• John Boswell added an answer:
    6
    Oxycodone hydrochloride and schizophrenia paranoid type?
    Any thoughts on this?
    John Boswell

    Thanks for your thoughts on this Karen.

  • Vyacheslav Lyashenko added an answer:
    4
    What tasks need to be addressed in image processing of cytological and histological preparations?

    What are the main tasks and problems in image processing cytological and histological preparations.
    How can help medical professionals image processing cytological and histological preparations.

    I'm interested in the publication on this topic.

    Vyacheslav Lyashenko

    Dear Murali, thank you.
    This is a good addition to my question.

  • Legall George added an answer:
    1
    good day for you all\
    good day for you all , i am mostafa mahran a demonstrator of anatomy in college of medicine , cairo , egypt , i am new to research gate and dont know where to star or what to do , if someone can help me i will be more than thankful for that help , thank you all , god bless u
    Legall George

    It  depends on the purpose for which you wish to use  Research gate. This was not clear from your question. Could you clarify a bit. For example what was your main reason for deciding to join the forum? Such clarification would help in answering your question.

  • Desmond Brian Fernandes added an answer:
    29
    Sun exposure, what is the cut-off to balance the beneficial effects (producing vitamin D) and prevent detrimental effects (skin cancer)?

    Sun exposure, on the one hand, is beneficial to produce vitamin D and prevent many detrimental effects due to its deficiency. On the other hand, it may cause skin cancer, such as basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). How much daily exposure is suitable to balance these?! Is there any evidence-based cut-off guideline?

    Desmond Brian Fernandes

    Thanks Jos.  I think we will see trends but in humans we are never going to be able to do careful double blind studies but we are learning that regular (probably controlled would be better) sun exposure leads to less cancer but that brings us back to your original question:  how much sunlight.  The exact roles of vitamin D or other favorable molecules like melatonin may take many years to define.

  • Matej Stuhec added an answer:
    36
    How are patients protected from being treated with inappropriate medications and combinations in your country?

    According to the newest research within this field app. 10% of patients are admitted to the hospital, because of inappropriate medication treatment in their history. This lead to extreme additional costs and patients' harms. How health system deals with this field in your country? You have clinical pharmacists/pharmacologists to deal with this topic? Have hospitals in your country appropriate risk assessment plans within this topic and plans how to avoid them?

    Matej Stuhec

    Tx Filipa for the contact, which are given above! However, i expect open discussion among M.D., Pharm.D. and patients. The solutions should be given to the patients. They should not be treated with inappropriate medication!

  • Aboud AlJa'bari added an answer:
    3
    How can I treat 24 year old man with mucopolysacharidosis type I with deforming arthropathy and aortic stenosis?

    24 year old man with deforming arthropathy and limitation of hip movement. He also has features of aortic stenosis and allergy to food in a way that he develop vomiting from certain foods with irritability, impairment in memory, forgetting, and nervousness.

    Aboud AlJa'bari

    I advise you to do epidural (lumbar) which is better for cardiac patient undergoing non-cardiac surgery,plus the catheter for postoperative pain management.

  • Fred Victor Harding added an answer:
    6
    Can we increase muscular strength by lifting weights with more repetitions until due fatigue similar to low repetition with high resistant training?
    People like to gain muscle force with muscle definition without hurting themselves. No pain no gain, is it right?
    Fred Victor Harding

    The answer to your question is not as simple as some may cause it to appear. If you desire to learn as much as possible for yourself and to help others achieve these types of goals you should acquire the NSCA's Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning (4th Ed.) published by Human Kinetics. Also The Science and Practice of Strength Training by Zatsiorsky and Kraemer and Designing Resistance Training Programs by Fleck and Kraemer - also published by Human Kinetics. These three texts are the best source of information available in the field today.

    When lifting weights to increase strength, research has demonstrated that there are three basic loading/repetition schemes. Initially the goal is to stimulate muscular hypertrophy with 3 - 8 sets, using loads that can be lifted with proper form for 8 - 12 repetitions, with rest intervals of 30 - 90 seconds. When 12 - 13 repetitions can be completed with proper form increase the load by 1 - 5%, the number of properly performed repetitions will automatically drop. Don't do forced reps, and lower the weight between sets if you can't perform the proper number of reps.

    When the person reaches a plateau - change to a Basic Strength/Hypertrophy program, with 3 - 8 sets, using loads that can be done 4 - 8 reps/set with proper form. Rest increases to 2 - 3 minutes between sets. Again, when the person can achieve 8 + 1 reps, increase the load.

    When the plateau is reached, go to a Pure Strength program, with 3 - 8 sets, using loads that can be done between 1 - 4 reps/set with proper form; and 3 - 5 minute rest periods between sets. When you can do 5 reps, the weight goes up.

    These loading schemes can be varied across periods lasting from 2 - 4 weeks each. This type of protocol is called traditional periodization. Another method of changing the training stimulus was developed in America by Stone, O'Bryant, and Garhammer. It is currently called undulating periodization and involves changing the loads, volume, and intensity each day. For example, on Monday you do a Hypertrophy workout, on Tuesday - Basic Strength/Hypertrophy, take Wednesday off, Thursday do a Pure Strength Workout, and Friday back to Hypertrophy. Next week start with Basic Strength/Hypertrophy, then Pure Strength, Wed off, Thursday - Hypertrophy, Friday - Basic/Strength Hypertrophy, etc.

    There are a wide variety of variations of hand positions, foot positions, etc.; as well as different goals of training - power, strength, hypertrophy (body building), as well as producing improvements in performance variables related to a specific sport or activity. The key is to match the training program to the desired outcome.

  • Anthony Holland added an answer:
    4
    Is medical grade CO2 essential for an incubator?
    Is it essential to have 'medical grade' CO2 gas for our CO2 incubator, or will any standard tank of CO2 from a local supplier work fine?
    Anthony Holland

    We have used 'food grade' CO2 now from a local supplier for the past year and all cells are happy and healthy with that.  Besides, there's always a small filter inline from the CO2 tank to the incubator.  In the end, I guess it's a question of by-products from the manufacture of CO2 gas, but food grade must be nontoxic for humans and seems to work well for cells...and is easy to obtain (and less expensive).  After researching this in depth locally, we found that the ONLY difference was a more detailed gas analysis from the supplier (but they don't alter the original gas in any way as it comes from the whole saler).  I suspect that many labs are being billed for 'medical grade' gas and are receiving standard food grade CO2.  I have not yet found a commercial supplier who can actually document that 'medical grade' CO2 is made any differently nor filtered in any special way as compared to food grade.  Thanks for posting the links in your answer above!

  • Sultan Salah added an answer:
    3
    What is relevance of joint commission accreditation for hospitals which are run by the government sectors?
    Accredition
    Sultan Salah

    Dear Carrera,

    Yes, my point is that  there is an enormous increase of duplicate paper work ,which puts abundance work pressure for the healthcare team, which should not be the case.At times some pay more attention to the paper than patient, this is irrespective  of doctors ,pharmacists,nurses etc.,

    The patient safety is the foremost important factor in any treatment plan.

  • Elman Shahverdiev added an answer:
    22
    Is SCImago Impact factor (SJR) and Thomson Reuters impact factor (JCR) considered alternative to each other or not?
    There is a great controversy in the impact factor system. Thomson Reuters impact factor has Worldwide acceptance while SCImago impact factor is also considered by some Universities. If both have equal importance in research community, Why they are not considered equally by All Universities.
    Elman Shahverdiev

    Dear  Respected Colleagues,

    In my humble opinion there is  some sense to ask Research Gate Administrators to introduce a new metrics:  number of  researchers' impact point per article (or per total publications). Alternatively one  can also try to introduce number of citations per article.

    Please make public your opinion.

  • Matej Stuhec added an answer:
    23
    Why many Eastern European countries did not establish clinical pharmacy service in the hospitals next to the patients? Who will deal with errors??

    According to the newest evidence more than 10 % of patients are admitted to the hospital, because of inappropriate prescribing and drug-related problems. More than 20 % of patients are treated within the hospital with at least one inappropriate prescribing medicine and between 2-5 % of all patients suffer from adverse events and more than 50 % of polypharmacy is used without any reason. Inappropriate prescribing is also very expensive, according to the newest data this bill costs over billion in many countries. Especially in western-oriented country clinical pharmacy service has been established next to the patients and other healt care proffesionals, however this trend has not been seen in many Eastern and Central European countries. Why these systems are not establish and in many cases patients are not well protected by serious inappropriate prescribing and medication errors? Why they do not reduce this bill for a more than half with clinical pharmacy service within each hospital (patients and payers should say: Don't Pay Another Bill Until You Pay This)?

    Matej Stuhec

    Thanks to all of you! This is very nice discussion as it can be seen from the number of posts! We move forward our discussion!

    It is clear that is much easier to promote clinical pharmacy, where clinical pharmacology actually does not exist next to the patients' beds (as is also the same in my country Slovenia). Where this cooperation has already been established and works very well, there is very difficult to establish clinical pharmacy service next to the patients' bed. However, cases and mechanism as it has been seen in U.S. clearly demonstrated that this is possible! 20 years ago there were almost no clinical pharmacists in health system in U.S., although they had clinical pharmacologists. On the other side, in 2014 there were almost 5-7 fold bigger the number of CP than clinical pharmacologists and their position within the U.S. system is much more important next to the patients' beds in the hospitals and primary community settings (specialization from ambulatory clinical pharmacy also exists in U.S. approved by AACP; https://www.accp.com/). In many countries within U.S. they have prescribing rights.

    25-30 year ago prof. Stimmel (clinical pharmacist) from University of Los Angeles had received funding for research within this field (better prescriber is clinician or clinical pharmacist). He (with his colleagues) published many papers on this topic, which had been supported by government of California. These results were surprisingly better or even the same that the results of clinicians (Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 1981 Sep;15(9):665-72.; Am J Hosp Pharm. 1983 Aug;40(8):1343-4.; Forum Med. 1980 Jun;3(6):404-5.; Am J Hosp Pharm. 1982 Sep;39(9):1483-6.).

    After these results California government and insurance companies have clinical pharmacists possibility to prescribe medications. From first specialists within clinical pharmacy approved by AACP in 1980 or even before now is more than 10.000 clinical pharmacists specialists available within the U.S. 

    In addition, we should establish a collaborative care from students (students from pharmacy, pharmacology, medicine, nursing should work together within studying and their systems with the same patients and real clinical problems based on case-by-case basis). Anyway, if we have trials from which is obvious that we get 5 USD from 1 USD paid for clinical pharmacist, we should move forward this process.

    In these countries, where clinical pharmacology already has been established next to the patient's bed it is necessary to conduct clinical trials and pharmacoeconomic analyses, which show important results also for payers. Well done prepared and teached clinical pharmacist with a knowledge from meta-analyses, treatment guidelines, pharmacokinetics, pharmacoeconomics, plants, drug administration rules and risk assessments, epidemiology, real drug-drug interactions, etiology of diseases will be very helpful for health team, although clinical pharmacology is established.

    Regards

  • George A. Lozano added an answer:
    7
    Do elite research journals get devalued in the Internet age?
    In the age of the Internet and the movement of open access to scientific knowledge it appears possible to publish articles in any journals, and not only in the elite ones. Such articles will be located using Google Scholar engine, downloaded, if their full text versions are available, and cited if found interesting. So by submitting articles to such journals, scientists will save time on long communications with editors and reviewers of elite journals, while the articles published in low-impact-factor journals will eventually reach the same audience faster and may get the same number of citations. The question of whether or not an article will be cited is becoming increasingly less dependent on the journal in which it is published. In the open access era, articles become available right away, and you do not need to look through volumes and issues of journals as before. Have you experienced any of these trends when you began to publish your articles in open access journals or make you articles from low-impact journals available through the open access facilities? Has anyone tried to trace a connection between the total downloads of articles (for example, on RG) and the number of their citations?
    See also Lariviere, V.,Lozano and G.A.,Gingras, A. Are elite journals declining?-2013.-
    http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1304/1304.6460.pdf
  • Khalid Muzafar added an answer:
    2
    Which is more common, the occurrence of Hypotension Bradycardia Event (HBE) during shoulder arthroscopy in block alone or block associated with GA?
    ...
    Khalid Muzafar

    i think otherwise, have seen few HBE with block only rather than block with GA.

  • Daniel Courgeau added an answer:
    5
    Why does behavior genetics, which is based on assumptions that are nowadays recognized as incorrect, exert so strong an influence on social scientists?
    Ten years ago, I wrote with Atam Vetta a paper on 'Demographic behavior and behavior genetics', which showed clearly that Fisher's assumptions and heritability analysis are based on false assumptions (see the joint attachment). However behavior genetics had been increasingly used by a number of social scientists in psychology, in demography, in gerontology, in medicine, in biometry, etc. More recently, after sequencing the human genome, a number of scientists believed it would be possible to draw up a list of behavioral traits linked to each gene. Such a belief again was not verified., but this did not prevent behavior geneticists to argue that the links between genes and behavioral phenotypes will permit new advances in the understanding of human behavior.
    There are in fact two questions to be answered: (1) Is human behavior influenced by genes? (2) If, yes, what is the 'magnitude' of this influence? The answer to the first question is evidently 'yes', and it can be said pointless. For the second question we can refer to Gilbert Gottlieb in a paper on 'Genetics and development' (2001): 'It is now known that both genes and environment are involved in all traits and that it is not possible to specify their respective weighting or quantitative influence on any trait'. He adds: 'this had been a hard-won scientific insight that had not yet percolated to the mass of humanity'.
    This Nature-Nurture question is always under debate, and I think it may be of interest for many ResearchGate members to discuss it.
    Daniel Courgeau

    Dear Ranjit Kumar Mal,

    There are two theses in Steven Pinker book: The blank slate.

    The first one is that human behaviour is influenced by genes. As I said in the presentation of my question, the answer to this thesis is of course yes and it can be said pointless. All individual’s observable traits are related to his or her physical characteristics, which are themselves genetically determined. Consider the example of skin colour. This trait is directly linked to genes. In a country like France where employment is a major problem, finding work is harder for someone with black skin. So that the fact of being unemployed is ‘influenced’ by the individual’s genetic endowment. The same is true for all characteristics of whatever kind. Even religious convictions and political opinions are behaviours subject to these genetic influences, through the action of processes of varying complexity.

    The second one is that Steven Pinker uses behaviour genetics to measure the ‘magnitude’ of this influence. The reference to a ‘magnitude’ implies an acceptance that a measurement can be defined and calculated to assess the respective shares of nature and nurture, of genes and environment, in determining the trait in question. Yet introducing this concept of shares amounts to adopting an additive model in which the respective roles of genes and environment are played out independently of each other. Such a thesis has no scientific content as these factors operate in relation to each other. What occurs between them is not addition but interaction, and this interaction is the problem to be studied. Of course it is possible to take multiple measurements, feed them into a computer and obtain a figure for the ‘heritability’ of the trait. But what is the value of this wealth of calculations if we are unable to give any meaning to the results? The one-dimensional approach of the psychologist Pinker is a betrayal of the multi-dimensional reality of genetic influence.

    Finally I entirely agree with Louis Brassard view that as long that the myth of thinking is a gift will be alive then the myth of behaviour genetic will also be alive.

  • Vp Trivedi added an answer:
    35
    What makes it difficult for guidelines to be followed?

    Benefits of restricted transfusion vs. liberal in certain patient groups; No role of renal dose dopamine; No role of FFP to increase serum albumin levels; Voluven (starch) predisposes to increased bleeding post-cardiac surgery, etc.  Such and many others.  Inspite of adequate proof, what are the factors that you think or may have encountered which make non-compliance/hesitance/reluctance with the published studies?

    Vp Trivedi

    i do agree with clara's point of view. actually, it is duty of the expert who issues any guide line, to see that  precautions in adopting or following guide lines should be adequately  defined so that there must be no if n but in  following them.

  • Hamdy Elsaid abd elhamed Elnawasry added an answer:
    3
    Is there any research that is about volume of short sprint training?

    I've already read a research about the volume of short sprint trainings(acceleration and max speed). I do not know the title of the research but as I remember that was suggesting the total volume ~250m because after you pass this distance you begin to slow down. But I do not remember the details of this research.

    Is there any research that you can share with me?

    Thanks

  • Ali Shahriari added an answer:
    3
    Can someone advise on anesthesia and the use of muscle relaxant agents for electroconvulsive therapy?
    Electroconvulsive treatment
    Ali Shahriari

    Our routine practice is: Atropine 0.5 mg, propofol 1mg/kg. succinylcholine 0.5 mg/kg

  • M, H. Houman added an answer:
    12
    How can I treat a patient who have both severe Sjogren's syndrome and severe primary biliary cirrhosis? Role of rituximab?

    Treatment for PBC is commonly ursodeoxycholic acid, but it does not seem to influence the development or resolution of the associate features of a Sjogren's syndrome.
    Importantly, none of the medical treatments currently used for SS are contraindicated in patients with coexisting PBC.
    In patients with major organ involvement, such as lymphocytic interstitial lung disease, we consider therapy with steroids and immunosuppressive agents, such as cyclophosphamide.
    But, several studies showed that corticosteroids and Immunosuppressive agents are not effective in the treatment of PBC.
    Rituximab seems to be a good alternative in such association.
    Does anyone have any experience in treating these association with rituximab.

    M, H. Houman

    Dear Dr Rosas,

    thank you for your very pertinent idea.

    eventhough, in our patient we didn't observed, lymphadenopathy, pancreatitis, tubbulointertitial nephritis, nor retropetoneal fibrosis, and that there was no storiform pattern in the histology of major salivary glands biopsy, and also that PBC ARE VERY RARELY REPORTED in IG4 related disease...we will look for Ig4 elevation in our case.

    thank you again. 

  • Arezoo Eshraghi آرزو اشراقی added an answer:
    10
    For prosthetics, would a greener/more environment friendly socket material be used if it is proven to have the same properties as a conventional fibre glass socket?
    As prosthetist, would you use a bamboo fabric instead of fibre glass if there is research to support it? Or would you continue with the materials you are used to? Keep in mind, the same processes (lamination) and same outcome will be achieved
    Arezoo Eshraghi آرزو اشراقی

    Done! Best of luck!

  • Omar Ahmad added an answer:
    29
    Can we consider "healthy practices" as "process medicine"?

    In operations management, business organizations offer either product or service. Can we consider healthy practices as non-product medicine?

    Omar Ahmad

    Related the story of intake food and vegetables ,sport  ,Their impact is not known because the measuring  dietary intake in large populations remains a challenge. in an attempt to reduce  the misclassification inherent in diet assessment, measurement error correction models have been developed but are seldom used.(Rosner B,willet WC) And may be problem with biological markers. another problem that it is difficult to detect associations between dietary patterns or particular foods and nutrients and health  or disease due to the lack of sufficient variation. Diet and the physical activity are arguably  the most difficult  exposures to assess in observational research and are plagued  by considerable measurement error.A large number of observational  studies have attempted to elucidate the role of diet in health and disease.Most of these studies  were  based on  a case-control study,Unfortunately, case control studies are generally problematic.(World Cancer Research Fund) and another study as long-term using randomizing presents a serious challenge. Were do we go from these?

  • WC Dilmini Karunaratne added an answer:
    21
    How do you effectively use logbooks in the undergraduate medical setting?

    I've too frequently seen and had to fill out logbooks that were nothing more than a glorified attendance log. What are techniques that you have seen used to make logbooks an effective tool to promote self development among medical students. Then how do you address the need for some sort of attendance log during clinical placement?

    Logbooks are an essential part of medicine that spans all the ranks, but using them effectively for each stage of training is something that I believe still needs to be worked on!

    WC Dilmini Karunaratne

    I also doubt the use of log books in the medical field. A more useful version of it would be a portfolio with reflective logs of the students on their learning experiences and how they plan to improve on them.

  • Nagendra Singh Chauhan added an answer:
    10
    How can we determine if a particular compound is the active component of a plant or herb used for medicinal or cosmetic purposes?

    In Ayurveda s , many plant are used as folk medicine and different cosmetic use. But how can we judge the particular compound is behind the cure of particular disease or special application. Can we isolate and characterize directly that  compound? Suggest me the standard procedure to identify and get the useful compound only.

    Nagendra Singh Chauhan

    TO DETERMINE THE ACTIVE COMPOUND YOU SHOULD DO INVITO ASSAY 

  • Kenneth Jones added an answer:
    7
    Where can I get spores of Cordyceps sinensis and C. militaris?

    Can anyone suggest me how to buy the fresh spores of Cordyceps sinensis and C. militaris fungi?Or please let me know any lab which is working with these fungi?

    I am very interested in these species, since they are high value for medicine.

    Thank you in advanced.

    Kenneth Jones

    An account of the first successful culture of Hirsutella sinensis, the true anamorph of Ophiocordyceps sinensis, was related to me in confidence many years ago. What I can reveal today is that the first attempts to culture the anamorph after transporting the fungus from its natural habitat located at high altitude to the laboratory at sea level resulted in failure. A second attempt using a portable refrigeration unit was also a failure. Only when both the temperature and atmospheric pressure of the transportation unit matched those of the area in which the fungus was harvested were researchers able to successfully isolate and culture H. sinensis.

  • Homayoun Roshanisefat added an answer:
    15
    How can I treat azetatsolamid-resistent CME in retinitis pigmentosa?

    17 years old Usher patient, po azetatsolamid (growing dose, now 500 mg x2) used since 12/2013. CME is getting worse, but BCVA is still about 0.5-0.6 oa. I read that intravitreal corticosteroid gives only limited and transient response - so maybe not so good idea? Anti- VEGF?? Something else?

    Homayoun Roshanisefat

    I will by that young age suggest to use drug with a more long term efficacy. In this case new monoclonal antibody. I will suggest to look after the latest update in this area.

  • Kenneth Jones added an answer:
    6
    How many plants do you know which have latex with traditional uses?

    In traditional methods we can see some plant latex in drugs.

    Kenneth Jones

    The blood red latex of sangre de drago (Croton lechleri) continues to be used in traditional healing in South America. A proanthocyanidin derivative of the latex recently became the first botanical drug (Fulyzaq) allowed for prescription in the U.S. As for an ecological role, when the smooth outer bark is cut, the latex that exudes from the tree serves to seal and protect the wound. In Peru, indigenous peoples use the latex for the same purpose of healing skin wounds.

  • Haimanot Tassew added an answer:
    5
    Synergistic vs additive stimuli if one stimulus is binary?

    A quick question about scientific semantics regarding interaction of stimuli: I have two stimuli, A and B that induce quantifiable effect E. A is a drug and shows a dose-response curve, B is a cell-culture condition (e.g. 2d vs 3d) and therefore a binary categorical variable.
    The effect of both stimuli together is less than the sum of the two separate effects (E.g. E|AB < (E|A +E|B) for relevant doses of A. How do I describe the interaction, as additive or as synergistic? My gut feeling would say additive, as the combined effect is lower than the sum but I'm not sure.
    Which is the 'safest' formulation? Would you say it's additive until you can show synergism?

    Haimanot Tassew

    As you know synergism is increased activity obtained from two different

    agent used combined than when they are used alone. Additive is the sum. for instance let as assume A = 2, B= 3. during synergy A+B = 8, additive A+B=5

  • Barbara Dunning added an answer:
    1
    Shape memory alloys are used in Angioplasty.How does the concentration of such elements impact blood?
    Medicine
    Barbara Dunning

    Are the alloys unstable in the body?

    Why not use grapheme?

  • Jean Edelstein added an answer:
    3
    In patients with lateral epicondylitis, what is the effective injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), glucocorticoid, or saline in reducing pain?

    See above. 

    Jean Edelstein

    If you plan to prove the effectiveness of PRP by one article, you will be surprised about the numbers of articles regarding PRP and success rate. Overall, tehe results of PRP treatment are very questionable.

  • Max Stanley Chartrand added an answer:
    99+
    What is the best treatment for fibromyalgia?
    Pregabaline treatment, tramadol and NSAIDs have not been sufficient to reduce pain.
    Max Stanley Chartrand

    In my lecture yesterday, I pointed out the pervasive problem of tooth sepsis as an underlying cause of many chronic conditions. If one does not floss regularly, and especially if they do not brush at least twice daily, they risk sepsis and the inflammatory conditions that emanate therefrom. Getting to causal factors is what any viable treatment program should make its main focus---anything else is shooting in the dark and setting up the patient for worse problems in the future.

  • Nelson Elias added an answer:
    76
    What should be defined as complementary and alternative medicine?
    The answer to this question depends on both geographical, cultural, legal and time-related conditions. Many methods used in alternative medicine, in the Nordic countries, today may be accepted in other countries (for example, homeopathy (Germany), acupuncture (China), and Ayurvedic medicine (India)). Many methods once considered "alternative", are many places accepted today (for example, diet therapy and acupuncture).
    Nelson Elias
    Dear Geir

    Alongside the officially recognized medicine coexist in our midst and other diagnostic practices related to health care . The trend in the literature is to classify them under the term complementary and alternative medicine
    Unconventional medicine may be defined functionally as interventions that are not widely discussed in medical schools and are generally not available in hospitals or are not in accordance with the standards of the medical community
    The most common forms include : herbal medicine , massage, homeopathy, prayer to God , self-help groups , folk remedies , diets programs , acupuncture, chiropractic , physical exercise , among others . What is conventional in place , it is not necessarily in other
    The increased popularity of alternative complementary medicine reflects changing needs and values ​​in modern society. This includes an increase in chronic diseases , increased access to health information and increase awareness of the right to quality of life
    The rapid increase in the public interest and the use of complementary and alternative therapies is exerting a strong influence in medical education
    Most Brazilian medical schools do not have on his resume a space for discussion of this issue
    The growth of alternative medicine , even though an increasingly present reality in health services , presents great challenges to its institutionalization , such as : reduced number of trained human resources , insufficient funding for most practices , and few institutional spaces for your development services.

    In a paper published in Brazil, comparing utilization of complimentary medicine ,the conclusions were
    Utilization of complementary and alternative medicine was of 8.9% when only those involving costs such as homeopathy, acupuncture, chiropractics, techniques of relaxation/ meditation and massage are considered and of 70.0%, when all therapies found were included. Prevalent were prayers to God (52.0%), popular medicines (30.9%), physical exercises (25.5%), faith healers (15.0%), popular diets (7.1%), massage (4.9%), relaxation/meditation (2.8%), homeopathy (2.4%), and groups of self-help (1.9%), chiropractics (1.7%), acupuncture (1.5%) and orthomolecular medicine (0.2%). Women, Catholic, married of higher income and education were positively associated with utilization of therapies involving expenses.

    Source:
    Medicina Complementar e Alternativa: utilização pela Comunidade de Montes Claros, Minas Gerais
    João Felicio Rodrigues Neto et al., Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros,
    Rev Assoc Med Bras 2009; 55(3): 296-30

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