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Metal Forming - Science topic

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hello everyone. In accordance with the Ti-Cu phase diagram, welding these two metals, forms brittle IMCs like Ti2Cu and TiCu. does anybody know if there is any post-heat treatment cycle to remove or at least decrease these IMCs?
thank you for your favor.
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No, heat treatment below 400°C will not affect the microstructure of the material. It only serves to reduce the residual stresses.
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It is well known that copper plating on steel directly is difficult and has bad adhesion. In order to improve the adhesion the current method is striking a nickel layer before plating copper, or preplating cyanide. Is there any other method to treat steel to get good adhesion with copper?
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Electrodeposit a thin layer of nickel prior to Cu plating on it. It will work. But some stainless steel contain very high chromium contents and nickel plating also experiences adhesions problem.
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I am working in metal forming processes. From literature, it is identified that mostly during simulations of metal forming processes isotropic hardening laws are used, however, the sheet metal has anisotropy nature like aluminum, copper, etc.
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Dear Pavan,
Please find the useful information from the following.
A non-associated plasticity model with anisotropic and nonlinear kinematic hardening for simulation of sheet metal forming,
by Aboozar Taherizadeh, Daniel E. Green, Jeong Whan Yoon,
International Journal of Solids and Structures,
Volumes 69–70,
2015,
Pages 370-382,
ISSN 0020-7683,
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I am currently trying to press cylindrical shapes using the mould shown in the file attached along with a steel mandrel. The problem I am getting currently is that the compacts are wet after pressing. Could anyone please advise on how to seal the ends of the assembly?
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Try latex preservative ;) Set your rubber dies with steel mandrel and powder up and put this setup in preservative, then pump it and seal it after vaccuum is achieved.
This should enable CIP procedure and your compact should stay dry..
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does the Metal complex have a crystal structure?
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Dear Surbhi Anand thank you for this interesting technical question. As already mentioned by Bikshandarkoil R Srinivasan thioacetamide normally serves as an easily handled source of H2S in analytical chemistry. Thus I'm pretty sure that under hydrothermal conditions the thioacetamide completely decomposes and forms H2S. A few transition metal complexes of thioacetamide have been reported in the previous literature e.g. for cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(I), copper(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II), and mercury(II). In this context please have a look at the following useful links:
Synthesis, spectroscopic, and antimicrobial studies of the bivalent cobalt, nickel, and copper complexes of thioacetamide
Thioacetamide complexes of nickel(II) and copper(I) chlorides
INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF METAL COMPLEXES OF ALKYLTHIOUREAS AND SOME RELATED LIGANDS
Unfortunately these articles have not been posted by the authors as public full texts on RG, but I think that the Abstracts contain sufficient information. Apparently, simple thioacetamide complexes of manganese and molybdenum have not been reported in the literature.
Good luck with your research!
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some of the researches carried on porous media by using the ultra CT-scan method. they have been scanned in an actual porous metal form, and using some binary conversion methods, the scanned image converted into a 3D model. if anyone has a link for that sort of 3D model please comment below.
thank you
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Hello! We are engaged in modeling and creating materials with ordered porosity - https://www.scopus.com/record/display.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85013168155&origin=resultslist. To model an unordered porous structure, we created our own macro program.
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In hot forging process, when we heat the work piece up-to 1200oC. It surface begin to rupture, due to oxidation of iron. This oxide layer penetrates into the metal surface when we deform it with compressive forces. So, We are in the investigation of a best technique for descaling of hot metal. Our production is mixed and  batch. Our product variety.
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Use high pressure water Descaler. Most of forgings and steel producers are using to remove scale from heated billets / slabs.
Water spray @ 200 bar is applied through flat jet nozzles. This reduces billet / slab temperature @ 5 to 10 degree, which is acceptable in these process.
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I am working on Laser forming simulation using ABAQUS software. I could generate temperature accurately as per the reference paper I am following, but I could not match my results in displacement and bending angles.
Can anyone help me resolve this issue. If anyone is willing, they can contact me at 8074841553, (INDIA) or kethajayasandeep1254@gmail.com
The paper I am following is attached below.
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Have you tried developing your model at same parameters like same material, laser parameters, and boundary conditions? Please share a pic or your simulated results ? I dont have much knowledge but i do have modeling experience of SLM process in Abaqus
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usually, the axisymmetric problems have been modeled by FEM in 2D space. is there any advantage in 3d modeling of these kind of problems? for instance in modeling of metal forming problems that encountered with severe plastic deformation.
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Besides saving meshing effort and computing time, the 2D axisymmetric models show the complete solution, whereas the 3D solution is seen on the surface. Only after cutting the 3D solution can be seen on individual sections (again this is only a partial view). However, also the expected solution must be symmetric. Often a non-symmetric solution of a symmetric problem matters. Typical examples are instabilities (like buckling).
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what is best way to producing of wire rod 10 mm or less of superalloys such as Alloy 718 (Inconel 718) to reach optimum mechanical properties? casting in VIM (Vacuum induction melting) is probably first step, is it essential remelting (ESR or VAR) for wire production? what is aspect necessary for mold dimension (diameter) in casting and remelting to produce wire rod of 10 mm?
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Hot rolling is preferable process with heat treatment by annealing and normalizing.
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To improve the surface integrity of the material.
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Speed of rotation ,feed and depth of cut.
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I am proposing to work with Shape memory alloy wires. Kindly suggest reliable suppliers in India or foreign manufacturers who will supply to India
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I am proposing to work with Shape memory alloy NITI sputtering Target . Kindly suggest reliable suppliers in India or foreign manufacturers who will supply to India
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I synthesis new ligand ,that ligand react with divalent metals it form metal complex.l used maestro 9.0 for docking the protein with ligand but the problem was maestro 9.0 (not only that all the docking software) not accepted the coordination bond between the metal and ligand in the .mol or .sdf format.so how to dock metal complex with protein.
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Mostly I hear this problem in docking, it is necessary to track bond distance when you using every software, for example for maestro we normally for zero-bond for metal and ligand instead of coordination. but if you want to see your ligand have the ability to bind to the metal in protein, track the Bond distance (like Zn-n around 2-2.2A). simulation and docking forcefield couldn't recognize the metal coordination, but if there is it is possible to recognize it by distance
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In all the literature I've read, I always find Au and Ag as metals for surface plasmon resonance photocatalysis. Why are other metals never used?
One option I've considered is that other metals oxidise and cannot remain in metallic form to act as a photocatalyst, but then, why do we never see Pt SPR for example?
Thanks in advance!
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Au and Ag nanoparticles can be formed to absorb visible spectrum efficiently that's why its commonly used photocatalysts.
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We need to model deformable metal powder. It will be further used in simulation process.
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You can model powder by 90 percentage density by Gurson model available in Abaqus software.
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Hi Everyone,
My attempt to use the drapability and stretching behavior of knitted composites(just fiber without matrix) in die forming. At this moment, I am only interested in the behavior of the fiber.
I ran 2 models (geometrically, constraints and interaction are identical).
Job 68-
Material model used (Steel with plasticity defined).
Results: Are converging. The behavior is as expected.
Job 69- Material model used (Carbon fiber-MAT-1 in .inp and material orientation defined based on texgen software algorithm). Added orientation by calculating the normal for each element using the node data. I have defined the material parameter based upon the property sheet from attached Hexcel-tow data.
The error I get is ratio of deformation speed is too high. I have tried a number of possibility as mentioned in this forum earlier. Any help would be highly appreciated:-)
-Sangram
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I think the mentioned error comes from element dimensions, run the simulation by default element and check the results.
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We are performing turning simulation in Aluminum MMC composite reinforced with ceramic particles. What is the procedure in defining new material models for the cast MMC in DEFORM-3D? Valuable suggestion/procedures are needed at the moment.
Thank you all in advance.
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Dear Msebawi,
From stress-strain graph, using the data, the flow stress model is developed by entering the stress strain curve values. By using this, the new model is developed in DEFORM 3D
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Hello,
I know that Abaqus uses Mises yield criteria by default, and I have heard that if I want to use Tresca then I need to implement this in a VUMAT subroutine (for Abaqus/Explicit).
I'm sure people have done this before, but I am confused on how to do it, even after checking the Abaqus manual.
Could someone please provide some guidance on how to use the Tresca criterion? Would I also have to specify a material curve in VUMAT, such as Holloman Law?
Thanks!
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Is there any specific reason to use Tresca? It is only slighly more conservative than von Mises, but its failure domain is discontinuous
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Hello,
I am doing a metal forming simulation in Abaqus, and I want to create a mesh similar to the one in the attached image. Particularly, on the "Blank" part, where there is a dissimilar mesh transition, going from fine to coarse.
I heard that if I use TIE constraints then this will work. But it is not clear to me how to do this?
How could I use TIE constrains in Abaqus to create and merge dissimilar regions of mesh density within a part?
Many thanks!
Hamid
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In my exprience, it is best to connect two different nodes (one on each mesh) to prevent over-constraints. Tie constraints, can basically allow you to select two sets (one on each mesh) and link their nodes together so that all the TIED nodes move with the same amount
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Hello,
According to the power law, Stress=K*strain^n. Could someone please explain why an increase in strain hardening exponent n results in less material necking from this equation?
Please see the attached plot, here I used K=1 to ignore it's effect and I have varied n for n different values.
It seems that for the same stress put into the material, the curve at n=0.1 produces the smallest strain, where as the curve at n=0.5 produces the largest strain, up to strain=1. If the stiffest material is desired, is n=0.1 not more favourable here?
This behaviour changes at strains greater than 1, this has also left me confused.
Any clarification on this will be very much appreciated.
Thank you!
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according to the change of the behaviour at strain=1 this is purely mathematical since the exponent is n<1 (it's like the behaviour of square root). I believe that you care about cases with strain values much lower than 1. So, an increase in strain hardening exponent n results in less material necking since it represents a more "elastic" material behaviour. Check the following:
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Hello,
I am doing a series of metal forming simulations in Abaqus. I want the simulations to automatically stop when a critical value of PEEQ (or some other variable) has been reached, in order to indicate the failure of the material.
Please see the attached figure, there is a necking region which is highly unrealistic, in reality, the material would have failed much before this.
Could someone please tell me how I can set Abaqus to stop the simulation once a user-specified failure criteria has been met?
Many thanks,
Hamid
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Basically, there are at least three methods to perform such task. The problem is that most of them works only for Explicit anylysis. Below is a brief description of them all.
1) Using *FILTER "to stop the analysis when the value of any variable in the output request reaches a specified upper bound or lower bound".
Works ONLY with Explicit analysis.
For more information read this:
2) Using *EXTREME VALUE with *EXTREME ELEMENT VALUE "to stop the analysis at the first occurrence of a variable exceeding its user-specifed bound"
Works ONLY with Explicit analysis.
For more information read this:
3) Using utility routine XIT "within any Abaqus/Standard or Abaqus/Explicit user subroutine, respectively, to terminate an analysis."
You need to include this command in some user subroutine which would check the PEEQ value, and if it reach some extream value, run the command XIT. I would recommend to use USDFLD subroutine with utility routine GETVRM for Abaqus/Standard.
For more information read this:
Hope this information will help you.
Sincerely,
Pavlo
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Hello,
I am doing a 2D metal forming simulation in Abaqus where I am forming a U-channel (image attached).
I want to plot the change in equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) along a path through the side wall of the component, but I want this to come with a sign (-ve or +ve).
PEEQ by definition does not have a sign, therefore could someone please tell me a sensible way of operating on PEEQ to give it a sign through the thickness? i.e. I want to show PEEQ going from positive on one surface, through the thickness and negative on the other surface.
Thanks a lot!
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The value of MAX_PRINCIPAL+MID_PRINCIPAL+MIN_PRINCIPAL for LE could be considered as an indicator of volume relative change (>0 for expansion and <0 for contraction).
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Hello,
I am doing a non-linear metal forming FE analysis in Abaqus. I don't fully understand what the significance of the stress distribution (for example Mises contour) is, if the structure is already undergoing plastic deformation.
Attached are simulation results of the same structure but using different material properties, and the Mises stress distribution is obviously different, however what is the significance of knowing this stress distribution?
Thanks!
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As above, friends have said about residual stresses and indicator of the breakage point will be helpful in the future.
In addition, I think that the highest tensile residual stress will help to find the cause of hair-cracks or deformations such as spring back, distortion and winkle during manufacturing process.
Hope be helpful.
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Hi, I am looking for a sabbatical position for 1 year in the field of plastic forming processes so I would like to know if somebody knows about an opportunity to join a group with similar interests. I have been working in this area for 4 years.
Thanks in advance.
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polymers or plasticity (Plastic Behaviour of Material)?
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Hello,
i am performing a highly non linear metal forming simulation using PAMSTAMP FE simulation software. I have noticed that for the same mesh and boundary conditions, I get different results every time I run the solver.
The model is exactly the same, so what could be the potential causes for differences in the results? Is there some kind of real time influence?
Thanks,
Hamid
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When you start a new run, be sure that you have no stored results in your problem. I suppose that you have some stored initial values from previous runs.
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  1. After being done micro holes, many micro or nano metal particles forming around the surface with LASER. We want to clean those metal particles with non-contact method. Do you suggest any method or solvent that can be used.
  2. When we cut with LASER the metal forms a HAZ. How to reduce or clean this out using solvents. any method or solvents.
Thanks in advance
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Laser drilling or laser cutting are excellent technologies, but in both cases the process produce many types of deffects (spatter, HAZ zone, recast layer, burr, and so on). The magnitude of this type of deffects may be controlled by the laser parameters (for example, spot position, power percentage, laser speed).
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Recently, our groups tried to synthesis PtNi alloy, in a typical fabriation process, the W(CO)6 was served as reducing agent. EDS results show that the product contains a certain amount of W, to our best knowledge, W(CO)6 would decomposition under high temperature and release CO to reduce the metal precursors. Now, I want to know the existence form of W is alloy or core-shell structure and how to prove it? Can XRD and XPS be competent?
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It might be worth rechecking your EDX data to see if you found any oxygen associated with the analysed area. I assume that you carried out the EDX analysis in a SEM? If you haven't used any carbon coating you could also analyse your EDX data to see if carbon was detected. If you have access to a TEM with EDX you could sample small volumes of your sample to determine where the tungsten is sitting and what form it is in.
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The material is hardened steel and steel rollers. I had two options 0.1 or 0.3. I wanted to put 0.1 but the sheet was not fed at the entry, it bounced back. With 0.3 it goes in, but I feel 0.3 is closer to sheet rolling a bulk metal forming opeartion. What can be done?
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Hello,
just for understanding of the problem two questions from my side:
- what kind of friction model are we talking about? Straight Coulomb? Viscous approach? A combined approach?
- why the restriction to either 0.1 or 0.3?
At least the first question i mandatory, since without the type of modeling approach it is (from my humble point of view) impossible to interpret the given numbers. If if would be Coulomb I'd also say, that 0.3 seems rather high; if we're talking viscous, it's quite okay on the other hand.
Kind regards.
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We can use SPD processes for producing products with many applications. One of them is the Bio application. Do you know about these processes applications in Biomaterials?
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Hi,
The grain size may influence the biocompatibility, so the alloys co-exist better with human tissue. Also, strength is always important for the implants. SPD may give rise to better properties on those aspects.
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It is desired to learn if these two metals form an alloy and if so, what is the reference to its phase diagram. This information is relevant to the catalysis anticipated from the mixed metal.
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There are many cobalt-copper alloys made for different applications.For the phase daigram please see the following reference.
The Co− Cu (Cobalt-Copper) system
T Nishizawa, K Ishida
Journal of Phase Equilibria 5 (2), 161-165, 1984
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When we cold roll aluminum foil we are not able to control the speed of the rolling process. According to rolling theory the speed of the rolling process should be more when thickness is reduced but practically we will not be able to find it. So I would like to know what are parameters which may affect the rolling process or the rolling speed of the rolling mill.
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First of all, a higher rolling will help not only to reduce the roll separating force, but also to lowers the residual stress (which matters a lot in case of foils) in the processed materials. If there exist big difference int the linier velocity of foil and the roll velocity, complete slipping occurs between the roll surfaces and the foil, ie, there are no neutral points or lines in the deformed zone. This differs from current practices in the industry where the entry speed of the plate is generally controlled to match the horizontal component of the surface velocity of the roll in the feeding direction.
And also if the difference in the relative speed becomes too large, ie. the rolls rotate too fast, then the drawing capacity may disappear due to the friction loss. And this problem becomes cretical as the initial thickness becomes smaller and smaller. Industries prefer planetory roling mill most of the time for foil production. Hence to get good quality foils, its imp. to controll the entry speed(linier speed of foil or plate) and the roll velocity properly.
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I want to know the reason for the impression as shown in figure after hot forging of composite material. I have done a step wise hot forging of cylindrical shape ingot and after hot forging the rectangular shape as shown in figure has obtained with impression of top and bottom side. I want to know the reason for that if anyone can explain this.
thanks
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dear Abdul Basit, the star-like squared pattern that you see results from the circular (!) face of the cylinder which you want to change into a more or less squared shape. If you dont want it, because it is related to made properties, you can change the material flow by designing the intermediate forming steps in a way to enhance the flow as much as possible towards the straight sides of the square first before puching the material into the corners. Regarding the distribution of material properties, it depends very much on the properties of the initial cylinder and the alloy grade and casting properties. You can improve on some of the material properties by forming but also causing problems. It is hard to say from the scratch. Is also a question of design and application.
By the way in open die forming you should generate a mostly perfect circle pattern until you work towards the squared shape, but the distance from the edges of the former circular face to the final squared side edges can be manufactured constant on all sides as well corners in this way.
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Even though there are many papers in spring-back of sheet metal forming in quasi static and high strain rate process, still I couldn't figure out how to understand this phenomena in LSDYNA software.
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Hello Ashish
We used a modified Johnson-Cook model in an LS-Dyna simulation, it captures pretty well on the elastic strain recovery/ spring back effect during ring expansion. It is significantly evidenced during the low deformation case. A work presented in 7th International Conference on High Speed Forming (ICHSF 2016), have more detail of the simulation and experimental work available from the following link;
you can also see a simulation video of ring expansion test (obtained using LS-Dyna, showing the elastic spring back, available in the following link,
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I'm simulating a tube end forming process using Ls-dyna. The tube is made of AL6061-T6. The equivalent plastic strain (EPS) obtained by Ls-dyna exceeds 0.8 (which is the failure strain according to the stress-strain curve). Is that mean the process will fail??. I made the process experimentally, and it works. But on the simulation, the EPS is high (range:1.5 to 2).
Should I compare the In-plane strain to the FLD of AL?
If so, how can I get that FLD?
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" You mean that the max EPS obtained from the FE-solver (Ls-dyna) is due to a state of stress that differs from that in case of mono-axial test, and consequently, we can not simply compare the max EPS from Ls-dyna with the 0.8 (the failure strain), and we should rather use a curve like the one you attached. Am I right? "
Yes exactly!
Does X-axis represent the triaxiality factor?
Yes X-axis is the triaxiality! Is defined as the ratio between the idrostatic stress and the vM equivalent stress.
What is the relation between Johnson-Cook and the attached curve?
Johnson-Cook is the general form of the fracture locus. The curve is a simplified version that neglects the effect of the strain rate and the temperature.+
Franco
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High strain rate forming processes, Flow stress, Spring Back
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I am trying to simulate punching of tube process in Abaqus. Speed of punch is 10 mm/min and it have to travel total 7 mm including the thickness of tube (1.5 mm).
  1. How to simulate the Process?
  2. What will be the time period and time increment?
  3. What is the meaning of time scaling factor?
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Yes, mass sclaing will help but you need to monitor kinetic energy, it should remain small compared to other energies in the model.
Or switch to implicit and don't bother with dynamics...
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Hi all, I am running ABAQUS/Explicit incremental metal forming simulation. The tool radius=3mm, blank mesh=0.5mm, blank thickness 0.8mm, shell S4 element, friction=0 now. tool speed up 20 times faster than experiment, with mass scaling to target 5E-6. time scaling factor=0.7. damping alpha=10.
However, the simulation stops automatically with the following error:
Excessive incremental rotation of the elements in element set ErrElemExcessIncrementalRotation-Step1.
There is only one element with excessive rotations
Anyone has ideas? Thanks!
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Dear all
I think you can try reducing thedimension of the minimum time increment.
Probably the problem is the mass scaling factor.
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I am trying to reduce edge build up/down and center buildup defects during continuous hot-dip galvanising process. During analysis it showed us it is mostly during air knife adjustments. We're using 1982 air knife design. If anyone can assist I would be grateful. I have done all the settings and procedure to be done.
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You can use edge guiders to extend the surface of sheet, it will stop the creation of negative pressure at the edges of sheet. But more easy option is try to use edge drop cold rolled coils. Try to drop the edges of sheet 10 to 15 microns from the center.
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I want to know How I can map the stress when preformed buckling and post-buckling.
I read in one thesis, author mentioned about SIGINI/HARDIN subroutines. Unfortunately he did not explain about it or provide the code. I have got the residual stresses distribution however its not for the full scale section
So, i want to map these stresses/strains to the section using SIGINI/HARDIN subroutines.
Any guidence please?
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If two materials with different yield stress have similar FLD diagrams could we say that they can be formed similarly?
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Multiaxial forming behaviour in the plane of sheet metal will be similar with respect to necking and failure against cracking. Also, if the FLCs are similar, similar hardening behaviour could be assumed too - according to modeling approaches, e.g. Keeler.
However, different yield stress will also cause different springback, playing an important role in any geometrical application. Moreover, forming forces will be significantly different, du to different yield stresses and as UTS is not considered.
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I have conducted a metal forming analysis in ANSYS, and now I need to plot the stresses and strains in one specific node that I select.
What is the APDL code to do this ?
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Yes. When you plotted the contour, if you click on it, then you will see the tabular data is created on the bottom right corner. Depends on how you defined the time steps for the problem, you will see the strain results (time dependent strain results). Extract these results into an Excel file. Do the same thing for stress (Normal stress) and extract the result into excel file and then plot it.
It is also possible to create this chart directly in Ansys, However the graphs are not as nice as Excel, So I preffer to work with Excel. You can use "New Chart and Table" function and make everything in Ansys.
By the way if you defined only one time step then this method doesn't work for you!! make sure you have enough time step and increase the load gradually for creating a accurate stress-strain curve.
For creating stress-strain curve, you need to define non-linear material first by using plasticity options avaialble in "Engineering Data". I preffe "Multilinear Kinematic Hardening" . Then increase the load gragually by properly adjusting "Number of Steps" and "Timing steps".
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In metal forming process what is the effect of material defect such as vacancy ?
is there any additional force required in the process to over come the vacancies ?
and if yes , what is the value of this force
if we divide the forces to
1 / forces to form the metal " assume there is no any defect or any kind of imperfection, what is that force ?
2 / force to over come the defects what is that force ?
and finally what is the magnitude of the total forces ?
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Also the link above
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There are two important methods in forming hot and cold and each one used in applications.
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Depend of the properties you need. Also depend of the characteristics metals you want to forming.I agree with the professor Omer Beganović
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Forging process one of metal forming , it has many important applications in industrial .
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In this sense, cranck shafts, camshafts, hip prosthesis, and many many parts are made by forging.
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Metal machining and metal forming were two important processes used in most manufacturing processes and each one of them had a good applications in life.
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Two prominent methods of converting raw material into a product have been metal forming and machining. Metal forming involves changing the shape of the material by permanent plastic deformation. After converting non-porous metal into product form by metal forming processes, the mass as well as the volume remains unchanged. However, in the case of metal forming of porous metal, volume does not remain unchanged. The advantages of metal forming processes include no wastage of the raw material, better mechanical properties of the product and faster production rate. Machining is the process of removing the material in the form of chips by means of a wedge shaped tool. In ductile materials, a significant amount of plastic deformation occurs before the material fractures. In brittle materials, very little plastic deformation takes place. Hence, the mechanics of machining is quite different for ductile and brittle materials. In machining, the work-piece is subjected to shear, bending and compression by the tool
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Dear scientists,
What methods you use for estimation of heavy metals form of bottom sediments rivers, lakes, seas, oceans etc?
I know there are two basic approaches for analyse chemical form of heavy metals from soils and sediments (schemes of Tessier and BCR). But I also know about lacks of this methods. Moreover they too expensive and labour-intensive. Could you tell about your experience of decision of described problem?
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The assessment of binding forms by sequential elution must be considered as an approach and should not be regarded to be specific for single mineralization forms (operational binding forms). However, it gives much more information on your sample than just doing total analyses (e.g. anthropogenic vs. geogenic loads in environmental questions). Since the procedure proposed by Tessier at al. (1979) there appeared lots of modifications, some of which are very specific designs to identify binding forms of single elements (e.g. As, P, U). The reagents used for identification of a specific binding form will co-extract to some extent other components. As an example, in procedures developed on the Tessier approach besides the release of exchangeable ions ammonium acetate will also etch carbonates on particle surfaces.
A crucial prerequisite of thorough identification of binding forms is to take in account the redox condition of the sediments. Many authors have demonstrated that some of the characteristics of these sediments change rapidly in contact with O2 and, therefore, also binding form proportions will change. Handling of sediments (e.g. lake sediments) from reducing conditions without preservation of the original conditions is waste of time and will result in fake numbers. However, starting with sampling in the field the handling under reducing conditions remains cumbersome. Cores should be regularly sliced already in the field into subsamples in an Ar-flushed box and immediately stored under Ar in airtight sample containers (glass). The tightened containers should be transferred immediately in a cooled box filled with Ar until finally stored in a fridge at the laboratory in the dark at 4 ºC. All samples should be processed and analyzed immediately after the sampling campaign. The slices are split in the laboratory into subsamples under Ar atmosphere in a glove box (one part remains under anoxic conditions (sequential elution), the other part is used for total element analysis, grain size, X-ray etc.).
In case of oxic conditions sampling is much easier; specific precautions must not be applied.
The method I applied is described in detail in Zachmann et al. (2009 and 2013; publication can be found in RG); it is a 6-step procedure and is based on Tessier et al. (1979) but it contains some modifications concerning the anoxic processing. In summary the procedure is as follows (Step - Phase – (Extractant) – Duration):
1 - Adsorbed cations – (Ammonium acetate (1 M, pH 7, 20 mL)) - 2 h;
2 - Carbonatic - (Na acetate (1 M, pH 5, 20 mL)) - 5 h:
3 - Easily reducible – (Hydroxyle ammonium chloride (0.1 M, pH 2, 100 mL)) - 12 h
4 - Less easily reducible – (Ammonium oxalate/oxalic acid (0.2 M, pH 3, 100 mL)) - 24 h
5 - Organic + sulphidic – ((a) Hydrogen peroxide (30 %), 30 mL, time depends on reactivity; followed by repetition of step 4: Ammonium oxalate/oxalic acid (0.2 M, pH 3, 100 mL) - 24 h);
6 - Residual - Hydroflouric acid digestion (standard procedure)
Additional remarks:
  1. The procedure is performed with 0,2 g fresh material in centrifuge vessels (from oxic or anoxic condition); weight correction before starting (dry at 110 ºC).
  2. Extractions 1–4: the samples remain in the centrifuge vessels; the vessels are shaken during the time of extraction (tube roller mixer); after extraction the solutions are centrifuged with 1420 g; the solution is filtered (0.45 µm).
  3. The residue of step 4 Is transferred into a 250 mL beaker; H2O2 is added and the residue carefully digested on a heating plate. The procedure is repeated until the sample is bleached. The solution is evaporated until nearly dry; step 4 is repeated (transfer to centrifuge vessel)
  4. The residue is transferred to Teflon® crucibles and digested by a combination of HF, HClO4 and HNO3 (7 : 2 : 7; ISO ⁄ DIN 14 869-1 (2002))
In case of anoxic conditions also the procedure the steps 1 – 4 of sequential elution must be performed under anoxic conditions with fresh sample material in the glove box in an Ar atmosphere. All solutions used in steps 1–4 were washed O2-free by purging with Ar for about 24 h. The solutions were controlled by an O2 sensor.
In case of oxic conditions these precautions must not be applied. However and in any case, due to the high concentrations of extraction solutions the detection of potentially harmful trace elements in the different elution steps (e.g. Cd, Pb) is heavily hampered by the high matrix load. The very high sensitivity of ICP-MS allows high dilutions by this suppressing the matrix effects and still allowing reliable element signals.
In the case of Pb the procedure may cause an artifact by shifting an elevated portion from step 5 to step 6, which yields an apparently non-reasonable stable binding form (step 6: ‘‘silicate’’); most likely this portion belongs to the sulfidic binding form. Therefore, in the case of Pb the ‘‘residual’’ binding form is included to the sulfidic (C-org.) binding form.
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Electroplating is a process that uses electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode.
Electroforming is a metal forming process that forms parts through electrodeposition on a model, known in the industry as a mandrel. Conductive (metallic) mandrels are passivated (chemically) to preclude 'plating' and thereby to allow subsequent separation of the finished electroform.
For Instance: Take Nickel. Nickel electroplating is carried out a specif ic parameters (Anode and electrolyte). Can the same be used for Electroforming of Nickel. What are the process parameters need to be changed? Is there any specific changes required in experimental set up?
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In electroforming, the concentration of metal ion in the electrolyte is higher than electroplating since higher thickness is required, the same with respect to current density.
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Dear All,
I have synthesized polyaniline with copper. I need to understand following ToF SIMS data.
m/z Peaks for Cu are 62.9296 amu, and isotope 65 Cu at 64.9278 amu are not detected but the presence of 63.03 and 65.04 amu in the spectra. In the other case --m/z Peaks for Cu2 are 125.8592 amu, and isotope 65Cu2 at 129.8586 amu are not detected. However, I could see 126.04 and 129.85 amu.
For m/z Peaks for diatomic Cu and H4 (molecular form) and its isotope peaks are not present at its designated isotope markers. Namely, Cu2+h4 is 129.8592, & 65Cu2+h4 is 133.8556 amu, in this case, I could see 130.06 and 134.05 amu.
I request you to help me to understand this. What form of copper is present in the sample? Any complex with PANi ? or Cu(I) / (CuII) / metal form. Thank you so much.
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Dear Jayesh M Sonawane,
There is a few things you can do/check:
1) Double check if you calibrated your mass spectrum correctly. Pick C, C2, O, O2 and Bi (or any other element if your primary ions are not bismuth). Don’t use hydrogen for the calibration.
2) Check the oxygen peak. There are quite a lot species that can match your measured values with oxygen in them.
3) I don’t think it’s a mass interference because MRP required to distinguish Cu from other species is low and I assume your system meets it but the real question is what is the width of your peaks? Are they perhaps broad? If yes then try to check what could have caused the peak broadening.
4) Do you have any confirmation from other methods that copper is indeed in your sample?
Best Regards
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On the other hand, is the verification required when a few change implies in current models for a certain purpose, e.g. the assessment of formability?
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The more mechanical and forming tests you do, the better your final FE model.
I would think that tensile, coupled by forming limit curve tests; for a start. Then you could also investigate different strain paths.
It depends what type of plasticity model you want to develop. If you want to look at kinematic hardening as well you would need to do fully reversed cyclic loading/testing.
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in Zener and Hollomon equation for metal forming process
ϕ’=A*e^(-Q/RT)
what is the relation between the metal forming process and the R " the gas constant " ?
what is the relation between the metal forming and gases ?
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Dear Ibrahim,
There is not any relationship between metal forming and gases.
The point is that plastic deformation during metal forming is related to the Arrhenius-type law and the strain rate follow such equation, as you present in the equation above. The exponential term of this equation is related to the Boltzman statistic and basically represents the probability of the mechanism to jump across the barrier of apparent energy Q at a given temperature T. Then, if you introduce an apparent energy Q measured in J/mol, then it should appear R measured in J/mol K and the temperature T in K. However, you may introduce this term as Q/kB T, being kB the Boltzman constant. In this case, it could be useful to introduce Q in eV, kB in eV/K.
Then, in your equation, if the left term represents the strain rate, the proportionality constant A is the Zener-Hollomon parameter Z.
So the relationship of Z is not with gases, but with the Boltzman statistic and the Arrhenius equation.
I hope that this could be useful for you.
Kind regards.
Prof. Jose San juan
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Hello everyone, I would like to run a welding simulation where phase transformations are taken into account. So deformations and residual stress can be computed accurately after cooling the part down. The software that I am using is Simufact Welding 6.0. I know that material library must contain CCT/TTT diagrams,  volume change per transformation strain, solidus and liquidus temperature, etc.  
Before running, the software is giving me a warning, where it asks to define the phase fractions by enabling the 'use phase fraction' option in the components properties.
Where the initial conditions are taken? 
Otherwise the default value (100% Ferrite) will be used.
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The phase fractions on your initial depend strongly on the pre-process it has been through. If you use steel as comming out of the production is different from material comming from a pre-heating process which might produce large amounts of austenite.
What is the pre-history of the components you are welding?
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From your answer and expertise I want to know does it worth to go through process optimization or not.
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Dear,
The best example of benefits of statistical methods is 6 sigma approach!
Regards,
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What is the suitable element to use in Quasi-static problems?
I am doing a simulation for press-braking operation to form a thin-walled steel plate in Abaqus.
The simulation will be in 3D
is shell element suitable to investigate through-thickness stresses?
Thanks
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Looking again at the original problem, which Ayad Mutafi has stated, he is more interested in press forming thin sheets where there is extensive plastic flow of the sheet material. The sheet being thin the magnitude of bending stresses will be negligibly small compared to membrane (in-plane) stresses. In such a situation investigators have tried visco-plastic stress analysis using membrane shell elements with success.
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Hi everyone
I am doing a simulation for press-braking operation to form a thin-walled steel plate in Abaqus.
The simulation will be in 3D
I choose shell element for that...
MY QUESTION IS:
is shell element suitable to investigate through-thickness stresses?
Thanks
Ayad
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Dear Ayad,
It all depends on the physics of your problem and degree of accuracy desired. Shell elements can indeed be used. But you have to consider that they formulation rely heavily on strict hypothesis in the thickness direction. Solid elements do not need these hypothesis, but they are prone to blocking and other unwanted deformations for very thin structures. That is why "solid-shell" (aka thick-shell) formulations are promising tools for modeling thin shells. Their formulation is more complex compared to classic bricks, but they need only one FE in the thickness direction.
I used a solid-shell formulation in my PhD thesis to simulate a forming process with strong stress gradients through the thickness, under localized contact. The shell element gave good predictions in terms of the deformation, but not as good as solid-shell elements. Classic bricks needed several layers through the thickness, increasing the CPU time heavily. You can check my thesis for more information.
Regards,
Carlos.
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What is the suitable element to use in Quasi-static problems?
I am doing a simulation for press-braking operation to form a thin-walled steel plate in Abaqus.
The simulation will be in 3D
is shell element suitable to investigate through-thickness stresses?
Thanks
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if you are interesting to invesitgate through-thickness stresses, then it is better to use solid/brick element.
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I am trying to model the fatigue response of a wire-arc additive manufactured specimen of Ti64 alloy. It has large columnar grains with sizes greater than 3 mm. I was using cyclic plasticity, but now I want to introduce the effect of microstructure. Crystal plasticity is used in the literature for this purpose, but I cannot get an EBSD map of even 1 complete grain due to the large grain sizes. 
Can anyone suggest some better options?
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Hi, What is the fps that you get in your EBSD system.... I suppose all you want is to incorporate the orientation information to individual tessellae, for your FEM simulation. If you say, EBSD scan takes roughly 3 days, it implies that your fps is: (1600*1600)/(3*3)/ (3*24*3600) ~ 1.1 fps. Most SEM's can now aquire scans at ~ 30-100 fps. So, the time taken for you scans can be significantly reduced. Since, you are mostly interested for the orientation of the grains, you can perform a transverse scan (perpendicular to orientation of columnar grains) with a coarse scan say, 5 microns. Now, the time required would be, (3500*3500)/(5*5)/50fps ~2.72 hrs..even for 50 fps. So, I was just wondering what is the maximum scan rate, in fps possible in your EBSD set-up .
Thanks
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My master project is to study the competitive adsorption of four types of heavy metals by a synthetic adsorber, and It is important for me to investigate a case as realistic as possible. So I want to choose four toxic metals that find together in real wastewater samples of activities like mining, mineral extraction, metal forming and the like. I'll be so happy if you share your information with me about the coexistence of heavy metal ions in wastewater of large industries and the current references on this subject. 
Regards
M. Keyhani
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How we can to detect sulphur on microstructure of steel. How to print sulphur's distribution on billets
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Sulphur causes hot shortness in steel. This is nothing but cracking caused inside the steel due to formation of FeS which is a low MP phase. When steel is hot worked, this FeS softenes and promotes cracking. Hence, % of Sulphur is kept below 0.05%
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I am working on forming of light metals. One of the problems of metal forming processes is the residual stress created during the process. To solve this problem are used methods such as: Annealing, Shot peening and ...  . My question is whether we can minimize residual stress during the forming process? This means that the decisions to the process parameters.
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Thank you for sharing your wisdom with me.
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duplex structure (ferrite and austenite)
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I suggest the book X-ray diffraction by B.E. Warren. It's an older one and quite mathematical, but thetheories inside are fine.
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A Laser is used as a source for melting the shape memory alloy in additive manufacturing. Does this process affect the shape memory effect of the alloy?
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Laser processing is often associated with a change of properties on the surface of impact. The degree of change depends on the time of the power of the laser treatment. It is possible to process a very thin layer of 0.005 to 0.060 mm that does not affect depth. In this case, a barium boundary that can be used for some processes and is harmful to other processes
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I am not an expert in inorganic chemistry; therefore, I ask my question to the specialists in this field:
“Can we find the gold in nature in the form of salts and not in its metal form? ”
If so, which are these types of salts (chemical form) and which are their colors?
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Thanks   Bojidarka B. Ivanova and Nassim Oulamine for your help. 
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I am working on additive manufacturing (DMLS specifically) of Titanium alloy (grade 5) for aerospace applications. Can anyone help me in guiding that whether severe plastic deformation (SPD) (any SPD process) can be done on the same? If yes, possibly what changes (advantages or disadvantages) in mechanical properties could occur?
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I agree with Omar (direct metal printing)  But there is another form of additive manufacturing through 3D printed sand molds and casting. This would give better properties. ExOne or Voxeljet printers.
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Mechanically it can be recognized easily, but by looking the microstructure, it is very difficult to understand.
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Fracture surface in Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The ductile fracture appears as dimples and brittle fracture appears as rock candy morphology as shown by (SEM), after the fracture materials are different shapes as cup and cone.
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Hello Everyone,
I would like to know the copper alloy which can be used as a backing plate. It should dissipate the heat quickly and sustain the load exerted by the friction stir welding tool during welding.
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Dear Chandra Bhanu Basak and Sergei Tarasov,
Thank you very much for your information. Actually, I am interested in increasing the cooling rate to avoid the formation of unnecessary compounds which eventually reduce the mechanical properties of joint.  I suppose conduction is the better way to take way the heat rather convection. However, we are providing natural convection by blowing air. Hence please suggest me what is the thickness of pure copper backing plate which can withstand around 5000N load.   
I am glad if you provide any alternate solution. 
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Hello,
Is there any chemical etching shows precipitates caused by heat treatment in Al6061 by OM and/or SEM?
Heat treatments include pre-aging, natural aging, and bake hardening.
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It will be hard to observe precipitates using OM or SEM. TEM is better to observe precipitates. 
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Quasi-static indentation test conducted on Aluminium 5052-H32 sheet with 3 different thickness;0.5 mm,1 mm, 2 mm. 
using 12.7 mm hemispherical indenter, speed 1.25 mm/minute, both edges clamped. The test was conducted until specimen perforated.
For 1 mm and 2 mm thickness there is a flat plateau as shown in the load-displacement graph.
can anyone explain this?
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If it is a tensile test and the sample is fixed well, this effect could be due to exeeding a force required for moving some element of the clamping system. This effect can occur when movable traverse is loose. Its weight should be exceeded to displace it.
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Metal forming 
Backward Extrusion
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Thanks, will go thru and understand it.
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Dear all
I hope you are fine. Can any onle please help me in a simulation problem. I am doing hot compression test simulation with 60% height reduction. One material is rigid 2 D wire which is compressing the material and joined by reference point. When I am applying 4 different temperatures then 4 different graphs obtained for force vs displacement on the reference point. but in interaction properties when I am applying different friction coefficient values from 0.1 to 0.5 then there is not any change of graph curves. Can any one please tell me what is the reason behind it. As if there is contact between two materials then there will be friction between them. By changing friction coefficient force displacement graph should be affected. I have attached the .cae and .jnl file with excel graph of force displacement for different temperatures and friction coefficient.
Thanks for every one.
Reagrds
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For validate the software, I think that you need to test with the "Compression ring test". The sample have the following relation: 6 (outer diameter), 3 (inner diameter) and 2 (thickness). If you make the virtual test (with Abaqus), when you use friction factor =0, with the compresion of the sample, the outer and inner diameter increase (figure a). When you use friction factor greater, the inner diameter reduce its value (figure b).
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I want to dissolve a low steel alloy containing tin but keeping tin in the divalent oxidation state, I tried conc. HCl but after dissolving, Sn precipitates with dilution.
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Thank you Dear William, this was so helpful
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My project work is based on "Structure property correlation of forged alloy steels".The sample in which I have performed hot compression test is F55(super duplex steels).I am not able to find out how to generate plots of instability and power dissipation maps  
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Basically, trying to simulate your forming process before starting to actually excerise tests on your material would be a good idea to get a first glimpse of what is particularly happening. As you already started to let your material undergo certain tests, you should at least start to simulate its material behavior and the development of elongation and tension [...] now. Anyway, to get an impression of the correlation of structure and properties of your steel, using divergent forming parameters (temperature, speed of forming, true strain...) would be a good idea. Don't forget to quench after forming to freeze the current state of microstructure. Then, try to evaluate the microstructure by taking a closer look on the micrographs of your specimens. Maybe you can already see the effects of certain changes in the forming conditions? Secondly, take a closer look on the mechanical parameters saved by your forming device. There should be a correlation between the changing conditions and the force needed to form etc... It would be best to argument by developing flow curves for each condition you took a closer look on, if possible.
As always, please talk to your professor about the things you're planing to do in advance. And always try to remember that the specimen's microstructure will always determine its properties - not the other way around.
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I need orientation about how to simulate with hyperform the construction of an aluminium bottle can. The basic issue is that I only have one side open to inject the fluid and the other side is closed. Normally I used to work with both sides open but I dont know how to simulate with only one side open.
Thanks for your help and tips.
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Dr. Gupta,
I really appreciate your comments and your really valuable information. Im gonna make the simulations and try to analyze all possible variables.
Thank you again.
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I am tying to implement linear isotropic hardening in a metal forming simulation on ABAQUS. Since I am very new to writing subroutines, any material about writing UHARD Subroutine will be of great help.
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It is actually really simple to write this routine, here is an example for a simple material law with (A* eps**n + B) * (1-C*TEMP)
[Note that correct fortran formatting was lost, lines with $ are continuation lines]
SUBROUTINE UHARD(SYIELD,HARD,EQPLAS,EQPLASRT,TIME,DTIME,TEMP,
$ DTEMP,NOEL,NPT,LAYER,KSPT,KSTEP,KINC,
$ CMNAME,NSTATV,STATEV,NUMFIELDV,
$ PREDEF,DPREDEF,NUMPROPS,PROPS)
C
INCLUDE 'ABA_PARAM.INC'
C
CHARACTER*80 CMNAME
C
DIMENSION HARD(3),STATEV(NSTATV),TIME(*),
$ PREDEF(NUMFIELDV),DPREDEF(*),PROPS(*)
C
real*8 A,n, B,C
c write(*,*) 'nprecd', nprecd
A=PROPS(1)
n=PROPS(2)
B=PROPS(3)
C=PROPS(4)
C Calculate yield stress and derivatives
C
syield = (A * (eqplas+1.e-5)**n + B ) * ( 1 - C*temp)
hard(1) = A* n * (eqplas+1.e-5)**(n-1) * ( 1 - C*temp)
hard(2) = 0.D0
hard(3) = (A * (eqplas+1.e-5)**n + B )* (-C)
if (syield.le.(B/100.)) then
syield=B/100.
hard(1)=0.
hard(3)=0.
end if
c$$$ if (NOEL .eq. 1) then
c$$$ write(*,*) A, n, B, C
c$$$ write(*,*) TIME(1), DTIME, syield, hard(1), hard(2), hard(3)
c$$$ end if
RETURN
END
Use the commented lines at the end to output everything at one element.
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Do anyone know a maximum temperature for Al-alloys (except the melting temperature for the resp. eutectics), from which the effect of superplasticity is reduced? Or can anyone give a reference, where the effect of superplasticity (e.g. strain) is printed against the temperature (room temperature to the melting temperature) of aluminum alloy?
Thank you.
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it depend your as received material, if the al-alloys mechanical properties be standard (not rolled, extruded,..) you can enhance temperature to 0.5*melt temperture to increasing properties and if you use worked material , predicting it is difficult.
Good luck
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I want to understand what is the application of bi-metal tubes in airplanes and etc ?
Are important  welding of the layers ?
I want to understand top application of this tubes?
Thank you
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Thank you Dr K. Aliakbari