Science topic

Mental Disorders - Science topic

Mental Disorders are psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
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this is a simple article I'm up to , this has to be review Article but I hear some of my friends who her father has one of mental disorders and that makes her extraordinary kind , caring and more than anyone I know empathetic , then I noticed and find out that another friend of mine has a parent with personality disorder diagnosed but it influenced on him in a bad way may say , and I think he needs experts helps or at least care and listen so I decide to make a discussion if anyone wants to tell a story or talk maybe could help me with my Essay and also reading your sides , opinion anything ...
I would be thankful also you can send me an Email or msg here .
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Worldwide, at least 25% of persons and their families are affected by mental illness resulting in significant stress and burden;
Effects of mental illness on family quality of life - PubMed (nih.gov)
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Childhood trauma is associated with numerous of psychopathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, depression, antisocial behavior, and substance abuse. Traumatic events involve harm or threat of harm. Children who have been exposed to trauma have information processing biases that help them identify environmental risks more quickly. An increased emotional sensitivity to anger is one such bias. The number of children affected by posttraumatic stress disorder varies according to epidemiological studies. The effects of trauma on children have been studied in several studies including (a) Physical, sexual abused or assaulted (b) observing violent, behavior on another people (c) serious or life-threatening illness (d) Natural disaster or terrorism (e) war or military operations (f) Sudden loss of loved one. Many people suffering from PTSD are experiencing symptoms that are both persistent and severe. Nightmares, sleepiness, psychosomatic problems, stress, anxiety, impatience, embarrassment, aggression, suicidal behavior, hopelessness, and isolation are only few of the symptoms. Depression, anxiety, and alcohol/substance misuse are all mental diseases that can occur alongside trauma. It is a situation that's ordinary over people this is hard to remove, this medical problem requires the assist of expert psychiatric or psychologist to treat. People can be exposed to lifetime-threatening traumatic experiences and disaster-related stresses after the natural disaster take place
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'The Association between Traumatic Events and its Psychiatric Consequences in Children' might be a more suitable title. Not every psychopathology is considered a behavioural disorder.
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In this preprint (Schwarz, 2021) they indicate that the use of masks has a number of negative effects on children and adolescents, although they were unable to distinguish between the use of masks and the psychological and traumatic disruption caused directly by living through a pandemic with all its consequences.
"53% of children suffer from headaches.
49% of children are less cheerful.
44% of children no longer want to go to school.
38% of children suffer from learning problems.
25% of children develop new fears.
15% of children play less".
Source: Schwarz, S., Jenetzky, E., Krafft, H., Maurer, T., & Martin, D. (2020). Corona children studies" Co-Ki": First results of a Germany-wide registry on mouth and nose covering (mask) in children. Researchsquare.com (preprint) https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-124394/v2
In any case, although I do not like to use preprints, it is useful for me to reflect on the impact that the pandemic may have on children. I have two daughters and I am beginning to observe symptoms of stress, anguish and sadness, with occasional moments of crying for no apparent reason. It is not the scope of my research, but I am concerned about this.
How do you think this will end?
NOTES FOR CONSPIRANOIDS:
As I mentioned in my discussion, talking about this preprint "...they were unable to distinguish between the use of masks and the psychological and traumatic disruption caused directly by living through a pandemic with all its consequences.". Face masks are very important to fight against flu and SARS-CoV2. The incidence of flu this year is very low due to the use of face masks, and it's important to wear masks to avoid COVID disease and the collapse of the hospitals.
Cherry-picking, suppressing evidence, or the fallacy of incomplete evidence is the act of pointing to individual cases or data that seem to confirm a particular position while ignoring a significant portion of related and similar cases or data that may contradict that position. In this case, many COVID negationists are using papers like this one to attribute that masks are bad, and this is absolutely CHERRY-PICKING, especially when in the paper's conclusions it states the following:
"It is very important to us that our results do not lead to parents developing a fundamentally negative opinion of mask-wearing among children. Many children and adolescents are grateful that they can continue to attend school thanks to the AHA+L rules and would like adults to have a positive opinion about the masks, especially since the type of mask worn can usually be chosen. Furthermore, there are children for whom the mask may be a necessary aid, for example, if they are immunosuppressed after chemotherapy. Unreflective negative statements about the mask can cause a nocebo effect and unnecessarily stress children: it is better to listen and take it seriously when problems arise. "
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I don't think it affects children because they have stronger immunity than adults
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I'd like to ask if any of you can recommend any reading on gender bias in psychological diagnosis. I'm interested in a broad approach to gender - i.e., publications that go beyond the binary division between male and female genders. The issue is quite decently described in terms of differences in diagnoses depending on whether the symptoms are manifested by women or men, but I cannot find any interesting research on the diagnosis/ misdiagnosis of mental disorders for people who identify as, for example, non-binary or transgender. I'd be grateful for any help!
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Sex and gender are two different things. You seem to be conflating them. Sex refers to external reproductive organs usually at birth; gender refers to behavior (masculine/feminine/ gender non-conforming mixtures). Expression of gender identity is a gender behavior but is only meaningful if it refers to previous gender behavior. I do not use the term gender identity for 3 reasons. (1) for a long time "gender identity disorder" was a term used to pathologies transgender people. (2) The term identity in this context is derived from the psychodynamic tradition of Freud and Erikson which has no scientific basis. (3) Identity cannot be operationalized for science because it refers to phenomena that are not observable. Please do not use it. There are some people who mix their gender behaviors who have other problems like depression but this is usually recognized as a secondary cooccurence. The depression is referred to as reactive depression because it is not organic but is a result of rejection by others. Providers who treat such people will typically treat social problems associated with their gender behavior category indicate that if the gender problems are solved through counseling or medical treatment, then the depression goes away.
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What do you think are the most important psychological disorders associated with COVID-19?
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Los más comunes son depresión, estrés, miedo, ansiedad, desesperación, tristeza etc
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The significance of omega-3 fatty acids, specially Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (present in fish oil) for human health is now well recognised and also show their efficacy to reduce mental disorders.
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Despite the lack of set dietary recommendations for omega-3 PUFAs, meta-analytic evidence suggests that at EPA may improve anxiety at doses > 2 g/day (Su et al, 2018) and depression at doses 0.2-2.2 g/d in excess of DHA (Sublette et al., 2011). This contrasts the findings of a more recent meta-analysis by Deane et al. (2019). In any case, the EPA/DHA ratio, origin (e.g., marine vs. plant), form (e.g., ethyl ester, triglycerides, free fatty acids, monoacylglycerols) should be considered. There is an excellent review by Bazinet et al. (2019) focusing on EPA and major depression, which contains great references.
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Emerging adults have multitudes of psychosocial stressors. However, it is not clear to what extent does regional variation determines the age of onset of major mental disorders.
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Hi Dr. Abba-Aji,
You may find these articles in American Psychological Association relevant-
Prajjita
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Taxometric analysis is commonly done for psychiatric diagnosis to assess discrete categories vs dimension or dimensions + categories. But has it been done for medical diagnoses with similar characteristics. The best example I can think of is hypertension (HTN). I have attached a graphic file looking at the most recent systolic BP recommendation and the distribution of blood pressures in the population. I also searched available literature for taxometric analysis of hypertension and could find nothing.
Is it possible that all polygenic, quantitative rather than qualitative disorders (HTN, asthma, diabetes, etc) produce the same results as psychiatric disorders in general? (I have found one study of metabolic syndrome.)
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I can mention one study with taxometric analysis in parastic disease:
Anshu Malhotra et al. Taxometric analysis of helminths of marine fishes 1.Pedunculacetabulum spinatum n. Sp., from chlorinemus mandetta and wenyonia rhincodonti n. Sp., from Rhincondon typus. Journal of parastic diseases, 2011:35(2):222_9.
DOI. 10.1007./s12639_011_0049_0
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Living in poor regions in addition to economic difficulties, causes certain mental disorders not only related to poverty but the residents of these regions cause psychological damage in people with a tendency to depression or mild autism.
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But, even in the other pathologies that are not socioeconomically conditioned, status and economic power even influence psycholinguistically to establish differences: Thus, the poor suffer from madness, go to asylums and, at most, take psychotropic drugs; while the rich who have "nervous disorders", "mental exhaustion", "sourmenages" and other euphemisms, go to Rest Centers or Specialized Clinics for "Over stress" and, in addition to psychotropic drugs -consumed in To a lesser extent, as demonstrated, they receive Psychotherapy and Combined Therapies ... It is only an example.
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I'm trying to study the relationship between a family history of depression and brain's intrinsic functional connectivity in individuals at high risk for depression (by virtue of having a first-degree relative with a lifetime history of depression). Unfortunately, owing to the inherent difficulty associated with using the gold standard way of examining families' diagnostic status (i.e., using SCID), I've been forced to obtain the required information by means of self-reports -using the participants as informants. I'm well aware that this imposes a serious limitation on my ability to interpret my findings. However, I need to know if there has ever been an effort to see how well the ideas of the general population regarding psychiatric diagnoses (particularly, a major depressive disorder diagnosis) are in line with diagnoses confirmed by a psychiatrist. In other words, have there been studies comparing the results of general population self-reports about mental disorders (either their own or that of their family members) with actual psychiatric diagnoses?
I would really appreciate your response.
Sincerely,
Hassan
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Hi,
Thank you Michael Uebel and Bhogaraju Anand for your answers. I found them really helpful.
All the best,
Hassan
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I'm doing a research with my team on Depression in India. We need a dataset of social media posts of Indian people. We want to do Sentiment Analysis on these posts and find out some insights which are India specific.
  • We have tried Facebook(but its very hard to scrape data from it).
  • We have tried Reddit(but got very less posts, also it doesn't tell the country)
  • We looked twitter, but not fruitful.
It is possible that we can get data from the above three more efficiently, but do not know how?
If there is any forum related to depression, or mental health, it will also work.
We've also posted related question here:
  1. https://www.reddit.com/r/redditdev/comments/k2stws/getting_post_from_a_subreddit_only_from_users_of/
  2. https://www.reddit.com/r/datasets/comments/k2tx96/looking_for_social_media_posts_of_indian_people/
TL;DR: Looking for Indian dataset of social media posts of depresses/anxious people.
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Mohamed Elhadad Thanks for your suggestion, will sure look into that.
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Describe the skills and attributes that are necessary to communicate with someone who is experiencing mental health problems.
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It is a CLINICAL relationship and praxis -not a coffee chat or between friends- that usually has a Psychodynamic basis, Support Therapy and Ventilation, Catharsis, Relationship of Help, or Counseling (and can be more than one of the at the same time) ... in the end, is to use THE WORD (the "LOGOS") as a therapeutic weapon; the Asclepiades -and Hippocrates was- already told us in Classical Greece that "the Sanitary heals with the knife, the poison and the word": the knife has given foot to Surgery, the poison to Pharmacotherapy and, the word , to Psychotherapy (and they do not have to be exclusive).
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Post Covid 19 the scenario in India has changed and some of the private insurance companies are providing coverages for mental disorders. So My question is what mental disorders are covered in different countries?
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Dear Dr. Madhurima Ghosh, I agree with Dr. M.K. Tripathi and Dr. Shubhi Agarwal . I have not heard about this. Warm regards Yoganandan G
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If there is any tool which can be used for initial screening of Mental disorders by non psychiatric department as well (in hospital setting), we can prevent lots of patient (submerged portion of iceberg phenomena) in the light of clinical investigation.
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Currently Stephen Ternyik and I have been engaged (as well as members of Stephen's Lab) in the application of Ontological Engineering principles as applied to QMH (Quantifying Mental Health). As such we have designed a forensic simulator in which measurement data is feed from which AI (Artificial Intelligence ) algorithms minimize the predicted value of the "mental state" of the individual from the input measurement. The measurement input is obtained from a question answer session from both patient and people affiliated with the patient.
An overview of the forensic simulator is given in the attachment in addition to miscellaneous tools sets as provided for by the WKDB (World Knowledge DataBase) which is constantly updated with new information.
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I try to find the effect of culture on thinking and behavior, and this is especially true for people with obsessive-compulsive disorder
I would be very grateful for your help
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I don't think anything other than treatment and medication can treat OCD.
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Dear colleagues
Who can help me find studies or references that study the relationship of culture to mental disorders.
I would be very grateful for your help. :)
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First of all, you should concentrate on the concept of disorders then relationship with other variables.
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What are the coping mechanisms for patients with mental disorders during the quarentine period?
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There is a paper written by Brooks & co-authors (2020) with a review and analysis of 24 researches on psychological effects of quarantines. It was a very helpful study for me and for my research.
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'Personality' is defined as a population of one (1). How, then, can personality be considered "disodered"? Furthermore, since "disordered" in reference to personality is based in mental disorder but on on social norms, why is "personality disorders" listed and described in a manual of "mental" disorders?
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I am work on dissertation about the possibility of using methods of applied psychophysiology to solve the problems of forensic psychiatry.
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Yeah, thank you so much
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I am conducting some researches to identify symptom patterns in mental disorders. I would like to have some meta-analysis or seminal papers on the topic.
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I'm currently looking at the aetiology of different mental disorders. I find it the basic model of aetiology (Margraf & Scheider, 2009) quite useful. It distinguishes between predisposing, precipitating and maintaining factors. But how clearcut is this distinction?
For example in individuals with schizophrenia it was found that they have an altered brain structure (Olabi et al., 2011) and a abnormal amount of neurotransmitter (-receptors) (Howes, McCrutcheon & Stone, 2015). But are these factors accountable for predisposing those individuals or should they be considered maintaining factors?
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Due to the advancement in machine learning and it's application in psychiatry and clinical psychology, their is a need to understand the reliability of various programming software for predicting the prevalence of suicide and it's risk factors.
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This requires the quantification of mental health by a forensic simulator.
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I am trying to understand data generated from our study into mental disorders in forced migrant adolescents. We have not used a dissociation scale but are wondering if there is dissociative (and/or perhaps alexithymic) features in the data we've collected so far.
A lit search has not revealed anything for Achenbach scales & dissociation but I thought I read somewhere that the Achenbach measured dissociation eg, an embedded dissociation scale. This is not a formal Achenbach scale, but perhaps others have proposed one (as was the case for the CBCL-PTSD scale).
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I want to read about people with schizophrenia, personal accounts would be even better.
Thanks!
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Read very old textbooks and medical journals, especially for descriptions of hallucinations.
I find little of any use in modern literature except for Schiz Bull Personal Accounts. Patient websites on the Internet are more helpful than the medical literature.
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I know that CBT, for example, is an evidence-based treatment for MDD. What about supportive psychotherapy?
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yes, definitely
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In the litterature on depression scales, these are often validated by comparing their convergent validity with the diagnoses given by psychiatrists. This of course implicitly assumes that the psychiatrists' diagnosis is more accurate than any existing scale.
So what evidence or discussions are you aware of regarding the validity of the depression diagnosis as administered by a psychiatrist (or psychologist)?
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We compared the historical diagnosis "melancholia" with the modern "severe depression" according to ICD-10 in our first study "Mental illness in Sweden (1896-1905) reflected through case records from a local general hospital". None received the modern diagnoses "mild or moderate depression". The old case records describe depressed patients in a similar way as we do today. Just a historical perspective ;-).
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Autism is a disorder which effects the behavioral skills of a child for the rest of his/ her life. Trying to estimate the cost of different variables to asses the cost benefit effectiveness of a Communication centered Parent mediated intervention for Autism in South Asia. Maximum literature is from the developed parts of the world which makes it in appropriate to adopt similar tools in Low and Middle Income Countries in South Asia.
For further details kindly refer to this link for the project description.
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Thank you for the text. It was very helpful in understanding the broader context of costs involved and research practices.
I am presently developing a cost of Illness Inventory which will collect information on the monetary and time costs related with the child from the parents. I am having difficulties in capturing opportunity cost of the parent who are willing to do a job but cannot do so.
Given scarcity of data and literature on autism in India it difficult to assume such costs. It seems very speculative.
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I believe while doing research about depression we are doing a huge mistake. We often use screening tools for depression, such a self-reported scale (e.g. EURO-D), and those who are at risk are often called "depressed".
Being at high risk for depression does not mean being depressed.
I often read about incredibly high prevalence of depression in many studies, but then in the methods I see a screening tool was used to measure depressive symptoms.
Depression is not diagnosed in such a way.
Diagnosis of depression can be done only in a clinical setting.
While using scale for screening, we need to talk about "individuals at high risk for depression" or individuals with "high level of depressive symptoms".
It is like if we would refer to those with low tolerance to glucose as diabetic after asking them the value of glucose last time they made a blood test. Actually, this would be even more accurate.
What is your idea?
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I agree with Michael Uebel that PHQ-9 is a useful screening tool, as well as other validated questionnaires (Zung's SDS, CES-D, HADS, Whooley, etc.). However, they are just screening tools, not diagnostic tools. A positive screening indicates that there is a likelihood of having a depressive disorder.
E.g., it is accepted that the operational features (sensitivity, specificity...) of the PHQ9 are sufficiently good to recommend its use as a screening tool, but its predictive positive value (at best: in a population with high prevalence of depression) could be around of 50 % (i. e., 50% of positive results in PHQ 9 do not have depression).
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the commonest behavioral disorders in children
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Thanks Max and Michael for the response.
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I am an aspiring researcher. I am 31 and have little educational background. I am in the middle of my associates degree in something that has nothing to do with research. What should be my next course of action? I am interested in philosophy and neuropsychology, even more specifically addictions and mental disorders. How should I achieve my goal of becoming a researcher?
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In the humanities it is possible. I know a researcher at a literary museum in Estonia, and I think in a number of Eastern European countries native speakers of the national language have research positions with less than a PhD or equivalent. However, as Michael Uebel has indirectly suggested, it's not something to be counted on. In the sciences one could be part of a research team in the capacity of a technical assistant and take part in some research activities that are not of one's own design or initiative. But really, if your ultimate goal is to do your own research independently, i.e. not in a subordinate role, you'll need a PhD. The first step for you would be a 4yr undergraduate degree (preferably honors). Assuming you want the fastest and most direct route to your goal because of your age, I then suggest to try for a direct-entry PhD program that let's you bypass the master's and finish in 3 years; however, a longer time spent in a program could provide more opportunities for valuable research experience even though in a subordinate role; so it's a tradeoff.
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- Are there places in the world where DID is integrated into culture (e.g. hmong shamanism) or appears in folklore?
- What are some places that are better and that are worse at recognizing DID?
- Does the whole world use the DES?
- When DID is diagnosed, what are the treatments in places other than America/Europe?
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"Rêve et chamanisme", ed Accarias l'Originel, Paris, 1998.
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The World Health
Organization (WHO) has developed Problem Management Plus (PM+), a 5-session, individual psychological interven tion program, that can be delivered by non-specialist counsellors that addresses common mental disorders
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You may be able to contact the WHO and ask about the availability of PM+ in Swedish. Or, the WHO might know if there are research teams involved in its translation (and back translation) into Swedish. Questions may be directed at the Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse at WHO (mhgap-info@who.int). I hope that helps!
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We see the small island of Britain off the west coast of Europe posturing as global policeman vis a vis Syria/Russia/Iran/ North Korea, not sure who else?
But in their own backyard they have failed to even understand the question, let alone offer a solution on the Irish border post Brexit,
I begin to wonder if there is a direct correlation between economic decline (these things go in cycles you know) and the mental capacity to understand the world around you and what you need to do to survive?
Are there experts out there who can enlighten us please?
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The assumption that the British displayed intelligence when powerful demonstrates a limited knowledge of history. They after all helped then develop the concept of racism-still with us. Does the USA now or in the past? Did they not buy in intelligence?
Where Brexit is concerned, will the apparent bullying, boy's own club of European administrator's lead to eventual disaster-for them at least?
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DNA structure and activity can change with environmental factors. But does experience such as sexual abuse create significant biological effects on DNA?
These type of researches are so important in detecting crime.
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Just like environmental factors, psychological factors may have an impact on gene expression and its regulatory mechanisms but the extent of impact would be depndent on multifactorial aspects and would need to be ascertained in a case to case basis.
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Needs to be fairly short and accessible. Preferably relating to MH in children but that's not essential.
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Hi,
Maybe this questionnaire can help.
Best wishes
Yaakov
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World Health Organization stated that Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder, characterized by profound disruptions in thinking, affecting language, perception, and the sense of self.
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I now have created a compact version of the ``theory of everything'' I am developing since several years, also including the biological and psychological extensions dealing with human body, human soul, and human mind, in the latter case, comprising mental disorders just like drugs applied to treat mental disorders. In particular, in the last chapter (``On the Quest of the Actual Nature of Being''), I there present formal boxes which compactly elucidate the central feature of all this, namely the interrelation of forces and fields in the context of macroscopic systems and microscopic systems, naturally incorporating gravitation, electromagnetism, and self-interaction, by way of example, also presenting the way to the notions ``weak interaction'' and ``strong interaction'' as used in quantum field theory. Please consult the copies ``Understanding Nature Truly'', part one, two, and three presented in RG in the context of my projects
``Theory of Everything'' (part one) and ``Human Soul as Mathematical Object ...'' (part two, three). Do these formal boxes contain enough information to show that the ``theory of everything'' I am developing since several years indeed works? Do these formal boxes contain enough information to show that ``theory of everything'' is not what people so far a looking for, but something completely different? Do these formal boxes contain enough information to show that exactly this is the problem preventing that people realize the way I am going as the right way?
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Literature would tell that CBT is one of the widely used and researched therapy, but there are also claims that it has already lost its efficacy throughout time.
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Are you referring to paper by Johnsen and Friborg? :)
They point out in it some possible factors:
- declining adherence to therapy manuals
- declining of the placebo effect
- varying skills of therapy founders/original users and other users
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We are researching he causal links between drinking high TDS underground well water and health issues in indigenous communities.
There is a lot of Chronic Kidney disease, Heart Disease, Diabetes, etc.  The mortality rates are very high.
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I agree with Dr. Tausif, that the health hazard due to high TDS is related to the presence contaminants dissolved in groundwater. Natural mineral contaminants like Arsenic or man made like fertilizers; pesticides; etc., in the groundwater lead to chronic effects like cancer, liver or kidney problems, or reproductive difficulties. 
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Is it possible to separate one from the another by clear criteria?
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Hallusinations alone are naturallly not enough to diagnose schizophrenia. It is like in the two other answers defined by which other symptoms and problems with function the person has.
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Hi everyone, I am searching for a drug having contraceptive or anti fertility properties but induces a severe mental disorder like depression, bipolar disorder etc. 
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Dear Sarika Srivastava
Can you give some information about the project so that we may be able to give more specific information. 
Any drug causing severe mental side effects would/should not be used as a contraceptive.
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There is a huge clinical literature on this mental disorder, but the problem stubbornly and tragically persists. I wonder if it is strongly grounded in amygdala pathology. 
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Paul- before proceeding, I have to point out that the term "intractable" is  an illusional way of referring to an ineffective therapy - major source of the treatment difficulty is sloppy approach to research of brain biology- decades of advances in brain imaging confirm glitches in  brain systems that are implicated in OCD - most psychologists, social workers, counselors and others who practice psychotherapy have been content with shifting brain biology issues to medicine knows physicians - even undertake sometimes to encourage patients to comply with medication regimens- need to address the fact that  even the FDA  relies only on evidence that medications reduce the symptoms per DSM listings - no requirement to demonstrate corrections of brain impairments- I know of no evidence from any neuropharmaceutical that corrects defects in brain biology- We are all  aware, however, of the numerous examples of neurological damage like EPS and TD as well as serious endocrine disruptions- the only study I know that identifies brain pathology in mental illness, is the landmark project of Dr. Jeffrey Schwartz and his team in the UCLA  department of Psychiatry. They designed a psychotherapy protocol based on discoveries of neuroplasticity in the discipline of neuroscience-neuroplasticity refers to the process in which every learning experience includes biological brain changes. Part of therapy involved cognitive-behavioral methods for changing pathologies of thinking and behavior, which most psychotherapists will recognize.  (f)MRIs were applied to assess brain benefits .  Structures that were not doing what they are designed to do, were in overactive areas. Mindfulness skills ,along with other benefits, normalize activity levels. The resulting effects were that malfunctioning structures started working as designed.  Successful psychotherapy is always a learning experience - hundreds of studies of neuroplasticity confirm this phenomenon. A giant leap in the UCLA  project was designing a therapy where the brain changes came in the form of correcting defective functioning.  Highly recommend thew book describing the project- includes details of research references, which provides good update for modern advances in neuroscience
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I am looking for a comparative study on the mental health policies in Europe. My main focus is the psychiatric hospital and the covered versions of it which reintroduce institutionalization of psychiatric patients. Anyone can suggest me  good books or some good articles? Thanks.
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Dear Mario Cardano, this is link with study policy in Brasil , include mental Health
Best Regards
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I am looking for data regarding the prevalence of mental disorders in german high schools (Gymnasium). Can anyone recommend a source?
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This is a little dated, but you might want to check the "Bremer Jugendstudie” (BJS; English translation: Bremer Adolescent Study), which was conducted between May 1996 and July 1997. Google Scholar shows a number of reports from that study.
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It involves a combination of recognised therapies - music, laughter and exercise but has it been formally studied?
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I don't think there are any studies out there yet, but a feasibility/acceptability investigation would be the important first step. Good luck getting funding for that one :)
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Pediatric & Adult  Psychiatric 
pediatric & Adult Psychologist
Pediatric & Adult  Neurologist 
All Pediatricians
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Yes, you can see the DC: 0-3R, a "developmentally based system for diagnosing mental health and developmental disorders in infants and toddlers" (https://www.zerotothree.org/resources/services/dc-0-3r). The updated manual, titled DC:0-5™, will be released in December 2016.
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We're having a research paper and we need scales to measure our variable. We need DSM-V based scales and we haven't found one yet. 
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In literature most of the researchs about treatment response using DSM-IV or DSM5 criterias, CGI-I, PTSD-I scores but none of seperate treatment response negative or positive as binary. 
In depression trials, researchers use Beck Depression Inventory or HAM-D score %50 reduction for negative or positive treatment response. Is it ok to use PTSD-I score %50 reduction for treatment response?
Thank you for your answers. 
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Dear Miraç,
In addition to Lewis' great suggestion, response to treatment could be measured using the self-reported PTSD symptom severity (Impact of Event Scale-Revised). Another option could be the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale.
Please see attached for some articles that could be of interest to you.
Best wishes,
Julio
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Recent research relating to analysis of problems, and recommendations for improvements r/t quality care issues in psychiatric/mental health care ? 
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Dear Sandra, 
somatic disorders affect the mental well-being and vise verse. 
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I am in need of a gold standard dataset with features all of the mental disorders such as Depression, PTSD, Bipolar etc. and their symptoms. For example, symptoms of depression are back pain, apathy, hopelessness, fatigue etc. 
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Hello Ramkrushna,
In addition to the above-mentioned, I would like to recommend you the book "Adult Psychopathology and Diagnosis, 7th Edition", Deborah C. Beidel (Editor), B. Christopher Frueh (Editor), Michel Hersen (Editor). 
This book follows DSM 5 and includes topics such as the new Schizophrenic Spectrum designation and other psychotic disorders, the revised approach to eating disorders, the alternative DSM-5 Model for personality disorders, among other topics.
Hope it helps. 
Best wishes, 
Julio 
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I want to know the current state of research regarding 'data mining in psychiatry (especially in analyzing and evaluating mental disorders)'. Is there any work that makes use of social media data ?
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Sorry I am late to this debate
In psychiatry, the most impressive data mining researchers imo are Stefan Leucht (Munich) and Jari Tiihonen (now Karolinska). I should add I have no personal connection with either of these two academics.
However, on a personal note you could access my own paper on early death in the mentally ill (see my site) as an example of the Scottish data mines.
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Dear All,
Is brain empty sella considered a mental disorder?
What is the gold standard to treat this "disorder"?
Thank you for your kind input.
Best regards - Mariam
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Empty Sella is a pathological condition, an abnormal anatomical finding. Your question had no description of a mental state associated with it. There may be several different ones not all of which are abnormal.  Psychiatry is the care and study of normal and abnormal mental states (cognitive, emotional, experiential and behavioral) and mental dispositions (cognitive and affective traits). Sorry to be so didactic but we have to describe what we are observing accurately if we are to understand it from its origins to its impacts.  
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In the 4th edition of the “Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders” (DSM-IV) of the American Psychiatric Association, “substance abuse” and “substance dependence” were regarded as separate diagnoses and hence have separately been subjects of research. However, in DSM-V (issued in 2013), “substance abuse” and “substance dependence” have been substituted by an overarching diagnosis “substance use disorders” in order to avoid ambiguities that existed when abuse and dependence were separate diagnoses.
 Therefore, in this era of DSM-V, would carrying out epidemiological studies on substance dependence (and for that matter on substance abuse) be of any practical relevance?
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The language has changed and I think you raise an interesting question. It might be helpful to view the current thinking around DSM V in terms of harm reduction. The harm reduction approach has been seen as dichotomous to abstinence but actually abstinence is part of the harm reduction continuum. The basic premise of harm reduction is that people are always going to use drugs, and if you look at the way DSM-5 is worded with mild moderate and severe it allows for the possibility of non problematic substance use. In the new language when we talk about dependence we're talking about the body's physical dependence for example if a patient taking pain medication as prescribed would develop a physical dependence. But this would not be considered a substance use disorder.
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Hi all,
We extracted a random selection of 400 women between the ages of 18 and 40 from the Norwegian Population Register. We then sent out a series of questionnaires to all these women, printed in a single brochure on high-quality glossy paper. There were about 5 (relatively short) questionnaires in total, which should take about 20-30 minutes to complete. There was nothing to special about these questionnaires, pretty much standard questionnaires measuring anxiety, depression, and symptoms of some mental disorders (OCD and eating disorders). Participants were required to complete the questionnaires and send them back to us by post, using an envelope (which was stamped) included in the questionnaire-package. There was no compensation (i.e. gift-cards) for participation.
Although we are still receiving responses, the response-rate so far is very poor. It looks like we will end up with a response-rate of about 15%.
Do any of you have any experiences with similar studies? What sort of response-rates can one expect from such studies? Within Our research-Group, we did similar studies 20 years ago in which approx. 70-80% responded. Lastly, do any of you have any opinions regarding how to boost response-rates? Would one expect monetary compensations (in the form of a lottery for example) too make much of a difference. How about delivering the questionnaires electronically, through e-mails? Or are response-rates generally low nowadays?
I'm curious to hear other's experiences with similar studies!
Best,
-Lasse
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Dear Lasse,
I am not surprised by your findings. People are generally becoming busier, although I don't have any statistics on this. I think 20-30 minutes is quite a long way beyond the level of goodwill of time the average citizen would give to a stranger. My advice is therefore:
  • Try to make some sort of social contact with your sample, e.g. telephone them or meet them in public with a clipboard
  • Keep the questionnaire as short as possible - we recommend one sheet of paper (double sided) and a target time of under 10 minutes
  • Try to engage your sample more with the purpose of your research so that they feel more socially connected with your request
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I have been following peer-reviwed articles on Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for treatment of mental disorders, particularly speaking, depression. TMS for treatment of depression has recently been received FDA (Food & Drug Administration) approval. I am looking for studies related to TMS for treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder and the prognosis of FDA approval.
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Indeed, the precise brain region to be targetted is as yet unknown. Thus far, conventional (e.g. figure-of-8) and deep brain TMS studies have been conducted with varying success. If TMS is to be FDA approved for treatment of autism, we need to know which brain region to target, which is the best type of coil and treatment regime, and then a large RCT would need to be conducted with statistically significant results. This will take substantial time to achieve.
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therapists, clinical psychologist, anxiety and mood disorders, transdiagnostic treatment.
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Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy of Anxiety: A Transdiagnostic Treatment Manual
by Peter J. Norton
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Just as uncertain that I am about the interest of this perspective in the scientific World I am just as convinced about it gains if conducted.
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If you let go of the interview method, you could focus on the history of the issue of mental competence, which mostly used in forensic psychiatry, but would shed light on your question. See for example the book by Daniel Robinson Wild Beasts and Idle Humours The Insanity Defense from Antiquity to the Present (Harvard University Press, 1998). Here is the summary:
How does the law regard and define mental incompetence, when faced with the problem of meting out justice? To what extent has the law relied on extra-legal authorities—be they religious or scientific—to frame its own categories of mental incompetence and madness? Wild Beasts and Idle Humours takes us on an illuminating journey through the changing historical landscape of human nature and offers an unprecedented look at the legal conceptions of insanity from the pre-classical Greek world to the present. Although actual trial records are either totally lacking or incomplete until the eighteenth century, there are other sources from which the insanity defenses can be constructed.
In this book Daniel N. Robinson, a distinguished historian of psychology, pores over centuries of written law, statements by legal commentators, summaries of crimes, and punishments, to glean from these sources an understanding of epochal views of responsibility and competence. From the Greek phrenesis to the Roman notions of furiosus and non compos mentis, from the seventeenth-century witch trials to today’s interpretation of mens rea, Robinson takes us through history and provides the intricate story of how the insanity defense has been construed as a meeting point of the law and those professions that chart human behavior and conduct: namely religion, medicine, and psychology. The result is a rare historical account of “insanity” within Western civilization.
Wild Beasts and Idle Humours will be essential reading for anyone interested in the evolution of thinking not merely about legal insanity but about such core concepts as responsibility, fitness for the rule of law, competence to enter into contracts and covenants, the role of punishments, and the place of experts within the overall juridical context.
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If I conducted a thematic analysis of tweets responding to the portrayal of a mental disorder on a television show what would the theoretical framework of this be?
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Hi Dee,
The purpose of a theoretical framework is to provide structure  and organization to your study. Thematic analysis is a methodological approach to identifying and understanding meanings from qualitative data. Because the former facilitates a means to organize the later, you should be able to use a socio-cultural theoretical framework to help you understand the themes that emerge from a thematic analysis. However, you will need to include a strong rationale based in the literature and other evidence you use to build the case for this combined approach. I would encourage you to use the terms socio-cultural and thematic analysis as keywords in your search of the literature to see if and how other researchers have used a similar approach to what you are asking about. Be sure to explore a range of literature search databases, including Medline/Pubmed, Computerized Index of Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), in addition to the sociology, psychology, and education literature search databases.
All the best in your academic endeavors, 
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What are the factors that influencing attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Kindly, mention any culture-related variables with the name of the culture, if possible. Your opinions should not have an evidence in literature since it is intended to be examined in one future international study. Great to hear from you. Best wishes. Ahmad.
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I am not going to mention a culture-related factor, but another factor. I think it is worth looking into this factor. It is a question of how an individual identifies a mental health problem in himself or herself.
I believe that a person will be less likely to seek healthcare if he or she self-identifies as "burned out" in contrast to self-identifying as depressed. See Bahlmann, J., Angermeyer, M. C., & Schomerus, G. (2013). Calling it “burnout” instead of “depression.” Psychiatrische Praxis, 40, 78–82. I am of the view—a minority view but one that has growing credibility—that burnout is a depressive syndrome. I think that individuals who self-identify as burned out think what they need is a vacation or respite. A respite helps temporarily but two to three weeks after returning to work symptoms are back to pre-respite levels. See Westman, M., & Etzion, D. (2001). The impact of vacation and job stress on burnout and absenteeism. Psychology & Health, 16, 595-606. 
People who identify themselves as depressed will be more likely to seek healthcare. If burnout is a depressive syndrome, as I think it is, then it is important that individuals who self-identify as burned out seek the appropriate care.
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Im finding it difficult to get information on the role of therapist in Psych-oncology team as have essay to do - cancer survivor with mental disorder -anxiety, PTSD and MDT
Time running out on me and appreciate any current article
Also any case study - assessment, psychological intervention in breast cancer
thanks
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You can see tese two papers giving  psychological solutions for cancer patients.
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focusing on the prevention of dementia, the risk factors involved and how to reduce the prevalence by reducing the number developing dementia
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Thank you Stephen, 
You are so kind!
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I am currently involved in Transpeople Research. But I could not find any article that focuses on their KAP about Mental Illness. Can you help me find one?
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For example: Children with psychic trauma, depressions, oncological diseases?
Rhythmic Massage - Effects on body, soul, mind?
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There are several treatments that are most often used to manage BPD.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a serious mental illness marked by unstable moods, behavior, and relationships. In 1980, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III) listed BPD as a diagnosable illness for the first time. Most psychiatrists and other mental health professionals use the DSM to diagnose mental illnesses.
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Dear Abdelfattah,
Every 'mental' disorder (BPD)  patients need to be addressed with dire sensitivities. It is made easier if it is listed as a diagnosable DSM illness.
BPD being a 'serious' mental illness, talking with a highly dedicated and genuinely caring professionals create great trust to the patient.
To the patient, it makes it very worthwhile at one instant to know that someone sympathizes, care and most willing to 'treat' him/her. That's when the talking session, even done once would be very effective.
When this fails, there are several approaches you could apply using -
1. Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT)
- treatments include individual therapy, group skills training and phone coaching
2. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)
- treatments include recognizing and changing the patient's belief system
3. Mentalization-based Therapy (MBT)
- treatments include talking out the patient's feeling and addresing it accordingly
4. Transference-focused Therapy (TFP)
- treatment includes situational based scenarios brought upon by the therapist for the patient to apply elsewhere
5. Medications
- not useful but not detriment to include supplement like Omega 3 (not vetted) yet could relieve BPD symptoms nonetheless
6. Self-Care
- educating the patient on the importance of caring for one self  at all time
In order to minimise remissions, always refrain verbally from labeling BPD as a PSY patient to or among other healthcare team. 
This is  because such patient (knowing the gravity of this illness) will either walk away for good or die a brutal death because the doctor-patient trust and privacy have been broken totally.
Best regards - Mariam
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As teachers, do you receive any training (before or during the service) to identify or/and lead with adult students with mental disorders/diseases, such as hyperactivity, attention deficit disorder or autism spectrum disorders? What aspects were adressed?
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Dear Alexandra
Today it is a major problem, teachers are not prepared to identify the profiles of children with mental health problems and are diagnosed late, usually after years of failure in schools
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In my province it's not a rare thing to see mentally ill people roaming the streets. Often a times they've proved to be a danger to the other citizens. About two years back there has been a spate of attacks on other people,with one recorded fatality.. .the question arises what are the provisions of the Act? Who is responsible to see that they get the necessary care and management without posing a danger to the society at large?
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I am fascinated by the cultural differences this question exposes in terms of language and conceptualisation of mental distress. Here in the UK, we reckon that 25% of the population will experience mental health problems. So as you can imagine, "they" ("we") frequently "roam the streets" and rarely are we violent!
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is there any comprehensive computational, or formal model (and/or visual representation) for Generalized Anxiety Disorder or any other mental disorder or disease?
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Maybe you should look for the models in anxiety (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0893608099000994, for instance) and tweek them to your needs.
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In last decade this is very important question and this issue should be discussed within each country, unfortunately only some countries have conducted this trials (U.K., U.S.). In many countries there are still no data on this topic. According to the some data available in the literature, patients with mental disorders are very often overtreated and especially antipsychotic polypharmacy is used in 1/3 cases without any evidence to support its use. In many cases appropriate treatment strategy with the use of advanced psychopharmacology and outcomes from the clinical trials can avoid the polypharmacy.
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30 Million Americans Are Victims to Polypharmacy  
Here’s something mind boggling to consider. In the past 10 years, research has shown that the percentage of people over 60 who take five or more medications has jumped from 22 percent to 37 percent. More than 30 million Americans take five or more prescription drugs regularly, often called “polypharmacy.”
Each year, about one-third of seniors experience serious adverse effects as a result of drug interactions, so it’s necessary to be cognizant of the risks and dangers. There are a number of measures a senior can take to avoid the health risks associated with polypharmacy. Observations and tips from Papatya Tankut, vice president, professional pharmacy services, CVS/Pharmacy:
  • Developing a relationship with a pharmacist can help better manage medications and prevent potential and harmful drug interactions.
  • Medication adherence is a growing concern as more Americans neglect to fill prescriptions and take medications as directed.
  • Consult a pharmacist before adding any vitamins or supplements to avoid interactions.
  • If a senior is unsure about a medication or is experiencing a side effect, tell the pharmacist or a trained health expert.
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I see these two terms in literature but in most of the studies, these have used with same meaning. Are these same? or Not? 
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Dear Omid,
I agree with some of the comments, but I think the most important point needs further emphasis. If I have diabetes, and I'm hit by a care and suffer a bone fracture, you would say I have co-occurring problems: diabetes and a broken leg. If I have diabetes and heart disease, there is likely a relationship, so you would say they are comorbid problems. In MENTAL HEALTH, the diagnostic categories are so imperfect that people sometimes end up with 5 or 6 diagnoses. I think calling those disorders comorbid is sort of outrageous. They have mental health problems, with many symptoms. In a different context, I have written about this semantic issue.
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There seems a sublime difference between the mental disorders and behabioural disorders. Sometimes we are not aware of the difference between them. It is also difficult to draw a line between these two. All mental disorders are behavioural disorders but all behavioural disorders are not mental disorders. Physiological and psychological factors (internal factors) dominate in mental disorders whereas in behavioural disorders sociological factors (external factors) dominate.
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Mental disorder is an attitudinal disorder of mind.It is subjective. It may be expressed or may not be expressed.
Behavioural disorder is expressed through body using brain. It is objectively observable. So can be understandable by Scientific means. Usually Science refers Behavioural disorders as Mental disorders. But most of Mental disorders are not in reach of Scientific means.
Prior to Discussing about MENTAL DISORDER, we have to know about MIND and MENTAL ORDER. Is n't it ?
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This question has been deleted and is no longer available.
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Hi Camille,
A professor in my home department, Chrysanthi Leon, wrote a book on this topic. It's entitled Sex Fiends, Perverts and Pedophiles: Understanding Sex Crime in
America. It examines the social control of pedophiles, including its medicalization, from a sociological (in particular, social constructionist) perspective. It should be very relevant to your research. Good luck!
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I am developing a screening tool to identify mental disorders in forced migrant populations. So far we have used CART & ROC & sensitivity/specificity analyses to get a reasonable ROC (.801) with a cut-off score of 2 items but we really need to increase the ROC (i.e. specificity is too low - about  65%).
I am therefore after input from anyone proficient in Item Response Models (e.g. Rasch or other hierarchical models) that will help me to maximise the predictive accuracy of our screening tool.
Many thanks.
Debbie
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 hi Debbie, Using Rasch analysis will ensure your scale is at its optimum e.g. removing misfitting items, allowing you to examine if data fit the Rasch model and your scoring categories are working as intended. You could then rerun the ROC to see if a Rasch transformed scale has improved specificity.  I am an occupational therapist who has used Rasch extensively and would also be happy to help or I can make some suggestions of people near you if that would be helpful.
BW
Anita
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"Beck" iventory  as a model for depression
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thank you Dr. Beatric .
Am ask if we can used factor analysis to determine validity and constant with some psychological scales which measure some mental disorders syndrome? like Beck inventory for depression
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I am looking to conduct a qualitative exploration of co-parenting when the other parent has a diagnosis of BPD but wanted to include some measures or concurrently run a quant study looking at parenting stress in the non-diagnosed parent. I don't know whether to ask retrospectively about when the partner was 'ill' or if this biases the data too much away from how well they co-parent most of the time potentially?
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Because parents may have relationship concerns regardless of parenting stress, you could identify a covariate that also may be contributing to stress to help eliminate some bias. For example, self-reported status of the relationship as a) married-coparenting well, b) divorced or separated-co-parenting well, c) married- we fight all the time, d) divorced-we fight all the time.  How they perceive the other parent as well as their efforts in parenting may play a role in how stressed they feel.
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I am writing my PHD thesis "Eating disorders in China : a transcultural approach" and I am looking for references concerning history of anorexia (or bulimia) in China before Sing Lee's studies, eventually linked to taoism ? ...
Thanks
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 Bonjour Thomas, 
Je reviens vers vous concernant l'article sur les TCA en Chine  Lo AL, Hsu GLK. Extreme fasting among Daoist priestesses of the Tang Dynasty:an old Chinese variant of anorexia nervosa? History of Psychiatry. 2012; 23(3):342–8. Si vous ne trouvez pas l'article je vous l'enverrais
Dans ma thèse sur les TCA en Chine je parle de plusieurs cas dans l'histoire de la Chine. Sincères salutations,
Marion