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Commonly, for determining the activity of acetoclastic methanogens from anaerobic seed sludge (with low remaining carbon source), I use sodium acetate as main carbon source and analyse the max slope for methane production to get the value of its activity. However, I have problem to determine the activity of acetoclastic methanogens from the microbial sample with high remaining carbon source (such as starch and fibers). The remaining carbon source from this sample can also be used by microorganisms to produce acids then methane. The separation (centrifugation) of starch and fiber from microbial sludge is also difficult, since they have similar density. The control test shows similar methane production with experiment test (+sodium acetate). Would you like to give me some suggestions for this test?
Thank you very much
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Victor S Garcia-Rea. Thank you very much
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What type of reactor is best, conditions mass/mole , energy balance....
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You mean getting water through electrolysis, which decomposes into oxygen and hydrogen. After that, hydrogen is mixed in the presence of a catalyst with carbon dioxide to produce methane.
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Methane is a greenhouse gas that leaves CO2 after burning. Yet, there is a lot of research on methane (CH4) production. Why so?
Moreover, the methane production process has been practiced for a long time, what are the recent advancements (if it is successful then why cant we see them commonly being used)?.
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Biomethane
Just like natural gas, biomethane releases some carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. But these would be released anyway if the organic matter that is used for biomethane production would simply be left to decompose.
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I am working on coating nitrate to make it slow-release. I have made a primary product. First, XRD and IR tests were conducted to assess that. Then, I performed a pre-test to investigate its release in the rumen fluid using a "Nitrate/Nitrite Colorimetric Assay kit. However, the kits available in Iran are made for measuring nitrate and nitrite in water.
So, I would like to know your opinion and suggestion about how to measure nitrate and nitrite.
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Dear colleague
please check:
Regards,
Redimio
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Does anyone have any case studies on the Environmental Impact of Milk Production?
Environmental Impact of a Dairy is what I studied but unfortunately it is completely different with that of the Milk Production
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Faraed Salman THankyou for sharing both the links and I personally read the shared articles and publications and the second one is quite interesting which shows the environmental impact of the dairy industry which is yes connected to the question raised by me and this is in the circular economy and the part of the question, thank you for your time and the publications you had shared.
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CO methanation : CO + 3H2 ↔ CH4 + H2O ; △H°298K = −206 kJ/mol
CO2 methanation: CO2 + 4H2 ↔ CH4 + 2H2O ; △H°298K = −165 kJ/mol
Based on the equation above, we can conclude that CO2 methanation is easier to occur since its heat of formation is lower (-165 kJ/mol) than CO methanation (-206 kJ/mol). In comparison to CO methanation, CO2 methanation requires less energy (low temperature).
However, several pieces of literature claim that CO methanation is easier and more favorable at lower temperatures than CO2 because of the large kinetic barriers caused by the eight-electron reduction of CO2 by H2. Therefore suggests that CO2 is far more difficult to breakdown than CO.
So, which one is correct? Which is most likely to occur at lower temperatures?
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Abdul Hakim Hatta, you can read the thermodynamic aspects of methanation in the attached paper
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CO2 is used as raw material for chemical syntheses. It paves the opportunity to mitigate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, it is not mathematically or logically proved yet that carbon capture benefits the environment in terms of resource efficiency. In my opinion, I believe that the life cycle assesment (LCA) would be the most suitable tool to quantify the resource-based benefits due to carbon based methane (CH4) production and to prove the resource efficacy of carbon capture.
I would like the researchers who read this discussion to provide their own ideas on whether LCA is the most suitable tool to identify the carbon capture resource efficacy or are there any methods better than LCA that can be applied on CO2 based methane production.
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"Life cycle assesment (LCA)" could be jointly addressed with the "circular economy (CE)" and the "ecosystem service valuation (ESV)", as an integrated tool to "quantify the resource-based benefits due to carbon based methane (CH4) production". Besides, this integrated approach can better control the excessive use of material, lowering the energy needs for new products, saving natural sources from overexploitation and environmental degradation, managing labour's capital, and proving the resource efficacy of carbon capture.
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am preparing patch reactors i want to compare enzyme activity with other conductive materials and their effect on Methane production.
am getting confuse between enzyme units and units/mg protein
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Standard enzyme unit is amount of enzyme required to produce 1micromole product per minute.under optimum conditions of reaction
Calculate the product formed in micro moles per minute for a particular volume first and convert it to enzyme units . Then Calculate the amount of protein in the enzyme volume used for assay in mg.
Enzyme unit per mg protein can be calculated .
This is specific enzyme activity.
The international enzyme unit is Katal.
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I recently conducted DNA-SIP experiment where substrate was 13C labelled carboxyl group (99%) model compound (e.g. Decanoic acid-1-13C, benzoic acid). The sequencing data indicates that 75% of the reads were Methylotrophs (Methylobacillus). Remaining 25% are Pseudomonas, Sediminibacter, etc. I have previously observed methanogens in similar system so I believe that methane production is likely. However, I am not sure why Methylotrophs would be that much high? I was expecting some other bugs to be high who might be responsible in degradation of these model compounds but it didn't come along. But I am also considering that the Methylobacillus might have been feeding on the products of other compounds? In that case, what degradation pathways one can expect with such high abundance of methylotrophs.
Can you please provide some insights or I am thinking in a wrong direction?
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here is the final story i generated.
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Can you give me some advise?
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You can check this study: Mao, S. Y., Huo, W. J., Zhu, W. Y. (2016). Microbiome–metabolome analysis reveals
unhealthy alterations in the composition and metabolism of ruminal microbiota with
increasing dietary grain in a goat model. Environmental Microbiology, 18(2), 525-541.
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In addition to CO2, methane is also one of the main greenhouse gases, and in a few dozen years, when the eternal scarifier on the Siberian tundra and other places of the Arctic Circle methane can become an even more significant greenhouse gas.
Besides, the analyzes of cyclical activity of the Sun conducted by cosmologists show that in a few decades the activity of sunspots and more harmful to life and more intense energetically will reach the Earth's wavelengths of visible and invisible spectrum.
The increase in temperature will cause desertification of green areas, drying of biomass and an increase in the scale and amount of emerging fires and volcanic eruptions. these processes will intensify and accelerate the global warming process that is currently under way faster and faster.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
Why according to the forecasts of climatologists, the global warming process in the next few decades can significantly accelerate?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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According to a United Nations report published on August 9, 2021, acceleration of greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and methane, is being caused by humans: "Global climate change is accelerating and human-caused emissions of greenhouse gases are the overwhelming cause, according to a landmark report released Monday by the United Nations. There is still time to avoid catastrophic warming this century, but only if countries around the world stop burning fossil fuels as quickly as possible, the authors warn."
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Could you please share with us your latest scientific achievements (i.e. papers, books, etc) regarding anaerobic digestion technology? Your worthwhile findings would definitely respond to the need for "Engineers without borders" worldwide for tackling the energy crisis, especially in the Global South.
Plaese discuss about your achivements.
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Biogas recovery for sustainable ciities the critical review shared by Mariana Cardoso Chrispim is really good and am sure that might be of some help to you Dr Mohammad Javad Bardi and yes as I said it depends on personal basis and have loads of 20+ years of exp and yes I can share on individual basis whenever we can and would like to exchange ideas
+91 8317585217 (whatsapp)
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My students are doing bio-gas production for their undergraduate programme; they are in need of measure the amount of production.
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The below links shall gie you an idea about measuring methane emissions
Thanks and regards
Srinivas Kasulla
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Soil fertility, plant nutrition
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Experts have already answered the question However,
Ni addition stimulates the methane content of biogas, while excessive addition of Ni causes inhibition of methanogenesis.
Thanks and regards
Srinivas Kasulla
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I am doing a research on certain kinetic models for predicting methane production. I am having difficulty in finding the input parameters of the Richard's model. How can i find them?
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Maybe you could share your data with responders. Then it is much easier to help. I am also curious why you want to use the Richads' function and not another.
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In several studies, methane production was found to decrease with sediment depth, does this phenomenon result from the decreasing organic material concentration with increasing depth? Thanks
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Yes, it is a bit complicated, since the 'locations' of methane production is governed both by depth and type of soil and oxygen distribution therein, as well as distance of penetration of available oxygen. In a simplified surface-to-soil depth description of methanogenesis, the location of methanogens is typically away from the surface according to decreasing O2 levels and the availability of organic substances (acids) at the location of the methanogenic bacteria. In terms of simplified stacking, if you have a supply of organic acids generated form say fermentation of plant and animal wastes in an upper soil layer (at the bottom of ponds and in the upper layers of organic wastes, leakage flows of these acids through soil layers can be into deeper soils (ponds, lakes, rivers) or soil pockets where O2 levels is reduced (drainage through landfills and waste piles) allows for passage of the organic acids through successive soil or wastes bacteria groups with associative forms of the "fermentation products, such that the organic acids reaching the methane producers (methanogenic bacteria) are essentially the last step for consumption of the the acid products, the product of which is the methane. simply described, the depth of methane production is essential the distance between the point of organic acids production by the aerobic bacteria, to to the distance where methanogenic bacteria can thrive. You can easily see that the space or distance is not necessarily linear, but more likely location specific: with distance variable according to O2 level and availability of organic acids to methanogens. In deeper land soils or soil beds in (fresh) waters, methane generation depends on amounts of organic acids reaching soil (or mud) depths with lower O2 levels. In landfills the methanogens would like be away from the top soils, and/or in soil pockets away from but alongside drainage 'pores' inside a landfill: this is typically layers or pockets of mixed wastes covered by layers of soils for regulatory control of disease and nuisances; but are likely better generators of methane (CH4) within a limited area due to more even distribution of internal pores between layers of degrading mixed wastes: with more even distribution of drainage pores. This would be advantageous for the distribution organic acids from mixed wastes layer, and also the reduction of O2 levels with depth inside the landfill. As the methanogens attach to pockets in soils their locations and mass inside landfills would be subject to the distance from and seepage of degraded organic acids into low oxygen portions of the landfill. This jut suggests that depth, in terms of methane production is more governed by access to organic substances rather than soil thickness; and degree of O2 reduction,
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Is power-to-gas a possible solution to this issue? Storing renewable energy in the form of H2 and CH4 and using them as fuels can increase the penetration of renewable energy in the transportation sector?
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I agree with Mohammed. In addition, sustainable H2 and CH4 (from renewables) can be stored in the Natural Gas Pipeline network and underground for seasonal balancing of Electricity Demand and Supply. Sustainable H2 and methane can also power heavy duty fuel cell vehicles year-round. When wildfires and other natural disasters crash the grid, or lead to rolling preventive blackouts, the redundancy and security of the underground natural gas pipeline network and storage fields can provide stable energy supplies to distributed fuel cells.
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With a catalytic pretreatment of the CO2 and H2 mixture to activate the reaction, then a second biological process using methanogenic bacteria, could the efficiency of the process be improved and the production of methane increased?
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Biological methanlization is taking place under anaerobic condition using microbes . So you can not mix with catalytic methanization as bacteria requires different environment for survival.
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Regarding ECBM (Enhanced coal bed methane recovery) technology to contain global warming, CO2 is sequestered by coal seams and consequently recovered CH4 for energy use. But CH4 will be burned as an energy source and emit CO2 back into the atmosphere. I would like to see a demonstration of this. There is a theory that if all recovered CH4 was burned, there would be net storage of CO2, but I would like more references on that.
I have couple of documents like that, but not strong references about it: https://static.berkeleyearth.org/memos/fugitive-methane-and-greenhouse-warming.pdf
If anyone can help me, I'd appreciate it!
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It is a complete cycle for sure, but specifically about ECBM technology it doest seem a very clear improvement. Maybe someone could help better if read my text, but it is missing some good references. IPCC didn't give the information I need:
" Negative CO2 balance
Another point of attention that may question the ECBM conception is whether, with the use of the technology, there would be actually a negative balance of CO2 in the atmosphere. The main economic objective of any CBM or ECBM project is the recovery of CH4. By producing more methane (CH4), this when burnt will emit more CO2 into the atmosphere, which is the exact opposite of the environmental goal.
It is estimated that burning 1 ton of CH4 can produce 2.27 tons of CO2, while burn 1 ton of C (the major constituent of coal) can produce 3.67 tons of CO2. In addition, new modern electric generator technologies transform 60% of the thermal energy produced into electricity while more efficient supercritical coal-fired power plants operate with 43% efficiency. Thus, the net result considering the same energy production, the carbon burned from coal produces 2.8 times more carbon dioxide than the methane burned. Although it is an important greenhouse gas, the methane is considered the “cleanest burning fossil fuel”. When compared with other types of hydrocarbon fuel, the combustion of methane is characterised by the release of less carbon dioxide and more heat (I don’t have serious reference about that – Richard Muller).
Ottiger et al. (2006) and Hansen et al. (2017) suggested that if all recovered CH4 were burned, there would be net storage of CO2, based on the CO2 balance and cycle. There would be a potential for a net reduction of greenhouse effect gas emissions from this storage option. The balance based on these calculations would still keep the technology as a CO2 negative emission solution.
Sampath et al. (2017) report that methane is the fuel that emits the least amount of CO2 per unit of energy released. The Global CCS Institute 2018 also refers to the environmental benefits through the burning of methane (considered by them the cleanest of fossil fuels) to meet energy demand, and not through the burning of carbon-rich fuels such as coal.
According to Sloss (2015), ECBM projects can be carried out before coal mining, sometimes as part of site safety requirements and sometimes as a means of harnessing this gaseous energy before moving to traditional coal mining methods.
CH4 is a powerful greenhouse gas in which its release should be avoided. However, according to Sloss (2015), at ECBM this gas would be collected under control. This would enable a global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, together with an improvement in mine safety (US EPA 2015).
This is certainly one of the most important points of attention in the conception of the ECBM project in order not to generate an environmental contradiction."
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I need to know if it's possible to do the sabatier reaction to produce methane without catalyst, and the temperature that would require. The temperature must be higher (than with catalyst) due to the higher activation energy, right?
Sabatier reaction:
CO2 + 4H2 <-> CH4 + 2H2O
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Hi,
Sabatier reaction is a catalytic method for conversion of CO2 to CH4 by the definition. A very wide catalytic system is available to operate this transformation. A review of the materials and their performances has been presented together with some industrial applications in the following link.
However, if you mean catalyst-free conversion of CO2 to methane gas, as far as I know, there is no feasible method for that and if there is any, it would probably need very high temperatures.
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in general batch anaerobic digestion process which is the right optimum substrate/ inoculum ratio 0.5 or 1.0
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The Italian norm on BMP test (UNI/TS 11703:2018) states that the inoculum/substrate ratio must be comprised between 2 and 3 for general biomass digestion (i.e. 0.5 to 0.33 if you define as substrate/inoculum). Nevertheless, it also states that some substrates (glycerol, fats, industrial effluents containing inhibitors like olive mill wastewater, etc.) may require teh test to be performmed with I/S >= 5. This must be established by the lab operator and stated in the report of the test. For a discussion on the pros and cons of the Italian , German and IWA draft on BMP assay, please see chapter 6 of my book https://www.crcpress.com/Managing-Biogas-Plants-A-Practical-Guide/Rosato/p/book/9781138626614
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The oxic-settling anaerobic (OSA) is known as a simple technique through which the amount of excess sludge is reduced markedly in an activated sludge process. Please help me if you know OSA has an effect on the production rate of biogas in an anaerobic digester.
Many thanks,
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I think Dr. Sodhi has described it: its more of a rate of transfer of wastewater nutrients from and to specific processes: aerobic digestion unit wastewater nutrients (in oxic sludge) to the anaerobic organisms in the biogas production unit. The oxic-settling sludge to the anaerobic unit/process transports nutrients ("food" or carbon), at rate and thereby richness, between oxic and anaerobic processes. Oxic settling sludge richness is likely representative of levels of food substances entering the oxic unit, therefore controlled by influent substance levels. If richness or "food" value into the oxic unit determines value and rate of biodegradable matter from the oxic unit into the anaerobic process, this should roughly determine biogas expectations: "oxic" sludges are know to contain organisms, their products, and remnants of organic materials not yet hydrolyzed (living and dead organism mass, bacterial slimes, and undissolved oxic unit particulates) - and anaerobic organisms in such settings can use carbonaceous "foods" at rates supplied and according ot species mass development: so it should be that the 'richer' the oxic settler sludge nutrients into the biogas unit, the better the biogas digester gas rates.
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In my MFC reactor after the production of methane was above 150 ml that is less however the COD removal is high which was up to 54%. The Substrate was food waste along with sewage sludge.
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To answer this, a physical and chemical analysis of input feed is required. However, I suggest you to examine the chlorine content of your input material, as it is a strong prohibitory element in bacterial activities usually significantly declining the methane production rate.
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Hey guys in a lab setting, chambered experiment in a somewhat enclosed area im working with a CCS company to reduce overall global GHG emission's and we're trying to come up with a machine that essentially uses CO2,CH4 and NO2 as fuel sources with no combustion however we've run into an issue of sorts as we've also decided to go into collecting noble gases as well and we'd like to increase the concentration of these gases however i have no idea as to how to accomplish this. I've looked everywhere on the web and i've ran into methane hydrates, Increasing gas pressure's and an overall lack of sources on the idea as i'm working with atmospheric conditions not aqueous. One solution to this could be building an aqueous permeable membrane but idk how that'd work with the other gases that are absorbed such as the noble gases. So i'd really like some help.
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Manford Malemia thank you for your answer, our company is looking towards the atmosphere
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Many evidences have been proposed that supplement of conductive materials (CMs) in AD can efficiently enhance the cumulative methane production (CMP) and specific methane production (SMP). However, no significant difference in CMP and SPM with CMs added were also reported in many works. Optimization of the addition of CMs is vital. Is the I/S ratio also play a vital role in the enhancement of DIET?
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Hi Xiaobo Guo,
An interesting topic. It it would be better if the redox potential of each phase of the anerobic process can be measured, and ensured during the operation. To be more concrete, in anerobic digestion of waste materials, there are anerobic bacteria that contain tetrapyrole compoun containing Ni, Co, Fe etc. and and enzymes that require these type of minereals. There is also report that the concentration of these vital minerals in the environment, can direct and dictate key anaerobic bacteria probably by changing the flow of electrons (or redox potential) that influence the process performance. This maight also happen in animals digestion system. Good luck.
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I want to measure the dissolved methane in groundwater. Is there any simple method to do that? Thanks for your information.
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Why back flow occurs from aspirator to reactor during bio methane production through anaerobic digestion in laboratory process?
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To obtain reliable answer to your question you should put a detailed description of your laboratory biogas production set up (the design of a laboratory apparatus). I agree with @Abhijeet Singh´s answer above.RegardsVit
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Dear Researchers,
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and CT Scan both are key imaging technology used in hydrate studies. My question is which properties we can measure/visualize using MRI that can not be done by CT scan and vice versa.
Thank you
Jyoti
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The thing is that MRI is basically used for imaging of free water in the system. As it is bonded in gas hydrate crystals, the signal is diminished at theses locations that can be used to estimate the volume fraction of gas hydrates. The method does suck greatly in therms of the spatial and temporal resolution though. There are some papers using this method but they did not provide much of new information. The nicest was the series of papers from a Norwegian group concerning the CO2 exchange on methane hydrate
X-ray tomography can deliver even several hundreds of nm voxel resolution. On the other hand X-ray absorption tomography is not very sensitive to water. Actually it is very poorly dealing with it and at higher energies, the electron density contrast is so weak that distinguishing between gas hydrate and water and gas is very difficult. One needs to spike water with some ions like AgI. Otherwise games in this playground one needs to go for X-ray phase shift tomography that is somewhat limited in the resolution but the contrast increase between phases is just unbeatable.
X-ray tomography is discussed in many papers, far too many to list.
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Septic tank sewage sludge can be half digested and I want to know the feasibility of constructing an anaerobic treatment plant for such a waste? Will it be effective in methane production?
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I am very sorry Indrajith Udaya Kumara, but there does not exist answer to your question. The quality depends on many factors (how long the sludge is stored in septics, whar are the sorces of sludge and many more), so the only way, how to find correct answer is to perform monitoring and laboratory tests at first.
Best regards
Vit
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How to calculate carbohydrate, protein and lipids from CHONS analyzes result ?
Molasses = C45H4O31N
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Good question...
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I prepared the medium according to DSMZ, for M. barkeri. I accidentally added absolute methanol instead of 50% of methanol (v/v). Is there any way to resolve this?
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Hi Jiayi! I can not help you because it's not my subject field
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The general technologies used for CO2 removal are the absorption process, adsorption, cryogenics, hydrate and membrane based separation processes. the chemical absorption process requires large amounts of energy, whereas, the membrane process is only applicable at low pressure conditions. Cryogenics required very high energy requirement and hydrate separation required high pressure conditions for low quality natural gas. Therefore, every technology have its own drawbacks and benefits. So, what could be the potential applicable technology would be there to solve this highly important issue?
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I am a masters student and I have to submit a method that I would like to use in my project. Eek! is anyone working on something similiar with perhaps a different supplement?I would really appreciate it
Susie
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Dear Susi,
I just read your question.I didn't really understand what is your aim. However, commercially there are different solutions for gas production with rumen inoculum, systems that allow you to collect the gas produced during an in vitro fermentation and therefore analyze it for methane concentration. They might be too expensive, so in alternative I can suggest the Hohenheim gas test. It is a very simple method and not expensive. If you need more information let me know.
Federico
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i want calculate the Coulombic efficiency in MEC for prodution methane. what is the final electron acceptor for methane production?
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thanks
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This question is targered mostly on these who have worked with this instrument.
We‘ve conducted the experiments according to WTW Application report 0600412e „Determination of the biological biodegradability of organic substances under anaerobic conditions using the OxiTop® Control measuring system“. Our target for now is to adjust the conditions and obtain similar results; understanding of the mechanism and calculations is important for further experimenting. But there are points that need to be solved.
Of course the conditions can’t be fully imitated, there are many variables and the main is the volume of bottle which make 1 l.
At first, calculation of carbon content in the gasous phase require difference of pressure formed minus pressure in the beginning minus difference of blank. My question is, why there is the need of use blank and pressure at the beginning when theoretically the beginning pressure is included in blank variation (or where excatly should one choose the beginning).
The thing we don’t understand is the coefficient of total degradation Dt (or the meaning of it). Although biological degradation Dh corresponds with degradation of used amount of glucose, the mentioned Dt results in numbers that exceed 100% (even to 160% and higher).
If the problem doesn’t reside in the expelling of gasses from liquid phase by HCl. I use boiled tap water and then degass it with N2 to reduce CO2 in the water but the question is, how much is gas expel with HCl necesarry and influence the real results of methane production?
In the end, I would like to ask you about your experience with the use of anaerobic OxiTop and how you deal with calculating the produced methane gas.
Thank you.
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I think not, as the heads were going wrong all the time. I am in the other lab now.
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Hello . I am from Sudan, i PhD student in the college of Grassland science and technology - Lanzhou University. my major is animal nutrition, now a days i preparing my research proposal. i want to use native herbage plants (or herbs)(contains EO) that grown in Lanzhou or around it that can use in ruminants diets to change mechanism of rumen fermentation and methane production. but i don't know which herbage that grown in Lanzhou i can add it in diet..please can you give me some names of these plants i can evaluate it in-vitro experiment ?
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Thanks
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We intend to conduct a project related to the effects of different oil sources and nitrate on ruminal some rumen parameters including methane production. With this aim, we will prepare a dairy cattle ration (2nd lactation). We will take a sample (0.2 g) and then insert in gas tight syringes which are used in in vitro gas production technique. And, we will determine the methane concentration in these gas tight syringes after 24 hours. But, there is a big problem. How we can obtain rumen content of a 2nd lactation cow??? We do not have a cannulated cow. Can I use rumen contents obtained from a different tytpe ruminant? Can you share your knowledge and experiences realted to this subject?
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I think thats is better to canulate the cows. To use a fettening cow problabily will change the dry matter intake, and consequentilly, the methane production.
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What do we feed the termites (soil feeding) with to produce more methane gas?
What type of environment can we create for the termites to enable them produce more?
How do we capture the gas produced by termite?
What is the quantity of methane gas that can be produced per termite/day?
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I encounter Modified Gompertz to calculate production rate in batch fermentation. How about in semi continuous/ ASBR treatment? Thank you
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I need to have the variable (linear) cost ($/Kg of waste) and fixed cost of a waste digester !  
I'll use them in an energy hub economic optimisation problem .
Thank you 
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Reactor costs
Data on the costs of reactors is scarce as they are commercially sensitive. Assentoft published costs for a 4 000 m3 steel reactor ( height 17 m and diameter 17 m) and Stekelenburg for steel thermal storage tanks with an height over diameter ratio of around one [30;31]
Assentoft published also costs for a concrete reactor 4 000 m3 height of 5 m and diameter of 32 m. Data on a 500 m3 reactor ( 6 m height and 10 m diameter) have been given by Kasper and Peters [32]. Barnaš gave the value for a 3 000 m3 (11m height 11m and 18 m diameter) [33].
Their data can be combined into a model using a power equation of the volume of the reactor.

P = P0 * (V)p [equation 4]
Where:
P is the price
P0 = 1 760 € is the adjusted price for one cubic meter for steel reactors
P0 = 485 € is the adjusted price for one cubic meter for concrete reactors with membrane roof
V is the volume in m3
p = 0.67 is the exponent for steel reactors
p = 0.80 is the exponent for concrete reactors
The equation is reasonably accurate in the range of 350 - 4 000 m3. Only the value of 120 m3 is
35 % too low.
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Iron oxide nanoparticles can be added as an additive (as a nutrient) in anaerobic digestion to enhance biogas and methane production.. My question is: whether the nanoparticles will be added at the start of the process or during the process?
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using Modified gompertz model to predict methane Production (M)
Modified Gompertz Model
M= P.exp⁡{-exp[(Rm.e)/P (λ-t)+1]
I have used non linear regression in SPSS to calculate parameters lag phase (λ ) and Rm (methane production rate) but i have to manually enter the value of P (ultimate methane production) from experimental data.
is P the maximum methane produced? or do we have to take the average of methane produced in stationery phase?
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P is predicted cumulative methane yield, first u will use P (your experimental cumulative value for the computation of lag phase and methane production rate, after getting these two values, u can get predicted methane yield from modified Gompertz model.
I also have fitted three kinetics models on my biogas production values
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Hi,
I am trying a methanation model in Matlab/Simulink. If somebody has worked on it already, I would like to ask few questions.
Thanks!
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I found a paper in researchgate in this field:
Coupling of a 3 Phase Methanation Reactor and a High Temperature Electrolyser using Matlab Simulink
Also authors are in researchgate. You can message them
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Dear All,
not only in all known to me textbooks, but also in my academic environment, plants are only discussed as carbon sinks and therefore planting forests is said to be one of the main strategies to reverse or reduce some effects of climate change.
But: About 10 years ago a german team from MPI published - and that seemed to be a shock for some climate researchers - that plants (especially forests) are able to produce tremendous amounts of methane under "normal" aerobic conditions autonomously (1). There were even attempts to link the ending phase of the ice ages with forest growth in the way that besides volcanic or solar activity forests were responsible for the warm up (and not vice versa).
Still in any lectures at my institution only common methane sources (microbes, anaerobic environments as bogs and swamps, cattles, humans,...) are discussed with students while - as said - plants are only considered as carbon sinks.
How so? Do you know something about the latest discoveries in this field (maybe i missed some relevant publications)? Are plants excluded as methane sources because of new investigations? Or is it an open (and not well known) problem that is not recognized broadly by environmental scientists?
Thank you
(1) Keppler F, Hamilton JTG, Brass M et al (2006) Methane emissions from terrestrial plants under aerobic conditions. Nature 439, 187-191.
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Dear Aleksander,
I did a PhD on the ethylene production of Phaseolus Vulgaris L. and Marchantia Polymorpha L.
With the technique I used, I could measure methane, ethylene, ethane and propane as low molecular weight hydrocarbons at the sub-ppb level using a cryogenic pre-concentration technique. The plants were monitored in an open flow system, with very low backgrounds of the chemical species mentioned. The only hydrocarbon which was measurable with this system is ethylene, no methane, ethane or propane which were below the detection level of the measuring system (0.01 ppbv). It should be mentioned that I always removed the soil when I measured the plants in this system whereby the plants were watered with a glassfiber sheet substrate. If the soil was not removed some other of the hydrocarbons popped up above their detection limits.
It is my conviction that a large majority of plants do not emit methane, but when the soils wherein they grow are measured along with the plants growing on them, methane is bound to be measured as well.
Hence, methane is emitted by soils and not by the plants growing in these soils. Only the separate measurement of soil and plant has corroborated this finding, as I did in my PhD.
Hence, the measuring method has to be critically evaluated on the presence of soil in the measurement protocol or not!
Best regards,
Frank
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I have wrote a research paper on methane production from lignocellulosic biomass. I want to publish this paper in journal of JCR list which are publishing in less times?
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Hi,
I answered a similar question earlier - here the gist of it:
The main objective when publishing is to be read - as in read by those who are your friends and colleagues in your scientific field. But if you publish in a predatory journal or any other journal that is lax regarding the reviewing process (which essentially means that the editors don't read it at all!), then you will be sorry that you took that route. Why?
It's an easy answer to that question: if the time taken for the journal to come to a conclusion regarding whether your paper needs to be adjusted or can be published is in the order of a week or up to a month only, then you are trying to publish in the wrong journal.
What you need is that the reviewing process is thorough - done by experts in the field. If you submit to any "quick" journal, there is a very high probability that it will never by read carefully by anyone. Why would you risk that to happen? The point is to publish a good paper in a good journal that is read by many - which means that it should be a journal with a good reputation.
What makes you think that you can get a thorough review in a couple of weeks from a credible journal? You will not. Mark my word.
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A detailed mechanism of how iron oxide nanoparticles or iron ions enhance the biogas and methane production through interspecies electron transfer.
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Hi Muhammad, if you read up on syntrophy you can easily undersrand the concept behind Direct Interspecies Electeon Transfer (DIET). Classically, syntrophic electron carriers were though to be small molecules such as formate or hydrogen. Recent models of electron transport in AD systems have proposed a more direct means of electron transport such as direct cell-cell contact through conductive appendages and iron oxides have been suggested to play a role too. It' a pretty intereting process and as well as biogas production and AD, similar processes occur in microbial metal reduction.
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I want to learn the effecs of the silage and hay on ruminal methane production. Furthermore, I want to learn the effects of these two forage sources on rumen parameters. 
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I bit disagree with the opinion of Dr. Palangi, methane production in the rumen usually depends on digestibility of a particular feeds. Hay normally prepared from leguminous grasses and silage prepared from non-legumes grasses. according basic rule of ruminants nutrition , if the cattle fed good quality feed staff usually emit less methane  compared high fibre based feed whether may be hay and/or silage.  So, author can go through many review works published by many researchers all over world for consultation, e.g. American Journal of Dairy Science, Journal of Animal Science, AJAS and many others like Canadian Journal of Animal sciences.  
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I intend to prepare a Project related to methane mitigation in rumen. I think to use hazelnut oil and nitrate with this aim. Can you share your ideas with me about my Project? If you accept I will send somedetails of my Project.
Sincerely yours...
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Dietary Possibilities to Mitigate Rumen Methane and Ammonia Production
Efficiency of ruminal metabolism is a significant factor affecting production and release of pollutants, i.e. methane and ammonia. Efficient and balanced ruminal fermentation reduces the emission of gases, particularly methane, to the atmosphere. Losses of energy from the feed ration, connected with the production of methane, are particularly significant in ruminants, since approx. 2/3 production costs are generated by feeds (including forages), fed to animals. Actions aiming at a limitation of methanogenesis in ruminants, at the simultaneous monitoring of quantitative and qualitative changes in methanogens, are justified from the scientific and economic point of view. Proposals of legislative changes include the intention expressed by the European Commission to introduce the so-called cow tax, a tax on kept ruminants. PDF enclosed for further reading
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In other words has the holstein dairy cow reached a plateau of production or what are the genetic, feed and management gains to be made still and how might this relate to methane production.
regards Gerald Rys   
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Thank you for your responses. There has been ongoing debate in New Zealand about how long we can continue to improve our per cow production in pastoral agriculture. We have had a steady 2 percent per annum improvement in methane emissions per kg of milk over the last 25 years. Many in NZ argue that we might be reaching a plateau. I have argued that based on the potential of EU and US animals we have a long way to go before we reach any plateau. 
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I want to do an analysis for a bio-gas samples resulted from anaerobic processing, the method that I am looking for is by using only chemicals not any kind of equipment that the gas will flow in it and giving me the measurement (like H2S or CO2 tubes)?
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Biogas consists principally of methane and carbon dioxide but can also contain small amounts of a wide range of other compounds. Some of them don’t contribute to the energy content, and may be corrosive, poisonous or be responsive for releasing bad smells in the neighbourhood or during the process. Knowledge about biogas content is thus valuable.
In natural gas applications, a gas chromatograph provides an accurate and consistent method of monitoring the composition of the gas. Gas chromatography involves a sample being injected and vaporized onto the head of a chromatographic column to separate the components of a complex sample. When the sample enters through the injection port, it flows through the column with an inert, mobile gas called the carrier gas. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the constituents of the sample and their interaction with the particular column filling, the constituents will pass in the carrier gas stream at different rates. The column contains a liquid stationary phase which is adsorbed onto the surface of an inert solid, causing the constituents to exit the column at different times.
For more detail please find attached herewith article.
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Lots of work have been done using different substrates in biogas product ion and optimization. Are there still new things to research in this area to help in turning waste to wealth and energy and also save the globe from serious implications of climatic change as regards to methane production. Thanks
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Tell me if I am wrong.  Anaerobic digestion is essentially a self-limiting process.  In AD the microbes grow and give off carbon dioxide and methane.  However, in this process the natural life cycle comes into play.  Microbes begin to die.  In the decomposition of these microbes, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are released.  These are toxic to the new microbes.  Eventually, the process reaches its limit.  Work needs to be done on how to remove the dead microbes from the process so that it can utilize all the biomass available to it.
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My project is on hydrogen production from c.reinhardtii and comparison of hetrothroph auototroph and mixotroph cultivation. In my lab work I have some problem for example for autotrophic cultivation how long should I sparge co2 ? Would you please help me find a soloution.
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Dear Azarnoosh
As you mentioned, Oxygen is an inhibitor for hydrogen production using C. Reinhardtii; So you cannot use Air diluted CO2. If you want to use CO2 as carbon source you have to use N2/CO2 mixed gas. I think there must be some mutant strains which are not sensitive to oxygen. In fact oxygen inhibits the hydrogenase activity and as a result hydrogen production will be ceased.
About the time and rate of CO2 purging, first you have to cultivate your microorganism in a serum bottle and then you can determine the required time.
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I want to learn which lactation period (cows) has  highest methane production capacity.
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Interesting question, though this is not my area of expertise, but amount of methane production by lactating cows depends upon nature of feed. Most of the studies reveal during first four lactating periods, methane production is maximum, thereafter it declines. Methane production per unit milk is also dependent upon the digestibility of feed .
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No nitrous oxide was observed in headspace during denitrification assay from chemolithoautotrophic enrichment culture having bacteria closely related to Thiobacillus denitrificans and Sulfuricella hydrogenivorans bacteria.  While only 15N-dinitogen was observed. I found some literature about this in a google book search engine but somehow lost the information and can't find it now.
Thank you in advance for your suggestions/Comments.
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Dear Tina,
Thank you for reply. I agree with your suggestion that Thiobacillus denitrificans have genetic machinery to mediate complete denitrification, reducing nitrate upto dinitrogen gas. We are now able to verify this with the nosZ transcript assay as well. Thank you again for your kind reply and suggestions. Best regards, Kumar
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Methane is produced as a natural by-product of the digestive process of cows and other bovines. Placing methanotrophs inside the gut of a cow would theoretically counter the methane production of the microbes responsible for it in the digestive process, and consequently reduce the contribution of cows to greenhouse gasses. Are the abiotic factors in the rumen of a cow suitable for the growth of methanotrophs? 
If yes, what are its possible implications or consequences to the ecology of the existing microflora in the rumen of a cow?
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Not my field but CSIRO in Australia has spent a lot of effort attempting to decrease methane emissions from rumenants.  I do't know their approach but it's worth checking  
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 The requirement of trace elements on rice mono- anaerobic digestion
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Maybe you can find it. But from my prospective you have to select the environment. Usually the straw rice is contaminated by many species, and it doesn't exclude any interactions between microbes. If this kind of interaction are so strong it will be very hard to find any traces of mono aerobic digestions, because other bacteria could use this product to make new compounds.
After this observation, I think that could be very helpful to check the microbes on the rice and after that check with different cultures if they can makes any mono-anaerobic digestion products.
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(in digestion of wastewater treatment plants sludge)
 thanks in advance.
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General answer is impossible. Optimum mixing depends upon geometry of an anaerobic digestor and on other technical parameters.
Regards   Vit
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What is the main mechanism of increase or decrease by nanoparticles in the anaerobic digestion. 
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We can send you a cheap powder of nanoparticles, which enhances the decomposition to methane. Write an official letter asking our rector.  All the addresses on the site of our university.
Best regards.
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do you think that adding a carbon additives in to the EGSB will enhance the activity of the reactor and eventually increase the biogas production?
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Often scientists reference the S. Clifford et al 2009 abstract, but there is no such plot.
In another work there is a dependence upon temperature, but not on Martian latitude.
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Ken, this hopefully  will be answered by the ExoMars TGO mission.
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Soil fertility.
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In anaerobic fermentation the end product is methane which can be captured for cooking heating and electrical generation. Anaerobic is a condition where oxygen is very limited. In anaerobic fermentation the condition is maintained in a closed container with lots of solid saturating a slurry. Methane as such can be renewal resource from sanitary waste and manures for example.
In aerobid fermentation the end product is carbon dioxide rather than methane.  The aerobic condition is maintained in composting by turning piles of materials which have enough coarse material that they can aerate. 
Anaerobic fermentation by products can have issues with residue toxic materials. In stabilized aerobic composting these issues are taken care of by the composting process. The residues of anaerobic fermentation would be destined for aerobic composting to make them ready of amendment use for plant productions. 
Maintaining of aerobic conditions in composting prevent the anaerobic products which can be harmful for plant growth and generate foul smells not appreciated by residents surrounding the facilties.  Turning of compost piles allows the maintainence of aerobic conditions as well as combining proper ratios of C and N and materials which have the right textures for aeration. 
A simple test for maturity of aerobic compost is the saturation of test material with water and sealing it in a ziplock plastic bag if after 2 days the material generates no foul smell the compost is stabilized and ready for plant use. This simple test is called the stink bag test. Generally anything that smells bad is not good for crop or plant amendment. 
Raw manures can have issues related to their direct use with the right composting or anaerobic fermentation and composting waste with some noxious nature are transformed into valuable inputs and their issues with disposal are greatly minimized by the 80 to 90% consumption of the organic materials. This is criitical for our soil fertility and environmental issues related to synthetic nitrogen and use of raw manures which can contaminate our water systems through the eutrophication which results from excess soluble products in the water which ends in robs water of oxygen needed for fishery health and best recreational use. 
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I am currently working on MFC to generate electricity which'll be utilised by MEC to generate hydrogen. For this we'll be using domestic waste water sludge. Can you suggest any other microbial culture for both chambers anode and cathodic because as far we have planned we'll be using same waste water sludge in both chambers. Along with this please recommend me some good mediators
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Dear Hammad,
I can recommend the following publications hopefully answering your questions:
They use Pseudomonas putida strains and K3Fe(CN)6 was the most promising redox mediator.
Best,
Michael
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We are running an Anaerobic Digester of 10 m3 volume on municipal sludge  and I am not very sure if our Mixer is doing a good job and would hence like to do some tracer testing or equal to establish the mean residence time.
What would be a good tracer that will not disturb the process and how can we measure the same on the effluent.
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Try tritiated water as tracer, easy detection and sensitive (potential on line) detection possible 
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When and why CO2 flux could be higher under flooded condition over aerobic condition?. I did a greenhouse exp. in Germany. Can anyone has idea?
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I am not sure of the hydrology of the location you collected the samples from, but the CO2 may also be due to the dissolution of carbonates. If the water you are adding is acidic (which probably is), and the location you collected the material from was alkaline, the CO2 may be coming from carbonates.
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Water displacement and other methods, but they speak of volume of biogas. I am interested in percentage of methane in biogas 
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We are using a system with infrared and electrochemical sensors in our lab from the company awite (http://www.awite.com/products/gas-analysis/principle-of-measurement.html). But there are many other companies out there, e.g. http://www.bluesens.com/english/products/biogasanalysis/laboratoryscale.html
Also, always remember to note down the temperature and pressure in your lab to be able to normalize the gas amounts.
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I am about to start Biomethane Potential (BMP) test  to examine the co-digestion of 4 types of waste .
As you know, I will have to use an active Inoculum from an existing active anaerobic digester.
At the beginning , i will get a certain amount of Inoculum, and I want to keep it with me for about 2-3 months period(because i will be doing many batch experiments and i want to use the same type and source of Inoculum ) 
I know that in the protocols and standards it is advised to use it not later than one week of incubation, but since i will be testing many samples and different combinations ,I need to use the same Inoculum for that period, therefore, I need to maintain enough quantity of inoculum by continuously feeding the inoculum I have , and taking out some of the existing one so that I can keep Inoculum with  stable activity .
I will be conducting the test in a 200mL serum bottles 
How can that be achieved? is there a certain protocol/ procedure?
I have spend a lot of time to search for an answer for this. 
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I have only worked with bacteria in the past, but limited.  So I do not know your subject exactly, but generally as a scientist, you run risk if deviating from standard methods.  If your stock inoculum declines in intensity with time, or having increased opportunity for contamination, what  is the result?  Another option would be to increase the number of people doing a month's worth of work in a week.  If you do as planned, you may want to do a standard test throughout as a control, and if results decline too much, consider inoculating with more or make other compensation.  In your results, you should include in the methods the variances from standard methods and how this was compensated for or controlled.  It would be good to discuss this with your professor,, co-author or mentor in the technical field.  
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After reading studies investigating methane production and oxidation potentials throughout a soil core, the term 'depth-integrated' is used to provide a single value that somehow summarises the complete set of values obtained in the soil profile. I am wondering what 'depth-integrated' entials, whether it is simply a mean of the entire set of values throughout the profile or whether it relates to something else.
Thanks, Alex
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As far as I understand, a depth integrated value for a soil profile is not the mean but rather a 'weighted average' of different horizons. I.e. the thickness of the different horizons expressed as a fraction of the total profile depth is used to calculate the depth integrated value - hope it makes sense
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I plan to set up anaerobic chemostats and want to feed one of the cultures DSMZ recommended media with H2/CO2 gas, we have applikon chemostat systems in our lab for reference. I'm wondering about the practicalities of feeding in a gaseous substrate and would appreciate any diagrams/advice that could help.
Best wishes,
Ciara
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Dear Ciara,
To my knowledge, without any experience in culturing pure hydrogenotrophic methanogen, formate can be cleaved into hydrogen, therefore, you can use formate if you worry about the low soluble of hydrogen. CO2 is easier to become bicarbonate or carbonate, that's not thing need to be worried. I have some experience in running reactor to stimulate the growth of hydorgenotrophic methanogens with applied voltage that produce hydrogen/electron. If you get interested in this, you can check my publication. I think use electrochemical method to feed bacteria can be a novel idea.
Good luck with you and your experiment. 
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I am doing experiments with indigenous species isolated from black shale. Surprisingly the consortium containing only bacterial species (without methanogens)  produces methane with native as well as with sterilized shale.  I am going to repeat the experiment with more accurately sterilized samples (t=100 deg, on 3 following days) but if methane production still persists - either the isolates are not pure but co-cultures with some aero- and/ or thermotolerant Methanosarcinas (more likely) or there is another mechanism for methane production? Many thanks for any suggestions!
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The question actually have a very simple answer, but one, many people ignore or do not realize: when it comes to metabolic activity, it is veru important to understand tne border of the main catabolic reactions, such as in methanogenic archae and marginal conversions, such as anabolic reactions or side (unspecific) processes. When it comes to biomethane (bio means that it is not thermogenic methane), the only real source are methanogens. No other organisms have the mcr catalyzing the final stage of the methyl group conversion into CH4. There are some evidences that tiny amounts of methane could be releazed as unspecific products from nitrogenase and in clostridia. In you particular case most probably methanogens were present in low numbers but you missed them, which often happen when 16S-rRNA gene is used as a marker. Therefore you must use the methogens-specific functional gene marker - mcrA
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I've used the rusty iron (iron oxide) for increasing methane production in anaerobic digestion mixture of cow manure and rumen contents. I want to know what analyzes before and after anaerobic digestion should I do?
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Please check these pdf attachment also.
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Hi. I want to use fresh cow dung as inoculum. What i have to do if i want to use cow dung as substrate also. Should i have to dry it for conversion of fresh cow dung( Inoculum) to substrate?
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Hi
What is the volume of the digester?
What are the objective of the project? Are you doing a research? Besides cow dung, do you have any other substrate?
The reason for those questions is mainly that, if you are doing research, you can always have cow dung as the inoculum but could do a separate batch reactor that uses only the cow dung and this will be the "control" upon which the other batches can be compared.
If you are producing biogas for actual usage at a household then you can use cow dung as the substrate without drying. So, my understanding of your context will help in giving you the proper advice.
Good luck
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Hi.I am measuring bio gas production. I want to know the reason why some authors used acidified water to measure volume of biogas production in anaerobic digestion.
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Because the carbon dioxide will dissolve readily in water which in turn reduces the pH of the water. If the pH is already low, the solubility of CO2 decreases and you can more accurately measure the total biogas volume with the water displacement method. Alternatively, some researchers use a strong basic solution to completely strip the CO2 and only measure methane volume. 
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I want to do a research in biogas production from lignocellulosic materials (Wheat straw, rice straw, saw dust). My idea is to use alkali or acid pretreatment and than use iron oxide nanoparticles to observe their effect on methane production.. Is this possible? 
You can help me by suggesting more innovative and useful idea about biogas optimization but the idea should be related to nanoparticles.
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Yes,. You can do that. I think you should also focus on  pretreatment results before digestions. This  will give you more information about the availability of your cellulose before AD. Thanks 
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In the scientific literature there is information about the use of various organic and inorganic additives to improve the efficiency of the process of methane production. I'm interested, in what the culture of microorganisms (biological means) are used for the intensification of this process?
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Sir,
Methangenesis occur under anaerobic condition where microbes use oxygen from CO2. Whenever un-decomposed material is added to soil, under temporary submergence also, the methanogenesis will be occurring.  That is why farmers have to be advised to go for composting and then apply to field.  This process can be enhanced by adding some chemicals like alum.  The methano-bacteria is one microorganism used for the process.
CO2 + 4H2 → CH4 + 2H2O
Methane is 8-23 times danger than CO2 w.r.t. global warming.
Hence, the process needs to be stopped;
Pl. stop producing methane! SAVE EARTH!
Thanks on-be-half of all
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A nutrient composition containing protein, lipids, carbohydrates, etc. to enhance methane production. 
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Dear Kasun Thivanka
Sludge pretreatment prior to anaerobic digestion has been found to reduce sludge production in wastewater treatment. Sludge disintegration using physical, chemical, biological, or mechanical methods can increase biogas production and reduce sludge quantities. Ultrasonication is one of the most effective means of mechanical disintegration. This study aims to investigate ultrasonication as a means for solubilizing waste activated sludge (WAS) to enhance its digestability. Sonication was applied by the use of two different probes providing different powers and energies into the sludge after which the soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) increases were measured.to improve biogas yield and methane content in anaerobic digestion of excess sludge from the wastewater treatment plant, the sludge was disintegrated by using various methods (sonication, alkaline and thermal treatments). Since disintegrated sludge contains a high concentration of soluble proteins, the resulting metabolite, ammonia, may inhibit methane generation. Therefore, the effects of protein removal from disintegrated sludge on methane production. As a result, an obvious enhancement of biogas generation was observed by digesting disintegrated sludge (biogas yield increased from 15 to 36 ml/g COD(added).day for the raw excess sludge and the sonicated sludge, respectively). The quality of biogas was also improved by removing proteins from the disintegrated sludge. About 50% (w/w) of soluble proteins were removed from the suspension of disintegrated sludge by salting out using 35 g MgCl(2) x 6H(2)O/l and also by isoelectric point precipitation at pH 3.3. For deproteinized sludge, methane production increased by 19%, and its yield increased from 145 ml/g COD(removed) to 325 ml/g COD(removed). Therefore, the yield and quality of biogas produced from digestion of excess sludge can be enhanced by disintegrating the sludge and subsequent protein removal.The type of fermentation and the reactor are important criteria involved in biomethanation of different substrates. If the total solid concentration is maintained well below 10% and in presence of activators such as Ca &/ Mg highest methane production is possible. If kitchen wastes or such inputs are used along with cattle dung, their concentration should be less than 20% and the materials should be subjected for predigestion under aerobic condition in order to enhance the production of fatty acids. different permutations shall give promising output.During an efficient biogas production, a maximized reduction of volatile solids (VS) and methane production should ideally be obtained at the highest possible organic load. This means an optimization of the utilization of both the organic material and the reactor volume available. To achieve these goals key process parameters such as pH and concentrations of fermentation products (mainly addressed by following the volatile fatty acids VFAs) need to be maintained within appropriate ranges. The pH of the biogas process is mainly governed by carbonate/bicarbonate buffering, which, in turn, to a great extent is affected by the release, formation and consumption of ammonia and VFAs, and the release of sulfide formed from sulfate and sulfite . Thus, the nitrogen and sulfur contents of the substrate can be important factors to obtain the buffering capacity required to maintain a stable pH at varying substrate composition and VFA concentrations but at the same time avoiding process disturbances due to interactions of high concentrations of ammonium and sulfide.
Please find attached herewith related research Paper and links
regards,
Prem Baboo
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The most present gas in the bottom sediments is methane, as the product of the anaerobic degradation of organic matter. In many cases (Baltic Sea) the eutrophication is caused  by anthropogenic factors, what is  not  exposed  due  to political reasons. Acoustics gives us the most effective ways to observe the whole process of production and the ebullition of the methane from the seabed. Due to high difference of the acoustic impedance of the gas and the water the gas  bubbles are easily detected by the echo-sounder. The whole process of expulsion of the gas  from sediment to the water and rising the bubbles towards the surface can be observed and quantified in detail by sonar.
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Methane bubbles in Lake Kinneret: Quantification and temporal and spatial heterogeneity
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I'm currently working on a methane production bioreactor using food waste as substrate. I have doubts on whether or not should I homogenize the food waste, what culture conditions should be taken into account (solid, liquid, stirred tank), q