Science topic

Metabolism - Science topic

The chemical reactions in living organisms by which energy is provided for vital processes and activities and new material is assimilated.
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Publications related to Metabolism (10,000)
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Article
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Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have become a research hotspot in recent years with their universality, diversity, stability, conservativeness, and spatiotemporal specificity. N ⁶ -methyladenosine (m ⁶ A), the most abundant modification in the eukaryotic cells, is engaged in the pathophysiological processes of various diseases. An increasing amount of evi...
Article
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Four drivers of global change are acting in concert to speed up the ecology of our coastal and open ocean ecosystems. Ocean warming, nutrient pollution, disturbance, and species additions increase biological and ecological rates, favoring weedy communities and causing pervasive human impacts. Ocean warming via greenhouse gas emissions is accelerati...
Article
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The beneficial effect of crop residue amendment on soil organic carbon (SOC) stock and stability depends on the functional response of soil microbial communities. Here we synchronized microbial metagenomic analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance and plant- ¹⁵ N labeling technologies to gain understanding of how microbial metabolic processes affect SOC...
Article
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Background The recent rise in cultivation-independent genome sequencing has provided key material to explore uncharted branches of the Tree of Life. This has been particularly spectacular concerning the Archaea , projecting them at the center stage as prominently relevant to understand early stages in evolution and the emergence of fundamental meta...
Article
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Carotenoids are isoprenoid metabolites synthesized de novo in all photosynthetic organisms. Carotenoids are essential for plants with diverse functions in photosynthesis, photoprotection, pigmentation, phytohormone synthesis, and signaling. They are also critically important for humans as precursors of vitamin A synthesis and as dietary antioxidant...
Article
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Marine mixotrophic protists that use both heterotrophic and phototrophic metabolisms may impact the carbon cycle in unexpected ways. A recently characterized mixotroph can craft three-dimensional mucilage feeding structures that trap nutrient-rich plankton prey and contribute to the sinking of carbon from the surface ocean.
Article
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Peritoneal macrophages (PMs) have been shown to have higher stability compared to other macrophage subtypes. However, obtaining enough PMs from a single mouse is often a limitation for metabolomics analysis. Here, we describe a protocol to isolate metabolites from a small number of mouse primary PMs for 13C-stable glucose tracing and metabolomics....
Article
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Objective To present an updated and evidence-based guideline for the use of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to assess body composition in clinical practice. Materials and methods This Official Position was developed by the Scientific Committee of the Brazilian Association of Bone Assessment and Metabolism ( Associação Brasileira de Avaliaçã...
Article
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Niche environmental conditions influence both the structure and function of microbial communities and the cellular function of individual strains. The terrestrial subsurface is a dynamic and diverse environment that exhibits specific biogeochemical conditions associated with depth, resulting in distinct environmental niches. Here, we present the ch...
Article
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Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for humans and animals. The human body mainly acquires Se from plant foods, especially cereal grains. Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world's population. Increasing the Se concentration of rice grains can increase the average human dietary Se intake. This review summarizes recent progres...
Article
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Plant height, as one of the important agronomic traits of rice, is closely related to yield. In recent years, plant height-related genes have been characterized and identified, among which the DWARF3 (D3) gene is one of the target genes of miR528, and regulates rice plant height and tillering mainly by affecting strigolactone (SL) signal transducti...
Article
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The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis postulates that cancer originates from the malignant transformation of stem cells and is considered to apply to a variety of cancers. Additionally, cancer cells alter metabolic processes to sustain their characteristic uncontrolled growth and proliferation. Further, microRNAs (miRNAs) are found to be involved i...
Article
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Ecologically, Halophila beccarii Asch. is considered as a colonizing or a pioneer seagrass species and a “tiny but mighty” seagrass species, since it may recover quickly from disturbance generally. The use of transcriptome technology can provide a better understanding of the physiological processes of seagrasses. To date, little is known about the...
Article
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Metabolic reprogramming wherein the cancer cells exhibit altered energetics is a hallmark of cancer. Although recent discoveries have enhanced our understanding of tumor metabolism, the therapeutic utility of targeting tumor metabolism is not yet realized. Glutamine, a non-essential amino acid, plays a critical role in regulating tumor metabolism a...
Article
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Obesity is a state of low-grade chronic inflammation that causes multiple metabolic diseases. During obesity, signalling via cytokines of the TNF family mediate cell death and inflammation within the adipose tissue, eventually resulting in lipid spill-over, glucotoxicity and insulin resistance. These events ultimately lead to ectopic lipid depositi...
Article
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The effects of NO3⁻ and/or NH4⁺, and nickel on the growth and photosynthesis-respiration metabolism of Botryococcus braunii were analyzed. NO3⁻, NH4⁺ and Ni(II) removal capacity are described in terms of metabolic and non-metabolic processes. Results demonstrate that B. braunii can live in a pH range from 3 to 9. The total productivity (P) and the...
Article
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Exercise and cold exposure are two stimuli that have been suggested as solely effective to modulate adipose tissue metabolism and improve metabolic health in obese populations. The two primary organs involved in energy metabolism during exercise and/or cold exposure are skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Adipose tissue can be divided mainly into t...
Article
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This review presents information on demographic processes in Russia and the relevance of highly effective contraception for the prevention of artificial abortion. We present data on the etonogestrel implant (68 mg), an innovative single-stranded subcutaneous implant, a long-acting reversible contraceptive option with high efficacy (Pearl index 0.05...
Article
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Amino acids (AAs) are indispensable building blocks of diverse bio-macromolecules as well as functional regulators for various metabolic processes. The fact that cancer cells live with a voracious appetite for specific AAs has been widely recognized. Glioma is one of the most lethal malignancies occurring in the central nervous system. The reprogra...
Article
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Resumo: As palmeiras do gênero Attalea são amplamente distribuídas, servindo de alimentos, abrigos e principalmente como fonte de fitoconstituentes do metabolismo secundário com potenciais terapêuticos. Nesse contexto, o objetivo foi descrever o potencial antimicrobiano das palmeiras do gênero Attalea nativas do Cerrado brasileiro. Isso foi propost...
Article
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Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism is currently a focus in cancer research due to PUFAs functioning as structural components of the membrane matrix, as fuel sources for energy production, and as sources of secondary messengers, so called oxylipins, important players of inflammatory processes. Although breast cancer (BC) is the leading cau...
Article
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Lipids affect cartilage growth, injury, and regeneration in diverse ways. Diet and metabolism have become increasingly important as the prevalence of obesity has risen. Proper lipid supplementation in the diet contributes to the preservation of cartilage function, whereas excessive lipid buildup is detrimental to cartilage. Lipid metabolic pathways...
Chapter
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The wide distribution of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) throughout the body and its pivotal pathophysiological role offer promising opportunities for the development of novel therapeutic drugs for treating several diseases. However, the need for strategies to circumvent the unwanted psychotropic and immunosuppressive effects associated with canna...
Poster
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most common cause of death in the world. Montenegro follows this trend, and for the past decade the incidence of CVD has been increasing. Therefore, better prevention, timely diagnosis and treatment of CVD is one of the top healthcare priorities. Scientific data shows that acute coronary events (ACE) peak in th...
Article
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El maíz es un alimento muy completo, que contiene muchas vitaminas y minerales que favo-recen nuestro metabolismo. Sin embargo, la proteína del grano de maíz es deficiente en la pro-porción de lisina y triptofano, aminoácidos esenciales para el ser humano. Lo que podría con-llevar a una desnutrición, de manera especial en niños, ma-dres, lactantes...
Article
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Glycerol can be metabolized to glucose via gluconeogenesis or lactate via glycolysis. It is unknown if glycerol is metabolized similarly in the portal and systemic circulations in humans. Eight metabolically healthy overnight-fasted individuals received equimolar amounts of 13C3-glycerol orally and intravenously on two separate occasions with seria...
Article
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Intestinal flora is numerous and diverse, and play a key role in maintaining human health. Dietary polysaccharides are widely present in the daily diet and have a moderating effect on the intestinal flora. Past studies have confirmed that intestinal flora is involved in the metabolic process in the human body, and the change in intestinal flora str...
Article
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In environmental metagenomic experiments, a very high proportion of the microbial sequencing data (> 70%) remains largely unexploited because rare and closely related genomes are missed in short-read assemblies. The identity and the potential metabolisms of a large fraction of natural microbial communities thus remain inaccessible to researchers. T...
Article
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Progesterone is a steroid hormone that performs important functions in mammals. However, studies on its physiological functions in plants have gradually increased in recent years. Therefore, this review summarizes the regulatory functions of progesterone on plant growth and development, as well as its response to stress. Moreover, the plant metabol...
Article
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Introducción: fundada en 1950, la Asociación Colombiana de Endocrinología, Diabetes y Metabolismo (ace) cumple 72 años y se posiciona como una de las asociaciones científicas más sólidas y exitosas de Colombia, la cual basa su actuar en el desarrollo de tres pilares estratégicos: liderazgo académico, empoderamiento de comunidades de pacientes y par...
Article
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In eukaryotic cells, biological activities are executed in distinct cellular compartments or organelles. Canonical organelles with membrane‐bound structures are well understood. Cells also inherently contain versatile membrane‐less organelles (MLOs) that feature liquid or gel‐like bodies. A biophysical process termed liquid–liquid phase separation...
Article
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of sustained arrhythmia in diabetes mellitus (DM). Its morbidity and mortality rates are high, and its prevalence will increase as the population ages. Despite expanding knowledge on the pathophysiological mechanisms of AF, current pharmacological interventions remain unsatisfactory; therefore, novel...
Article
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Diatom–diazotroph associations (DDAs) are one of the most important symbiotic dinitrogen (N2) fixing groups in the oligotrophic ocean. Despite their capability to fix N2, ammonium (NH4+) remains a key nitrogen (N) source for DDAs, and the effect of NH4+ on their metabolism remains elusive. Here, we developed a coarse-grained, cellular model of the...
Article
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In a recent paper published in Life Metabolism, Zhu et al. revealed that mutations that reduce phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis rescue embryonic lethality but exacerbate lipid droplet (LD) abnormalities in C. elegans seipin mutants, demonstrating distinct roles for Seipin in embryogenesis and LD formation.
Article
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Copper is a critical metal nutrient required by marine microalgae but may be toxic when supplied in excess. Maintaining an optimal intracellular Cu content is thus fundamentally necessary for microalgae and relies on cellular regulatory metabolisms and the process of Cu uptake that buffers the variation in environmental Cu availability. In this art...
Preprint
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The carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolisms have long been known to be coupled, and this is required for adjusting nitrogen use efficiency. Despite this intricate relationship, it is still unclear how a deregulation of sugar transport impacts N allocation. Here we investigated, in Arabidopsis, the consequences of the simultaneous downregulation of...
Conference Paper
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As separate nosological forms of osteoarthritis (OA) and hypothyroidism (HIT) differ in their etiology, but the issue of comorbidity of these diseases, which are insufficiently covered in the literature, becomes important. The negative impact of hormonal dysfunction of the thyroid gland on the functional state of organs and systems is due to the ke...
Preprint
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Efficient diffusion of particles in the crowded cytoplasm is crucial for bacteria. Experiments have found that particle diffusion in metabolically active cells is much faster than in dormant cells, especially for large particles. However, the mechanism of this size-dependent diffusion enhancement in living cells is still unclear. In this work, we a...
Article
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The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (PIGR), an exosome-associated glycoprotein, plays an important role in the occurrence and development of different tumors. This study aimed to investigate whether PIGR is essential for colorectal cancer (CRC). Comprehensive bioinformatics analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed that expression of PIGR...
Cover Page
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I am now editing the Special Issue of "Insects". You are welcome to participate! https://www.mdpi.com/.../insects/special_issues/D146N93XYQ
Article
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Biological nutrient removal is an integral part of a wastewater treatment plant. However, the microorganism responsible for nutrient removal is susceptible to inhibition by external toxicants such as heavy metals which have the potential to completely inhibit biological nutrient removal. The inhibition is a result of the interaction between heavy m...
Article
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Alopecurus japonicus has been a serious weed across China and developed resistance to the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicide. The A. japonicus ACCase gene mutations accounting for target-site resistance (TSR) have been clarified, while non-target-site resistance (NTSR) is not distinct. Here, dose–response testing indicated that an...
Article
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Eukaryotic gene expression involves several interlinked steps, in which messenger RNAs (mRNAs), which code for proteins, are the key intermediates [...]
Article
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The discovery of ribozymes has inspired exploration of RNA’s potential to serve as primordial catalysts in a hypothesized RNA world. Modern oxidoreductase enzymes employ differential binding between reduced and oxidized forms of redox cofactors to alter cofactor reduction potential and enhance the enzyme’s catalytic capabilities. The utility of dif...
Article
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Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has several mechanisms of action related to inflammatory responses, especially in individuals diagnosed with obesity. This hyperinflammatory clinical profile resulting from the association between obesity and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be attenuated by regular physical activi...
Article
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This study investigated the effect of the BCO2 genotype and the addition of Aztec marigold flower extract to rabbit diets on the expression of BCO1, BCO2, LRAT, and TTPA genes in the liver. The levels of lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene, retinol, and α-tocopherol in the liver and blood serum of rabbits, as well as plasma biochemical parameters and se...
Article
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Cell death, survival, or growth decisions in T-cell subsets depend on interplay between cytokine-dependent and metabolic processes. The metabolic requirements of T-regulatory cells (Tregs) for their survival and how these are satisfied remain unclear. Herein, we identified a necessary requirement of methionine uptake and usage for Tregs survival up...
Article
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Biological rhythms mediate important within‐host processes such as metabolism, immunity, and behavior which are often linked to combating disease exposure. For many hosts, exposure to pathogens occurs while feeding. However, the link between feeding rhythms and infection risk is unclear because feeding behavior is tightly coupled with immune and me...
Article
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Physiological functions such as energy metabolism and free radicals are responsible for maintaining homeostasis of living bodies and play an important role in various diseases and treatments. Therefore, these functions can be used as imaging biomarkers for new disease imaging. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-MRI is a powerful technique that can...
Book
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Gizi merupakan elemen penting bagi ketercapaian kesehatan manusia. Ketidak terpenuhannya gizi harian pada makanan menjadi penyebab utama meningkatnya prevalensi malnutrisi yang bedampak pada penurunan kualitas kesehatan dan timbulnya penyakit di masyarakat. Dalam memenuhi kebutuhan gizi, diperlukan pengetahuan yang holistik mengenai hal-hal yang be...
Article
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Seasonal changes in the environment can lead to astonishing adaptations. A few small mammals with exceptionally high metabolisms have evolved a particularly extreme strategy: they shrink before winter and regrow in spring, including changes of greater than 20% in skull and brain size. Whether this process is an adaptation to seasonal climates, reso...
Article
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The nature of Archean life remains one of the most contested topics in the study of Earth history. The debate may be formulated as follows: When did present day metabolisms emerge to ecological significance? What limited the productivity of early biospheres? How did the existence and productivity of individual metabolisms affect the chemistry and o...
Preprint
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Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the brain and malfunction of the related metabolism is associated with various neurological diseases and disorders. The observation of labeling changes in the spectra after the administration of a ¹³ C labelled tracer is a common tool to gain better insights into the function of the metabolic system....
Preprint
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The origin and evolution of operons have puzzled evolutionary biologists since their discovery. To date, many theories have been proposed to explain their evolution, among which reduced recombination rate within clustered genes, co-expression, simultaneous horizontal transfer and transcription/translation coupling. Most focus on the possible advant...
Article
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Purpose of the Review Time-restricted eating (TRE) is a promising dietary intervention for weight loss and improvement of cardiometabolic risk factors. We aim to provide a critical review of blood pressure outcomes reported in clinical TRE studies in adults with metabolic syndrome, in the context of the proposed mechanisms that underlie the relatio...
Article
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Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the main complications of diabetes and the main cause of end-stage kidney disease in the world. Currently, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria are the main markers for detection of DN. However, these markers do not accurately indicate the degree of renal dysfunction and injury. In rec...
Article
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Dual mTORC1/2 inhibitors may be more effective than mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin. Nevertheless, their metabolic effects on breast cancer cells have not been reported. We compared the anti-proliferative capacity of rapamycin and a novel mTORC1/2 dual inhibitor (AZD8055) in two breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-453) and analyzed their met...
Article
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Leucocytes CD, defensins levels change during hepatitis
Article
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Bioquímica é uma importante área de conhecimento para cursos que envolvem biologia, entretanto constantemente os estudantes enfrentam dificuldades em relação à compreensão integral de assuntos que envolvem biomoléculas e metabolismo. Esse cenário confere uma oportunidade para adotar metodologias ativas, como jogos. Dessa fora, o presente trabalho o...
Article
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La distribución de la biomasa entre predadores y presas en comunidades desaparecidas muestra la actividad ecológica. Podemos deducir esta distribución en comunidades de Dinosaurios usando datos bibliográficos de los distintos géneros, considerando el significado del registro fósil. A tal fin, relacionamos el porcentaje de individuos en la comunidad...