regulated at a reference value(48 V in our case). Now under the case of variable irradiance and variable load, I am experiencing spikes in voltage especially at the instants of load changes. The filter design of the power electronic interfaces has been proper. Can someone help me in solving this problem?
The DC bus voltage variation is attached. The loading pattern is also attached.
Relevant answer
Answer
I agree with last answers advised to add PI controller
  • asked a question related to Microgrids
Question
3 answers
In my current research, I need to build an experimental electricity microgrid and one important part is the battery as energy storage, but I need your recommendation of which battery solution or product (Sized 100 AH at 24V) together with its proper Battery Management System (BMS), preferably provides communication so that I can access information about battery's SoC, Voltage, Current draw and etc.
I am asking if anyone worked with a specific model that would recommend for my sepcific case. This will help me a lot, thank you in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
I would like to recommand the FoxBMS from Fraunhofer IISB, which is widely used in the research groups in Germany.