Science topics: Medicine
Science topic

Medicine - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Medicine, and find Medicine experts.
Questions related to Medicine
Question
1 answer
Ayurveda, TM of India, advises to avoid Curd intake in diseases that have Kapha dosha predominance like Diabetes, Respiratory problems; in diseases arising out of Raktha dusti (Blood tissue vitiation) like Skin diseases and also in conditions where the digestive fire (Agni) is weak like during Night time. Regarding this Curd advisory, Ayurveda has very clear fundamental concepts and the findings of which have also been noticed in clinical practice as well.
Here I want to know are there any other Traditional system of medicine which has similar or any other observation about Curd intake?
Relevant answer
Answer
yes Hikmat or hakeems ( Eastern medicine ) as called in Indian subcontinent has number of dietary restriction in number of illness
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
3 answers
Dear Colleagues,
My team is planning to conduct a modified version of a scientific survey that was published by a different group a few years ago. We are going to significantly modify the survey and use it to investigate a different clinical population. We will, however, keep some of the questions used in the original survey. How should we best approach this without risking plagiarism?
We will say in future publications that will follow our survey that it is a modified version of a different survey. Which of the options below should we also pursuit:
(1) mention that our survey is a modified version of another survey already in the survey itself,
(2) paraphrase the questions that we will borrow from the original survey?
I will greatly appreciate your suggestions.
Thank you,
Monika Polczynska
Relevant answer
Answer
Sorry: "PSYCHOMETRICALLY"
Question
3 answers
EBM suggests that doctors should avoid prescribing treatments that do not have sufficient or strong evidence in their favor. Decisions made backed only by expert opinions and supported by plausible pathophysiological explanations, although not yet sufficiently proven by high-level clinical studies, are not recommended by EBM in ordinary situations. However, in a serious epidemiological emergency, there is no time for such studies to be available. Under such circumstances, could not (or even should not) doctors agree to provide recommendations to their patients guided by studies or opinions based on unsatisfactory or weak evidence?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Vijay, I disagree with you for actually we have evidence, but almost all of them are WEAK. In the case of hydroxichloroquine, we actually have at least one RCT (with some frailties, unfortunately), that did not recommend the treatment (there weren't significant differences between the arms of the study, so the null hypothesis wasn't rejected). Nevertheless, we have studies showing that in the serious cases of Covid-19 this treatment is more harmful than beneficial. We don't have any strong evidence that this treatment prevent the escalation of disease into the most serious outcomes (even though we have some weak evidence that this could be true). Given that, we can of course apply the principles of EBM. For example, using the GRADE systems, the most reasonable conclusion is that since we have weak evidence for those treatments and strong evidence for some serious side-effects, the recommendation is against a public police that could support the use of, for instance, hydroxichloroquine in Covid-19. Patients, nevertheless, could demand this choice and I think that clinicians can consider that with cautions in a shared-decision making process. The view that EBM does not apply in circumstances of ignorance is, nevertheless, an alternative view about the rationales of clinical practice under poor evidence. Even though my point-the-view is different (I think as argued above that EBM can be applied successfully), I think you have a point that deserve to be explored. Maybe there are circumstances of poor knowledge in which we could and should use a Bayesian framework that accepts some risks and propose bets in the better alternatives for the moment. It would be like a Pascalian wager. This maybe applies to the so-called compassionate uses of medications. The problem is if this also applies to the so-called "early treatments" with antivirals. I don't think so.
Question
6 answers
Does anyone have soft copy of book "Epidemiology of Medicine" by Henneken. Please share.
Relevant answer
Answer
The link is no longer working. Dont have it too. Share if you find it
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
11 answers
I had a few students help me with a simple but time-consuming task. The data they helped with will be used in a scientific paper. The students are part of the Student Research Program (SRP) at my institution and they received a class credit for their work with me. Should I include these students as co-authors on the manuscript?
I also had a student volunteer help me on the same research project. The student did not get a class credit for their help. Should the student be a co-author on the paper?
Thank you in advance for your opinions/suggestions.
Monika Polczynska
Relevant answer
Answer
Monika Połczyńska the best practice in my opinion would be discuss this issue (contribution/benefit) before one embarks on a research project.
In case of students' involvement in faculty initiated research, it is usually the university that formulates policies that best serves interest of all engaged in the project. However, it is good to have a signed student research agreement in place to clarify the benefits one would obtain from the research engagement (class credit, course grades, authorship, etc.).
In terms of objectivity towards authorship rights I agree with Abdulhameed Mahmood on the ICMJE guidelines, additionally you could also refer to the COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics) guidelines;
and
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
1 answer
comparative study to treatment ringworm in cattle between( chemical treatment and plant extraction treatment).
Relevant answer
Answer
Urtica masaica powder
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
19 answers
As COVID-19 cases continue to rise worldwide, experts are faced with a critical question: can a person catch the disease a second time? The answer to this question influences, among other things, the prospects of the vaccine and its ability to protect us from the disease.
In late August and earlier this month, news reports of COVID-19 reinfections surfaced from different parts of India – Bengaluru, Mumbai and Hyderabad.
On September 15, 2020, researchers from the Government Institute of Medical Sciences, Greater Noida, and the Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB), New Delhi, uploaded a preprint paper confirming two cases of reinfection from India. The patients – a 25-year-old male and a 28-year-old female, both healthcare workers in the Noida hospital – got infected with a different variant of the virus the second time, about three and a half months after their first infection. The next day, the IGIB team also confirmed reinfection in four Mumbai healthcare workers, although the report is yet to appear online.
The healthcare workers from Noida had more viral particles than when they got infected the first time, although they remained asymptomatic. The researchers also noted that the viral strain they were reinfected with contained a mutation that wasn’t present earlier, and which allowed the virus to resist neutralising antibodies – the kind of antibodies that prevent the virus’s entry into the body.
This is probably the first report of asymptomatic infection and reinfection, and it calls for better surveillance.
“As a significantly large number of people who are infected are asymptomatic, without surveillance, we would never be able to estimate the real numbers of infection. Therefore, surveillance of healthcare workers, who are at higher risk than the population, would be something really worth considering,” Vinod Scaria, a senior scientist of genome informatics at IGIB and one of the authors of the study, told The Wire Science.
Upasana Ray, a senior scientist of infectious diseases and immunology at the Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata, agreed that long-term patient monitoring is important irrespective of the symptoms. She added that more gene-sequencing data should help us identify and understand the type of virus in circulation, and understand when a new ‘variant’ shows up.
Sequencing the virus’s genome also helps distinguish between reinfection, where the virus enters the body a second time and infects the person, and reactivation, where the virus remains in an inactive state in the body and later becomes active again.
Epidemiologists had speculated on the possibility of reactivation and reinfection of the virus even in April, when about 51 patients in South Korea who had been ‘cured’ of the disease tested positive again. South Korea’s Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initially proposed that they were cases of reactivation of the virus. But upon further research, they announced that the test results were all false positives: the test kit had detected remnants of the virus that were not infectious.
Other researchers reported the first formal case of reinfection on August 24, 2020, when a 33-year-old man from Hong Kong tested positive for the SARS-CoV-2 virus about four and a half months after the first infection. The reinfection, however, was less severe and the patient was asymptomatic.
One way to confirm reinfection is to test whether viral strains from the two infections are different. This is useful because as the virus mutates, different strains of the virus circulate in different regions at different times. In the Hong Kong case, scientists confirmed that the viral strain involved in the reinfection was different from the first infection. In fact, the reinfection strain was most closely related to a strain circulating in Europe around July-August, where the patient had travelled at the time. The study was published on August 25 in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases.
Another case of reinfection has been reported from Nevada, in the US, where – unlike the Hong Kong case – the symptoms were worse when a 25-year-old man contracted the virus a second time. The authors of the preprint paper confirmed this to be a case of reinfection as five nucleotides present at specific places of the viral RNA from the first infection were different in the viral RNA from the second infection.
That said, the authors also considered another possibility: that the virus from the first infection evolved into a different type inside the body. If that were true, this would be the fastest rate of the virus evolving inside a person – nearly four times as fast as is known now.
Mind the rarity
Scientists have also confirmed instances of reinfection in Europe and South America. As of today, ten cases of reinfection have been confirmed from around the world.
These cases raise many questions. For example, are reinfections frequent or rare? Do subsequent infections evoke milder symptoms or worse? Can those who have been infected the second time spread the virus while remaining asymptomatic? And how do reinfections change the prospects of a vaccine?
A syringe with a vaccine is seen ahead of trials by volunteers testing for COVID-19, and taking part in clinical trials for potential vaccines at a research centre in Johannesburg,
In a press conference held on September 15, Balaram Bhargava, director-general of the Indian Council of Medical Research, said that although COVID-19 reinfections are possible, they are “very, very rare”, and added that it’s not a matter of serious concern.
Relevant answer
Answer
Exposure to SARS-CoV-2 virus does not guarantee immunity, reinfection causes more severe symptoms.
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
8 answers
When it comes to Ambivalence, it can be a symptom of mental illness but it is also something we experience in our everyday life ( I certainly do, and my wife hates it) . Where would you draw the line between normal ambivalence and pathological ambivalence? Also what is the role of attitudes (if any) towards the object? I wrote an article about attitudes a while ago. The article can be found here:
The word is free..
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Sir, Henrik G.S. Arvidsson Before anyone reaches a point where He/She has absurd thoughts of killing their spouses is the time when He/She should draw a line between normal or pathological ambivalence.
Question
5 answers
Hello dear researchers
I have an opportunity to have a series of interview with great Iranian scientists from all over the world on my social media account.
I am listing the possible questions that I can ask!
If you were me, what were the questions that you wanted to ask!?
Please help me with your nice ideas!
Relevant answer
Answer
There are no G-d scientists, although G-d is the greatest scientist. As earthlings, with respect to your question, the development of our genius, e.g. the full healing potential of physicians and the medical profession, is bound to step over certain rules of one or more disciplines. It is my informed guess, that the new global economic growth engine of the 21st century will be human health, in holistic terms. We will gain a more sacred or higher understanding of the humany body and our biological condition on this planet, also in terms of practical ethics and health. Concerning the medical sciences, profiteering-from-disease is no future model. Wishing you good luck with all your interviews and much progress in your field !!!
Question
3 answers
the gut related diseases like White feaces, white muscle, white gut are doing much damage to shrimp by retarding growth and increasing FCR and eventually heavy losses. is there any medicine or cure available now apart from preventive measures?
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
3 answers
Global spotlight is on 2020 Nobel prizes which is slated to commence today, Monday October 5, 2020. Many researchers have been mentioned and nominated in various capacities for their discoveries such as;
1. American Mary-Claire King, who discovered the BRCA1 gene responsible for a hereditary form of breast cancer.
2. The duo of Emmanuelle Charpentier of France and Jennifer Doudna of the US, for their gene-editing technique, the CRISPR-Cas9 DNA snipping tool, a type of genetic “scissors” in cutting mutated gene, and for insertion of a corrected manipulated one.
3. Dennis Slamon, American oncologist for research on breast cancer and the drug treatment Herceptin.
4. Leroy Hood, US gene sequencing pioneer.
5. And host of others.
Not only limited to medicine, in any field, who do you have in mind for his/her discovery roles in the past few years?
Relevant answer
Answer
There are real doctors who treat any kind of infection including Covid 19 Covid 2099 also.
In many corner of the world. Health and Education should be completely at Free of cost for each and every Citizens and By the way healthcare corruption will get into an end for ever. No private involvement of anybody in health care Management.
Nobel Price For Medicine should goes to Dr.B.M.Hegde,MBBS.,MD.,DM. FCCP. BadhmaPhushan award winner.
Nobel Price Trust should take strict legal action on Xi and his allies who are the responsible person for Pandemic and By the way such mistakes will not repeat.
Question
11 answers
The coronavirus pandemic has brought the world to a grinding halt and no doubt has altered the lives of each one of us. I think COVID-19 also has an impact on our normal research (i.e. related to our relevant field) and diverted us to work on various aspects of coronavirus to help combat the virus.
What's your opinion in this regard?
Relevant answer
Answer
This pandemic has led researchers and research centers to shift the attention of researchers and research centers towards searching for a drug or vaccine against the emerging coronavirus, which has led to neglecting other axes such as cancer, diabetes, and other research fields..Even publication in journals has become more slowly due to the interest of journals in research related to COVID-19
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
10 answers
Have you ever imagined how the physically disabled people feel under COVID-19?
Which type of disability is most impacting these minority under COVID-19?
Autism? Cleft patients? Mental health patients? Deaf? Dumb? Blind? Loss of limbs?
How can we help them?
Relevant answer
Answer
President Donald Trump test positive for Covid-19
This is one of the shocking news listened ever towards blind people!!
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
10 answers
It's 99 days since the first case of COVID-19 in Hong Kong, and we are welcoming the 5th days of 0 new cases of COVID-19 following a week of <10 cases per day.
How should we define the end of a local endemic?
How long should the latent period be defined?
When is it safe to resume social activities?
Should territory wide screening of asymptomatic people be done before declaring the end of endemic?
Relevant answer
Answer
President Donald Trump test positive for Covid-19
This is definitely not the end of the COVID-19 endemic
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
48 answers
University graduates work in various companies and at first, find it difficult since what they learned is of very little or no help in the new job. The work is very specific and very little of it is covered in the university curriculum. should universities focus more on job-specific skills or continue with academic education? what are the consequences?
Relevant answer
Answer
Both. The University should prepare the learners on the real world.
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
10 answers
When will South America (or specifically Argentina) win a science Nobel Prize?
Another year without a Nobel Prize coming to South America
The last time that a South American scientist was awarded with a Nobel Prize was César Milstein, Physiology or Medicine, 1984. Are the richest countries rich because they inverts a lot in science? or they inverts a lot in science because they are rich?
The list is very short: Argentine 3, Brazil 1, Venezuela 1
Relevant answer
Answer
as we can see from the history of wars the technological advantage was usually the main factor in order to win the war. It means that investment in science at that time really can make some countries rich.
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
38 answers
How do you think artificial intelligence can affect medicine in real world. There are many science-fiction dreams in this regard!
but how about real-life in the next 2-3 decades!?
Relevant answer
Answer
AI has to transmit/mimic compassion somehow. COVID 19 patients fear loneliness and the scarce contact with the medical staff more than the consequences of the disease.
AI without empathic designs can bring lots of new problems.
The topic of cobots and humane treatments will demand a lot from medical applications of AI.
Question
32 answers
The literature regarding gender and the distribution of personality traits ( Big five personality traits model as a reference,; McCrae & Costa) are pretty clear. Women score higher on traits such as agreeableness and openness for example. There are some examples in the literature regarding why there is a difference between men and women in terms of personality traits. However how does sociological factors such as the influence asserted by the individuals belonging to social group, ethnic group, culture etc. Can we say that women across the spectrum are more agreeable or open and men are less agreeable according the the big five personality traits model (McCrae & Costa 1985 etc) or are there other markers that also influence out traits...can it be that in some cultures women are less agreeable than men for example or do you think the big five model and the distribution of traits in terms of a gender perspective is universal? Are there any identifiable research gaps in your view? Best wishes Henrik
Relevant answer
Answer
Personality variations between men and women have a more heritability and socio-cultural basis than gender in particular. Cultural changes are very long-term, therefore the dynamics of personality variations are unhurried and steady.
Among four recent twin studies, the mean percentage for heritability was calculated for each personality and it was concluded that heritability influenced the five factors broadly. The self-report measures were as follows: openness to experience was estimated to have a 57% genetic influence, extra-version 54%, conscientiousness 49%, neuroticism 48%, and agreeableness 42%.
Refer to the study below:
Bouchard TJ, McGue M (January 2003). "Genetic and environmental influences on human psychological differences". Journal of Neurobiology. 54 (1): 4–45. doi:10.1002/neu.10160.
Also, differences in the magnitude of sex differences between more or less developed world regions were due to differences between men, not women, in these respective regions. That is, men in highly developed world regions were less neurotic, extra-vert, conscientious and agreeable compared to men in less developed world regions. Women, on the other hand tended not to differ in personality traits across regions.
Refer to the study below:
Schmitt DP, Realo A, Voracek M, Allik J (January 2008). "Why can't a man be more like a woman? Sex differences in Big Five personality traits across 55 cultures". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 94 (1): 168–182. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.94.1.168.
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
10 answers
The homoeopathic medicine consist minerals in it and the same nutrients are essential for the growth and development of the plant. So I asked myself whether the homoeopathic medicine useful for plant nutrition.
Relevant answer
Answer
@ Sagar, use of different Homeopathy medicines in different potencies to develop immunity in plants, control pest and disease and influence of plant growth opens new vistas for further research in Applied Homeopathy in Agriculture. Recently the homoeopathic medicines Sulphur, Silicea terra and Nux vomica have been assessed on different plants of commercial interest, including corn, while the use of other HOM treatments is recommended, such as Calcarea carbonica, Carbo vegetabilis and Magnesia carbonica . A suitable Materia Medica for plants with proper Repertory is required to be prepared. For more details please have a look of the attached files.
Question
82 answers
integrity is often defined as being honest and having strong moral and ethical principles.
The world certainly needs it very much. Can we teach this quality to our students? should the parents be the ones that teach ethics to their children? Can society or, religious institutions teach this?.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello to all my friends, I think it depends on both the individual and the community in which he lives.
The family is the first society in which a person's personality is formed and is very influential.
In Iran, the term Wet wood is used for this period and it is believed that the formation of the main part of a person's personality is in the same family and childhood.
Therefore, schools and education have a great impact on the continuation of the growth of this process.
With respect
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
5 answers
A patient with hereditary desminopathy (mutation Thr341Pro DES in a heterozygous state) with disease progression has a significant decrease in taste. How can this fact be explained?
Relevant answer
Answer
Probably affect facial nerve and glossopharyngeal nerve in the pons and medulla oblongata?
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
4 answers
I am looking forward to designing a Printed Electronics circuit for Pill Reminder/ Medicine Reminder. The circuit is printed on the back of the medicine stip.
I found some interesting circuit which based on IoT, Arduino to get a reminder at a particular set of time. IT cannot possible to fix the smallest microcontroller kit (i.e. ATTO) into medicine stip. I want to make a basic circuit with passive electronics components. Another idea is to design a circuit for a wire-break alarm or reminder with sufficient delay. The IC 555 dose-not possess longer delay and multiple wire-break alarm system.
If you have any ideas please share.
Relevant answer
If this is been developed it may be grateful for Alzheimer's patients
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
4 answers
Does an oral & Maxillofacial Medicine specialist or physician have experience prescribing buspirone to a patient with SSRIs-related bruxism?
Relevant answer
Answer
You can have a look at this article. Maybe it would be helpful.
Question
1 answer
Discussions could be in any area e.g. medicine, engineering, biomedical engineering, microbiology, etc.
Relevant answer
Answer
Probably there will
be more focus on long distance / online learning methods
Question
56 answers
It seem individual's attitude to environment are changing rather than last year due to corona virus issues and challenges. What do you think?
Relevant answer
Answer
My view is that by mid-2021 there will be positive changes in environmental behavior and a reduction in destructive processes. Political conditions such as the US election and the trade war with China can also make a difference.
Question
8 answers
What are different coil shapes used in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation? What are their differences (in induced current)? Do they have different applications?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi,
Actually, the influence of inductance value in a coil on TMS is eddy current strength. In addition, the coil design in physical configuration can affect the TMS distribution or depth. The TMS coil with eight shapes is commonly used in clinical application due to better high resolution than the round coil.
You can refer to the article below. Good luck!
Question
26 answers
In your personal experience,How do you manage your life and make a balance between work, family and other related sections!?:)
I would be thrilled to have your points!
Relevant answer
Answer
Equally, dear Dr. Hossein
Question
23 answers
Applications of bioinformatics in medicine is a key factor in technological advancement in the field of modern medical technologies.
In which areas of medical technology are the technological achievements of bioinformatics used?
What are the applications of bioinformatics in medicine?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
Relevant answer
Answer
In precision med... Precision medicine is rapidly emerging as a strategy to tailor medical treatment to a small group or even individual patients based on their genetics, environment and lifestyle. Precision medicine relies heavily on developments in systems biology and omics disciplines, including metabolomics. Combination of metabolomics with sophisticated bioinformatics analysis and mathematical modeling has an extreme power to provide a metabolic snapshot of the patient over the course of disease and treatment or classifying patients into subpopulations and subgroups requiring individual medical treatment.... Azad, R. K., & Shulaev, V. (2019). Metabolomics technology and bioinformatics for precision medicine. Briefings in bioinformatics, 20(6), 1957-1971.
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
9 answers
It is reported by NBC that "Up to July 9, just over 200,000 cases of COVID-19 had been diagnosed in kids and young people in the U.S. in total. But from July 9 through Aug. 6, an additional 179,990 pediatric cases were reported — an increase of 90 percent in just four weeks. What changed? is covid-19 changing or our early understanding of it was wrong?
Relevant answer
Answer
Mahmoud Moghavvemi Worrisome matter!
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
2 answers
Hii expert,
I am a first-year PG student enrolled in Public Health (Community Medicine). I am looking for a list of Scopus/ISI indexed journals with no processing fee. In the area of medical education/public health/community medicine/health science. Please help me. Thank you in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
Medical Education :
Medical Teacher
Medical Science Educator
Academic Medicine
Community Medicine:
Perspectives in Public Health
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Epidemiologic Reviews
This is not an exhaustive list. Hope it helps.
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
1 answer
I would like to learn the limitations of statistics in different domains of biological research. How it affects the outcome, future perspectives of medicine in terms of diagnosis, treatment, and effect of causative agents.
Relevant answer
Answer
"Does it make sense? will often cut a statistic down to size" - D Huff
Statistics is a 'play with numbers' in the sense that significance of a particular data can be 'shown' to exist (“There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics.”- Benjamin Disraeli).
The statistical analysis would only grossly show an overall picture and may not fit in with every individual case (“Statistics largely deals with averages and these averages may be made up of individual items radically different from each other.” —Wilford I. King).
More than statistics, the study design, methodology have to be acceptable to standards and then statistics would help the data to a better understanding.
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
196 answers
I often hear from friends negative things about academia, its boring, not connected to reality etc. I have been on and off in academia for 25 years but for the most part I have been in the real world, running businesses and working as a business consultant. I can still feel that in academia there is at least in my field a theoretical knowledge but still people doesn't understand how the real world operates. After university I felt like I knew everything, I knew Kotler backwards and forwards and all the theories..it felt like any way but when I started my first business (during my university years) I felt like I had to relearn everything. This lack of connection to reality was a problem for me and it is something I hear a lot for other business people. "Academics know nothing! ",one friend said and he has a Phd! Perhaps this illustrates the problem?
I guess it is the same in many fields..academia is seen as dry and not connected to the real world. What can be done about this or can anything be done? How do you view your education in relation to your working life? Do you feel your education was relevant? For me...not so much. Later I started to teach and do research but I still have this feeling. How do you feel about academia and the real world? Is academia part of the world we live in or just some "other place"..your thoughts?
Best wishes Henrik
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Anamitra Roy your point is very valid that we only teach the students theories but we do not teach them what to link, where to link and how to link their attained knowledge to situations of real life. Therefore the knowledge is just another addition in the basket nothing more. simply the knowledge is gradually confining to learning and not practicing, hence applied domain is zero. Good answer Anamitra Roy
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
16 answers
What is your take?
Relevant answer
Answer
In my opinion the foundation of personality is inherited, self desires set the direction and environment cause transformation, as seed inherits the type of the plant in it self, a chance to go into the soil is similar to self-desires, while water, sunlight, air and fertilizers are environments. They all have a role to play in the process of a seed becoming a tree.
Question
34 answers
There are two theories that are quite similar in nature, but different in substance, The theory of Mind and the theory of Mentaliz(S)ation, sorry, Im allergic to American spelling...pls dont kill me now :-) My understanding of them is this "Both of these concepts, mentalization and the theory of mind, describes processes that are metacognitive in their nature . Mentalization mainly concerns the reflection of affective or emotional mental states. In contrast however the, theory of mind focuses on things epistemic in nature such as beliefs, intentions and persuasions. My idea is that these two theories by them self are incomplete but combining elements of both, gives us a clearer understanding. Cognition and affect can't in my view be separated, they are both part of us as human beings and also a part of other animals. What are your thoughts? Am I wrong or right? I can stand criticism so bring it on...
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Henrik G.S. Arvidsson I dont agree with you that mentalization and the theory of mind are incomplete, I would rather say they are vague and trying to beat about the bush. However, I agree with you that both facets; physical and non-physical go side by side as the two sides of the river, they are two different identities, yet essential and part of the same one entity the river. I think to understand mind we have to answer following questions:-
1. What are numerous non-physical entities, dimensions, constructs & elements.
2. What is the hierarchical / Interrelationship model.
3. How does theses non-physical entities function individually.
4. How does Multiple simultaneous occurrences and their effects occur.
5 What is the trans-formative phenomenon of mind and how it occurs.
6. What can be a perceived Mind Model.
Question
1 answer
Throughout the world many scientists/researchers, globally hard working to develop relevant drugs/medicines for the treatment of COVID19. Can anyone tell, if there is development, regarding?
Relevant answer
Answer
In India, few medicines have been approved on emergency basis for the treatment/management of COVID 19. You can visit www.cdco. gov.in
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
33 answers
Dear Scholars,
You all are well aware that COVID-19 has disrupted every aspect of our lives including K12 and higher education sectors. Keeping in view the WHO recommendations, nations are enforcing social distancing in all fields including primary, secondary, higher secondary and university education. If we think positively, then this culprit COVID-19 is a blessing in disguise as the people are now taking care of personal hygiene, cleanliness of their surroundings and trying their best to improve their immunity. Besides educational institutions are reaching to the students.
During the past three months, the schools and universities around the globe have extended their outreach from a confined classroom to the students` bedrooms. Now the students can learn with more flexibility without wasting their times in travelling to their respective schools. The online mode of education has proven fruitful as it has lead to reduce institutional expenses which they had been spending on building & maintenance of infrastructure, electricity, furniture, multimedia and computing equipment. There is likelihood that tuition fee may be reduced with time if the situation prolongs (god forbid).
Apart from the above facts, I personally believe that online mode of education can not replace laboratory and clinical training of students who are pursuing their undergraduate studies in medicine, dentistry, engineering and such other technical fields.
What do you think? Will this batch of undergraduate students who are learning through online media i.e. LMS, Zoom, Webax etc, be able to acquire the professional competencies required in their respective fields. If the answer is no, then how can we utilize online platforms to ensure delivery of the quality education and achievement of course and program learning outcomes?
Thank you .
Relevant answer
Answer
Well said
Zorica Popović
I especially like the phrase "Mission Impossible"...
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
12 answers
The big five personality trait model ( McCrae & Costa) describes 5 bipolar dimensions of personality. The model received some criticism but is still generally accepted and perhaps it is the only descriptive model of personality that is "widely" accepted. What do you think are the strengths and weaknesses of this model? Is it complete or not? If not, what is missing?
Best wishes Henrik
Relevant answer
Dear Dr.Samah Zahran,
Please, add money to your greatest assessment for personality perspective..
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
134 answers
I understand vaguely that the first author is supposed to be the one who "did the most work", but what counts as "work" in this comparison? Does "most" mean "more than all the other coauthors together" or just "more than any other coauthor"? What happens when the comparison is unclear? How often is "did the most work" the actual truth, versus a cover story for a more complex political decision?
I realize that the precise answer is different for every paper. I'm looking for general guidelines for how an outsider (like me) should interpret first authorship in your field. Pointers to guidelines from journals or professional societies would be especially helpful.
Relevant answer
Answer
Welcome Frank T. Edelmann
Another important attached concept is:
1. Principal Investigator (PI) usually after the name has ** PI
2. Co-Principal Investigator or Co-Investigator (Co-PI/Co-I)
3. Faculty Participant
Traditionally, the last author position is reserved for the supervisor or principal investigator. As such, this person receives much of the credit when the research goes well and the flak when things go wrong.
Multiple “first” authors. Additional “first” authors can be noted by an asterisk or other symbol accompanied by an explanatory note. This practice is common in interdisciplinary studies; however, as we shall explain further below, the first name listed on a paper will still enjoy more visibility than any other “first” author. https://wordvice.com/journal-article-author-order/
Multiple “last” authors. Similar to recognizing several first authors, multiple last authors can be recognized via typographical symbols and footnotes. This practice arose as some journals wanted to increase accountability by requiring senior lab members to review all data and interpretations produced in their labs.
For details please read attached PDFs
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
8 answers
50 percent of physicians joined the Nazi party. For some reason, they were more enthusiastic than other professions to collaborate with Nazis. Other professions did not have such high representation in the Nazi party.
I wonder about the possible reasons for that enthusiasm.
Relevant answer
Answer
  • Udo.Hennighausen@web.de: I feel that there are several reasons. 1871 the Jewish citizens got full citizen rights in Germany (the Deutsche Reich) and many of them started an academic career. At the same time, in the last third of the 19th century, a latent antisemitism rose in Germany, in all levels of the society. The work in a hospital may be compared with the work on a ship, the leading physician, often professor, had a right to order similar to the captain of a ship. This military thinking might have been one cause for the adherence to NS. Also many medical students at that time were members of academic corporations (Burschenschaften, Landsmannschaften, Corps etc.), where also authoritarian rules were lived. Perhaps doctors were jealous on the job-positions of Yewish doctors, as after 1871 many Germans of Yewish heritage or faith started a successful academic career or profession in private practice. Rebecca Schwoch (Hamburg) has done a great research work about the fate of the doctors of Yewish heritage or faith in private practice with licence for social insurance, who worked in Berlin: About half of the doctors in private practice with licence for social insurance in Berlin were of Jewisch faith or heritage. Another point is the idea of eugenics, half science, half ideology, which was discussed in all countries at that time and was cultivated be NS-ideology.
Question
5 answers
Hello, dear fellow scholars.
I'm writing this post after the advice that I received to bring to your knowledge a lesson that I'm learning yet at the beginning of my academic career.
I'm one of the authors of a case report that has been published by the journal 'Archives Of Medicine' without our consent¹. Before the case report has been published, we have sent a formal e-mail soliciting to the editors the withdrawal of our intention to publish, because we have found that the journal was being investigated due to suspicious activities².
I'm currently a 3rd-year medical school student and this was the first time that we have submitted an article to a journal (me and my colleague, which also is a 3rd-year medical school student). I'm mentioning this just to contextualize the fact that we are pretty much beginners in the matters of scientific publications and we never even imagined that such thing as "predatory publishers" exist.
When we started to look for journals to publish the case report, we were looking for a cost-free journal, but at the time we submitted the article to the Archives of Medicine, by an honest mistake and lack of attention, we didn't realize that this journal has a publishing fee, and a few days after we had submitted the case report we received an e-mail with a charging bill of over 1,500 euros.
Immediately after receiving this e-mail, we started to write a formal message to the editorial board, explaining to them about our mistake, apologizing for the inconvenience, and soliciting the withdrawal of the intent to publish the case report. Also, we got suspicious by the fact that this charging form was asking for sensitive financial information (like credit card number, CVV number, and other info).
In the meantime, we came across a post (here in Research Gate) mentioning the suspicious activities about the IMedPub² (the group responsible for the Archives of Medicine). As soon as we found out these facts, we sent the e-mail formally soliciting the withdrawal of the intent to publish the case report. However, a few days later as I've mentioned at the beginning of this post, the journal published the case report¹ without our consent and ignoring our solicitation. We have only completed the initial forms for starting the publishing process and send them the manuscript by completing the on-line form but we didn't make any payment for the publication fee since we sent this e-mail soliciting the withdrawal of the submitting intention (even though, the journal published it anyway).
¹https://www.archivesofmedicine.com/medicine/atypical-case-of-chronic-granulomatous-disease-a-case-report.pdf
²https://www.researchgate.net/post/Can_I_trust_OMICS_iMedPub_Conference_Series_Allied_Academies_Pulsus_Trade_Sci_SciTechnol_and_EuroSciCon
All this post was originated by the concern about the fact that our names are now associated with an article published by a journal that was under the accusation of suspicious activities and how this could affect our academic reputation and professional future.
We have received some advice to turn the situation public here in Research Gate to other researchers to learn from this lesson and also to hear your opinion. We'll appreciate it if you let us know your perspective about the case and if you can advise a better way of how to resolve this situation.
I apologize for this enormous text, but I think it was necessary to explain the whole situation with some more detail.
If you want to know more details about the original post, the link is the following: https://www.researchgate.net/post/How_to_proceed_in_cases_of_violation_of_copyright
Thanks for your attention.
Best regards,
Wilian Sant'Ana
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you for the tip! Surely I'll add it to my checklist next time.
Regards.
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
13 answers
The development of a vaccine for COVID-19 has become a battleground for many countries to prove to the world/their own peoples that their technology is superior and better than the competitors at the international stage. it is always a point of concern when science is serving the political establishment. Russia claimed that they have developed 'the first' Covid-19 vaccine. WHO is raising concern about the validity of this claim and urging Russia to provide sufficient data to back this claim.
Is it possible for the same scenario to be repeated in the US? An election is near and COVID-19 vaccine development can influence the result.
Relevant answer
Answer
Is Russia's COVID-19 trials akin to "Haste makes waste"?
Russia's COVID-19 vaccine has not gone through the mill as some other vaccines, the front-runners being Chinese vaccine which is undergoing phase 3 trials in China, Brazil, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan, Oxford Astra-Zeneca vaccine, also in phase 3 trials, and Moderna's US vaccine.
I will just say regarding Russia's COVID-19 policy "Haste makes waste"
Question
87 answers
Indeed, I have observed that there is some scientific journals that listed in Scopus sources of not good quality from scientific point of view. At the same time some Universities are depending on Scoups in a similar manner to that of Thomson & Routers or Clarivate analytics.
Relevant answer
Answer
LanguagesEnglishAccessProvidersElsevierCostSubscriptionCoverageDisciplinesLife sciences; social sciences; physical sciences; health sciencesTemporal coverage2004–presentGeospatial coverageWorldwideNo. of records69 millionLinks
  • Website
  • Title list
Question
17 answers
COVID-19 is changing the social life of all people. Jumping out of the personal aspect, how does it affect the family as a whole.
Family is regarded as the fundamental structure of the society, will COVID-19 changes the future family structure, unit and model?
How is it affecting gender issues too?
Besides, why is domestic violence increasing? Is psychology and psychiatry playing a role?
reference:
[1] Campbell AM. An increasing risk of family violence during the Covid-19 pandemic: Strengthening community collaborations to save lives.
Forensic Science International: Reports vol. 2 (2020): 100089.
[2]COVID-19: Reducing the risk of infection might increase the risk of intimate partner violence
EClinicalMedicine
[3]The pandemic paradox: The consequences of COVID‐19 on domestic violence
J Clin Nurs
Relevant answer
Answer
Effect of lockdown is domestic violence increasing day by day.
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
8 answers
Many studies and analyes we do require statistics to back up. However, many times the results run out to be statistically significant, yet when interpret it in the clinical context, it is too small to be significant.
This is rather frustrating. Any solution for solving this?
Is those very small interval unit scale more easily affected?
Can we change our analytics method to cope with the results?
Beyond statistical significance: clinical interpretation of rehabilitation research literature.
Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2014;9(5):726–736.
Relevant answer
Good question
Question
14 answers
Are immunity enhancer medicine (Homeopathic and Ayurvedic ) helpful to prevent yourself from Corona virus?
Relevant answer
Answer
AYUSH Remedies - Approved by Govt of India to fight against Covid19 - The basic
concept is to boost up the immunity - https://www.researchgate.net/deref/https%3A%2F%2Fwww.mohfw.gov.in%2Fpdf%2FImmunityBoostingAYUSHAdvisory.pdf - as advised by Ministry of Home Affairs ( MoHFW ) , India .
Question
18 answers
In a paper deposited in BioRxiv entitled: "Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs, and different domestic animals to SARS-coronavirus-2" the team from Harbin Vet Institute intentionally infected several species of animals including cats with SARS-CoV-2. The results showed that the virus was transmitted between the cats, but no sympthoms of COVID-19 were observed.
This result is interesting in terms of an observation made by a medic from Spain - Sabina Olex-Condor that from the 100 patients serious with COVID-19 that she examined there were no cat owners. She suggested as a hypothesis that due to cross-immunity (cats are a known reservoir of coronaviruses) cat owners have milder sympthoms of COVID-19.
I'm aware that the paper from Harbin Institute is a pilot study, has many possible dead ends and limitations. I'm also aware that this cross-immunity hypothesis suggested by Sabina need serious assement due to limited number (and problalbly non-representative set) of patients.
Do you think that this is possible in terms of knowledge of human immunology? If the above is met do any of you have access to indepth demografic (?) data of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 to check this hypothesis?
Disclaimer: not an expert in medicine or veterinary, I study plant genomics, this is pure scientific curiosity.
I hope that your families and friends are well.
Relevant answer
Question
15 answers
Various medical institutes are making their efforts in preparation of vaccine for Covid-19 disease. The medical trials are lengthy in process, how much time it will take for fullproof vaccine for the disease. Please express your views. Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
Ravindra S Bankar "The medical trials are lengthy in process..." The trials are extremely, and, under normal circumstances, irresponsibly short! By the way, most vaccines fail in phase III trials.
Question
3 answers
I'm working on making new compound medicine, but I don't know how to evaluate the chemical interaction in lab environment (cristalization and other interactions) please help me. If you know a book or article can help me, I will be so grateful.
Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
A change of subject a new way to look at small things!
The new normal----wear a snug fitting cotton mask-----and, because no mask is 100% effective----upon removal of the mask,---sanitize your saliva with a mouthwash that contains 1/2 % hydrogen peroxide.
See attachments
Don
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
4 answers
How to remove toxic heavy metal traces like mercury, lead, cadmium etc. from solid herbal material or food material?
is there any specific methodology or technique to remove metal traces from solid material like food or plant herbal material?
so that after removal of metal, the solid material can be used as food or medicine.
Relevant answer
Answer
Solid herbal material or food material when manufactured, their composition already analyzed including its metals content , so there are no toxic metals exist to the composition of Solid herbal material or food material.
Normally, heavy metals removal processes are bio accumulation and bio-absorption, by plants .
I studied on bio accumulation and bio-absorption of heavy metals by seaweeds. It shows seaweeds actively bio accumulate and bio-absorb of heavy metals from water and sediment.
Other literature reports regarding bio accumulation and bio-absorption of heavy metals other plants.
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
6 answers
Empirical use of non-harmful drugs for patients is superior to evidence-based medicine ... or not
Does anyone use famotidine in COVID?
Relevant answer
Answer
I should probably also add that in addition to the increased risk for COVID-19 infections, using the drugs may increase the risk of other gastrointestinal infections for other pathogens. This would increase overall pathology as well as risk for any of these infections. Nutritional damage and other effects may also occur, even if not severe.
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
8 answers
I am starting a systemic review. And it's my first one. I have figured out the PICO and search keywords. I am overwhelming with massive results from different search engine. They contains duplicates. What is the best practice to combine all the result and remove duplicates.
Relevant answer
Answer
There are various tools such as EndNote, RefWorks, Mendeley, Rayyan, Zotero, Covidence and others. Covidence is a good option for undertaking Cochrane systematic reviews, but it is not free to use. Covidence is free for those authoring the Cochrane reviews.
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
19 answers
Can we use artificial intelligence technologies such as Machine Learning and Deep Learning to help in finding medicine or vaccine for COVID-19. Any ideas?
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes! Please see the RG link below.
Question
17 answers
What are the most important factors to considered when thinking about the cities of the future? What scholars to involve? Or, can we even leave some academic discipline behind and not include them in discussion?
This is just a teaser for an upcoming conference...
Theology in Rijeka and the Department of Philosophy of the Catholic Faculty of Theology at the University of Zagreb, the Department of Social and Human Sciences in Medicine at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Rijeka, the Faculty of Health Studies of the University of Rijeka and Faculty of Theology at University Nicolaus Copernicus, Toruń (Poland) - organize an international symposium, titled „The City of Future: Anxiety of Expansion“, which will be held on November 13, 2020 (Friday) in the Theology Building (Rijeka, Omladinska 14).
Relevant answer
Answer
One of the most important factors to ensure world peace is for city governments to prioritize good planning for the future, including conducting many scientific studies and investigations to determine short-term objectives and long-range goals.
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
38 answers
The situation is going worse and the health system in IRAQ is so poor to provide the simplest treatment needs of patients. What should we do in such a horrible situation?
Is there advice that should we follow to stay safe and healthy until they come up with the vaccine of COVID-19.
How to make our immunity stronger in this situation, what should we eat? what should we drink? what kind of medicine should we have to have at home?
Question
78 answers
I am interested in how people and cultures view practitioners and supporters of Nutraceuticals. For generations, food or plant based substances have been used as a treatment for disease. The pharmaceutical industry has replaced grandma remedies. Charlatans have given the herbal drug industry a bad name. True believers of herbal cures though have also stretched the public's faith with cures for baldness to cancer and now to Covid-19.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you for your thoughtful answer. There is so much to learn and it is so easy to scoff at that which we do not understand. Continued success with your mission.
brigid
Question
7 answers
my value of sample is greater than that of standard and when I consider the formulas such as
(1) Percentage inhibition = (Abs Control – Abs Sample) x 100 / Abs control
(2) % Inhibition=100 − (A1-A2)/A0)*100)
(3) % Denaturation inhibition = (1−D/C) ×100%
Where D is the absorbance reading of the test sample, and C is the absorbance reading without test sample (negative control).
(4) PERCENTAGE INHIBITION = [100-(OPTICAL DENITY OF TEST SOLUTION – OPTICAL DENSITY OF PRODUCT CONTROL) ÷ (OPTICAL DENSITY OF TEST CONTROL)] ×100.
Which can be correct????? If I put control first ie, rewrite (3) as
% Denaturation inhibition = (1−C/D ×100% Getting % otherwise percentage is exceeding 100.
Relevant answer
Answer
I recommend you to read from the following reference source
Kırmusaoğlu, S. (2019). The methods for detection of biofilm and screening antibiofilm activity of agents. In Antimicrobials, Antibiotic Resistance, Antibiofilm Strategies and Activity Methods. IntechOpen.
However, I think this might help.
To interpret results, categorization can be done as no biofilm production (0), weak (+ or 1), moderate (++ or 2), and strong biofilm production (+++ or 3) by the calculation of cutoff value (ODc) shown below:
  1. OD ≤ ODc no biofilm production
  2. ODc< OD ≤ 2 × ODc weak biofilm production
  3. 2 × ODc< OD ≤ 4 × ODc moderate biofilm production
  4. 4 × ODc< OD strong biofilm production
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
18 answers
How weather can be a factor in Corona virus spreading? As Africa is still safe from it.
Relevant answer
Question
6 answers
Under COVID-19, healthcare facilities requests a lot of sterilization to prevent hospital transmission of the disease. Bleach solution and many other disinfection agents may not be effective against such a large scale of usage.
Can ultraviolet light be used to inactivate the virus?
Can it be applied on whole room disinfection?
Can it be used on high turnover medical equipment sterilization? E.g. stethoscope.
Can it be used to inactivate infected donors' blood products or body fluids?
Relevant answer
Answer
Please take a look at this useful link for insights.
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
98 answers
I am interested in how people/cultures view specific foods as cures or treatments for illnesses.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes! of course.
"Let food be your medicine & medicine be your food" (Hippocrates).
A good herbal diet (herbal remedies) is a winning combination of an effective approach to optimal health and the answer to health, health care and medical happiness.
Question
16 answers
Hello Colleagues
Recentrly, fungal infections cause an increase of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients and in immunocompromised persons. What are the most recent recommendations and guidelines for the control and prevention of nosocomial fungal infections.
Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
The last two decades have shown an increase incidence of nosocomial fungal infections in hospital environment.The important fungi that are implicated in nosocomial infections are Candida albicans, Non-Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Non-Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium species and others. We have isolated several fungal pathogens from burn wounds of patients admitted in burn ward of the hospital. Certain measures, such as personal protective wear, proper hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, thorough cleaning and disinfection, safe injection practice, avoidance of sharp needle and scalpel injury, and waste disposal besides prompt medical attention to skin injury, and appropriate treatment with anti-fungal drugs (fluconazole, itraconazole, Amphotericin B, posaconazole etc) can be effective to prevent nosocomial mycoses.
One see the following paper on nosocomial mycotic infections.
Alangaden GJ. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 2011;25:201-25.
Question
7 answers
Hi everyone! I got an invitation to submit a paper to the following SCI-E/SCOPUS MDPI journal (special issue):
The Article Processing Charge (APC) is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs) per accepted paper. However, the fees will be fully waived (as it is an invitation to contribute) if I can submit the paper by the end of June 2020.
If anyone have a collaboration idea, please send me a message.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello, we can work on neuroimaging analysis using ML/DL, I am specialized in neuroscience and you can contribute to the ML/DL application. If you are interested, email me at weixi20kang@gmail.com. Thanks.
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
5 answers
Hi all,
I am stuck at the following problem: I need to determine if there is a significant difference in Length of stay (LOS) in two groups: decendents and survivors, in different age groups. Can somebody help me with this? In a similar article I found they did use kruskal wallis to calculate this. Somebody some ideas to solve this in stata?
Thanks a lot!
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Daniel,
The two independent variables (age group: 3 levels; and type of case: 2 levels) could be evaluated in a two-way anova design. If there is any concern about conformance to normality and/or homogeneity assumptions, then exact/resampling/bootstrap estimation may be used to derive the significance tests. These are increasingly available within or as adjuncts to many statistical software packages and libraries (e.g., R, SPSS, SAS).
Here's a couple of links that you may find helpful in this regard:
Good luck with your work.
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
49 answers
Consider the following voluntary scheme. There would be some eligibility requirements that would be consistent with the principles of health promotion. Only certain target groups would qualify.
You sign up and for walking 10,000 steps per day, you get a certain amount of money deposited directly to your cell phone. In principle, and in theory, what is wrong with this? In practice, people could cheat and so on but with the development of new technologies, it would be much more difficult to cheat so this disadvantage can be minimized. The funds for this scheme could come from a public-private partnership.
Relevant answer
Answer
Joseph Tham this is a great question and I applaud your efforts to plumb the ethical dimensions. I wonder if the responses would be equally well-received if it was inverted asking pretty much the same thing. " Would it be ethically acceptable to decline monetary incentives to those not reporting sanctioned health behaviors, such as daily walks?
Interesting as this scheme sounds similar to other health care and insurance company incentives. If I go for yearly check-ups, wellness visits etc., I receive a $500 dollar reduction on my health care premiums. Of course, I engage in this behavior because of the "incentive". But it could be equally be seen as punitive if I don't engage in these behaviors. It is designed so that my behaviors are not private. Sanctioned behavior becomes one of the public (or at least medical) records to be used in whatever fashion is deemed appropriate by whoever has access.
There are many ways these could be decoupled. They could have other parties that monitor the behavior and provide the incentive from stakeholders without telling the stakeholders who is receiving the benefit. Separating the validation from the medical and insurance records would encourage behavior while preserving privacy. But I suspect this, like so many other things, is not about promoting positive behavior as it is about mitigating risk and the affiliated cost of private information. So, while it is a blunt tool, it may be the best one available to all involved.
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
78 answers
People around the media are discussing the usage of facemask under COVID-19. ANd many evidence are available, yet no definite conclusion.
I have just gone through this study
Effectiveness of Surgical and Cotton Masks in Blocking SARS–CoV-2: A Controlled Comparison in 4 Patients
Ann Intern Med. 2020.
DOI: 10.7326/M20-1342
What do you think?
Relevant answer
Answer
This is my report about RG's deplatforming of my article " Masks Don’t Work: A review of science relevant to COVID-19 social policy", after it reached 400 K reads on RG. My report has the exact email exchange, which clarifies the reasons given for the censorship: https://archive.org/details/covid-censorship-at-research-gate-2/
Question
8 answers
Under the pandemic of COVID-19, screening becomes important to tackle the spread. Fever is one of the screening criteria for many public places screening for access.
However, how is fever defined?
Is the 0.1 degree change makes the significance?
What is the range of standard deviation being acceptable?
What machine is accurate?
Is those hand held infrared measuring machines reliable?
Is there scenarios giving false negative tha may make a huge consequence?
Normal Body Temperature: A Systematic Review.
Open Forum Infect Dis. 2019;6(4):ofz032. Published 2019 Apr 9.
Relevant answer
Answer
Following
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
3 answers
aoa i have undergone analysis of differents researches if we reduced its reproduction by preventing pcr activity
Relevant answer
Answer
try to understand questions
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
4 answers
This might be considered a worst case scenario.
Repeated strikes by such a virus would scythe defenseless new victims each time, leaving fewer and fewer survivors.
For the species to survive, humanity would have to evolve resistance or other means of survival.
Is such a virus possible?
How would its epidemic spread be modeled?
Has a virus like that occurred in the past?
How would we deal with such a virus in the future?
What strategies would defeat such a virus?
Relevant answer
Answer
In the absence of acquired immunity and/or effective vaccine against viral infection, breaking the chain of infection becomes the only option. Moreover some individuals possess innate resistance to some infections. This group of individuals will be protected even without acquired immunity and help to protected others through Herd immunity.
Question
14 answers
It obvious that use of expired medicines where there are alternatives is unacceptable. There are, however, situations where the only available alternative medical product (medicine) used for life-threatening disease condition is expired and left with bare hands. What do healthcare professionals do on this situation, especially in this covid-19 pandemic where procurement is a challenge? Based on the risks-benefits assessment - the risk of leaving a patient without alternative and using expired medicine to save the patient and its associated risks - if they clinicians are going to use the product, what strategies they should follow to avoid medico-legal issues and transparency with consumers.
Looking forward to hear back from you?
Kind regards,
Mulugeta
Relevant answer
Answer
Many products have an extended shelf life. Most people would use an expired EPI pen in an emergency situation if that was all that was available. On 05 Feb 2020, Medscape published an interesting article by Douglas Paauw, MD, "Are Drug Expiration Dates a Myth?" https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/924683_1
Question
9 answers
Genome sequencing helps find vital information, for example the strain type, virulence, location of origin and differences between strains transmitted within the country and in other countries
Relevant answer
Answer
You can find a centralized database of genomes on https://www.gisaid.org/ . To access them, you have to register and it can take some time to actually obtain the info. Nevertheless, you can see the authors of the publications and contact them directly.
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
3 answers
I need two mammography datasets sourced by different counties or institutions where images are similar to each other.
I'm reading the International evaluation of an AI system for breast cancer screening released by google Jan-2020
They used two datasets. One from the UK (OPTIMAM) which needs permission for use. The other from Northwestern Medicine which again needs permission to use.
Are there publicly available datasets that resemble the two above mentioned datasets? especially the OPTIMAM?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Brian Formento,
-I would suggest you to try with MIAS dataset using following web addresses:
Question
3 answers
Can anybody help me to find out such website where i can find out solubility of any drug or medicine at one place?
Relevant answer
drugbank.com, pubchem
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
13 answers
FDA has issued guidance to provide recommendations to health care providers and investigators on the administration and study of investigational convalescent plasma collected from individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 (COVID-19 convalescent plasma) during the public health emergency.
The guidance provides recommendations on the following:
  • pathways for use of investigational COVID-19 convalescent plasma
  • patient eligibility
  • collection of COVID-19 convalescent plasma, including donor eligibility and donor qualifications
  • labeling, and
  • record keeping
Because COVID-19 convalescent plasma has not yet been approved for use by FDA, it is regulated as an investigational product.  A health care provider must participate in one of the pathways described below.  FDA does not collect COVID-19 convalescent plasma or provide COVID-19 convalescent plasma.  Health care providers or acute care facilities should instead obtain COVID-19 convalescent plasma from an FDA-registered blood establishment.
Question
3 answers
what should be the ratio of sodium benzoate in preparing a herbal suspension ?
Relevant answer
Answer
What is pH of the herbal suspension?
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
4 answers
As we know that, every country will take a standard time to the approved patent of medicine, however in this pandemic situation, this will continue in the same process? Should we not consider the situational gravity for the greater good of humanity?
Relevant answer
Answer
Considering the seriousness of the current COVID-19, the agency authorized to issue patent, is advised to give patent to drug as early as possible so that the drug can be used to treat the COVID-19 patients.Early patenting of drug will certainly help to save the life of patients.
Question
27 answers
I was working for a project. The computational part is done. Now it's time to write a paper. But I am procrastinating much and actually I am not sure how to start or where to start.Which part should I write first? How can I accelerate the process.
Relevant answer
Answer
Start with the materials and methods because you have already completed this part
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
67 answers
Is it fair and reasonable to say that in the medical sciences, English is widely accepted (universally?) by scientists as the main language for communication and defending research findings?
At this point in time, is this a valid statement?
Will this acceptance continue in the foreseeable future?
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, it is used in many countries and most people understand.
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
2 answers
Conozco algunos centros comunitarios que trabajan con este tipo de medicina, y considero que parte de la sabiduría en ciencias de la salud parte de como se tratan las enfermedades actualmente en las comunidades de los pueblos nativos.
Relevant answer
Answer
Si, la mejor forma que tienes para desarrollarlo es siguiendo procedimientos acercados a los desarrollos farmacéuticos. Trabajar con ensayos clínicos a fin de testear la eficacia y seguridad de los insumos tradicionales
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
31 answers
Academic journals publish original articles and higher level of evidence like review as their basis of survival. However, most journals also allow the manuscript type of "Letter to the editor" for readers in the field to reply previously published articles or on special events and issues like those once in a lifetime e.g. COVID-19.
As a researcher or author, do you think it is worth writing such a manuscript type?
Can you resubmit such "Letter" to another journal I'd being rejected?
Will you expect any citations from such "Letter"?
Will such "Letter" be externally peer-reviewed?
Is an underlying relationship with the editor an advantage of writing such "Letter"?
What do the editor expect you to write before accept your "Letter"?
Will "Letter" increase your h-index number?
There is no source of information on the acceptance rate of such articles.
Do you have any experience on the acceptance rate of such?
If such "Letter" is rejected, how will you handle the hard work with great effort paid?
How to write a letter to the editor that the editor will want to publish.
Can Med Assoc J. 1985;132(12):1344.
Relevant answer
Answer
As a researcher or author, do you think it is worth writing such a manuscript type?
Yes - especially to raise points of debate. A letter to the Editor can effectively be a form of 'post-publication peer review'
Can you resubmit such "Letter" to another journal I'd being rejected?
Yes
Will you expect any citations from such "Letter"?
Yes, in my experience
Will such "Letter" be externally peer-reviewed?
This is at the discretion of the Editor
Is an underlying relationship with the editor an advantage of writing such "Letter"?
It should not be
What do the editor expect you to write before accept your "Letter"?
Your letter should contribute intellectual value
Will "Letter" increase your h-index number?
A letter does not usually represent original research so not usually.
There is no source of information on the acceptance rate of such articles.
Do you have any experience on the acceptance rate of such?
Yes - it is easier to publish a letter to the editor compared to an original research paper. They take up less space in the journal
If such "Letter" is rejected, how will you handle the hard work with great effort paid?
Rejections are common throughout academic publishing. Take on board feedback from reviewers/senior colleagues and keep trying.
Question
22 answers
What does it even mean? Are you suffering from Empathy Deficit Disorder (EDD)?
Relevant answer
Answer
Lack of concern and care for others. GED is a big word and encompasses many dimensions which is not easy to measure. Like all latent variable and concepts we need to test for validity and reliability before we can be sure of what we are measuring.
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
238 answers
In the age of Covid19, is there a basic conflict between science and superstition in the discipline of medical knowledge? Are there some simple, sensible, robust and reasonable ways to distinguish a scientific statement (or fact) from a superstitious statement?
To stay focused, the topic will concentrate on science versus superstition in the scientific discipline of medicine. We will try our very best to stay focused and not stray off track. it is very easy to wander off message and be all over the map. i will try to summarize the key conclusions from time to time.
In the age of the Corona Virus, there are so many statements out there. The statements may not be scientific. But if they are not scientific, are they false? Are they fake? Are they simply statements based on superstition.
What should we do if people believe in statements that are not based on science? Should we be polite and tolerate their beliefs?
As long as people do not harm others, then from society’s point of view, the fact that people hold non-scientific hypotheses is probably benign. However, the trouble starts when the same people act these beliefs, and then cause harm to others. The question arises: what should society do in this case?
Based on the discussion, there are two assumptions and four categories.
Assumption1: Beliefs cannot be justified or unjustified.
Assumption2: hypotheses can be disproven
Scientific hypotheses that are based on justified facts in natural causation. Or scientific hypotheses have not been disproven (I prefer the negative formulation because we may never be able to prove anything but we are unable to disprove it.)
Since science cannot give a definitive answer, there are many competing answers that merit our attention, and we may not be able to select among them.
Non-scientific hypotheses are unjustified facts that may be “proven” in the future with better evidence and facts.
Pseudo-scientific hypotheses: not sure where these fit in?
Superstitions are unjustified beliefs in supernatural causation.
Relevant answer
Answer
Joseph Tham, thanks for a thought provoking question. I think we should tolerate and respect beliefs and ideas that are not considered scientific. Our intolerance of such beliefs and ideas could be the result of a lack of understanding of the science behind them. We should therefore subject them to rigorous testing using the scientific method. A practical example is the fact that the World Health Organization has not dismissed out of hand the herbal remedy from Madagascar that is claimed to prevent illness from COVID-19. Instead the remedy is going to be tested using established scientific principles. The null hypothesis can then be rejected or accepted. This is how Indigenous Knowledge Systems contribute to scientific advancement.
Question
25 answers
WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrious, Rich, Democratic)
Typically, WEIRD people have Western-influenced education. They are comfortable in international languages and have non-traditional values. Usually, they are young, hardworking, urban professionals with living and working experiences abroad.
Relevant answer
Answer
It is not easy for someone from outside the culture and education to integrate into the society, what more to offer advice to policy makers. This happened even to East Asian countries where the influencial policy makers are home grown.
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
7 answers
What are the merits, if any, in the challenges that lawyers and economists have raised against the Covid19 lockdown? How much weight should society give to the opinions of epidemiologists?
Relevant answer
Answer
Your excellent questions might be complemented by several additional ones: who is behind the epidemiologists? Who is financing them? Which are the real interests of the research funders? These questions are not related to conspiracy theories but to the Covid-19 reality. Cui bono the lockdowns? Who is paying for the side-effects due to lockdowns? What about those people who could not be operated on time and lost their lives because their operations were cancelled? Nobody is counting the collateral victims. Why? We know by heart Covid-19 statistics. Pandemic is the omnipresent topic everywhere. What about the vital questions of humanity? Have they just disappeared?
Question
6 answers
In a patient with hereditary desminopathy (Thr341Pro DES mutation in a heterozygous state) with disease progression, a significant decrease in olfaction is noted. How can this fact be explained?
Relevant answer
Answer
I agree with Japneet Kaur. The problem in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons. The myofibrilar myopathy is a genetic disease that associated with the primary ciliary dyskinesia. The primary ciliary dyskinesia resulted in defective cilia and olfactory receptors.
Attached, please find the article describing both myofibrilar myopathy and primary ciliary dyskinesia.
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
28 answers
Some reports suggest that in the fight against Covid19, the use of ventilators have not saved lives. How do we assess these reports? Any merits?
Relevant answer
Answer
Ventilators are helpful in palliative medical care for some COVID-19 patients, but not all; therefore, ventilators should be made readily available even though only a fraction of patients will need them.
Question
5 answers
Hi,
I am conducting a research project to see whether demographic/patient factors can predict patients who are likely to suffer a post-operative death (Categorical outcome Y/N).
I have conducted univariate regression procedure using SPSS Firths regression as I have a small sample size with the dependant variable being a sparse event. This has given me 3-4 variables with P<0.10.
DO I now proceed to perform a multi-logistic regression? If so, do I run Firths regression with all of these variables selected as co-variates or do I perform a more traditional multi-nominal regression model instead?
Any help would be appreciated as I can't find any guidance on this issue.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Suliman Ahmad,
Hi,
In order to graphically categorizing data, SPSS software does not have enough accuracy in graphical classification because it performs the classification operation with a linear criterion, not a point. Therefore, the results of the outcome from group classification are not accurate enough. This software is very suitable for statistical analysis.
Other software such as NTSYS-pc, PAST, PC-ord, CANOCO, TWINSPAN, Mathlab and etc are recommended for this.
Best,
Saeed
Question
33 answers
COVID-19 has pull people apart from each other. Social distancing is the main way to prevent spreading of infection. Tele-medicine, once used for rural area remote healthcare model, is the emerging new way of practice under COVID-19.
Different specialties have different practicing needs, what difficulties do you encounter on applying tele-medicine under COVID-19 in your specialty? Will tele-medicine totally uproot the usual face-to-face room consultation of medical practitioners? And becoming the new service model?
What is your view?
Some references:
Virtually Perfect? Telemedicine for Covid-19
NEJM
DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp2003539
Covid-19 and Health Care’s Digital Revolution
NEJM
DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp2005835
Telemedicine in the Era of COVID-19
The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice
DOI: 10.1016/j.jaip.2020.03.008
Keep Calm and Log On: Telemedicine for COVID-19 Pandemic Response.
DOI: 10.12788/jhm.3419
‘Healing at a distance’—telemedicine and COVID-19
Public Money & Management
DOI: 10.1080/09540962.2020.1748855
The Role of Telehealth in Reducing the Mental Health Burden from COVID-19
Telemedicine and e-Health
DOI: 10.1089/tmj.2020.0068
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello, in Portugal, during Covid there was a huge increase of tele consultation. Still some barriers were found:
- older people have more difficulties in using digital tools.
- 3G and 4G coverage is still low in some rural areas.
- Lack of good tele consultation tools available to be used, some physicians then still want to do the face to face consultation.
Question
46 answers
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines traditional medicine as "the sum total of the knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness". But some people believe traditional medicine is contrasted with scientific medicine.
What is your opinion? Can we use traditional medicine for treatment of COVID19? If your answer is yes, how do you want to do it?
Relevant answer
Answer
Please take a look at the following RG link.
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
19 answers
There are news on COVID-19 outbreak on ship, no matter cruise or military one.
And few aircraft carriers are also involved.
What is special about the ship arrangement that facilitated all these?
Nature 580, 18 (2020)
Limiting spread of COVID-19 from cruise ships - lessons to be learnt from Japan,
QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, , hcaa092,
COVID-19 outbreak on the Diamond Princess cruise ship: estimating the epidemic potential and effectiveness of public health countermeasures,
Journal of Travel Medicine, , taaa030,
Public Health Responses to COVID-19 Outbreaks on Cruise Ships — Worldwide, February–March 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69:347-352. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6912e3
Estimating the asymptomatic proportion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases on board the Diamond Princess cruise ship, Yokohama, Japan, 2020.
Euro Surveill. 2020;25(10):pii=2000180.
Chest CT Findings in Cases from the Cruise Ship “Diamond Princess” with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
Relevant answer
Answer
Metal corpus of the ship (moisture, condensation, mold, lower temperature). Creates confined space.
Cold air currents when the ship is moving. Some cabins have a terrace. Other passangers use the common outside viewing decks.
Vibrations from the ship's engine disturb, days on end, the normal liquid environment (intracellular, extracellular) within which cells live, function, reproduce. The vestibular apparatus suffers as well.
Cleanliness - dubious. Could use the toilet brush to clean also the toilet seat and the sink with (as in many hotels around the world). Apparently, nothing wrong with that. :O
Lack of adequate ventilation (probably, the air conditioning system is linked between rooms at the same level).
Fresh water purity (absent - onboard water desalination; when were the filters last changed?).
Bacteria and viruses jump from sea water onto skin, in nose and throat via water droplets in the air. When humid, one inhales deeper. Boy, is this not helpful!
Toilets and shower waste water outlets connected - water pressure differential due to movement of the ship (esp. side to side). Splashes in the bathroom.
Rats, cockroaches, ants (need no introduction).
Goodness! What a long list, is not it?
Could be even longer.
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries should have some idea as to how long...
:)
Question
113 answers
Describe impact of situation caused by pandemic of coronavirus COVID-19 on your Academic and Research activities.
Explain your action in a way to stay focused on Science and Preparing/Writhing/Publishing research.
Relevant answer
Answer
The gender gap: I do have to attend my child needs, specially related with the remote school activities plus cooking and cleaning the house. All these activities at the same time oh having a full time job as an specialist in higher education. Trying to get focus and reading for a while is such a goal!
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
12 answers
A famine of food does not necessarily mean that there is a shortage of food; it is the inaccessibility of food. Is it the same with the Covid19, in the sense that there is inaccessibility to medical resources?
Relevant answer
No, because without medical supplies, Coronavirus would show its true nature and cause a natural maximum pandemic. The protective gear only serves to modify the different curves
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
6 answers
after the colonization of vibiro choleraea in intestinal of human being than cause diarrhea after secretion of cholera toxin. in serious case how can stop that secretion?
Relevant answer
Treatment and management of cholera are best accomplished by the administration of copious amounts of intravenous or oral fluids to replace fluids lost from the severe diarrhea. The administration of antimicrobial agent can be shorten the duration of diarrhea and thereby reduce fluid losses. However, resistance to tetracycline and doxycycline has been reported. Therefore administration of additional antimicrobials such as azithromycin and ciprofloxacin may be necessary.
SOURCE: Mahon book
  • asked a question related to Medicine
Question
15 answers
Developing a vaccine is an important task. What is the best way to achieve this goal? Should we use a global competitive process?
Relevant answer
Answer
Less than five months after the world first learnt about the new coronavirus causing fatal pneumonia in Wuhan, China, there are more than 90 vaccines for the virus at various stages of development, with more announced each week. At least six are already being tested for safety in people.
Now, developers, funders and other stakeholders are laying the groundwork for their biggest challenge yet: determining which vaccines actually work.
This typically involves giving thousands or tens of thousands of people a vaccine or placebo and seeing, over months or even years, whether there is a difference between the two groups in how many people get infected in the course of their daily lives, as well as checking that no safety issues emerge.
But in this pandemic, scientists will have to accelerate and streamline that process. A vaccine may be the only way to generate immunity to the virus across a population: despite the millions of coronavirus cases worldwide, some preliminary studies suggest that only a small fraction of people in even hard-hit regions have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, and their immunity is unclear.
This month, the World Health Organization (WHO) in Geneva, Switzerland, sketched out plans for a clinical trial that will test numerous vaccines in a single study. Some developers and funders have plans for their own efficacy trials. But key questions remain, such as which vaccines will be tested first — or at all — and how their effectiveness will be measured and compared.
“It’s going to require a level of coordination that has never really happened before, and a time frame that’s never really been even imagined,” says Mark Feinberg, president and chief executive of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) in New York City. “You can’t take 200 vaccines into efficacy trials,” says Seth Berkley, chief executive of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance in Geneva, which funds immunizations in low and middle-income countries.
Rolling trial
The WHO’s proposed Solidarity Vaccine Trial seeks to speed development with an adaptive design. This allows vaccines to be added to the trial on an ongoing basis. Participants will be enrolled continuously, and vaccines that don’t seem to be working can be dropped from testing.
The WHO still needs to hammer out details, such as how a vaccine’s efficacy will be measured, says Marie-Paule Kieny, research director at the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research in Paris. But she thinks its overall approach makes sense. “One of the challenges is prioritization — which vaccine should you test first,” she says.
The WHO has established an expert panel to prioritize vaccines for inclusion in its trial, but it is unlikely to be the only organization seeking to do this. “Some strategic alignment and coordination in this effort is going to be critically important or otherwise it'll become very chaotic,” says Feinberg. But the WHO plan “by itself may not be sufficient,” he adds.
The US National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, this month unveiled a partnership with more than a dozen companies that aims to coordinate the development of drugs and vaccines for coronavirus. And the Coalition of Epidemic Preparedness (CEPI), a global foundation that funds vaccine development, is supporting 9 different vaccines. The non-profit hopes to raise US$2 billion to pay for efficacy trials, manufacturing and other costs, says Melanie Saville, the organization’s director of vaccine research and development.
Criteria for prioritizing vaccines for efficacy could include its production capacity and the immune response generated in early human trials and animal studies, says Kieny, as well as regulators’ experience with the specific type of vaccine. Some of the kinds of vaccine being developed, such as RNA vaccines, have not been widely tested in people or used in a vaccine that has won regulatory approval.
A vaccine developed at the Jenner Institute at the University of Oxford, UK, is currently undergoing early-phase trials. “There’s a reasonable chance that we’ll be able to pick up the efficacy of the vaccine over the next couple of months,” Andrew Pollard, an infectious disease researcher at Oxford leading the trial, said at an online press briefing.
A small number of developers with plans and funding to get their vaccine approved and scale up production will likely call the shots with regard to how efficacy trials are done, says Rip Ballou, a program leader at IAVI. “Doing a phase III trial to show efficacy is meaningless if it's not coupled to a plan to actually licence and deliver under some regulatory authority,” he says. “There's only a handful of players that will be able to meet that very high bar. Because otherwise, it's a publication. It's not a vaccine.”
A fair shot
Another challenge will be determining how the different vaccines compare to one another. WHO’s proposal for an efficacy trial could allow the performance of different vaccines to be directly compared, but Kieny thinks that some developers may be unwilling to accept this because it could hurt a vaccine’s commercial prospects.
Swati Gupta, IAVI’s Vice President and Head of Emerging Infectious Diseases and Scientific Strategy, says vaccine developers will want to understand how key decisions are made before committing to trials that involve comparisons with other vaccines, to make sure their vaccines have “a fair shot at being able to show its efficacy”.
But it is essential to be able to compare different vaccines, even if it requires vaccines developers to set aside their short-term interests, says Charlie Weller, vaccine lead at the Wellcome Trust biomedical charity in London. “They work under commercial business models. That's not going to work for the situation we're in now," she says.
Expected global demand for a coronavirus vaccine could make developers more willing to cooperate. “We need more than one vaccine,” says Kieney. “Monopoly is always very bad, and none of the vaccines may have enough production capacity.”
One factor that could encourage such cooperation is the shifting geography of the pandemic. “China would have been a great place in Wuhan to have done efficacy trials two months ago,” says Berkley. “Italy would have would have been a great place to do it a month ago.” As a result, developers have incentive to join initiatives such as the WHO’s or the NIH’s, because of their access to clinical trial infrastructure around the world that could bring vaccines to where there are coronavirus cases. “We need to be nimble,” adds Gupta.
Emergency use
While most experts see large trials as a necessity to ensure that coronavirus vaccines are safe and effective, some developers are examining alternatives.
One option is to look for signs that a vaccine works in early-stage trials involving hundreds of participants, and then seek permission from regulators to deploy the vaccine under ‘emergency use’ rules in high-risk groups, such as health-care workers, who are more likely to be infected with the coronavirus. Regulators such as the US Food and Drug Administration can grant emergency use, while additional data is collected to license a vaccine.
Cansino Biologics in Tianjin, China, which is developing a vaccine comprised of a chemically inactivated form of SARS-CoV-2 virus, will consider this approach, according to a company spokesman. Johnson and Johnson said in a press release that its vaccine could be ready for emergency use in early 2021.
No vaccine has ever been deployed under emergency-use provisions, says Katherine O'Brien, who heads WHO's immunizations, vaccines, and biologicals department. If coronavirus vaccines follow that path, regulators will seek extra reassurance that a vaccine is safe. “There is no compromise that can be made on the safety issues,” O’Brien adds.
Momentum is building for an even more radical proposal to determine which vaccines work: intentionally infecting young, healthy volunteers, negating the need to wait for trial participants to become infected naturally. These ‘human challenge’ studies are already used to study infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue, and some researchers say they should be considered to speed the development of coronavirus vaccines.
Berkley says challenge trials could be used to rapidly determine which vaccines advance to large-scale trials. But he thinks they may be too risky without either an effective drug or a genetic test to identify the rare young individuals who are likely to develop severe disease. “Until you have a recognised treatment, I think that's a pretty tough story,” he says.
Question
15 answers
Dear researchers
In your opinion, when is the peak number of cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19)?
Relevant answer
Answer
When the virus becomes a reality for everyone to deal with as we deal with other viruses