• Lidia Fotia added an answer:
    Can anyone provide a proffessional methodology to get bibliometric studies and compare journals?

    I'm trying a bibliometric investigation.

    Lidia Fotia

    This article is very interesting:

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: In this paper we present the results of a study on the potentialities of “bibliometric” (publication and citation) data as tools for university research policy. In this study bibliometric indicators were calculated for all research groups in the Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences at the University of Leiden. Bibliometric results were discussed with a number of researchers from the two faculties involved.Our main conclusion is that the use of bibliometric data for evaluation purposes carries a number of problems, both with respect to data collection and handling, and with respect to the interpretation of bibliometric results. However, most of these problems can be overcome. When used properly, bibliometric indicators can provide a “monitoring device” for university research-management and science policy. They enable research policy-makers to ask relevant questions of researchers on their scientific performance, in order to find explanations of the bibliometric results in terms of factors relevant to policy.
      Full-text · Article · Feb 1985 · Research Policy
  • Khalid Munir Bhatti added an answer:
    What is the difference between assessment, appraisal and evaluation?
    I ask this question due to the reason that English is not my first language. I am aware how these terms are mostly used in literature, although some explanation about the origin and background could be useful in my studies (sustainability and built environment). I suppose that impact assessment community might have good answer to this question.
    Khalid Munir Bhatti

    In Medical Education context, Students are assessed, Faculty (Teachers and clinicians) is appraised and Programs are evaluated. 

  • Yoshinori Shiozawa added an answer:
    Can dissipative structure concept usefully take place of equilibrium framework in economic analysis?

    Equilibrium is the most important method of analysis in economics. It has a long tradition that started from the 18th century with French scholars such as A.-N. Isnard and N.-F. Canard and elaborated by L. Walras as a real method of analysis. Existence of an equilibrium began to be studied in 1930's Wien and was completed by Arrow and Debreu's demonstration. Equilibrium still remains today the major framework of almost all economic analyses. State-of-the-art macroeconomics is normally discussed by a Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) model.

    P. Krugman once argued that, without models, economics becomes a collection of metaphors and historical details (Krugman 1997, p.75). To avoid this, it is necessary to make a formal mathematical model which, in his opinion, usually contains two principles: maximization and equilibrium.

    Despite of Krugman's compelling argument, we see many economists contest the usefulness of equilibrium concept. They sometimes argue that the equilibrium framework is the very source of all derailments of the present-day economics.

    My opinion from old days is that

    1. it is necessary to replace equilibrium by some other concept, and
    2. the best solution would be the concept of dissipative structure.

     Do you agree with me? Or do you have any other ideas?

    Yoshinori Shiozawa

    Here is the list that I have found.

    I have listed the name(s) of the author(s), the title of the document, and the text citation if possible.

    This must not be the complete list in any sense. If you know any other cases, please post the papers and books that you know.

    -Ivan Klinec (Slovake Academy of Science, Institute of Economic Research)

    Design of Holistic Economics for a Global World, presentation data at The First Prague Workshop On the Futures Studies Methodology, September 16-18, 2004

    -Economy as Dissipative Structure
    -Gail Tverberg (member of RG, Fellow of Casualty Actuarial Society)
    Our Finite World cites that Francois Roddier talked on the Economy as Dissipative Structure in his book Thermodynamique de l’evolution, published in 2012 in France.

    -Robert D. Bullard, Julian Agyeman, and Bob Evans "Just Sustainabilities: Development in an Unequal World" uses the expression "economy-as-dissipative-structure" once.

    -Horst Hanusch and Andreas Pyka (both members of RG)

    Elgar Companion to Neo-Schumpeterian Economics

    • If we think of any economic system as a dissipative structure that imports energy and materials and exports products and waste, this structure should become both more ordered and more complex as it develops.

    -Ari-Veikko Anttiroiko 2015 (He is an active follower of this question page.)

    New Urban Mangement / Acttracting Value Flows to Branded Hubs, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.

    • Yoshinori Shiozawa (1996) of Osaka City University is one of the economists who have pointed out the probelms of the 'equilibrium trap' of neoclassical economics and tried to show the way out. The idea of dissipative structure may serve in building such a new paradigm, taking living systems as their exemplaray instances, which are able to maintain their functions due to their fuctioning as dissipative structure. It may and often does take the form of a stationary state, but it is nevertheless very different from equilibrium. The concept of dissipative sturcture makes it possible to have a new perception of how an economic system works, as within the dissipative framework the internal structure detemines volumes and speed of economic quantities (see e.g. Jenner, 1994). Yet Shiozawa points out that if the problem were only the existence of internal structure, the economic system could be approached as a self-organizing system. However, it is a system which constantly brings resources in, exports goods and generates waste, which calls for broader perspective on economic system and its functioning (cf. Shiozawa 1996; Foster 2011)

    -John Foster (He has recently answered to this question page.)

    Foster 1993 Economics and the Self-Organisation Approach: Alfred Marshall Revisited, The Economic Journal 103(419):975-91.

    • If we view 'dissipative structures' in the economic domain as inertially forward-looking, rather than reactive, much in the manner of Marshall, then density dependent models, which can be stable over long periods, can be estimated econometrically.

    -William E. Rees (University of Queensland)
    Achieving Sustainability: Reform or Transformation?
    Journal of Planning Litterature 9(4): 22-52.

    This paper contains a section with the title "The Economy As Dissipative Structure" (pp.349-50).

  • Peter Wennberg added an answer:
    Does anyone have suggestions for criteria for evaluating different typologies?
    If you face a situation when you are about to compare different typologies against each other, how do you do this?

    I've come up with some criteria such as: the types (or cluster) should occur as natural cluster empirically, most cases should be able to be classified and the typology should be sound from a clinical point of view.
    Peter Wennberg

    i guess you're right in a way. still it's a little frustrating to evaluate different typologies differently not being able to compare their validity

  • Lyelle Palmer added an answer:
    I want to learn more of tools and methodologies to advance curriculum studies to teach students please. Can anyone share their ideas?

    I want to learn more of tools and methodologies to advance curriculum studies to teach students please. Can anyone share their ideas?

    Lyelle Palmer

    In my opinion, the basis for all curriculum is the sequence that includes the pre-requisite knowledge and the goals (knowledge, skill,application, etc).  Matching the sequence to the students is important, by including expansion of scope to connecting with interests and backgrounds of students.  In some instances the curriculum must be altered and/or adapted to special needs.  Stating the final objective at the outset creates a personal achievement context for the students.  My definition is generic and general/universal in that it applies to all content and to all students.  The responsibility for success lies with the teacher/trainer in knowing both the content and the students, and also having appropriate measures for regular feedback to all and appropriate action in response to that feedback.  One of my goals is for all students to master the content to the level I have in mind (what I visualize as competent mastery).  In order to assure mastery I allow retaking of tests, editing submitted assignments for resubmission and final grading.  A few  students (very few) may not be able to achieve an A or B grade under this system, but they can retake the course.  I taught classes in a professional school that required students to demonstrate competence at the top two grade levels in order to be licensed.

  • Mehala Ak asked a question:
    Can anyone explain how to measure Nearest unlike neighbour distance?

    For my research i need to reduce my training set using Minimal Consistent Set. So anyone explain the methodology of MCS.

  • Alexis Harerimana added an answer:
    What approaches for qualitative-quantitative methodological triangulation?

    I need some information on the approaches to use in qualitative-quantitative methodological triangulation. is anyone who may assist?

    Alexis Harerimana

    Dear David, I have downloaded the article, with a quick scan, It matches with what I am currently doing, and planning to do within the chapter of discussion. Thank you very much for the assistance. It seems I am on the right track!!! If you manage to have more articles like the one you have attached, I will be more grateful. Regards

  • Bikash Sharma added an answer:
    How can i calculate shadow wage rate for social cost benefit analysis?
    1. Can anyone help me out to resolving the issue of calculating shadow wage rate for labor. Is govt announced this rate for each year region wise. can we take this value direct from the government records. or there i a methodology for calculating the shadow wage rates while determining the opportunity cost of labor. 
    Bikash Sharma

    There is a need to distinguish two types of shadow wage rate: the shadow wage with and without distributional weight. The shadow wage in the absence of  distributional weight is simply the opportunity cost of labour while the weight adjusted shadow wage usually lie between opportunity cost ( measured by forgone marginal product in the traditional sector ) and modern sector market wage.         

  • Timothy Pittaway added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest a fool proof method for culturing Downy mildew in lettuce for someone who hasn't cultured anything before?

    I'm looking for an easy methodology for culturing Downy mildew on lettuce for my masters project, it has to be fool proof as I am new to culturing. I will be grateful for any advice.

    Kind regards

    Debz Wright 

    Timothy Pittaway

    I recommend warm dry conditions. Leave an infected leaf on each lettuce to initiate infection.

  • Basant Mohamed added an answer:
    How is potassium hydroxide dryed?

    I Have to wash a precipitate with water and sod. Bi carbonate then by ether, after which I have to dry KOH. I want the best methodology for that.

    Basant Mohamed

    Thanks for your answers. ..rafik & mauricio ... yes , I need drying by KOH not to dry KOH. 

  • Pattaraporn Moolchaem added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest the best research methodology for researching on migration experiences of vulnerable groups? Methodological approaches?

    Can anyone suggest the best research methodological approaches for researching on migration experiences of vulnerable groups? For example when researching on women and children.

  • Alicja Binkowska added an answer:
    Are there EEG indicators for large-scale brain networks?

    I'm looking for EEG indicators for brain networks - Default Mode Nework (DMN), Central Executive Network (CEN) and Salience Network (SN). Any literature recommendations will be really welcome. I've read a lot of texts in this area and fMRI is main method in this reseach field, while I'm planning to use EEG if it's possible..

    Alicja Binkowska

    Thank you a lot Werner! I've checked it already and it should solve my problem.

    If I will find also something usefull I will share here.

  • Taiwo Abdulahi Olabisi added an answer:
    Is it enough to use theoretical framework in literary articles, or they must include methodology, even though they are literary articles?

    Is it enough to use theoretical framework in literary articles, or they must include methodology, even though they are literary articles?

    Taiwo Abdulahi Olabisi

     Hi Riyad, using methodology is not really necessary, all you have to do is to adopt any propounded theory that is relevant to your subject of the matter. then you extract the tenets in which that particular theory was built upon. there after build a premise from the theory tenets, this will serve as a link between your article and that theory.  this will also further  strengthen your article. this will justify the use theoretical framework in literary articles.

  • Paul Stephens added an answer:
    Can you extrapolate effect size?

    How does time impact on effect size? 2 sceanrios - 

    1. If a 6 month intervention program catering for 30 students has an effect size of 0.4, and a seperate 12 month intervention program catering for 60 students has an effect size of .8, can we say they have similiar effect sizes?

    2. If a 10 week intervention program (with an effect size of .2) is extrapolated over the whole school year, and therefore includes 4 x 10 week blocks, can we predict an effect size of 4 x 0.2 = 0.8?


    Paul Stephens

    Dear Steven

    Cautiously, I think the discussion continues - and needs to continue - on this issue, so I think it unwise to give a "settled answer," so to speak. My own take is: Sometimes Yes; Sometimes No. Have a look at: 

    How Science Takes Stock: The Story of Meta-Analysis: The Story of Meta-Analysis
    Av Morton Hunt. 

    Best wishes in this important research, Paul

  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer:
    How I can choose the methodology of calculating the overall performance evaluation?

    there are so many methodologies to assess the overall organization performance using Multi-criteria framework

    how I could choose ? 

    Krishnan Umachandran

    If you can send me a process flow of the activity or organization that is to be measured, i can guide you, Please

  • Rozália Klára Bakó added an answer:
    Any thoughts on specific methodology involved with Critical Discourse Analysis? Besides, of course dissecting and codifying texts and social patterns?

    "Critical Discourse Analysis" being the branch of discourse analysis made popular by Norman Fairclough and focusing on social power relations.

  • Sebastien Marcq added an answer:
    What is the best market analysis methodology to predict the future success of products/services in a given market?

    Any suggestions are more than welcomed.

    Sebastien Marcq

    Lean approach. Consider building a minimum viable product and put it to the test of few consumers that are paying for this service or product. Then measure response. Put the learnings into the product/ service v 2.0 and either continue, stop or pivot.

  • Ishanka Weerasekara added an answer:
    Can anyone help me to find the standard/best tool to assess methodological quality?

    Can anyone help me to find the standard/best tool to assess methodological quality? I need to assess RCTs, cross overs and cohorts.

    Ishanka Weerasekara

    Thank you Mark Giorgio and Botan. I was wondering to know QFD is good for health science research? I am hearing this for the first time and just googled. I have no idea how to use this one for methodological quality Ax. Any suggestions Giorgio?

  • Melinda G. Miller added an answer:
    What are colleagues' best and worst experiences of action research?
    I work with early childhood students who work full-time and study part-time. They are often drawn to action research as the methodology for their dissertation but many go on to encounter difficulties in its implementation. I want to build a repository that might help the students when they meet problems.
    Melinda G. Miller

    Hello Jane, I work in early childhood education also and facilitate action research projects for educators in long day care, family day care, kindergarten, outside school hours care and primary school settings. In my experience, educators need to be able to relate research processes to their everyday practices. Early childhood practitioners don't tend to view themselves as researchers, but they collect data (information) on children daily, use a range of analytical tools to assess that data (e.g., developmental profiles, theory etc.) and are required to engage in critical reflection as part of professional practice. Developing a shared language around the action research process is key, and I often refer to the cycles of questioning, gathering data, reflecting and deciding on a course of action as similar to an early childhood planning cycle - it is just occurring for adults rather than children. AR requires a leap of faith of sorts as there is no direct route from point A to point B. When I relate this to an emergent curriculum model for children, educators begin to see the value of having an initial direction (e.g., a research question or focus) and then being responsive to what occurs along the way. I have written some professional magazine articles for early childhood educators on the topic of action research which you can access from here:,_Melinda.html

  • David L Morgan added an answer:
    If the chi-square difference between the model with constraints and the model without is non-significant we pick the more parsimonious one?

    Hello there, 

    I am just trying to decide upon the model doing multigroup analysis.

    I ran regression analysis for males and females separately and obtained "similarly looking" coefficients (all sig.). So I wonder if the differences between them are significant or not.

    Subsequently, I constrained the coefficient to be the same for both groups. 

    The change in chi-square between the two models was non-significant. Does this mean that the differences in coefficients are statistically no different from zero ?

    Just want to be sure that my understanding is right... thanks for any answer.

    David L Morgan

    Measures such as CFI were created to deal with situations where the chi-square value was significant, but the overall fit appeared to be adequate. Most of those indices deal with the problem that chi-square is highly sensitive to the number of degrees of freedom, so that data from large samples often produces significant chi-square values.

    In other words, many analysts feel direct chi-square assessments of models are too "conservative" and thus use things like CFI to provide a more "realistic" assessment of fit. In the present case, the actual chi-square indicates no difference, so there is little reason to delve into alternative fit indices (especially when they require subjective judgments to assess how much difference is enough to merit further attention).

  • Oliver Wieczorek added an answer:
    Bibliometrics in Social Sciences
    I am planning to do a little (maybe not so little) research concerning the influence of academic and non-academic publications (separated, if possible) on policy. In my case, I care about the indigenous movement and the creation or enhancement of "political opportunities" or the access to resources and how it is influenced by research - via State agencies, for instance.

    On a recent conference, I came across a method rarely used in the social sciences that could be of use for this research: bibliometrics. With tools like Google Ngram Viewer ( or jstor Data for Research (, you can find out easily and quickly, when a certain term appeared first in publications and how much it was used when.

    Nevertheless, those tools have their limits - especially if you're doing a rather specialized research like me.

    Is there anyone who has experiences with bibliometrics? Anyone used this method already? Maybe someone knows a better tool than the above mentioned?
    Oliver Wieczorek

    It’s an interesting question, but difficult to answer. With regards to UK- and US science policy, I encountered basically the same problems as you. It is quite rare, that scientific reports were cited, and it is also quite difficult to measure the effects scientific expertise on policy. I recommend that you combine network- and discourse-analysis in order to answer your question.

    In order to address this problem, we are trying to use a more indirect approach: First, while crawling through the hearings, speeches and documents of the respective parliaments, certain scientists, their affiliation and their profession were mentioned. My colleagues and I utilized python and the APIs provided by the US and UK-government, downloaded all files. Now – as the second step – we are reconstructing their political stances, additional affiliation (i.e. affiliation to corporation and think tanks), and the arguments given in the political debate by the scientists. In a third step, we’ll check whether or not the arguments used correlate with the argumentation used within the scientific community (in their papers published) and with regards to other affiliations (i.e. corporation and think tanks).

  • B. A. Karadge added an answer:
    Which parameters one can study to check the disease resistance of host?

    I have utilized plant extracts for the control of groundnut rust, results are satisfied on the field. I want to check the change in chemical composition of the treated and non treated hosts. So, what will be the accurate methodology to check their resistance. 

    B. A. Karadge

    You can go for polyphenol content.You can also determine soluble sugar content,free radical scavenging activity including polyphenol oxidase enzyme, phenylammonium lyase, ascrbate peroxidase and even proline and ABA levels.

  • Gordon B Willis added an answer:
    Are there any public databases available for cancer randomized trials or pragmatic trials?

    I want to try to test a statistical method on cancer randomized trials or pragmatic trials to reduce potential heterogeneity within the control arm that different treatment options might not be randomized.

    Gordon B Willis

    For US National Cancer Institute trials, there is a searchable online database that might be a good starting point:

    If you contact the staff running a trial, you may be able to discuss methodological concerns, such a the use of propensity scoring to adjust for non-random assignment, etc.

  • Sizwe Dlalisa added an answer:
    Should a teacher focus on 'rigorous learning' or 'learning with entertainment'?
    It has been seen that many teachers in universities have become entertainers rather than focusing mainly on value-addition and learning. A lot of time gets devoted to pleasing the students; knowing them personally; building good relations with them; and telling jokes and creating humour; the focus becomes more of good feedback than rigor. Keeping the audience motivated is good for effective teaching; but since a lot of time goes in entertainment less time remains for analysis and conceptualization. What is your preference and why?
    Sizwe Dlalisa

    I think the trick is to try and strike a balance between the two as the 'rigorous learning' or 'learning with entertainment in an educational context' complement each other.

  • Numa Bellisario added an answer:
    Do you know any methodologies to design normative criteria?

    I'm building a framework to analyse and evaluate the level of peacefulness of theoretical political economic systems.

    I'm concerned about which methodology to use in order to come up with the criteria of reference I will use to evaluate the different systems.

    I've been researching system methodologies and design methodologies extensively but couldn't satisfy my specific need.

    So far I'm using a design methodology (use case): goal, functions, requirements (= criteria). I could use an evaluation methodology: variables, dimensions, indicators.

    Any other idea?

    Numa Bellisario

    Hi Robert, thanks for your insights!



  • Marcoen J.T.F. Cabbolet added an answer:
    Is this example of research considered misconduct according to US Government?

    You are doing an experiment sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, a U. S. federal agency. In your experiment, you are testing the impact of a new method of exposure to chlorofluorocarbons to lung tissue using low-dose spiral computerized tomography. The protocol you are using was already approved and requires you to screen 200 subjects. You have completed 190 subjects and need to do just ten more. However, it is time for spring break and you really want to go with your friends. You decide to use the date for the 195 subjects and extrapolate the results for the remaining 10.

    Look up what "research misconduct" is according to the US government. Is this research misconduct? Why or why not? Would it be misconduct if, because of sloppy records keeping, you actually thought you had completed 200 subjects only later realized your error of having completed just 190?

    Marcoen J.T.F. Cabbolet

    As said above: you have to be honest. If you write that you did 200 tests while in fact you did only 190 and fabricated 10 test results based on extrapolation, then that's misconduct. 

    But even if your study is incomplete, your findings can still be publishable - in particular if you have very interesting data (e.g. nearly all positive or nearly all negative). You will have to emphasize that the size of the test group doesn't satisfy the minimum requirements, but still the publication can be interesting if you have observed a significant effect or a null result. In the results section you simply give the results of the 190 tests and you explicitly state that this is not enough to meet formal requirements, but in the discussion section you could for example argue (using statistical analysis) that even if you would have done 10 additional tests with a negative result, then still the conclusion would have been that a significant effect has been observed (e.g. because you have already 180 positives out of 190 tests). Although minimum standards are not met, such a paper might yield a motivation to repeat the test at a larger scale.

  • Chithan C Kandaswami added an answer:
    How shall we do critical appraisal of animal studies?

    We are doing a systematic review. Our results are mainly animal studies, and cultures, and just a few human studies. 

    We don't know which critical appraisal tool its the best for our situation, because we are investigating basic research. We are interested in the biological processes ocurring in them, any changes ocurring at a tissue, cellullar and molecular level, in humans, animals and cultures. 

    We would appreciate your guidance in this, since we are kind of lost.

    Chithan C Kandaswami

    The following links may complement the useful ones kindly provided by Dr. van der Valk.

    Animal experiments, from scientific and moral perspectives, need to be systematically, analytically and appropriately designed; their performance must be correct and analysis should be thorough. Reporting needs to be transparent and without bias. Currently, most researchers conducting animal studies seem to have received no or very limited training in SRs (systematic reviews) methodology, and do not know of its availability and potential. Recently, the Dutch parliament has approved a motion to the effect that education and training in SRs of animal studies should be a component of the course on laboratory animal science for researchers undertaking studies with experimental animals.

    Ioannidis JP, Greenland S, Hlatky MA, Khoury MJ, Macleod MR, Moher D, Schulz KF, Tibshirani R. Increasing value and reducing waste in research design, conduct, and analysis. Lancet. 2014 Jan 11;383(9912):166-75. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62227-8. Epub 2014 Jan 8. PubMed PMID: 24411645.

    An example of the potential contribution that SRs can offer in refining is documented by an SR of the cisplatin-induced ferret model of emesis, which provided evidence that the period of observation in the evaluation of ani-emetics may be reduced from 24 hours to 4 hours.

    Percie du Sert N, Rudd JA, Apfel CC, Andrews PL. Cisplatin-induced emesis: systematic review and meta-analysis of the ferret model and the effects of 5-HT₃  receptor antagonists. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2011 Mar;67(3):667-86. doi: 10.1007/s00280-010-1339-4. Epub 2010 May 28. Review. PubMed PMID: 20509026;PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3043247.

     ILAR J (2014) 55 (3): 427-437. doi: 10.1093/ilar/ilu043    The Usefulness of Systematic Reviews of Animal Experiments for the Design of Preclinical and Clinical Studies.

    Merel Ritskes-Hoitinga, Marlies Leenaars, Marc Avey, Maroeska Rovers & Rob Scholten. Systematic reviews of preclinical animal studies can make significant contributions to health care and more transparent translational medicine[editorial]. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014;(3): 10.1002/14651858.ED000078

     Systematic Reviews of Animal Studies; Missing Link in Translational Research? Published: March 26, 2014 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089981

    Conclusions: “To improve the translation of animal data to clinical practice, systematic reviews of animal studies are worthwhile, but the internal validity of primary animal studies needs to be improved. Furthermore, risk of bias should be assessed by systematic reviews of animal studies to provide insight into the reliability of the available evidence.”  

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