• Kit Cheung added an answer:
    Triangulation Method vs. Strategies for Research Validation in Qualitative Research


    I am seeking some clarification on triangulation. When I started my research design, everything was quite clear. As the scope of my study expanded and as I did my data analysis, I started wondering which strategy of mine is triangulation and which one is not.  Please give me some insight or clarification.

    My research design is 4-steps.

    Step 1: General understanding: Conducted interviews with some leading industry people, authors, researchers, academicians to get a general understanding of the phenomenon I am studying. Developed interview questions and data collections methods based on that understanding. There were no project cases discussed, only general understanding of the phenomena.  

    Step 2: Targetted data: Conducted interviews with project leaders (not common to Step 1) and gathered associated project documents for those cases within a specific set of industries in which I wanted to investigate the phenomenon. Developed model by the case to case comparison/ contrast to see which elements appeared across all the cases. Given I am using multiple data sources (interviews and documents), can I deem it as “data triangulation”? I did not analyze interviews or documents separately, but used everything pertaining to a case as one case.

    Step 3: Transferability: Conducted interviews with some selected project leaders from altogether different set of industries (not common to step 2) and did the analysis separately same was above. The findings from this set matched quite well with that of the model I generated above. That was the purpose to see if model resonates well in other contexts or settings. Can I deem it “methodological triangulation”? Or is it just a strategy to establish ‘generalizability’?

    Step 3B: Not originally planned, but I just did it. Coded and analyzed the transcripts of Step 1 and found that it has quite great matching with the model I finally created. I am having trouble calling it “data triangulation” or “methodological triangulation”. Any insights?

    Step 4: Focus group or Delphi: Still contemplating if there is need to do it or not. Plan was to take the final model to the select experts/ participants (selected from above sample or outside) and present them the model either in focus group settings or feed-forward one-round of Delphi way to seek their inputs and see how well it resonates with them. I could not find any support from literature on such a method ever used to verify or establish validity of the research data analysis or findings. Someone commented that it is almost like member checking – just a bit more in “discussion fashion”. Actually, I had already done member checking at step 2 with few participants one-by-one and got very high degree of consensus. I am bit lost at this step is going to add any value or robustness to my research credibility.

    Any guidance will be helpful.

    Kit Cheung

    Hi, Ramen,

    I am answering just by reading your questions without reading the answers from other researchers, so please bear with me if there are duplications.

    Step 2; I think it is okay to consider it as "data triangulation".

    Step 3: I will consider it as a strategy to establish "generalizability". Because, by and large, you are still using interviews. so the methodology is more or less the same. 

    Step 3b. I don't see you can call it either date or methodological triangulation. It is jsut that the data are matching. I understand triangulation is different means (purposeful/intended or prior to research, means) that you use to gather data from  planned target sample groups.    

    Step 4: if you add focus group or use Delphi, then I will think it is a methodological triangulation of data that can be compared and analysed vis-a-vis other data. 

    But you also need to clarify if you want to use the same sample group (or at least some members) for the focus group. Then, it will be a data triangulation, becomes group members are the same but in different atmosphere you can check if the data you received from the same group will differ.  

    I know Delphi, Try to goolge a Nine cross-country research on civic education of social studies by John Cogan, David Grossman, als. That was around 1998 -2001.  They use Delphi, in their cross-country research.  otherwise, try Patricia Kubow PhD thesis for Civic education, THat is a thesis from University of Minnesota. I think that used Delphi too.     

    Hope these help. 

  • John W Pickering added an answer:
    For Chest Pain suggestive of ACS, which is the best tool to TRIAGE patients into Low-risk category?

    Patients present with chest pain to the Emergency Department and this is a quite common complaint. TRIAGE is a double edged sword where on one side you may discharge a patient who was having ACS and on the other side you may admit and workup a patient who was not CAD. There are various tools developed and tested to classify the patients of chest pain into high risk, intermediate risk, and low risk and manage accordingly. HEART score, Goldman score, TIMI score, GRACE risk score are few which may help physicians estimate a short term (30 day) probability of major adverse cardiac event (MACE) in different subsets of ACS patients.

    I do not know what will work best in resource poor settings of Indian hospitals where quantitative troponin levels are not being done and qualitative chromatographic troponin kits are available.

    Which Chest pain scoring system works best in absence of quantitative troponins?

    John W Pickering

    Hello Vivek, I don't know a lot about CKMB, but will look at our data for you and will consider sex-specific thresholds.  This may take a some time.

    I do know that troponin is a better assay - but for rule-out you need to be able to measure reasonably accurately down to at least the 99th percentile (and it sounds to me the qualitative troponin you have has a minimum threshold much greater than that).

  • Siti Zubaidah Mordiffi added an answer:
    Does anyone has a tool to assess methodological quality across RCTs and cohort studies altogether?

    Does anyone has a tool to assess methodological quality across RCTs and cohort studies altogether? for systematic review. 

    Siti Zubaidah Mordiffi

    Hi Hendrik

    You can also checkout appraisal tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute for cohort studies.

  • Arif Ulhaq added an answer:
    What is the theory building process?
    Please explain the theory building process.
    Arif Ulhaq

    Bilal I don't know if you are still looking for answer?

  • Jyoti Gavali added an answer:
    What is a "research gap" or "knowledge gap" in research and literature? How the gap in research can be explored ?

    There are confusing opinions about the word "knowledge gap" which is commonly used in the academic literature. How can we claim a gap, suppose related to a particular construct, or topic, when thousands of articles are published on it? What we claim a gap is an actual gap or it is just proclaiming or creating gap? 

    Is context (replication) a gap?

    What is a theoretical gap/contribution?

    What is a methodological gap? 

    What strategies may be adopted for searching gap in the research literature? 

    Jyoti Gavali

    I think the area which is unexplored as well as there are certain research deficit areas  or having lacunae in research can be considered as knowledge gap.

  • Nirmala S.V.S.G added an answer:
    Which methodology and indicators should be surveyed in a study about the contribution of the creative economy for endogenous territorial development?

    I'm studying how and how much the activities of the creative economy contribute to the endogenous territorial development of regions with geographical indications.

  • Robyn Munford added an answer:
    When interviewing minority representatives during a social survey - Is it better to use a local assistant, or to proceed personally?

    The issue is related to interviewing Muslim minorities in Bulgaria - a country with a predominantly Christian religion. These minorities live in relatively isolated groups mostly in rural and mountainous municipalities. For higher accuracy of the answers the interviews are anonymous. The question is whether to use a local person instructed by us to conduct the interview or to do it personally?

    In the first case people will be more favorably disposed because of the similarity with the interviewer in the field of religion, occupation, attitudes (maybe), etc. But some important information may not be shared because of the acquaintance with the interviewer and the internal relationships within the community. 

    In the second scenario, perhaps at the beginning there will be some distrust or stagnation, but in deeper plan during the interview we will receive a more complete information and thorough answers?

    (If you like the question, I would appreciate it if you up-vote the question, as well as answers you like.)

    Robyn Munford

    I agree with many of these answers - use local assistants at all stages of the research.

  • Vijitha De Silva added an answer:
    What are the freely available questionnaires to identify burnout among different occupational groups?

    I am looking for freely available research tools to measure burnout among health care workers and teachers

    Vijitha De Silva

    Thank you for useful information

  • Steven Vanderputten added an answer:
    What methodology is appropriate to analyse/interpret a historical text?

    I have a historical text and multiple commentaries from different authors to this text. What methods are appropriate to analyse the text? 

    Steven Vanderputten

    Dear Ksenia, Adalbert de Vogüé has written an entire monograph on exactly that subject (the abbot in the Rule of St Benedict). Still highly recommended. best wishes, SV

  • Dr M Sarumathy added an answer:
    While Using the NDI methodology for establishing SHM-the probability of detection is suitable or not?if possible can v establish in our lab research ?

    while Using the NDI methodology for establishing SHM- the probability of detection is suitable or not ?if possible can v establish in our lab researches?

    Dr M Sarumathy

    Theory triangulation: involves using more than one theoretical scheme in the interpretation of the phenomenon. Methodological triangulation: involves using more than one method to gather data, such as interviews, observations, questionnaires, and documents.

    Triangulation is a powerful technique that facilitates validation of data through cross verification from two or more sources. In particular, it refers to the application and combination of several research methodologies in the study of the same phenomenon.

    Triangulation (social science) - Wikipedia, the free ...

  • Kwadwo Adusei-Asante added an answer:
    Any suggestion on policy impact assessment?

    I am currently conducting a study on policy impact assessment. The background of the study is as follow:

    "In order to accelerate the industrialization process of the country's construction sector, there is a suggestion on reducing the import duty for commonly used construction machinery and equipment"

    My question is: what is the appropriate methodology or approach for the above study? Looking forward to your opinions.

    Kwadwo Adusei-Asante


    You can use the current SIA framework. I have recently published a paper in which I which I argued that the current SIA framework can be used to measure the impact of policies. 

    All the best


  • Jairo ALONSO Segura Mateus added an answer:
    Are there any methodological steps or process to developing a framework from research?

    I am currently engaged in a study and one of my objectives aims at developing a conceptual framework for use in a specified context, which could also be further tested and validated subsequently. My question is, is there any methodology or steps based on scientific evidence to developing a framework from research. I have a picture of what this framework could constitute, but i don't want to go about developing this outside established research frames. Your contributions and inputs are highly valued, thank you

    Jairo ALONSO Segura Mateus

    GUIA METODOLOGICA.Pasos Metodológicos o Proceso para el Desarrollo . Marco de Investigación.

    Tapa o la pasta: Dura Cubierta (oscura azul, con letras doradas) Que Lleva Información Sobre el Trabajo de Grado (Titulo, Autor, Nombre Universidad, Programa, Ciudad, Año de Presentación), es de colores de azul oscuro y en letras doradas .



    código de identificación o

    CORPORACIÓN Unificada Nacional de Educación Superior CUN

    PROGRAMA Administración de empresas (EJEMPLO)


    Guardas: Son las hojas en blanco al final de de de Principio y del documento.

    Cubierta: Presenta el título de Trabajo, nombre del autor, Institución, Programa, departamento, división, section, o área repre Que el autor del Trabajo, SEGÚN EL ORDEN jerárquico interno de la Entidad


    Nombre Autores







     Matrícula Profesional 17559 - Registro de la Organización de Los Estados Americanos OEA 76536.

    Áreas de Tutorías y Asesorías: ARQUITECTURA, Administración de Empresas, Bellas Artes, Diseño Gráfico, Relaciones internacionales, ADMINISTRACIÓN, PUBLICA, INVESTIGACIÓN, INNOVACIÓN, EMPRENDIMIENTO, CREATIVIDAD Y DESARROLLO

    .DIRECCIÒN Nacional de Investigaciones

    Corporación Unificada Nacional de Educación Superior CUN

    CORPORACIÓN Unificada Nacional de Educación Superior CUN

    PROGRAMA Administración de empresas (EJEMPLO)


    Portada: Igual a Cubierta, mas clase de Trabajo (exercise ::: de investigación formativa), nombre.



    CORPORACIÓN Unificada Nacional de Educación Superior CUN

    PROGRAMA Administración de empresas (EJEMPLO)


    Página de aceptación. Contiene las Firmas del presidente o director y de los jurados Que PARTICIPAN en la revisión, sustentación y aprobacion del Trabajo. Adicionalmente includes la Ciudad, día, mes y año de Entrega.

    NOTA DE ACEPTACION __________________________________




                                                                           Presidente del Jurado





     Bogotá DC, Día, Mes, Año

     Página de dedicatoria (pecado obligatoria):
    Página de agradecimientos (pecado Obligatoria)

    TEXTO  CONTENIDO                                                                            PAG


    Planteamiento DEL PROBLEMA

    Delimitación y FORMULACION del Problema


    Desagregación del Problema



    Objetivo de Generales

    Objetivos Específicos


    1.1 MARCO TEORICO (LISTA DE subtemas) (Una Vez El problema planteado de estudio (es posible de, Cuando ya se Poseen Preguntas de Investigación (FORMULACION DEL PROBLEMA Y desagregación del Problema) y Objetivos, Y Cuando se ::: Además de han de la del evaluado su relevancia y factibilidad, el siguiente paso consiste del del del baño sustentar teoricamente El Estudio, ETAPA Que algunos adj adj Autores Llaman elaborar el Marco teórico. implicaciones Ello · · · analizar y exponer las teorías, los Enfoques Teóricos, las Investigaciones y Los Antecedentes En en general, Que se consideren Validos para el correcto encuadre del estudio. (Rojas, 1981)) (¿Han existido Investigaciones SIMILARES?) (¿Realizado Quienes las han de la de la del?) (¿CUANDO?) (¿en dónde?) ( ¿Que Aspectos generales se Tienen en Cuenta en La Investigación?)

    Aquí deberan ir los

    1.1.1 Orígenes (Del TEMA) del turismo y / o la Hotelería En el municipio o zona de estudio ...

    1.1.2 Escribir el título del capitulo sub. Escribir el título del capitulo sub.

    1.1.3 Escribir el título del capitulo sub.

    1.1.4 Escribir el título del capitulo sub.

    1.1.5 Escribir el título del capitulo sub.

    subtitulos PUEDEN SER MÁS TITULOS O.


    1.2 MARCO LEGAL (Se refiere a las Normas, Leyes, Decretos Que Tengan Que Ver Con El Tema, Aqui Se nombran Brevemente Pero van en la Investigación de Como Anexos).

    1.3 MARCO HISTORICO (Donde Se presenta La Evolución del Tema de la ONU Través De Una Línea en el Tiempo De Tal Manera Que cronológicamente se describa)

    1.3.1 Historia de ...

    1.3.2 Aquí debera ir La Historia de objeto de estudio

    1.3.3 (Historia de las Personas Que Tiene directa Relación Con El Objeto de Estudio investigado (Propietarios, Fundadores, Organizadores, Otros.)

    1.3.4 Historia del tema.



    2.1.1 Tipo ::: de investigación. Aquí deberan Especificar Qué tipo de Investigación es ... exploratoria, descriptiva, correlacional (Relación de las variables de de dos o mas), O Explicativa. ? ¿Cual o cuales se utilizaran) (Una Investigación PUEDE admitir Un tipo: de Investigación o más).

    exploratoria INVESTIGACIÓN

    Se considera Que Este es el Primer Nivel del Conocimiento, En Donde permite al estudiante - investigador familiarizarse con el fenómeno Que se Investiga. Es El Punto de Partida para el alcalde de La FORMULACION Otras de Investigaciones Con Nivel de Profundidad.

    descriptiva INVESTIGACIÓN

    Esto Se orienta a comprobar v vv hipótesis, Esto Es ONU Y ANALIZAR identificar las variables de Dependientes. ¿Cuales?

    Aquí se Hace Importante el Establecimiento de las variables de de baño Las Cuales Exista ONU Grado de Complejidad Cuya ocurrencia y Resultados determinen Explicaciones Que contribuyan al Conocimiento Científico.

     Se Selecciona Una serie de Cuestiones y se mide Cada uña de ellas INDEPENDIENTEMENTE parrafo Así describir Lo que sé Investiga.

    En La consiste del Caracterización del del de las Naciones Unidas de Hecho, fenómeno, Individuo o grupo, Con El Fin de establecer su Estructura o Comportamiento. Los Resultados de Este tipo ::: de investigación se ubican ONU de la estafa Nivel Intermedio en Cuanto a la Profundidad de los Conocimientos se refiere.

    correlacional INVESTIGACIÓN

    Las Investigaciones correlaciónales pretenden responder a Preguntas de Investigación como estas ¿Más de Capacitación Turística de de Mientras Exista en El País El Alcalde Será el Flujo de Turistas Una Colombia? ¿Alcalde ONU capacitado personal en los hoteles, más grande Directivos Directivos Directivos Será el Flujo de Huéspedes? ¿De dotada de de Mientras mejor en este hotel de Una cocina Miembro En un mejor se cocinara?

    Las Investigaciones correlaciónales DOS o mas variables de De De Las Miden Que se pretenden ver si estan o no relacionadas con baño Los Mismos Sujetos y despues se Analiza la Correlación. EJEMPLO: · · · analizar la Motivación laboral y Su Relación Con La productivity hotelera.

    Este Tipo de Estudio Descriptivo Tiene Salón de Como Finalidad Determinar El Grado de relación o asociacion Pecado causales existente Entre dos o mas variables. De Se caracterizan porqué de Primero sí Miden las variables de LUEGO de aa, Mediante Pruebas de hipótesis correlaciónales y la Aplicación de Técnicas Estadísticas, se Estima la Correlación. AUNQUE la Investigación correlacional pecado Establece de forma directa Relaciones causales, PUEDE Aportar Indicios Sobre las Posibles Causas de fenómeno de la ONU. Este Tipo de Investigación descriptiva Busca Determinar El Grado de relación existente Entre las variables.

    Explicativa INVESTIGACIÓN

    Las Investigaciones explicativas van Más allá de la descripcion de Conceptos o fenómenos o del Establecimiento de Relaciones Entre Conceptos; estan dirigidos ONU respondedor de las Causas de los Eventos Físicos o Sociales.

    Se Centra de baño explicar Por Que Ocurre ONU fenomeno y EN QUE SE DA Condiciones Este, o porqué DOS o mas variables de que estan relacionadas de.

    Se encarga de buscar el porqué de los Hechos Mediante el Establecimiento de Relaciones causa-efecto. En Este SENTIDO, los Estudios explicativos pueden ocuparse del del del tanto de la determinacion de las Causas (postfacto Investigación), Como De Los Efectos (Investigación experimental), Mediante la prueba de hipótesis.

    2.1.2 Tipo de estudio. (MÉTODO DE ESTUDIO).

    * Método de Investigación: Es El Procedimiento riguroso, formulado De Una Manera lógica, Que El investigador Dębe Seguir en la Adquisición del Conocimiento.

    * Método de Observación: Proceso de Conocimiento por el Cual se perciben deliberadamente Ciertos Rasgos existentes en el Objeto de Conocimiento.

    * Método inductivo: Proceso de Conocimiento Que se Inicia por la Observación de fenómenos particulares con el proposito mm de Llegar a: Conclusiones y premisas generales Que pueden Ser Aplicadas Una Situaciones Similares a la observada.

    * Método deductivo: Proceso de Conocimiento Que se Inicia con la OBSERVACIÓN con el propósito m mm Generales de señalar Las verdades particulares contenidas explícitamente en La Situacion general.

    * Método de Análisis: Proceso de Conocimiento Que se Inicia por la identification de Cada Una De Las Que contradictorio caracterizan Una Realidad. De Manera ESA se Establece la Relación causa-efecto de Entre Los Elementos Que Componen el Objeto de Investigación.

    * Método de Síntesis: Proceso de Conocimiento Que PROCEDE DE LO sencilla ONU Complejo He Aqui, de la causa de los Efectos, de la parte al TODO, Los Principios de las Naciones Unidas Las Consecuencias.

    * Otros Métodos: Método de comparativo, Método dialéctico, Método empírico, Metodo experimental, estadístico Método

    2.1.3 Tipo de diseño. En Cuanto al diseño ::: de investigación, Este No Es Más Que La Estrategia Que Adopta en general el investigador para responder al Problema planteado. En Atención al diseño, la Investigación se clasifica en: Documental, Experimental y de campo.

    Diseño de Campo: investigados consiste del del del baño la Recolección de Datos Directamente De Los Sujetos, o de la Realidad Donde ocurren los Hechos (primarios Datos), El Pecado Manipular o las variables de Controlar Alguna, en de lo posible, El Investigador obtiene LA INFORMACIÓN Pero No altera las conditions existentes. De alli su Carácter: De Investigación no experimental. Utilizacion de Encuesta y / o Entrevistas, fotos, vídeos, Grabaciones.

    El Diseño Experimental: consiste del del del Baño someter UNA ONU Objeto o Grupo de individuals UNA determinadas Condiciones, estímulos o Tratamiento (variable Independiente), Parr OBSERVAR los efecto o Reacciones Que se ProduCen (dependiente de las variables). El diseño ::: de investigación experimental es netamente explicativo, Por Su propósito m mm cuanto es demostrar Que Los Cambios En La variable de dependiente de de Eran causados por la variable de de Independiente. Es factible DE, SE pretende establecer con precisión Que Que Que Una relación causa-efecto. Diseño documental. En un consiste del del Proceso del BASADO En La Búsqueda, Recuperación, Análisis, Crítica e interpretación de Datos Secundarios, Es posible de, los obtenidos y Registrado por Otros Investigadores en fuentes documentales: impresas, audiovisuales o Electrónicas. Como en Toda Investigación, el propósito m mm de Este diseño es el aporte de Nuevos Conocimientos. Diseño de campo. En La recolección consiste del del del de Datos directly de investigados los Sujetos, o de la Realidad Donde ocurren los Hechos (primarios Datos), El Pecado Manipular o Controlar la variable de de Alguna, ES factible DE, EL investigador obtiene LA INFORMACIÓN Pero No altera las conditions existentes. De alli su Carácter: De Investigación no experimental. Utilizacion de Encuesta y / o Entrevistas, fotos, vídeos, Grabaciones.

    En Los Diseños de campo también se emplean Datos Secundarios, Sobre Todo Los provenientes de fuentes bibliográficas, A partir de los Cuales se Elabora el marco teórico. ::: No obstante, hijo los Datos primarios obtenidos A través del diseño de campo, Los Esenciales para el logro de los Objetivos y La Solución del Problema planteado. Este diseño, al Igual Que El Documental, Se Puede Realizar ONU Nivel exploratorio, Descriptivo y explicativo, ::: Además, de Acuerdo con Ramírez (1999), Puede Ser extensiva, Cuando Se Realiza en Muestras y en Poblaciones enteras (censos); e intensiva Cuando Se concentra en Casos particulares, El Pecado La Posibilidad de generalizar los Resultados.

    Sabino (2000), INCLUYE en los Diseños de campo, los Siguientes: Encuesta, el Grupo Especial, Estudios de Caso y ex post facto.

    2.1.4 Fuentes de información Fuentes de información primarias. hijo (Example) Fuentes primarias Aquellas Que proveen ONU testimonio o Evidencia Directa Sobre el tema ::: de investigación. En Esta Investigación se ha Realizado Una Encuestas Aplicadas a Los Visitantes Nacionales e Internacionales de los Diferentes Museos de la cuidad de Bogotá. Fuentes de información secundarias. (Example) Fuentes secundarias hijo Las Que suministran LA INFORMACIÓN Necesaria para el Desarrollo de la Investigación. En Este Proyecto se Hace ff f utilidad de las Bibliotecas, libros de historia, Cocina y Proyectos de grado.

    2.1.5 FASE UNO. DIAGNOSTICO. Técnicas de recolección de información Diagnostico de la OBSERVACIÓN. Proceso de Conocimiento por el Cual se perciben deliberadamente Ciertos Rasgos existentes en el Objeto de Conocimiento. OBSERVACIÓN El Site in this este sitios o Este. Trabajo de campo de Observación. Visitas al sitio de la Investigación. Análisis de la OBSERVACIÓN.

    2.1.6 FASE DOS. DESARROLLO DEL PROYECTO Diseño de la entrevista y la encuesta f f f. (Se refiere A COMO SE VA ONU recolectar la información: con utilizacion de Entrevistas, Encuesta "x" Número de formularios, toma de video, toma de fotos, TODAS LAS Anteriores o uña de Varias) .trabajo de campo con la Encuesta.

    Aqui Se deberan Copiar las Preguntas de la Entrevista.

    2.1.7 FASE TRES. Implementación. Implementación Trabajo de Campo. Formas y Métodos Para Llevar ONU Cabo de la Investigación.

    2.1.8 Población y Muestra. Universo. Población (o universo) es any Colección finita o infinita de Elementos o Sujetos (Población de Turistas Que ACUDEN Una Unidad ONU municipio o localidad, Población de Habitantes del área de influencia f ff de la Unidad ONU Parque Nacional natural, Población de Familias de Una comunidad Población de viviendas en la ONU municipio). ALGUNOS Autores establecen differences Entre los terminos Universo y Población, indicando con El Primero de la Unidad ONU Conjunto de personajes, Seres u Objetos y Con El Segundo, las Naciones Unidas conjunto de numeros obtenidos Midiendo o Contando Cierta Característica de Los Mismos, de alli Que Un Universo PUEDE Contener Varias Poblaciones. Dra. Cristina Ludewig Población. (Se refiere Una cola Segmentos de Mercado del Universo Que se Tienen en Cuenta en la Investigación). Muestra. Una Muestra Es Un subconjunto de la Población, Que se obtiene parrafo Averiguar las propiedades o Características de esta ultima, por Lo Que Interesa AA Que reflejo de mar de la ONU La Población, AA A que sea representativa de ella. Dra. Cristina Ludewig. Número de personas Que se Tienen en Cuenta en la Encuesta y / o en las Entrevistas.

    2.2 MARCO TEMPORAL. (Se refiere a: En Que Tiempo sE Realiza la Investigación, De que mes Una mes de cola, De qué fecha fecha A Que, Que Tiene La validity Investigación en El Tiempo, MES Hasta que, Hasta Que Año)

    2.3 MARCO ESPACIAL. Lugar, municipio o zona, Localidad o ... Sitio de la Investigación. (Delimitación Geográfica). (Se refiere a: En Donde SE Realiza de la Investigación) hotel de Bogotá, DC, Choachí, Un, restaurante de la ONU, Una agencia de viajes, Una Empresa) mapas.croquis.

    3. CIUDAD DE BOGOTÁ, DC (EJEMPLO) Lugar, municipio o zona, Localidad o sitio de la Investigación. Aquí Sólo se cita el nombre de la Localidad o Institución investigada.

    3.1 HISTORIA DE BOGOTÁ, DC example ... Lugar, municipio o zona, Localidad o sitio de la Investigación

    3.1.1 Periodo colonial. (APLICA SI).

    3.1.2 Periodo republicano. (APLICA SI).

    3.1.3 Siglo XX. (APLICA SI).

    3.1.4 Siglo XXI. (APLICA SI).


    3.2.1 Limites de la Localidad en estudio.

    3.2.2 Vías de Comunicación

    3.2.3 Escudo y Bandera

    3.2.4 Economía

    3.2.5 Ecología

    3.2.6 Turismo en la Localidad

    3.2.7 Lugares A visitar

    3.2.8 Localidad de .... Historia de la Localidad de ...

    3.2.9 Descripción de la ubicación de la Localidad de ... Mapa Límites y extensión de la Localidad ... Economía Lugares A visitar en la Localidad de ...

    4. CAPITULO TRES. PRESENTACION DE LOS RESULTADOS. (Se refiere al conteo de respuestas, al cruce de información de Datos obtenidos utilizando Parr Ello Gráficos y tablas explicativas En Donde se expliquen con absoluta claridad. RESULTADOS ARROJADOS POR EL TRABAJO DE CAMPO. ANALISIS DE ENCUESTA (Si La heno o se utilizan). (tabulación de los Datos o las variables de Que por medio de la utilizacion de cuadros con cruce de información arrojando subtotales y Totales Parr Poder entrar a Concluir es posible de Trabajar en las CONCLUSIONES) Cada PREGUNTA en una encuesta f ff Dębe numerarse.

    4.1 ANALISIS DE LA ENTREVISTA. (Análisis de la entrevista, por PREGUNTA PREGUNTA).

    4.1.1 Aquí debera ir La Respuestas PREGUNTA Y Sus.

    4.1.2 Aquí debera ir La Respuestas PREGUNTA Y Sus. .

    4.1.3 Aquí debera ir La Respuestas PREGUNTA Y Sus. .

    4.1.4 Aquí debera ir La Respuestas PREGUNTA Y Sus ..

    4.1.5 Otras Preguntas

    4.2. ANALISIS DE LA ENCUESTA. Diseño del Formulario. Aqui Se Muestra el formato del Formulario de la Encuesta Perfectamente configurado y Diseñado.

    4.2.1 tabulación. Se Muestra La matriz o matrices con el cruce de información

    4.2.2 Resultados de la Encuesta. Aquí deberan ir las graficas y / o los histogramas de frecuencias. Aquí Se Puede Diseñar de Una Vez Las Conclusiones y Recomendaciones por Cada PREGUNTA, analizada y Respuesta gráfica.

    4.2.3 Evidencia. De recibos, facturas facsímiles, Folletos o Materiales Que se Trabaje Dentro del Concepto de objeto de estudio. Otras ...

    4.3 ANALISIS GENERAL. Comentario General de la Experiencia en la Investigación, El Pecado profundizar Pero si distinguiendo y separando las contradictorio del TODO Hasta Llegar A CONOCER Los Principios Generales y Elementos. Se Trata de la ONU examen Que se Hace de Todo Lo Vivido en El Proceso investigativo pecado QUE SEA ESTO Concluir. Jasem

    5. CONCLUSIÓN. (Example: se obser Que El personal de ningún Tiene Capacitación Turística Hotelera ni).

    6. recomendacion. (Example:. Es Necesario ... o sí Recomienda Diseñar Programas de Capacitación Turistica y Hotelera dirigidos por el Fondo de Promoción Turística y Cotelco)


    8. CIBERGRAFIA Referencia de Medios de Comunicación Social Cibernéticos (MCSC) y Medios Electrónicos utilizados en la Investigación. Periódicos en linea, sala de chat, paginas web, Interfaz.

    9. ANEXOS. Leyes, decretos, Normas, vídeos, mapas, Colecciones de fotos.


    Foto 1. Aquí Dębe ir el nombre Desde el Lugar de Contiene la figura.

    Foto 2. Aquí Dębe ir el nombre Desde el Lugar de Contiene la figura.

    Foto 2. Aquí Dębe ir el nombre Desde el Lugar de Contiene la figura.


    Imagen1. Nombre from here Dębe IR el el Lugar de Contiene la imagen.

    Imagen 2. Aquí Dębe ir Desde el nombre de El Lugar de la imagen Contiene

    Imagen 3. Aquí Dębe ir Desde el nombre de El Lugar de la imagen Contiene


    Gráfica 1. La Encuesta de la la Pregunta 1

    Gráfica 2. La Encuesta de la la Pregunta 2

    Gráfica 3. La Encuesta de la la Pregunta 3


    (Del latín Glossarium) Es Un Anexo que sé de de de Agrega al inicio o al final de de de de Trabajos de Investigación, libros o enciclopedias, En Donde se definen y comentan Ciertos Términos utilizados en DICHO texto, Con El Fin de Ayudar al tor de Una Comprender mejor Los significados ALGUNAS de Palabras.


    ü METODOLOGÍA nf Estudio de los Métodos de Conocimiento y Procedimiento considerados en Si Mismos. Aplicación Método coherente de las Naciones Unidas.

    ü MOTIVACION. F. Acción y efecto de Motivar. || 2.motivo (ǁ causa). || 3. Ensayo mentales preparatorio De Una Acción para animar o animarse a ejecutarla con Interés y diligencia.

  • Jacob Y. Stein added an answer:
    Is it possible to use positivism paradigm in qualitative inquiry ?

    Doing qualitative research with positivism paradigm... is it methodologically possible ...?

    Jacob Y. Stein

    You might want to use qualitative approaches because it may answer questions that cannot be answered otherwise. Emic questions in opposed to etic questions, for instance. That said, approaching such questions from  positivist epistemological and ontological premises will result in a non-reflexive study which fails to take into account the researcher as a constructor of knowledge, and of course overlook the "fact" that the participants are as well, and that both are situated within traditions of knowledge which constrain their interpretations of reality. But that does not mean that this cannot be done, nor that it shouldn't (I myself would be very critical of such endeavors, but that does not mean they are pointless or futile). 

    I am adding a ppaer that demonstrates how researchers apply qualitative method (purportedly phenomenology) form a positivistic perspective. The researchers of course do not mention that they work from a positivist stance (positivists do not typically reflect on premises inflecting their work), but this is clear from the work.


  • Elizabeth G. Creamer added an answer:
    Has anyone undertaken a mixed methods study using grounded theory methods for the qualitative aspect?
    I am undertaking PhD research to address questions around the decision making processes of women who place children for adoption within an open adoption framework. Comprehensive literature reviews have determined that there is very little international research on this area, and nothing on this aspect of Australian women's experiences. The study has a cross cultural aspect, with women from the United States also participating.

    With so little in the literature, and no theory generated, I am using a lengthy comprehensive survey based on surveys used in other areas of reproductive decision making in order to gather a broad range of data. My plan is to collect and analyse this data concurrently with in depth interview collection and analysis using GT. The survey is not intended to inform the interview process, but to provide additional data within the analysis phase, just as though the data was sourced elsewhere. My problem at the moment in that methodology is my weakest area and I'm not sure I'm able to articulate my approach well using the right 'language' in my application. It seems what I am doing is also a little unusual which doesn't help. Any ideas? Perhaps I'm not really using GT, as has been suggested? In my head I am.. :) Thanks in advance
    Elizabeth G. Creamer

    There are a few good examples of the use of a mixed method approach and Grounded Theory. Writers about social constructivist approach to Grounded Theory, like Charmaz, are very open to using a mixed method approach. Theoretical sampling is one part of the methods that is well adapted to a quantitative approach and mixing.

    Here are references to two good examples:

    Catallo, C., J., S. M., Ciliska, D., & MacMillan, H. L. (2013). Mixing a grounded theory approach with a randomized controlled trial related to intimate partner violence: What challenges arise for mixed methods research? Nursing Research and Practice, 1-12. doi:10.1155/2013/798213

    Gasson, S., & Waters, J. (2013). Using a grounded theory approach to study online collaborative behaviors. European Journal of Information Systems, 22. 95-118.

  • Suzana Horia added an answer:
    How do I find&apply methods for strategic culture and constructivism theories?

    This is for an identity perspective analysis of international relations master thesis. I have researched so far some of the theoretical bases of those two, but I am trying to figure out a practical and if possible facile method of analysis for my first hand research that I need to do for the paper.

    I would like to find out how I need to go about steps such as: finding the material, structuring of the material, comparative method, etc.

    Suzana Horia

    Hindy, would you be so kind as in citing the source name and edition or provide me with a link? It would be most helpful in my search :)

  • Kylee Labrosse added an answer:
    Does anyone know where to locate the cronbach's alpha for skills attitudes comfort national evaluation?

    As part of a research team I have been asked to locate this information, and have been unsuccessful in my attempts.  

    Kylee Labrosse

     Thank you so much!  Yes, I did have the name incorrect.  The information was given to me incomplete unfortunately.  This has been a tremendous help!

  • Erick H Turner added an answer:
    Any scientific opinions or previous experience to strengthen the methodology of a systematic literature review?

    I have been working on a systematic LR recently and i searched multiple databases to get all relevant studies. However, is there a common criteria or checklist i should adhere to in this kind of studies.

    Thanks in advance.

    Erick H Turner

    Please be aware that, if you rely solely on the published literature, your results will be affected by reporting bias. Entire studies can be "buried", and through "hypothesizing after the results are known (HARKing)", nonsignificant results can be "spun" and reported as significant results. See, for example, my NEJM paper on antidepressants ( I don't know what your topic is, but if it's drugs, one excellent source of data is Drugs@FDA. Because this is not the most user-friendly source, I published this how-to article:

  • Hamid Kazemian added an answer:
    Can anyone please explain the basic differences between systemic reviews and meta-analysis?
    Do these two have different scope of work and methodology?
    Hamid Kazemian

    A systematic review answers a defined research question by collecting and summarising all empirical evidence that fits pre-specified eligibility criteria.

    A meta-analysis is the use of statistical methods to summarise the results of these studies.

  • Martin Schulz added an answer:
    In a brain scan, what can be uncovered by the interpretations and what cannot?

    Can the decoding of the details reveal something about our shared world? Assumed the brain scan would be reliable and decoded so that it tells us that the test person is thinking of the sentence “There are monkeys in Laos”. – It might then also be easy to see whether the person believes it and approves it. – But 1st it won’t tell us whether the sentence is true. – 2nd It will not show that the meanings of the words are the same for the person and for us. So the person could stay within their own world and the brain scan would tell us nothing about our shared world.

    How can the brain scan tell us something that is independent of a third person (the interpreter) and at the same time make sure that the details (colors, forms etc.) can be put into a relation to some details in the outside world? I see two problems:

    A. To establish a relation between details of a PET or fMRT and details in the interior life of a person – as far as we can assume to know something about this interior life of another person before we made the scan.

    B. To establish a relation between the former two and our shared world.

    Let’s assume a “crazy” solution: that the problem might be avoided by establishing a “color code - language” (a kind of naturalized language) one day. Instead of saying “He’s angry” we might then say “He really got some blue regions.” - Why not switch to such kind of color code-language (CCL)?

    I think, we won’t be satisfied with an interpretation of colors by other colors or with an interpretation of behavior by attributing colors. At some point we will want to know what these details have to do with our lives. We will want to decode them “realistically” – i.e. real trees, not imagined trees which might be called “flowers” by the test person. After a while we ourselves would lose the ability to know whether there are monkeys in Laos and whether the brain scan tells us something about the brain scan.

    Martin Schulz

    Dear Marcia

    Thank you for your interesting answer. Do you think  a “minimum device” of elements is available to make sure that external and internal influences can be separated? I mean something like a characteristic pattern of three or four covariant elements while the covariance is terminated under certain conditions. The difficulty is that there might be  a scenario where element A is interpreted as an indicator for some X and that the termination of the covariance of A and B at the same time is interpreted as the same X. This is a very, very general question, of course.

  • Casper Vanderwoude added an answer:
    How effective is using only tuna for bait, many ants are not attracted to meat.
    It seems as though you would be limiting yourself. Fascinating paper!
    • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conservation efforts in fragmented landscapes frequently focus on characteristics of the habitat fragments. We propose that the matrix within which habitat fragments occur is of equal importance and focus on quality of the matrix as an interesting variable. We studied ground-foraging ants in isolated montane forest fragments in the matrix of coffee agroecosystems of southwestern Chiapas, Mexico. We sampled the ants, with tuna fish as bait, in plots at various distances from a forest fragment (2-750 m) on two farms, one an organic farm with considerable shade, the other a conventional farm with only spotty shade. Each plot contained a grid of 49 (7 x 7) or 100 (10 x 10) baits. The species richness of ground-foraging ants was not significantly different between the forest fragment and the high-quality matrix, but it was significantly lower in the low-quality matrix than in the forest. Furthermore, species richness decreased with distance from the forest fragment in both matrix types. However, the rate of decrease in species richness was greater in the conventional farm (poor-quality matrix) than in the organic farm (high-quality matrix), suggesting that the quality of the agricultural matrix is important for the conservation of ant diversity.
      Article · Feb 2002 · Conservation Biology
    Casper Vanderwoude

    many ant species have specific food preferences and some will not be attracted to any lure, so using only tuna will provide an incomplete picture of the ant community.  For a better survey result, alternate a sweet lure (like jam), a lipid lure (peanut butter) and a protein such as tuna or similar)

  • Maria Rosa Trovato added an answer:
    In your opinion, what should be the appropriate methodology to analyze BRT system in relation to transit-oriented development?

    Scholarly guidance regarding methodology to this effect is requested.

    Maria Rosa Trovato

    It is important to clarify the purpose of work.  To find a suitable method for the evaluation of a BRT system in relation to transit-oriented development is related to the purpose of your analysis: transport sector, localization, system integration of infrastructure, urban and regional development, effects on the landscape and land use .
    If you wish to verify the sustainability and economic performance may identify the development scenarios and by using a range of indicators-criteria you may be build a multi-criteria model, and by using to support a GIS support may define a DSS for the choice of more sustainable (or more economic) scenario.

  • Ksenia Konyushkova added an answer:
    We are currently wanting to do some research with children using pictures they have drawn. Could you please advise me on what methodologies to use?

    This will be a study done in several countries with children and adolescents who have been diagnosed with lymphoedema

    Ksenia Konyushkova

    Hello Susie,

    You have requested our manuscript 'God(s) Know(s): Developmental and Cross-Cultural Patterns in Children Drawings'. The full text is available on arxiv: Let me know if you have any additional questions!


  • Asha Chandola-Saklani added an answer:
    Should we report correlation (r) results or the coefficient of determination (r square)?
    Many reports claim serious "relationships" between variables when they find a statistically significant correlation like r = .20 (that happens often with large sample sizes), which in fact indicates not more than 4% commonality between X and Y. I feel that reporting r square would be a more informative solution and also make aware authors that in spite of statistical significance there is a weak relationship.
    Asha Chandola-Saklani

    @Kenneth W Wallston, @Attila Szabo

    Thank u both so~O much. We have submitted a MS for publication. It gives TSH vs FT4 (both thyroid hormones) linear regression during 3 trimesters of pregnancy in total ( A n=307), Iodine-deficient (B n=279) and Iodine-sufficient ( C n=28)subjects. The p is highly significant in each trimester  <0.0001 in A and B but in C significant only in 3rd trimester that too at p<0.05. We gave on each illustrated pane both r and r2 ,  and  values . I suppose the lack of significance in relationship in Iodine sufficient subjects (C) is because of the small number , which is 28 subjects only ???  However, i may mention in other almost similar instances with even <20 subjects we have had significant relationships. Would appreciate ur comments pls. Thanx both of u n happy thoughts from India !

  • Rafik Karaman added an answer:
    Can working of Active Membranes be simulated for any smart environment?

    Would like to know how shall active membrane working methodology adapted for any smart environment.

    kindly help me with your suggestions.

    Rafik Karaman

    Dear Kujani Thirunavukkarasu,

    The following review article entitled " “Smart” Materials Based on Cellulose: A Review of the Preparations, Properties, and Applications " by Xiaoyun Qiu and Shuwen Hu describes the preparations of “smart” materials based on cellulose by chemical
    modifications and physical incorporating/blending . The responsiveness to pH, temperature, light, electricity, magnetic fields, and mechanical forces, etc. of these “smart” materials in their different forms such as copolymers, nanoparticles, gels, and membranes were also described, and the applications as drug delivery systems, hydrogels, electronic active papers, sensors, shape memory materials and smart membranes, etc. were also reported.

    Hoping this review article will be helpful,


  • Sofia Mouhallab added an answer:
    How to measure an innovation index?

    Dear all, I'm thinking about building an innovation ranking of Polish companies. Something what would show how companies build their innovation value in different sectors, circumstances etc. I have quite a huge sample of different companies available and IDI/ CATI/ CAWI methodology. I' would be very grateful for any recommendations/ suggestions/ links to available resources.

    Sofia Mouhallab

    Dear Michal

    This paper may offer some insights



    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Until the twenty one century, innovation and ideas have been a valuable asset to accelerate the process of technological competitiveness. To determine where innovation is standing up, countries and organizations need to adapt innovation capacity to overcome their economies’ defeats for the purpose of boosting economy. Therefore the aim of our research is to define the innovation capacity first, and then define an approach to assess it base on the countries characteristics. Further, this study highlights the most important indexes to estimate innovation capacity, and uses Porter’s model to facilitate the estimation of the innovation capacity and rank the countries depending on their category.
      Full-text Article · Jan 2016
  • Yoshinori Shiozawa added an answer:
    Can dissipative structure concept usefully take place of equilibrium framework in economic analysis?

    Equilibrium is the most important method of analysis in economics. It has a long tradition that started from the 18th century with French scholars such as A.-N. Isnard and N.-F. Canard and elaborated by L. Walras as a real method of analysis. Existence of an equilibrium began to be studied in 1930's Wien and was completed by Arrow and Debreu's demonstration. Equilibrium still remains today the major framework of almost all economic analyses. State-of-the-art macroeconomics is normally discussed by a Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) model.

    P. Krugman once argued that, without models, economics becomes a collection of metaphors and historical details (Krugman 1997, p.75). To avoid this, it is necessary to make a formal mathematical model which, in his opinion, usually contains two principles: maximization and equilibrium.

    Despite of Krugman's compelling argument, we see many economists contest the usefulness of equilibrium concept. They sometimes argue that the equilibrium framework is the very source of all derailments of the present-day economics.

    My opinion from old days is that

    1. it is necessary to replace equilibrium by some other concept, and
    2. the best solution would be the concept of dissipative structure.

     Do you agree with me? Or do you have any other ideas?

    Yoshinori Shiozawa

    Dear Francesco,

    you are omitting to consider transportation costs. All your arguments on locality can be treated by taking in consideration transporation costs. Please see

    Section 4. A framework for the introduction of transport costs

    of my paper 

    Final Resolution of the Ricardian Problem on International Values.

  • Francesco Molteni added an answer:
    Interaction effect between categorical variables?

    Dear all,

    I am running a logistic regression.

    DEP: Weekly church attendace

    INDEP: Job staus (4 categories) and parents church attendance when respondent was 14 (5 categories)

    I am also interested in the interaction effect ONLY between Unemployed and ParentsWeekly Church attendance. I put n-1 dummies for the independent variables. What about using only the interaction term Uemployed*ParentsWeekly? If it is proper, how can I interpret the coefficient? The odd of being religious for that combination compared to all the other combinations?




    Francesco Molteni

    dear Mehmet, bot varables are categorical and re-coded as dummy. So I have a dummy for unemployed (=1, 0 otherwise) and another one for weekly attendance (=1, 0 otherwise)

  • Mallikarjunachari G added an answer:
    What is the method of synthesis of polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels with and without fillers/copolymers?

    I am currently doing a research on synthesis and characterization of PVA-cellulose and PVA-rice husk ash hydrogels. Can anybody give me an idea on the methodology for synthesis? Thank you. Any help would be greatly appreciated.

    Mallikarjunachari G

    Please find attached files. These articles might be helpful. 

    + 4 more attachments

  • Luca Brocca added an answer:
    How to estimate evapotranspiration by using satellite data?

    “Which data product is helpful for estimation of evapotranspiration”

    Please provide methodology for help

    Luca Brocca
    I guess yes, but I'm not sure. I suggest asking (e.g. by mail) to Diego Miralles.
  • David Moursund added an answer:
    How to design methodological strategies on the complex thinking?

    _ Bibliography

    _ Names and adresses of researchers

    David Moursund

    I suggest that you study the literature on measuring intelligence and measuring cognitive development.

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