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I would like to conduct e research deciding the correlation between time perception and learning styles (visual, auditory and kinesthetic). My concern is that I can't decide which test to use for time perception. The options are: Metacognitive Questionnaire on Time (MQT) and Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventor (ZPTI). For the first one my concern is that it measures the awareness of time distortion implying that time distortion is certain, in this case while studying.
For the ZPTI my concern is that it consists of 56 statements and I doubt the subject would be patient to answer all of them without rushing, thus affecting the validity of the study.
Which one of the tests would be more suitable to use or can you suggest any other questionnaire on time perception?
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Hi Drita, It is better that you yourself design an instrument that measures the perception of time, so that it is validated by experts or a method. In addition, to be that correlation you want, what to serve? What is beyond the correlation? Kind regards
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Dear researchers, I am writing a thesis on self-regulated learning and Al-Ghazali's views in education. Are there any similarities? What new views on education/Tarbiyah can be applied? please help books or references that support.
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Individual learning or self-learning is a type of complete learning that emphasizes giving the learner absolute freedom in his learning and following the approach of imposition or severity and not taking knowledge together because it is harmful to them
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Almost all of us are familiar with mental modelling, conceptual modelling, metacognition and formative assessment in education. My idea is how to create, review, evaluate, and reconstruct students' mental or conceptual models using formative assessment, and metacognitive skills?
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I have made a software program to make models, specially for use in the classroom, with many simple real examples. I hope it can help them to realize that our brain is always "modeling" our observations.
Is that useful for you?
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Metacognition is an important feature of the cognitive approaches to psychopathology. What are the best clinical, neuropsychological measures, from your perspective?
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The BANFE battery has a sub test that measures metacognition (in verbal memory). I'm sure Dr. Julio Flores-Lazaro can explain you more how it works.
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Hi, I'm currently working on some data from an associative-memory study. Participants have to learn associations between stimuli from two different classes (1 and 2). As stimulus from class 1 is presented participants have to select the corresponding stimulus from class 2 (trough sliding). After response selection participants have to rate their confidence (binary, 'low confidence', 'high confidence') concerning their response. After the confidence rating feedback ('true', 'false') and the correct response (the correct matching of S1 and S2) are provided. Participants are instructed to guess during the first block. There are four retrieval sessions (including the first block).
I would like to perform an analysis regarding the metacognitive capabilities of the participants. Therefore I would like to apply a Signal Detection Theory (SDT) approach:
Hits: high confidence correct responses
False alarms: high confidence incorrect responses
Correct rejections: low confidence incorrect responses
Misses: low confidence correct responses
Since meta d' is affected by the first-order performance it is wise to quantify metacognitive efficiency which is the ratio of meta d' and d'. And here is the problem: I can't apply SDT for the first order task (which is the pure memory performance without the confidence ratings). The only score I can get is the recall rate.
I would be very grateful if you could share your ideas on this. Thanks!
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I don't know.
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I really want to explore sathipathana suta. Should I go for pali language texts or else commentry is enough? Does sathipathana vipassana associated to metacognition, spirituality and self-awareness?
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This is how I practice Mindfulness (Satipatthana/Focusing attention):
Focusing attention on something again and again for a long time is the best way to see that thing as it is. And it’s like being mindful of something very deeply. Satipatthana (the Pali word ‘Satipaṭṭhāna’ sometimes translated as ‘the establishment of mindfulness’) Sutta (scripture) shows a way to focus attention on the body (Kāyagatā), feelings (Vedanā), mind (Chitta), and phenomena (Dhammā). And there is a process in those things that we should see called Arising, Vanishing/Ceasing, Both Arising and Vanishing/Ceasing. According to Buddhism, there are three characteristics of all existence and beings, namely impermanence (aniccā), non-self (anattā), and unsatisfactoriness or suffering (duḥkha). I tried to bring the essence of those teachings into a single meditation. If meditations are helpful for any reason, then learning and using a practical meditation is conceivably intelligent research or investigation that a person can do to learn more about it and experience the change in life. Eg (to understand and experience):
i.) Breathing is not me, not mine, nor my soul. Impermanent. Causes suffering. There is nothing as a self. May all beings 'be at ease', 'be healthy', 'be well'.
ii.) Postures are not me, not mine, nor my soul. Impermanent. Cause suffering. There is nothing as a self. May all beings 'be at ease', 'be healthy', 'be well'.
iii.) Behaviors are not me, not mine, nor my soul. Impermanent. Cause suffering. There is nothing as a self. May all beings 'be at ease', 'be healthy', 'be well'.
iv.) Obnoxiousness in the body: 32 dirty body parts are not me, not mine, nor my soul. Impermanent. Cause suffering. There is nothing as a self. May all beings 'be at ease', 'be healthy', 'be well'.
v.) Primary Elements (Dhātu): Earth (Patavi), Water (Āpo), Fire (Thejo), Air (Vāyo), Space (Ākāsa). Primary Elements are not me, not mine, nor my soul. Impermanent. Cause suffering. There is nothing as a self. May all beings 'be at ease', 'be healthy', 'be well'.
vi.) A dead body in a charnel ground that undergoes the natural stages of the decaying process while eaten by animals is not someone. It’s not me, not mine, nor my soul. Impermanent. Causes suffering. There is nothing as a self. May all beings 'be at ease', 'be healthy', 'be well'.
vii.) Sensations are not me, not mine, nor my soul. Impermanent. Cause suffering. There is nothing as a self. May all beings 'be at ease', 'be healthy', 'be well'.
viii.) Intentions are not me, not mine, nor my soul. Impermanent. Cause suffering. There is nothing as a self. May all beings 'be at ease', 'be healthy', 'be well'.
ix.) Five Hindrances (nīvaraṇa): Sensual desires (Kamachanda), Anger/ill will (Vyapada), Sloth & torpor / Depression (Thinamidda), Restlessness & Worry (Uddhaccha Kukkuccha), Doubt/suspicion (Vicikiccha). Five Hindrances are not me, not mine, nor my soul. Impermanent. Cause suffering. There is nothing as a self. May all beings 'be at ease', 'be healthy', 'be well'.
x.) The Five Aggregates Of Clinging (upādāna-skandha): Materiality or Form (Rūpa), Sensations or Feelings (Vedanā), Perceptions and/or cognitions (Sañña), Volitions or Mental Formations (Saṅkhāra), Consciousness (Viññāṇa). The Five Aggregates Of Clinging are not me, not mine, nor my soul. Impermanent. Cause suffering. There is nothing as a self. May all beings 'be at ease', 'be healthy', 'be well'.
xi.) Combinational results that arise by meeting Eye, Ear, Nose, Tongue, Body, Mind with Form, Sound, Odor or Smell, Taste, Touch and Thoughts are not me, not mine, nor my soul. Impermanent. Cause suffering. There is nothing as a self. May all beings 'be at ease', 'be healthy', 'be well'.
xii.) Seven Factors of Enlightenment (Satta Bojjhaṅgā): Mindfulness (Sati), Investigation of the nature of reality (Dhamma Vicaya), Energy/determination (Viriya), Joy or rapture (Prīti), Relaxation or tranquility (Passaddhi), Concentration/ Clear awareness (Samādhi), Equanimity (Upekkhā). Mindfully stay and see the arising, ceasing, and both arising and ceasing Seven Factors of Enlightenment. May all beings 'be at ease', 'be healthy', 'be well'.
My research: "Mathematical science and Buddhism"
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It has become the demand of the time to prepare such global learners who possess a high level of awareness and consciousness. They are equipped with the abilities to well understand their own emotions, thinking pattern, and personality. This is the concept of meta-cognition. This sort of persons are most likely to understand the critical needs of the world to work with multiple problems of humanities. Kindly discuss if there are latest developed such framework for developing among learners meta-cognitive skills and abilities.
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This is a provocatively interesting question, with various implications, global, local, educational, political, psychological, environmental, etc. These implications include philosophical issues as to the relevance of education for that particular place and time. Then as you imply there are practical issues of education for the workplace, the needs of the individual, family, community, region, country, and planet. These implications will impact on whatever. These considerations argue for local community stakeholders themselves developing conceptual frameworks that are globally and locally relevant.
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ı have diffuculty in contacting other researchers to get necessary permisson.
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Roman Taraban is at Texas Tech University. Try roman.taraban@ttu.edu or (806) 834--0450.
Mojtaba Maghsudi was at Mysore University; the paper you reference can be found here and contains the instrument itself: http://ut.pr/biblioteca/Glossa2/Journal/jun2008/The_Impact_of_Linguality_on_Cognitive.pdf
I think he is now here: English Language Department, Farhangian University, Tehran, Iran: maghsudi@cfu.ac.ir
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For eg, I'm looking at learning strategies (cognitive, metacognitive and affective). So I want to compare the mean difference between these three and find out if there is significant difference among them. What type of test should I use? I tried using ANOVA but that's not it.
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Dear Ima,
The various forms of t-test are used when you are comparing results for two conditions. But t-tests cannot be used when you have more than two conditions. ANOVA must be used. (You can run an ANOVA with just two conditions, so it's a more general procedure.)
But it looks as though you are actually trying to compare scores on different measures, not using learning strategies as independent variables. Is that the case? Are you, for instance, trying to compare a score on a motivation scale with a score on an attitude scale? You would probably, in principle, use paired t-tests for this. BUT the results will be meaningful ONLY if the tests all yield standard scores (like T scores, for example) based on the SAME normative sample. Otherwise the results will be gibberish.
As a "for instance:" suppose I have administered an IQ test (where scores have a mean of 100 and SD of 15) and a personality test (where scores have a mean of 50 and SD of 10) to a sample of law students. I compare Verbal IQ with Extraversion score and conclude that law students are more intelligent than extraverted. That's utter nonsense! Yes, the numbers will crunch, but the results have no meaning whatsoever. The problem is more subtle if the scores are on the same scale but the norms are based on different groups, but trust me on this, it would still be nonsensical. So I'm hoping that either I'm wrong about what you're trying to do or the different scales you're using all derive from the same test.
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My focus of the research is to explore the reasons behind students scoring low marks for mixed tenses activities in English. Here, I anticipate giving them a questionnaire asking them the reasons for scoring low marks for this activity: whether translating sentences into L1 is a matter to them, whether the meaning of the tenses look-alike or whether they are unaware of aspects of the tenses, etc.
In this case, do I have to focus on cognitive and metacognitive factors behind using tenses in my research paper?
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Because not focusing on motivation and the need to want to learn the language, learning the language in addition to hearing is oriented towards an end and when it is discovered then, it adapts the verbs and their time to the problem situations used.
Ask the students why and how they want to learn the language, if for them if and only if it is a necessity.
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There are two theories that are quite similar in nature, but different in substance, The theory of Mind and the theory of Mentaliz(S)ation, sorry, Im allergic to American spelling...pls dont kill me now :-) My understanding of them is this "Both of these concepts, mentalization and the theory of mind, describes processes that are metacognitive in their nature . Mentalization mainly concerns the reflection of affective or emotional mental states. In contrast however the, theory of mind focuses on things epistemic in nature such as beliefs, intentions and persuasions. My idea is that these two theories by them self are incomplete but combining elements of both, gives us a clearer understanding. Cognition and affect can't in my view be separated, they are both part of us as human beings and also a part of other animals. What are your thoughts? Am I wrong or right? I can stand criticism so bring it on...
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Dear Henrik G.S. Arvidsson I dont agree with you that mentalization and the theory of mind are incomplete, I would rather say they are vague and trying to beat about the bush. However, I agree with you that both facets; physical and non-physical go side by side as the two sides of the river, they are two different identities, yet essential and part of the same one entity the river. I think to understand mind we have to answer following questions:-
1. What are numerous non-physical entities, dimensions, constructs & elements.
2. What is the hierarchical / Interrelationship model.
3. How does theses non-physical entities function individually.
4. How does Multiple simultaneous occurrences and their effects occur.
5 What is the trans-formative phenomenon of mind and how it occurs.
6. What can be a perceived Mind Model.
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Self-regulated learning (SRL) is a prevalent theory that tries to explain students' decision-making processes and performance in dimensions of cognition, metacognition, motivation, and emotion. But how do you understand SRL activities as a SRL expert? Are SRL activities inherently different from other learning activities? What do SRL activities actually mean? Should we conceptualize all learning behaviours as SRL behaviours if we adopt the SRL theory?
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Cognition is the process of acquiring knowledge. It could be through teacher-mediated, guided-independent learning or completely independent learning. Self regulated learning (SRL) has a significant role in the latter two activities. Apart from cognition, metacognition and motivation are the other important components of SRL.
Metacognition (awareness about one's own thinking/learning) is an important facilitator of SRL. It has two components; metacognitive monitoring & metacognitive control. One of the key aspects of SRL activities is metacognitive monitoring (monitoring one's own thought process or knowledge). Learners who could accurately monitor their knowledge, can regulate their learning well. Therefore, it would be a good starting point for a SRL experts to look into the metacognitive monitoring strategies adopted by learners to better understand their SRL capacity.
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Looking for a survey that assesses' health professional students' metacognitive skills and inclinations. I would like to see if a curricular design where students do self-assessments extrinsic to a course grade improves their metacognitive abilities. Any insight sand thoughts on this topic are much appreciated.
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Use Metacognitive Awareness Inventory(MAI).
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Hello everyone,
I am using 4 questionnaires to measure mind-wandering (MWQ, Likert-scale 1-6), mindfulness (MAAS, Likert-scale 1-6), self-control (SCS, Likert-scale 1-5), and metacognition (MCQ, Likert-scale 1-4).
To measure the results for these questionnaires I had to find the mean for the first 3 (MWQ, MAAS, and SCS) and sum the last one (MCQ). I am running a serial mediation analysis (Hayes Model 6) to see if mindfulness and self-control mediates the relationship between mind-wandering and metacognition.
My question is, should I standardise the results of the MCQ since they are summed or will they be ok as they are?
Thank you in advance for your answer.
Aris
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Hi Aris,
I assume you are using PROCESS in SPSS to run the analysis? The scores will automatically be standardised for the analysis, so no need to worry about standardising them yourself.
Good luck with your research,
Rachel
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I just have a sense that we fail to make our students think (in) English, if not and you think yourself you do so; would you show me the way?
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Dilubenzi Bitolo-Mabiala has offered a pragmatic technique, I would like to second some thought provoking questions for the language learners to think using the target language
(1) 'What is this in English?
(2) Can you say it in English?
(3) What do you mean by this?'
I would appreciate the following facilitations that the language teachers might offer:
(i) Help language leaners (LLs) not to translate but to map the thought within English, their 'English -their interlanguage'!
(ii) Encourage the LLs struggle to find the equivalent words and expression!
(iii) Let the LLs report facts and findings in the target language.
(iv) The language teachers must foresee 'discussion nodes' at each stage of the lesson plan, where learners would be allowed to slip and use, express points of view in their L1 and next think about it in English, report it in English and interpret it other ways.
(v) This involvement strategy at each stage of the lesson, where the tolerated low doze of L1 becomes a source of discussion, negotiation, interpretation and compromise in the target language would constitute a gate to thinking in English, the target language.
(vi) This code shifting - reshifting most probably stand for an intermediate strategy that would lead to the final goal of the language learning process, i.e. target language in actual use.
(vii) Never hate nor rebuke the LLs for using their L1 in your English lessons!
(viii) Tolerate, appreciate, facilitate! Let the LLs to take advantage of their L1 by thinking about the English version, that would positively train the LLs think in English.
Respects* for the handy thoughtful techniques!
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Hey
I am investigating the impact of Metacognitive Interventions on Metacognitive awareness, self efficacy and academic achievement of higher secondary school students
For this purpose, I need to develop Lesson Plans based on Metacognitive Interventions for 'Education' subject at Intermediate level.
So how can I develop the lesson plan..
Can I compile different Metacognitive Interventions viz. (Self assessment, wrappers, brainstorming and concept mapping as Metacognitive Interventions) with Herbartian Approach of lesson plan or 5E model etc
Or
I have to develop separate lesson plan by taking Metacognitive Interventions ?
How can I develop Lesson plans to be taught to the experimental groups for Experimentation?
Suggest me
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Thank you very much Prof. Azer for your kind concern to my query.
I will search more and more literatures
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I want to know the details of metacognitive strategies are how to enhance the mathematical problem solving? Any one give a good idea.
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Teaching students cognitive strategies alone is not enough to ensure that those strategies will be implemented correctly or independently. This is especially the case for students with mathematics difficulties and disabilities, who tend to implement the same strategy for every problem, implement strategies without considering the problem type, or fail to use a strategy at all. If students are to be more successful, teachers should pair instruction on cognitive strategies with that of metacognitive strategies
strategies that enable students to become aware of how they think when solving mathematics problems. This combined strategy instruction teaches students how to consider the appropriateness of the problem-solving approach, make sure that all procedural steps are implemented, and check for accuracy or to confirm that their answers makes sense. More specifically, metacognitive strategies help students learn to:
1. Plan — Students decide how to approach the mathematical problem, first determining what the problem is asking and then selecting and implementing an appropriate strategy to solve it.
2. Monitor — As students solve a mathematical problem, they check to see whether their problem-solving approach is working. After completing the problem, they consider whether the answer makes sense.
3. Modify — If, as they work to solve a mathematical problem, students determine that their problem-solving approach is not working or that their answer is incorrect, they can adjust their approach.
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Hi, I asked a similar question a few months back re: "meta-cognition" in the arts. I am trying to refine that question for myself.
I am curious who/what I should read re: reflection in the arts, specifically drama, concerning individual actors but also group reflection.
I'm particularly interested in how actors/students plan, set goals, evaluate themselves and their groups, and use feedback to rehearse and perform?
Any thoughts are welcome! Thank you!
Lisa
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phénoménologie ....edmund Husserl
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As a P.T., focused and interested on orthopedics (such as, back, knee, shoulder, etc., pain and dysfunctions), my main concern is: how cognition and the capacity to search and obtain information, and convert it to knowledge, can affect our patients pain and rehabilitation, specially in low income areas?
Thinking about focusing on (regarding future researches):
- Health literacy
- Metacognition
- Information/knowledge sharing
- Group therapy intervention/prevention
Are those topics of interest? If "yes", which groups and researchers should i dig deeper to get the foundations?
Any suggestions are more than welcome
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Your welcome. Good Luck
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I am after some advice regarding human ethics. I am planning a learning intervention study with my university students. The intervention will be in metacognition and self regulated learning techniques, which I will have the students practice during the semester. I will be getting those who consent to complete the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ) at the beginning and end of the semester. I am writing my ethics application and need to outline how I will manage/reduce issues of possible perceived coercion to participate. Can anyone offer advice on this? Thanks
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I thank you for your contributory question in this regard I salute ideas , for the development o education contributory for the student in general . I wonder sometime back I have my publication under the captioned'' Human - Values of Life '' & I wonder in which mode it may help you to your programming suggestion however I submit my publication for your kind perusal with a request to offer your valuable suggestion
Thanks
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Can someone contribute to this question? I have observed that many humans increase their monitoring of uncertain things when their own unmanageable stressors increase. But when I look around nature, I do not seem to see any species (or natural phenomena) that exist to "monitor" the actions of other phenomena... This seems a human oddity (the belief that nature needs to be watched over by people). Yet, the physical elements can't really "do" anything they aren't made to do (choose to react incorrectly). Why do we worry they won't do the "right" thing? If I mix so much of this with so much of that, I don't have to wonder if they will react well. Thoughts please?
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Great contributions!
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How does sleep deprivation correlate with a decrease in cognitive tasks and metacognitive processes?
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Dear Samuel,
There have been many studies on sleep deprivation and cognitive function. I see that several people have suggested specific studies on this topic. I am attaching a study by Halbach et al. (2003) that should really get our attention as it has to do with medical residents and how sleep deprivation impaired their cognitive abilities. Take a look at it and if you are interested, I will be happy to send you more.
One thing to keep in mind is that REM sleep, in particular, seems to play a role in memory consolidation. So, you may want to narrow down your search and look at studies on REM deprivation and cognitive function.
Let me know if I can be of help.
Warm regards,
Micah
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Measurement of metacognition is naturally difficult as it is not an explicit behavior (Akturk & Sahin, 2011) . Nevertheless, it provides guidance to learning strategies and influences critical thinking and problem solving skills.
Quantification of metacognition can serve as a determinants of cognition/cognitive load.
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Hi - these resources are not specifically about the measurement of metacognition, but the Centre for Curriculum Redesign is very focussed on studies to do with metacognition and would be worth making contact with:
Regards
Andrea
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Norms are used for interpretation of students response on metacognitive awareness inventory and for categorizing students on different level of metacognitive awareness. After getting students response on MAI i need norms to interpret result.
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Hello, look at this paper of MAI Junior. At the last pages.
Best Regards
Maria
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No.
This notion or belief, and THAT is all it is, no matter what BIG impacts on thinking it has, and no matter what big effects such beliefs have in creating firm limitations on thinking (not even allowing people to think of certain phenomenon). [ In effect such false closures and thinking (and they are there) is a clear sign that something is wrong. ] This all-innate-at-birth-or-in-infancy notion of THE innate factors -- resulting in no real innate guidance thought to come up later in childhood -- and related beliefs (used as "assumptions") is from philosophy and not from ANY good observation and not related good understanding. 'Learning' explanations are given which have NO clearly related direct evidence at all, yet researchers and theorists are satisfied with what they basically just make up (and then attribute to such "self"-functioning of the organism), e.g. the fictions of 'executive' functions and all the "meta's" (a "man" within "the man") OR wild (unsupported and unsupportable) ideas about 'social learning' AND/OR the fictions of literal-supposed "EMBODIMENT" of 'action' giving us our thought -- such pure garbage being a big part of 'explanations'). [
[ Apparently, for higher learning, logic can just pop-up and pop-out when the time/circumstances are right (when earlier learnings have been well-processed); this is apparently where developmental maturation factors ORIGINATE INTERNALLY (!!???), no matter how not-environmentally based the POP-UP logic seems to be in its origin, i.e. NON-EMBEDDED. It is basically hocus-pocus. ]
Old-time philosophers can't "cut it" nowadays.
Because of these 'garbage' beliefs, we cannot differentiate different [levels of] learning -- this resulting in not defining or understanding learning well at all.
So many things work better and are seen in more understandable ways IFF one can see fundamental qualitative shifts in behavioral [response] patterns occurring (even if the beginnings of such behavior pattern changes are kind of simple and caused by seemingly simple CHANGES in VERY basic behavior patterns -- that works!). I am at the point where I basically do not need to listen much to people that think learnings are all basically the same and completely ubiquitous, operating in an "uninterrupted" way. (And, don't talk to me about "social" and "cultural" factors BECAUSE the individual organism clearly remains the "unit of analysis" and center of ALL true understanding -- if there is no account with the individual, there is NO accounting at all.)
Hey, graduate students: if you buy all the "crap", you are "tools".
[ P.S. Note how "innate action patterns" (or anything meaning that) are not even topics here on researchgate. Come on, people ]
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Sorry, important edits and some additions made to the Question 4 hr. after the original posting of the Question.
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In line with the previous question, I would also like to know if there have been teachers/ researchers in the field of reading comprehension and adolescent literacy who have tried the Critical Elements of Strategies Instruction (CESI) Model as the framework for helping adolescent struggling readers' comprehension and metacognitive awareness. How does CESI Model help teachers and students in their goal to improve reading comprehension for older students like 11th or 12th graders?
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Take a look at the work of Helma van Lierop-Debrauwer (https://tilburguniversity.academia.edu/HelmavanLierop)
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I am researching the way to improve the task approach by the acquisition of metacognitive skills. For the measuring I am looking voor a questionnaire and for an observation scale.
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There are information that we know that we don't know, and there are info.that we don't know we don't know. So, the second type is what bothers me! Everyday I see/read info.That I didn't know I didn't know, and this info.is essential to some degree..So I was wondering what scientific journals are dedicated to the scientific method, scientific thought, and metacognition so one can approve his technique and don't miss important info.
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The journal "Metacognition and Learning"
Good day to you !
Stéphane
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The purpose of this research is to determine and analyze the Learning Patterns, acoording to Vermunt, of university students in their training as teachers to promote their English language teaching taking into account four learning components: Cognitive processing, metacognitive regulation, mental learning models and learning orientations.
A mixed methodology is used in this study whose purpose in it is to achieve through interpretations based on the experiences of the students their lived experiences. The instruments of data collection will be a A) questionnaire Inventory of Learning Strategies (ILS) designed by Vermunt and B) interviews among teachers in training on various aspects of their learning, specifically on their learning activities, strategies, conception of teaching and learning, guidance on the interpretation and appreciation of instructional measures, as well as interviews about their academic and personal performance, and personal experiences.
It is expected, on the one hand, to establish a reference for future research of this type and, on the other hand, that the results may serve to elaborate a body of actions to improve those aspects that merit it in relation to learning patterns.
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yes , knowing about learning patterns of students very important
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I am comparring computer-based lab curriculum to a traditional-based with same labs. I am in need of validated instrument(s) to measure domains of learning described in a learner-centered framework. The domains are: Metacognitive & cognitive; Affective & motivational; Developmental & social; Individual-difference factors.
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Good question
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Literature indicated many benefits for using ePortfolios, but when both teachers and students implemented it, several challenges emerged. For example, students’ understanding of technology may affect the ePortfolio process negatively. Furthemore, students perceive technology has an effect on the implementation of ePortfolios because some students’ familiarity with technology may lead to decisions about what is useful or not for them. Such decisions may affect and lower the efficiency and effectiveness of ePortfolios. Other challenges include the lack of self-assessment, reflection, technology, and metacognitive skills in student’s educational background. They may decrease the effectiveness of ePortfolios and bring about being overwhelmed by the course management system, the portal, and the process to create a meaningful ePortfolio
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Dear Michael:
The e-portfolio can be a challenge if there are no set clear guidelines and rubrics for students to follow. Here's a dissertation study that would give more in-depth insights into the answer to your question:
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Modern day changes in curricula ask for student-centered approaches in teaching-learning activities, which makes it more demanding for teachers as they have to modify their existing teaching methods to conform with the trends. Metacognitive activities are aimed to prepare students "How to learn?".
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I do this, in part, by explaining to then WHY I am giving them the assignments I am. Not just what the outcome of the assignment should be, but how is the assignment beneficial to their overall knowledge, ability, etc. Why does it help them learn? How does it benefit them?
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I perform a psychophysical experiment and want to measure metacognition in the subjects.
After answering the experiment question, I ask the question "How confident are you in your reply"? And displays a scale with a center marker, with the most to the right representing full confident and the leftmost representing complete confident.
I notice that the scale is confusing and subjects tend to stay on the center when they are not sure. or move slightly to the right of the center when they are pretty unsure.
What Is The Right Way To Test Meta Cognition? Is it on a continuous scale? Discrete? (if so, how many steps?). How many tags titles that indicate what the position of the scale means is recommended to put?
I would also like to receive related articles on the subject.
Thanks.
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In my thesis, i tested metacognition at different moments : before, during and after a writing task. I used a list of same questions and did a content analysis.
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I am currently working on a lit search linking metacognition with self determination theory in a high school IBDP context. I'm at the point of gathering counter-theories to SDT. Any help would be appreciated.
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Dear Daniel,
As you certainly know, Ed. Deci's self-determination theory is a theory about motivation and it is often invoked in the educational domain. The distinction between intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation is the core aspect of self-determination theory. For example, if a student studies because of his/her intellectual curiosity and desire to know the unknown, then s/he is intrinsically motivated. On the contrary, if a student studies because s/he wants to get, for example, an external reward, then s/he considered an extrinsically-motivated student. Even though self-determination theory is a prevalent motivational theory, namely in the field of education, it does not go without some problems and criticisms.
(1) It makes sense to distinguish between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. This distinction, however, has not to be seen as an "either-or" distinction. Suffice it to say that an individual can be intrinsically motivated in a certain domain of knowledge, psychology, for example, and extrinsically motivated in another domain of knowledge, mathematics, for instance. Thus, the same individual can be at the same time intrinsically and extrinsically motivated.
(2) Accordingly, it seems that it makes more sense to speak about predominantly intrinsic or extrinsic motivated individuals than intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivated individuals.
(3) Self-determination theory clearly lacks a developmental focus in that it does not look at the above mentioned distinction in developmental terms. Those who are acquainted with the developmental literature know quite well that the more a child is young the more s/he is focused on external outcomes, not on internal motives. Thus, it is likely that intrinsic motivation increases with increasing age. To think of an intrinsically motivated baby seems to deify our imagination. The same might be said of, for example, a 4-year-old child as far as metacognition is concerned. I cannot imagine such a child engaged in the following chain of thinking: "I know that you know what I know about you".
Daniel, in your question you refer to counter-theories to SDT. Skinner's (1969) theory of learning is one of them. It is difficult to imagine a self-determined or motivated individual in this theory. It suffices to say that, according to Skinner, the variables of which human (and animal) behavior is a function are in the environment. Bandura's (1977) social learning theory is mainly a behaviorist theory and hence a counter-theory to Deci's theory of self-determination. Because Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory focus on both external outcomes and cognitive variables (e.g., self-efficacy) this theory is partly consistent with SDT and partly inconsistent with it. For example, it seems more than natural to associate self-determined individuals with individuals who have a high sense of self-efficacy, and individuals with a low sense of self-efficacy with extrinsically-motivated individuals. My answer, however, is a short answer to your question.
I hope that I has got your question and post, and that this helps.
Best regards. Orlando
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I am analyzing whether a new feature (presenting history path) served as a cognitive support in the process of problem-solving, which means that if this new feature can have an influence on people's cognitive load.
So I have asked a 9 point rating scale for three questions in terms of their mental effort, task difficulty and concentration. For the pretest, I had the above three questions, while in order to deeply understand the influence of this new feature, I have added another two questions in terms of the clarity and helpfulness of this feature with a categorical "yes" and "no" answer in the post test. Now I have collected all the data with the variables mental effort, task, concentraion both from the 1st and the 2nd test, and two other variables, clarity and helpfulness in addition.
I have 47 subjects for the pre-test, and only the same 20 subjects for the post test (because the new feature was evolved during the 2nd test, and finnally I had 20 subjects who saw the same new feature).
I want to compare those raw scores from the pretest to the raw scores from the posttest to see if there was a significant difference. And what can I do with the two additional variables in the post test? should I include all the subjects in the pre-test or just 20 subjects the same as the post test?
Which statistical mehtod that I should use for my analysis
Thanks very much for your help.
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Hi Lingxue,
From what I understand, apart from your two follow-ups yes/no post-test questions, you are dealing with three independent questions.  Here are a few observations and relevant suggestions.
1) You can test for each question individually.  As such, I would not recommend using a two-way ANOVA, as your response variable data is not continuous but ordinal, since you are measuring on a 9-point scale.  Further, the non-parametric Friedman test should not be used, as you only have two levels of your independent variable, pre and post test.  The same methodology eliminates the t-test.
2) Your data is paired as you are testing the same individual twice, pre and post test.  As such, the variance between subjects can be eliminated.  
3) To improve statistical power, having a sample size greater than 30 will greatly reduce the risk of Type 1 error.  If possible, exclude the two follow-up yes/no questions to having a sample size of 47.  
4) Based on these observations, I would recommend that you use a Sign test to compare paired samples of ordinal response variable data.  Do note that if you choose to only have 20 individuals, the Sign test is robust enough for a smaller sample size.  
5) To determine statistical significance for your yes/no questions, you may consider a McNemar's test for proportions.  You would be making a 2x2 odds table.
All the best,
Samuel
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I am researching in metacognitive reading strategies students of Reading and Writing Workshop( at my university) employ while reading. One of my main problems is to understand the relationship among cognitive strategies, metacognitive strategies and reading strategies.
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Metacognition means "thinking about how we think."  So I think metacognition is relevant to figuring out what study strategies work for each of us, as individuals.
For example, what is the best strategy for ME when I am reading and find a word I do not know.  Should I stop and look it up?  Keep reading and depend on my ability to understand the word from the context?  
I think that analyzing these things and using them as a strategy does represent use of metacognition. 
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looking for extract definitions 
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This refers to different types of psychological assessment. The "verbal" refers to tests that use verbal materials, e.g. the verbal fluency tests on the Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children. These tests include finding commonalities between words like "How are red and blue similar?". In contrast, "non-verbal" tests require reasoning with visual materials. An example for this is the Raven Matrices test, where a visual pattern has to be completed by the participant. 
The other part of the question is about mental age. In developmental samples, the performance of a person is often expressed relative to the performance of a large sample of typically developing children of the same age. If the participant performs within the average range compared to the normative sample, then the mental age matches the chronological age. If she/he performs above or below, the performance can be compared to the average performance of sample older or younger than her/him. In other words, a younger mental age means that the participant performance at a level expected for children younger than him or her. 
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There is some evidence that spatial reasoning improves arithmetic skills in young children. 
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I think you'll find that there is substantial evidence of an association between spatial (or visuospatial) abilities and mathematical competence. However, most studies will focus on schoolchildren and most of the rest on adults in school (e.g., college students) or those with acquired brain lesions.
Psychological research on healthy, non-literate adults is quite scarce. To begin with, such people are difficult to find and recruit in the developed world - where virtually all psychologists are located. 
I am attaching one possibly relevant document. The author, Samar Zabar, is now (I think) at the American University in Beirut. Try  samar.zebian@lau.edu.lb  to contact him - but I'm not sure he's still working on this topic.
You also might want to check out the literature on developmental economics. I know, for example, that Chris Udry at Yale had planned to include a couple of cognitive tasks in his research in Ghana (probably a partial Raven and a digit span test, which would be pretty good for your purposes). You can find some of his working papers and data at the attached site; it will also connect you to other developmental economics sites.
If you're serious about this, it could be an excellent idea for a research program! Because very little previous work bears on the specific issue, yet the broader context is well established.
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I would like to do some research on impaired self-awareness and its related topics (error monitoring ; cognitive anosognosia ; self-regulatory processes ; ...). However, litterature about this topic seems mostly related to TBI patients and is lacking in stroke patients (even if evidence -as in USN and anosognosia for hemiplegia - seems to suggest impaired self-awareness in some stroke patients). Does anyone have any clue about such a lack in terms of cognitive processes or cerebral activation ? Thank you. 
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Hi Samuel,
I think there are several possible explanations:
1. Because self-awareness is usually linked to prefrontal areas of the brain researchers choose this clinical population since brain pathology in TBI most often includes injuries of frontal lobes (hemorrhages, bruises, contusions, shearing etc.). On the other hand, lesions in stroke are most often located in the teritory of MCA. Strokes in prefrontal areas are rare, although hemorrhage from ACoA aneurysm leads to similar (dysexecutive) symptoms.
2. Of course it doesn't mean that unawareness cannot be seen in patients after MCA stroke. In fact most (or even all in acute phase) patients with neglect have limited awareness, just as you mentioned in your question. However, it is extremely difficult to design a research on patients with severe aphasia who most certainly have deficits in self-awareness as well. In case of UNS, in turn, researchers usually focus on the most prominent disorders which is space perception difficulties (although improvement of awareness is ALWAYS one of the goals in rehabilitation).
3. Age matters. However it sounds. It's much more likely that a 30-year-old working man has no history of pre-injury cognitive (and meta-cognitive) problems than a 80-year-old (approximate mean age of stroke patients) retired individual with stroke.
4. Some anosognosic symptoms after stroke withdraw quite early - during first hours or days. Take Anton's syndrome for example. I have never seen it lasting for more than a week or two.
Hope it helps a bit,
Marcin
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I would like to have any additional ideas to work on our thesis, it requires us in the field of Science, it must be more on educational. Thank you!
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I am looking for ,
1. empirical studies to prove that " by enhancing the metacognitive ability of individuals, their employability can be improved"
2. How to measure the Employability of individuals; just like emotional quotient is there a measure which is universally accepted?
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Hi Nimmi. I am currently developing a measure of employability as a means of self auditing and assessing the contribution of employability interventions. I am looking for subject matter experts to be part of this process, if you are interested in getting involved please drop me an email stella.williams@newman.ac.uk
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I mean some articles, other sources about metacognitive strategies in linguistic competence.
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Hello Nata,
This might help you...
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Which tasks, activities etc. of teaching and learning can be benefited for the development of critical reflective thinking in students? 
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You can use debating among class teams on a topical issue related to the course content. Try to relate the topic to students' prior reading/experience/global or societal issue. See attached for an example on setting up the debate.
Many thanks,
Debra
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Is there a self-reported survey that can be used to measure student cognitive engagement in asynchronous online discussions? Or can be easily modified to measure cognitive engagement? Cognitive engagement in my study is defined as metacognition or self-regulation. Thank you!
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I am afraid that I don't have any idea on that, All the best.
Mustafa
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I am planning my MSc project and I am trying to find a good measure of Metacognition, however most of the tool I find is mental health related. I am hoping that you guys can help me out with some suggestions :) Thank you :)
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Thank you guys so much for these!!!! YOU ROCK!!! :)
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Is there any tool(s) to measure it in the children in very early stage of nurturing?
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Find papers by Zelazo at the University of Minnesota. Caution, it depends on what you mean by meta-cognition. It is necessary to distinguish between on-line monitoring as when a young child self-corrects automatically and when that child says "I made a mistake, will try another way", or can say correct a syntax error. The distinction is between monitoring and explicit recognition/correction of an error. 
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The arcuate fasciculus is a fibrous tract in the white matter of the brain that connects the frontal lobes with areas in the Angular Gyrus, and Temporal Lobe. It is assumed to be involved in speech. It may also allow communication between the Meta-Cognitive areas in the prefrontal cortex, and the consciousness center in the Angular Gyrus. If so it might support the Angular Gyrus Model of Consciousness (AGMC).
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Our article published in peer-reviewed Journal "Communicative & Integrative Biology". A few major points discussed in the paper:
(1) Brain is not the source of consciousness.
(2) Consciousness is ubiquitous in all living organisms, starting from bacteria to human beings.
(3) The individual cells in the multicellular organisms are also individually cognitive entities.
(4) Proposals like “artificial life”, “artificial intelligence”, “sentient machines” and so on are only fairytales because no designer can produce an artifact with the properties like internal teleology (Naturzweck) and formative force (bildende Kraft).
(5) The material origin of life and objective evolution are only misconceptions that biologists must overcome.
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I suppose the stroop task which is used in metacognition research can be used also for meta-emotion? Any ideas?
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Many thanks, that's great!
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I have some questions about Bonferroni correction and was wondering if anyone of you could kindly help me with them as an expert of Statistics. I really appreciate it! I
Here is my situation: I am currently writing my dissertation in which I used a survey to collect data from two groups of participants and used SPSS to analyze the data. In order to answer Research Question Two “How do the competent and less competent university students differ in terms of their degree of metacognitive knowledge about English writing?”, two independent samples T-tests (or independent t-test, for short) were conducted on the two groups of participants (group A and group B). One was an independent T-test performed on the two groups regarding mean scores of the three sub-scales (person, task, and strategy variables), and the other was an independent T-test conducted on the two groups to compare them item by item (there are 50 items in the survey). My questions are as follows: Question 1. Since there are only two groups of participants involved in this study, is it necessary to perform Bonferroni correction to reduce Type I error ? I thought Bonferroni correction is meant for 3 groups or more, according to the video clip below: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BK7Ay49jM_8
Question 2. If an independent T-test is conducted on the two groups to compare the means of the two groups item by item with 50 items in the survey, is that considered one T-test or 50 T-tests? In SPSS, I only needed to run one T-test to compare the means of the two groups item by item for the 50 items.
Thank you so much! Best regards, Mike
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Hi Mike
Caveat to begin with- I'm not a statistics expert but happy to share my views.
I'll start with Q2 first- I understand you have created the mean of each question for each group (i.e. you have group 1 mean scores for question 1 and group 2 mean scores for question 1, and so on until question 50). Is this right? In that instance a single t-test is used- it's a single test not 50 tests. I am assuming that a) it is logical to take a mean of the original data (i.e. you have numerical data to start with) and b) you have roughly normally distributed data as these will be pre-conditions for using a t-test.
In regards to Q1: the use of any correction, of which Bonferroni is an example, is to reduce the likelihood of type 1 error which is caused by doing lots and lots of tests. If you have more groups it is likely that you will do more tests, hence increase your risk of Type 1 error, but it's the number of tests not the number of groups that is the risk here. As an example if you had two groups and performed 20 tests comparing the groups then your chance of an incidental finding (Type 1 error) is extremely high. If you had three groups and ran three comparsions (group 1 v group 2, group 2 v group 3 and group 1 v group 3) your risk of Type 1 error is relatively low.
If you have performed two t-tests only your risk of Type 1 error is low and correction, Bonferroni or otherwise, is not indicated.
Hope this helps and am happy to hear the views of more statistically expert individuals!
Regards
David
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I have some questions about Bonferroni correction and was wondering if anyone of you could kindly help me with them as an expert of Statistics. I really appreciate it! I found a succinct summary of Bonferroni correction here: http://www.fon.hum.uva.nl/praat/manual/Bonferroni_correction.html
Here is my situation: I am currently writing my dissertation in which I used a survey to collect data from two groups of participants and used SPSS to analyze the data. In order to answer Research Question Two “How do the competent and less competent university students differ in terms of their degree of metacognitive knowledge about English writing?”, two independent samples T-tests (or independent t-test, for short) were conducted on the two groups of participants (group A and group B). One was an independent T-test performed on the two groups regarding mean scores of the three sub-scales (person, task, and strategy variables), and the other was an independent T-test conducted on the two groups to compare them item by item (there are 50 items in the survey). My questions are as follows: Question 1. Since there are only two groups of participants involved in this study, is it necessary to perform Bonferroni correction to reduce Type I error ? I thought Bonferroni correction is meant for 3 groups or more, according to the video clip below: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BK7Ay49jM_8
Question 2. If an independent T-test is conducted on the two groups to compare the means of the two groups item by item with 50 items in the survey, is that considered one T-test or 50 T-test? In SPSS, I only needed to run one T-test to compare the mean of the two groups item by item for the 50 items.
Thank you so much! Best regards, Mike
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As a rule of thumb, in basic inferencial statistics, Bonferonni's correction (or Bonf. test) is gemneraly used for 3 or more officially independant and normally distributed populations (sub-samples in relaity, created on the basis of the same measurement. Practically, under the (mostly always violated) assumption of normality of the distributions such as what is occuring when utilizing one of the kind test of the ANOVA's family, the question is a bit more complex. There is a good "fast" answer for the logics of your question: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2548561/pdf/bmj00576-0038.pdf
Good luck with your dissertation. Sincerly, François L.
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Students' self-efficacy beliefs have been a topic of interest in educational research.  It is also known that despite training and repeated feedback, sometimes the accuracy of students' confidence judgments about their performance on an objective criterion task such as an exam (i.e. calibration) does not improve and remains stable. I do not categorize students' beliefs about mathematics as their self-efficacy beliefs, since they are not related to students' learning abilities. For instance, students may believe that "success in mathematics is due to natural ability and has nothing to do with effort." Is there any research indicating that these beliefs could be the reason why calibration does not improve?
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Hi Behnaz -
The following special issue might help:
Bouffard, T., & Narciss, S. (2011) (Guest Editors), Benefits and risks of positive biases in self-evaluations of academic competence. International Journal of Educational Research, 50 (4).
I attach our article in this special issue which focuses on adolescents with biased and accurate self-efficay beliefs in mathematics and language. Hope it will help.
Best, Eleftheria
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Studies such as:
Klusmann, V., Evers, A., Schwarzer, R., & Heuser, I. (2011). A brief questionnaire on metacognition: psychometric properties. Mental Health & Aging, 15 (8), 1052-62.
Buckley, T., Norton, M. C., Deberard, M. S., Welsh-Bohmer, K. a, & Tschanz, J. T. (2010). A brief metacognition questionnaire for the elderly: comparison with cognitive performance and informant ratings the Cache County Study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 25 (7), 739-47.
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You can get the similar or apropriate answer by searching the keyword in the GOOGLE SCHOLAR page. Usually you will get the first paper similar to your keyword.
From my experience, this way will help you a lot. If you still have a problem, do not hasitate to let me know.
Kind regards, Dr ZOL BAHRI - Universiti Malaysia Perlis, MALAYSIA
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I am trying to derive a formula to express logic or verbal problem solving as a function of relevant knowledge plus experience with the kind of problem plus metacognitive factors in an inverse relationship with "difficult" of the problem. I have a flow diagram about the process and I am interested in formalize it. I think the Rasch Model may be an important inspiration source.
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There is a very large bibliography on "Problem solving", some of them are:
Newell, A., & Simon, H. A. (1972). Human problem solving. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Polya’s Problem solving Techniques: https://math.berkeley.edu/~gmelvin/polya.pdf, http://math.hawaii.edu/home/pdf/putnam/PolyaHowToSolveIt.pdf
• In his book Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical Field, Hadamard uses introspection to describe mathematical thought processes. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Hadamard
Alan H. Schoenfeld, LEARNING TO THINK MATHEMATICALLY: PROBLEM SOLVING, METACOGNITION, AND SENSE-MAKING IN MATHEMATICS http://hplengr.engr.wisc.edu/Math_Schoenfeld.pdf
One should note that "Problem Solving" is a non-Analytic activity. As such holistic models are needed. It seems to me that the Rasch Model, is rather an analytic one, See: [David_Andrich]_Rasch_Models_for_Measurement.
Bond, Trevor G.; Fox, Christine M. Applying the Rasch Model:Fundamental Measurement in the Human Sciences.
I think the project you are proposing is essentially, how to combine an analytic and a non-analytic model, taking into account all the above sources. 
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There is a wealth of calibration research done at elementary and middle school level, as well as in university classroom settings. However, I am unable to locate "any" papers of authentic research done in high school classrooms using calibration accuracy training as an instructional intervention to improve learning and performance in mathematics.  Some researchers maintain that metacognitive monitoring is domain-specific in nature, so I cannot use the findings in other domains for math and in addition, the developmental aspects of metacognition won't let me generalize across the age range. Any thoughts? Thanks!
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I had never heard of calibration research before so I Googled it. This is looks very interesting. I think I went through a process very much like this and I wrote about it in the attached thesis. 
I also found a special edition about calibration research which you might have missed: 
Behnaz, thank you for bringing this previously unknown (to me) methodology to my attention. I think it could very well fit in with teacher reflective practice and teacher self-study.
Best of luck with your question.
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I am working on research with students aged 13-14 that analyzes interdisciplinary production of artifacts (music and visual arts) in order to understand what is the quality of thought that these "works of art" express.
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Thanks András,
what is emerging from my research is that when the kids have the opportunity to build their own "works of art", through their creative action they are able to build a sort of "sensitive metacognition", a metacognition not expressed in words (... almost an oxymoron, but this is what happens). These (http://www.oradimusica.eu/wordpress/prodotti-elaborati-ottobre-dicembre-2013/) are the "works" I examined and created in classroom activities entitled "Impertinence between Music and Visual Arts".
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I am considering coding video data for metacognition during facilitated learning experiences and group learning activities/problem solving
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Try MAXQDA this program allows you to collect and analyze data across multiple media.
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Assessing the development of the affective domain.
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The assessing of Affective Domain also calls on moral development.. how a child perceived 'a' another and their own relationship to them; sensitivities towards power relationships and how the child may understand these, and how they are moving from a self focus to being aware of how their own actions can have a consequent on others.
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I'm interested in the power of re-authoring stories (often personal narratives) to change behavior or influence action.
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I'm using storytelling to support students' scientific writing — both with regard to process and content — growth and identity formation is behind it though (scientific writing is just an application). I've just submitted a related paper on course design to the 13th IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics & Cognitive Computing (London, Aug 18-20, http://www.ucalgary.ca/icci_cc/iccicc-14/paper-submission). And I did some work on identity and avatars which, like all my work, is strongly informed by my experience as a storyteller and writer: https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/User:MSB/Stockholm — I need to write this stuff up! — Besides that, like some others here, I use storytelling in class, too. Both in verbal and in visual mode (e.g. as videoprototyping).
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I am looking at metacognition in postgraduate/adult learners and how that relates to successful outcomes. I am interested to know of courses, supervision practices, and so forth that anybody has experienced or runs, to support doctoral candidates.
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We need to ask our doctoral candidates: How does one do research? What is knowledge? How do we create it? How do we know our feeling is right? How do you know what you don't know? How do you rectify this?
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I am looking for papers including description of research tools used to compare memory /comprehension performance.
I am hoping to conduct an experimental research testing the idea of whether the nature of a text's environment (printed text and text on computer screen) can result in any significant differences on what and how we do read, understand, notice as significant, and finally remember. The participants will be all natural speakers of the Greek Language, university students aged 20-22. The main idea is to ask them to read three different texts consecutively: part of a scientific article including mistakes and wrong conclusions, a poem, and a problem/puzzle. All of the three texts have been created for the research. After reading each one of them, participants will be asked to answer a number of questions (questions demanding free recall and questions demanding specific answers as well), followed by a short interview. I have designed my research tool to some point, but I still need to figure out some details before using it. I have found quite an amount of relevant research papers, but none including a detailed description of the research tool/texts used. I would greatly appreciate receiving any relevant articles, papers, or even notices and ideas that could help me.
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Dear Maria,
I added the paper on my RG page.
About text memory, we investigated visual memory of texts by looking at memory for word location ; have a look to my paper with N. Le Bigot.
Coming back to your study, what is your research question? Which hypothesis do you want to test about reading on screen?
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In particular: "Can reasoning itself have causal or motivational force, for example in countering affect or impulse, or must it arouse/recruit affect in order to have such influence?" Seems to me when we reflect on our motivations we can encounter many things: desires, thoughts, emotions, confusion, imprints from experience, etc. Most likely there's not a black-&-white answer here. Perhaps only a subset of our motivations can be articulated through reasoning? Could reasoning actually be "self-fulfilling" in some contexts? The question: "why did you do that" might elicit reasons as a response for a particular act but can reason always explain motivation - or only rationalize it?
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That's a fascinating thought, and something that I've seen some aspects of in my study of system dynamics understanding in groups (System Dynamics Understanding in Projects: Information Sharing, Psychological Safety, and Performance Effects). Individuals able to systematically reason, are also more likely to share thoughts with others of like understanding.
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There is very little research into children curiosity. Often studies contradict and yet isn't curiosity an essential element on learning and developing. So what do you understand it to be made of? How do you measure it? Do you have experience in this area as this is of great interest to me and I would love to collaborate on some research.
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I do think very small children who can walk and cannot be made so civilised to sit in chairs when visiting as guests to a friend or relation's house, these toddlers attempt to explore every room etc. in their house and if find a thing which they have not seen in their home try to examine it. In this process of spatial exploration and examination of something new many valuables are damaged. Though parents feel ashamed and hosts have a sense of loss but assure the guests it is normal.
These are ways in which toddlers explore and attempt to know. When they start talking, and hold things stably they are generally everything colourful and natural, even babies find an ad or scene colourful on TV screen they are attracted. Meanwhile they start fighting with their elders siblings and this determine their place in family or household (a sense of hierarchy- who has authority on whom and is expected to obey, a step towards development of discipline.) When in park or garden they are attracted everything natural from a worm to tree. Most of children including so inquisitive that they want to anything and everything. Since being children we (me and wife) found it difficult to give satisfactory answers. So, consulting several several senior parents and counselors we got a book on what questions children generally ask and how to give satisfactory answers to children. It is my personal experience as well as observation not based on profound research.
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Seeking tools to test impulsivity
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This isn't a physiological test, however many studies that aim to quantify impulsivity (including physiological studies; see Kaladjian et al., 2011. Psychological Medicine, 41, 291-299) will use the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11; Patton, Stanford & Barratt, 1995. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51, 768-74) or UPPS Impulsive Behaviour Scale (Whiteside & Lynam, 2001. The five factor model and impulsivity: using a structural model of personality to understand impulsivity. Personality and. Individual Differences, 30, 669–689).
Otherwise, while not standardized, performance on the Go-NoGo task (as well as psychophysiological measures such as the P300 event-related potential) has been used as a proxy for impulsivity (see Dong et al., 2010. Neuroscience Letters, 485, 138-142).
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Metacognition- Self Regulation
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In the field of self-awareness:
Grant, A.M., Franklin, J., & Langford, P. (2002). The self-reflection and insight scale: a new measure of private self-consciousness. Social Behavior and Personality, 30(8), 821-836.
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The idea is that lack of awareness of the boundaries between processes such as reasoning and memory allows children to cross their boundaries to fill in gaps in knowledge or communication
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I'm not entirely sure if this is relevant but it strikes me that research into children's naive understanding (cf. Susan Carey, 1985; Karmiloff-smith, 1992) may be useful. The idea being that due to a lack of accurate knowledge and possibly a lack of executive function/working memory etc, young children are essentially using any means they can (which is where your question about crossing bounderies comes in) to access knowledge. Indeed this may even be the reason why young children often hold many misconceptions early on.....hope this helps, it's a different angle.
There's also some recent work on tacit/explicit understanding which may be of interest (cf. Kailli and Rainer)
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I am studying self regulated learning skills (Srl) skills and have a model that places the components of Srl into cognitive and affective parts. Personal agency is one of the components and I wonder what others think it belongs to- cognitive or affective?
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The ancient origins (in India for example) of the tripartite division of the human psyche into cognition, affect and enaction also suggest that they are not separate in the sense of cleavage of a physical object into distinct parts. Rather, each can be thought of as themselves having cognitive, affective and enactive aspects.
When a natural language construct (like agency) is psychologised (taken to describe some aspects of the human psyche) there is no reason to assume that it will belong in one or other aspect.
I suggest investigating your own experience: when do you 'feel' agentic and when you are 'aware' of being agentive (note that 'feel' is indicative of affective aspects; 'aware' is indicative of cognitive aspects, but neither is exclusive). When do you feel non-agentive (for example at work when you are required to do things you would rather not do perhaps, or in ways that you would rather not do them)? How do you think about your room for making choices in different circumstances?
I conjecture that you will begin to recognise that like most psychological constructs (made by researchers) there are cognitive, affective and enactive aspects. Furthermore, the tripartite division can be augmented to include a fourth, 'attention', ... ask yourself both 'what you re attending to' and 'how are you attending to it' when you are sharply aware of being agentic, and when you are aware of being unagentic, and then ask what is going on when you feel or are aware of neither.
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I have been working with Dr. Randy Isaacson for some time on teaching college students to be better at simple knowledge monitoring (in some models the foundation of metacognition). You can find a description of how we incorporate knowledge monitoring into a course curriculum in the following article. http://cgi.stanford.edu/~dept-ctl/tomprof/posting.php?ID=1048