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Medical Entomology - Science topic

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Questions related to Medical Entomology
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I am looking for a post-doctoral fellowship in medical Entomology (particularly lepidoptera). Please let me know if you have any suggestions.
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Contact Gail Anderson (Simon Fraser University, Canada).
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medical entomology, veterinary entomology, parasitology, zoonosis
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Schistosomes have indirect digenetic life-cycles, involving sexual reproduction in vertebrate definitive hosts and asexual reproduction in snail intermediate hosts. Parasites are transmitted between hosts by motile aquatic stages which actively seek hosts. Blood flukes form five different developmental stages: eggs, miracidia, sporocysts, cercariae, and adult worms. Miracidia are elliptical free-swimming larval stages covered with cilia. Sporocysts appear as pleomorphic sac-like bodies which contain developing cercariae.
According to the following RG link, which was conducted as a comparative analysis of reproductive generations in two evolutionary species of Digenea, the study found that during the life cycles of the two studied species, most genes change their expression levels significantly. The study also indicates an unexpectedly high level of plasticity in the regulation of genes between closely related species. , which may provide a high-quality reference source for future evolutionary studies and comparative analyses.
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Medical entomology
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Mosquitoes biting activities vary from species to species. Nost start at dusk. Biting rhythm depends upon upon temperature and also on humidity. Primary malaria vector of the Subcontinent - An. culicifacies become active after mid night -maximum , An, stephensi starts at dusk. for detail see my papers in ResearchGate, particularly Bionomic of Mosqiuitoes of Changa Manga National Forest
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I will be rearing a colony of wild-caught Aedes albopictus at a remote field site where access to, and storage of fresh blood for artificial feeders will be inconvenient. It has been suggested to me that I should live feed the colony using domestic chicks (which we could safely/humanely house at the field sites), however I've failed to find a single protocol that describes this method. Has anyone used this method before, or know of a published protocol? 
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Dear Priscilla,
Of course - I will send that to you now. It is worth noting, however, that this protocol was developed for use in remote field sites, so you may find laboratory protocols (e.g. from Benedict, M. Q. (2007). Methods in Anopheles research. Malaria Research and Reference Reagent Resource Center (MR4)) more suited to your work.
All the best,
Nichar
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DNA from Bartonella, a gram-negative bacteria, have been found in mite droppings, and gram-bacteria like rods have been identified 'budding' off the walls of the mite's gut. Positive identification is needed as the endotoxin from the bacteria may be one of the many allergens from the mite Dermatophagoides.
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Please go through this useful PDF attachment.
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I have conflicting information about the methods used to raise Anopheles funestus mosquitoes in the lab. Has anyone successfully managed this? Would you please share your experiences and/or protocols?
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iH
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A 1969 paper reports prevalence of Zika virus in Malaysia (Marchette NJ, Garcia R, Rudnick A (1969) Isolation of Zika virus from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in Malaysia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 18: 411–415).
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Please see the following RG links and PDF attachments.
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During off the season/winter season, what should be our best strategies for dengue vector control to prevent from next epidemic season? I think Integrated vector management (IVM) strategies should be used round the year. We should continuously use ovitraps to check for seasonal trends, increase or decrease in vector population so that timely use of conventional control methods could be applied. Ovicides like bleach and some botanical extracts might be beneficial. But kindly share your ideas and experiences?
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following
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I am looking to collect adult Ceratopogonidae in SE Australia, targeting species with aquatic larvae. Can anyone suggest good trapping methods?  I know people used malaise traps before. Would you use them overnight or during the day?
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Besides effective methods mentioned above, I also suggest yellow plate with liquid.
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Pregnant women and children under the age of five years remain disproportionately affected by malaria. Roll Back Malaria points to the fact that a child dies every minute from this preventable and curable disease.
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This link may be useful:
With best wishes
Afkar
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This indicator is very important into Dengue's control interventions.
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Hi Dr. Mousa, this link may be help you
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I am trying to locate muscle 8 and 11 in mosquito head so that I can remove these muscles and reduce the brain movement.
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Hello, 
I think muscles 8 and 11 are respectively the mandibular muscles and the dorsal retractor of the maxillae (The book from Christophers, 1960 on Aedes aegypti has some nice schematics on page 583).
Sincerely,
Clement
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I am working with A. aegypti but there was a problem with the breeding and the colony has not recovered.
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You can also try Kenya medical Research Institute (Kenya) or International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) in Kenya also. I have previously obtained A. aegypti eggs from ICIPE courtesy of KEMRI.
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When I worked by LPT Method on mentioned ticks, mortality in control groups was above 20% (in the closed Insectarium (3*3*2 meter) with temperature between 27-28 centigrades and RH between 70-80%), whereas in other ticks such as Boophilus annulatus and Rhipicephalus bursa in this condition by LPT method mortality in control groups was between 0-10%. Why?
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Thank you Monyer for your valuable comment.
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I need to detrmine the plasmodium infection percentage in the mosquitoes midgut and salivary glands?
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Dear Salwa, your question is not very clear. What do you want to achieve? simply to detect the presence/absence of the malaria parasite infection in mosquitoes and then to determine the % infected mosquitoes ? or you want to quantify the intensity of infection (% parasitaemia in the malaria parasite infected individual mosquito) ? If you want to achieve the earlier part i.e.  to detect the presence/absence of the malaria parasite infection in mosquitoes, the suggestions received from Bradley and Noaman are fine and achievable. However, if you want to do the latter part i.e.  to quantify the intensity of infection then I am afraid that it is not possible with these methods.
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I need a specific primer to identify Culex quinquefasciatus. Someone working in this area?
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Thank you all for your input.
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The identification of Culicidae by morphological characters takes into account very small structures. Which increase is the ideal to do identification of Culicidae? Does anyone have any suggestion of equipment with a good cost benefit?
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Declan, Thank you for your suggestion.
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Comparing the identification of Culicidae through morphological characters with identification by molecular biology we can initially talk about cost. In addition some other points can be highlighted: the experience of the one who makes the identification and the cost of the tests and euipamentos. In practice, which is better? What are the advantages and disadvantages of these two methods?
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Thank you all for your input.
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The mosquito has an appetizing flight toward attractive events such as chemicals and thermals. Added to this, could it see the light events and thus have improved his direction to the target?
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Dear Rudolf, 
They find the blood vessels with their sucker following the heat and sense cues.
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We know that Aedes aegypti is an extremely well adapted species. Its control is very difficult (or impossible). Many are the factors responsible for your success. I would like to know the biggest challenge for the control of Aedes aegypti in your opinion.
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I believe we can summarize the challenge for Aedes aegypti control today in two main categories of obstacles:
The first category is the human contribution by the unplanned urbanization and the shortage of water are the main socioeconomic determinants for this issue, and the communities live under these pressure are difficult to change their behaviour because in the most of the situations they do not act based on their choice but based on their limited resources and the struggle occupying their mind regarding their urgent needs .
The second category as thankfully highlighted by Ligia, the knowledge gaps we need to fill before we establish informed decision making and evidence-based interventions.
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In our study we're tracking Japanese encephalitis Virus (JEV) through its animal host, the pig, in Oriental Mindoro. We've come across this study done by Lindahl et al. (2013) which say that Japanese encephalitis which is usually asymptomatic, can be determined in sows who abort or have stillborns. Is this always the case? and how can we make sure that it is caused by JEV?
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Thank you so much Mr. Kumar and Mr. Ghawi for your input!
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I am writing a research paper on dengue, a disease transmitted by mosquitoes, and the areas where it is most common and are populated by humans. I believe that to discover the most common areas accurately i would need to use a certain aspect of the mosquitoes that can be efficiently quantified, such as the type of blood that mosquitoes prefer.
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Dear Salvador, although the blood type may influence the attraction of mosquitoes, I believe there are several factors involved that need to be considered. Among them, I can highlight: the person's diet, sex, age, the metabolism of each, health status and hormonal question.
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Does there anyone know how to sexually distinguish the 4th-instar larva of Aedes albopictus by morphological feature?
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Tnaks again for your kindly help! Please don't say sorry, actually it's my carelessness. I have downloaded the article you provided and it maybe very helpful to me.
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There are specific arthropod vectors for specific diseases. Leismania is carried by Sand fly, malaria by Anophelis mosquito, yellow fever-dengue by Aedes mosquito. Why other vectors can't transmit the different parasites or virus. Particularly Culex or Aedes can't transmit malaria. May it help to control the transmission If we can detect the factor of the respective vector transmitting a disease.
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The general answer say there is due to host specificity which in turn related to many factors including immunity, physiology....of host body.
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I and another student are writing a research proposal, entitled "The Impacts of The Interspecific Competition Between Aedes aegypti Linnaeus 1762 and Aedes albopictus Skuse 1894 on The Spread of the Dengue Virus". We will test the hypothesis that the competitive abilities of both species will be affected by the current season in the Philippines (cold, rainy, and hot). We are also considering the introduction of Wolbachia infection to both species as a method of reducing their populations since these mosquitoes serve as vectors for viruses such as the dengue virus. 
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For albopictus there wouldn't be having issues for Wolbachia infection, may be for aegypti will be more harder. As in natural environment albopictus frequent found infected with Wolbachia. 
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Am doing early research regarding any devices employing tick pheromones to detect and control dog ticks.
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I'm looking for the device which uses pheronomes to detect the presence of ticks on dogs (animals).
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My questions are divided into two different parts:
1) There are a lot of mosquito control products int he market. I am currently working with one company dedicated to mosquito control, as everyone discusses the new sciences eg. genetic engineering or new larvicide or adulticide but I am interested in knowing the real business after the first testing is done.Kindly suggest some papers. 
2) I have been thrown into a question that what if I have been given 10 Million dollars and preliminary results from a potentially applicable model for mosquito control, so how I am going to use those 10 Million dollars, should I get convinced by the preliminary results and go for further testing or should straight away not get convinced by the results and go with other projects. 
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Hello. I think #1 depends in part on if and which federal regulatory agency would be in charge of clearing your product for use. I've seen the EPA the FDA and the USDA involved depending on the specific technology. For #2, I'm not sure if I'm reading it correctly. But to set up a control program you can work with traditional technologies or partner with someone for using a novel technology. Here is a straightforward read about setting up a traditional program: http://msdh.ms.gov/msdhsite/_static/resources/800.pdf
Hope that helps.
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Have anyone English translation of Keys to the insects of the European USSR, Siphonaptera?
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Hello Adem:
There is a book with Keys to the Insects of the European Part of the USSR: Diptera and Siphonaptera (Keys to the Fauna of the USSR S.) by G. Ya. Bei-Bienko (Editor) in this link:
Regards
Luis Miguel
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I am doing a research on ticks (Rhipicephalus microplus). I want to set up an apparatus where I can feed the experimental ticks with fresh blood. Any help will be appreciated. 
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silicone membranes
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Anyone have research on the different artificial blood feeding of mosquito?????
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Here is a recent paper on a new artificial blood feeding apparatus, if that is what you are looking for:
Finlayson C, Saingamsook J. and Somboon P. 2015. A simple and affordable membrane-feeding method for Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae). Acta Trop. 152: 245-251.
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Am working on these three species and need to know the identification procedure for these. Both adult and larvae. Also, enlighten about instar stage identification. Thank you
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Hi Abdul, for larvae:
Anopheles are the easiest to identify. They don't have a siphon and stay paralell to the water surface.
Aedes and Culex are very similar, however. But looking at the siphon you'll notice that the ones from Culex are longer and have a lighter color; their body is also "hairy" compared to Aedes. Using a microscope, look at the morphology of the combs, they are very different.
For adults:
Now Aedes mosquitoes are the easiest to identify. They are black and have white patches.
Culex and Anopheles are yellow-ish, but you can identify them by observing their resting position. Anopheles mosquitoes have a ~45 degree angle, while Culex stay parallel to the surface. Microscopically, look for antena morphology.
To identify instars, just look at the size and the color of the larvae. First instar larvae are very small, with light gray color, while 4th instar larvae are very dark, and you can see their hair very clearly. Microscopically, look at the saddle, it gets bigger and darker with the instar, covering the anal segment almost entirely. 
After some time working with them you'll differentiate all the instars easily, it's just a matter of practice. :)
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How to properly explain sampling of aedes larvae from big container and small container? Need to have proper documented guidelines for citation. Thank you so much
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Myiasis is the invasion of host tissue, but is there active blood-feeding, or is there another source of nutrition for the maggots in order to develop through their instars
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Hi Dave
After I sent my answer I came across the ResearchGate site of Terry Whitworth https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Terry_Whitworth.  He has done a lot of work on haematophagous maggots of nestlings and has references attached to his publications of other species I had forgotten about such as Philornis downsi, the fly causing so many problems for Galapagos birds.
Best regards
Ian
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I am researching Trichopterans that are developing in the Colorado River. For the past few years the population has reached nuicance levels that are having a negative economic effect for 5-6 months out of the year. Any thoughts as to what could cause a massive population increase with these insects? The primary species is Smicridea fasciatella. There seems to be an increase in algae that could be providing nutrients. There is also a reduction in the amount of trout that are stocked. Any thoughts would be welcome, thanks!
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I think David hit the nail on the head.....seston.  Any thing leading to higher particulate loading tends to increase hydropsychid abundance.  We see them in large numbers in our most urban streams where impervious surfaces lead to increased bank and bed erosion.  They also respond positively to agriculture.  
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I need the detail method to rear tachinid fly as the parasitoid.
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In sericulture, the tachnid fly menace is very high. We used to rear the insects by keeping the collected pupa in a cage made up of mosquito nets as shown in the picture and tied it on an iron frame of your desired size. Once the pupa emerges into flies provide sugar cubes and water in separate container. Once the adults started mating we introduce the silkworm with mulberry leaves so that the tachnid flies lay eggs on it. After rearing the silkworms for a week, the grown up tachnid maggots inside the worms would come out. This is how I produce the tachnid pupa and adult for my research work. Please see the attachment to get an idea of the cages. This cages has been used for rearing house flies for the production of Nesolynx thymus, a hyper-parasitoid for the tachnid fly pupa. All the best for your work. Thanks.  
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Larvae with arrow-like hair
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These are larval exuviae (cast skins) of Dermestidae, very probably of the genus Trogoderma. The main synanthropic genera of Dermestidae having larvae with arrow-like hairs (hastisetae) are Trogoderma and Anthrenus. Larvae of Anthrenus don't have, however, a 'tail' of long hairs at the posterior end of the abdomen; tail which is present, instead, in the exuviae of these photos. Regards,
Rinaldo Nicoli
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anyone interested in forensic entomology?
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Hi Dr Chong,
May I request for the full text article of your article "Illustrated keys to adult flies of forensic importance in Malaysia"? I am currently doing a research project on forensic entomology and your help is greatly appreciated.
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I tried looking up articles where people used FBS and glycerol to induce salivation in ticks, mosquitos, and mites, but most of the articles don't mention exact volumes used. Most just say 50%FBS/50% glycerol. Has anyone done any research on honey bees and varroa mites? Any help would be greatly appreciated!
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I think 50% FBC and 50% glycerol is good for salivation but it may very difficult to induce salaivation in varrova mites. You should try with different combinations. 
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The two techniques used to evaluate the systemic action of the insecticide: 1) an artificial feeding device with blood-insecticide mixture from which fleas fed on and 2) rodents fed on insecticide-treated bait on which fleas take their blood meal.
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Hi Dora
Interestingly your question has several aspects that need to be addressed.
1. The first point is whether the systemic insecticide is present in exactly the same chemical state in the blood of the rodent as it is in the feeding device - is there any metabolism of the insecticide by the rat so the fleas on the rat are feeding on a metabolite?  If there is metabolism you need to evaluate the effect of that process on whether it increases or reduces the activity of the insecticide.
2. How is the uptake of the insecticide monitored in the rats, i.e. I assume here you have performed the pharmacokinetics?  Also there may be differences in the bioavailability according to the individual rat so again PK results need to be averaged at the very least in order to set up you in vitro feeders.
3. From the flea aspect you need to check that the insects take similar blood meals.  This is not easy and may be associated with strain differences.
So, the way I would address this problem would be to see if it is possible to avoid having to make too many complex biochemical analyses on small quantities of blood, etc.  Would it be possible to perform the test you describe, using the rat strain on rats and the feeding device strain on the feeding device in one experiment and then perform and kind of cross-over experiment in which a sepearate group of the rat strain is fed on the artificial feeder and a group of the artificial feeder strain is fed on rats?
Of course, in the cross-over experiment the fleas may not feed as vigorously or become replete but the ones that do feed well could be compared across experiments.  No doubt this will raise other questions but as a first step it is something to consider.
Best wishes, Ian
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Nucleotide sequence, Aedes aegypti, reference sequence, VGSCG
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Go to Ensembl Metazoa ' http://metazoa.ensembl.org/Aedes_aegypti/Info/Index ' and search.
There are two genes  for voltage gated sodium channel: - AAEL006019, AAEL013277.
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Please help me identify this insect?
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Is it possible to get more information? Size, where was it found etc. To me it looks like some   carpet beetle larva
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Dear collagues,
This is probably a very naive question but to date I haven't obtained a satisfactory answer. I often must study old papers. I recurrently find these old papers very reticent and short in some of the most respected journals of today, e.g. Science and Nature. Some of those are highly cited papers taken as paradigms in specific fields.
I herein include an example from my field, ant venoms. Anyone working on fire ant venom has bumped into the paper below:
"Chemical, Insecticidal, and Antibiotic Properties of Fire Ant Venom"
Unfortunately the main author has recently passed away so I cannot ask him this specific detail now: where is the data and methods description?
All results as reported are central to my field of study, but the narrative is too short to allow understanding any details. I though maybe details are presented elsewhere in the edition, but it does not look like from seeing their website. 
Perhaps someone more experienced could give me a clue there, please?
Thanks in advance
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In many cases, the detailed description of the methods can be found in earlier papers (or sometimes later ones) from the same lab published in journals that allow for more complete descriptions of methods than Science and Nature. Work your way back through the references in the article in question to begin with. Sometimes you have to follow a trail of references back in time until you find the details of a method.
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Dear all,
We are trying to generate primary cell lines from mosquitoes but strugggle in having them dividing. Anyone know a growth factor of insect cells from Drosophila for instance.
Thank you
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Journal of Biotechnology31 January 1995, Vol.38(3):243–251, doi:10.1016/0168-1656(94)00128-Y
Regular paper
Physiological and environmental factors affecting the growth of insect cells and infection with baculovirus
N. Kioukia
A.W. Nienow
M. Al-rubeai
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1 aedes aegypti carrying denv 1 and denv 2
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Yes, they can.
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As I'm working on some biological aspects for medicinal maggots, I need to represent my data (e.g. larval density, food type, impact of previous parameters on the development, etc) in a new statistical form to be expressive and useful. Anyone can help me with ideas as I was quite distant from this field?
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I would be glad to help you if you can provide the data and the project you are working in.
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Future сonjoint research in this field is available. May be somebody know such specialist?
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RNDr. Ivona Kautmanová, PhD., predsedníčka komisie
 entomofagous fungi
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I am currently looking for pure products of Tyrophagus putrescentiae and thyreophagus entomophagus as pure products.
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Hello Geoffrey:
The mould mites Tyrophagus putrescentiae  and T. entomophagus are common pests of stored products, especially those with a high protein and fat content (meat, cheese, nuts and seeds, dried eggs. It feeds on the fungi that grow on the foodstuffs, and can become a pest of mycology laboratorie. If you need to start a colony of Tyrophagus mites, You can use cheese or nuts with high content of humidity infested with Aspergillus, a very common  group of conidial fungi in the Ascomycota. Tyrophagus feed on Aspergillus and reproduce very easy. Let  open the containers with food in a dark room with high humidity ( 80% RH and 26°C) to get natural infestation by Tyrophagus in two weeks.
Regards,
Luis Miguel
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Hello!
Is there anyone that can give some advice on how to quickly differentiate (morphologically) the adult females of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato from those of Anopheles funestus in the field? Is there a particular feature to look for without using complex identification keys? 
Many thanks;)!
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I agree with Saul on this one, when you start, it is best to use keys as they can get really confusing sometimes. Relying on body size hasnt worked well for us but hte speckled legs always does the trick. 
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We are studying Malaria drugs resistance, and we found that the % of early treatment failure in P. falciparum infected patients treated with ACT higher among children below 5 years.
Is this normal or explanable ?
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An echo to Dr. Kopfli
1. These under 5 yr children had relatively little acquired immunity compared with  the older individuals. 
2. Parasite density would be  higher in these young children.
Therefore, parasite clearance time might take longer in these group of children.
This means parasite clearance time at Day 3 is likely to be lower.
         By definition, ETF means inadequate decrease in parasitemia ( i.e parasitemia on day 3 ≥25% of count on day 0.)
 I feel that you have found ≥25% parasitaemina at Day 3.  
Thank you.
Thank you.
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I have been having challenges with obtaining all the reagents for the blood meal origin analysis of mosquitoes from one single source. I prefer to get the reagents from one source because of compatibility issues.
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Sorry this is coming late, I got the capture and conjugated mabs from KPL and the sera from rockland immunochemicals. It turned out to be perfect.  
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In other genus of Culicidae family (e.g. Culiseta, Anopheles, ....) is cannibalism confirmed. Usualy, the younger larvae became a prey for older larval instars.  
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hope this paper will help.
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Millions of rural and urban households use liquidators / liquid vaporizers in routine to ward off mosquitoes. Its efficacy is questionable in many circumstances. Mosquitoes which are knocked down may revive if the concentration of a.i used depletes in time. Does this phenomenon contribute/trigger development of resistance?
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When you spray a house with liquid vaporizers it must remain closed for 45 minutes after spraying insecticide to take effect in all adult mosquito population. If the house is not closed on time drops evaporate so that the insecticide will not exterminate the entire population of mosquitoes and therefore survivors can contribute to the emergence of resistance. Resistance can be caused by inadequate preparation of the formulation wherein the active ingredient is at a lower dose that produces the insecticidal effect.
Importantly, mosquito control should be performed using the larvicide Abate in water storage containers and eliminating vector breeding sites together with spraying liquid vaporizers made to prevent the larvae emerge as adults. If you have further questions you can write me again and I apologize for not having responded earlier.
Liquid vaporizing not have such a significant increase in the occurrence of resistance role because the insecticide evaporates quickly, so no residual concentrations of insecticide remain in the environment exert selection pressure on the populations of wild mosquitoes and favor the emergence of the resistance.
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I got two photos from two different links. Although both are saying that the species is H. longicornis but the images are not same. Please let me know which one is correct and if it is available is South-east Asia, India or Bangladesh.
Thank you very much.
Al-Amin
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The range of Ha. longicornis is restricted to more temperate regions, the species is absent in India and adjacent areas. The species is common in Japan, Korea, Russian Far East and was also introduced to Australia and New Zealand.
Best wishes.
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I have done several times landing collection in malaria-endemic areas, and I always find a species of Anopheles vagus, either in the area of the beach, the mountains or in the rice fields, could anyone explain?
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can be An vagus live in the bod field as a vector?
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I need to determine the content of pederin in the brazilian species of Paederus rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). What the best method? Can I estimate the content analysis in lesioned experimental animals or should I use a high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) as other researchers do? The first method is more feasible for me. I can estimate the content of pederin for each species based on the characteristics of the lesions. Is this okay?
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Yaah for me the estimation of the content using charecteristic of the lesions is very possible its only that yo will require to be a little bit more careful though also it is more tedious but it will
work thank.
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why do certain species of mosquito has affinity towards particular parasite or virus? Why don't anopheles mosquito transmit viral diseases?
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I think it needs to be noted that o'nyong-nyong virus is the one medically important  arbovirus that can be transmitted by anophelines and culicines. In practically all other instances, culicines are the exclusive or nearly exclusive vectors. In general, the main genera involved are Aedes and Culex. An arbovirus may have been isolated from numerous species but may reflect the presence of an undigested infected blood in the midgut or a salivary gland infection barrier, for example. Susceptibility must not be confused with the ability to transmit.
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Using C6/36 cell line and Swiss albino mice
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Hi Monika, you could try the protocol in this paper first:
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We are rearing Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella under the laboratory conditions on cabbage leaves. We are continuously rearing using the same method. However, in one of our rearing cage there is  death of almost all the larvae and before death, they became black. Kindly suggest the possible causing agent.
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Hi Gireesh:
To keep your Plutella xylostella rearing containers free of viral or bacterial diseases you must  clean your cage with a 10 % sodium hypochlorite solution. Also you can wash the cabbage leaves with this solution.  Avoid sealed containers with high humidity. Keep your colony in mesh cages on sites with controlled humidity and get your stock breeding colony free of virus to avoid contamination and death of the larvae.
Regards,
Luis Miguel
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Friends, I am from coastal Andhra Pradesh, India and would like to have some plants having both mosquito repellant and aesthetic significance. Also if possible their availablity in Coastal Andhra Pradesh.
Also can somebody detail in how to identify Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium and Chrysanthemum coccineum plants in a nursery....
Thank you very much
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Lavender, basil, rosemary, and citronella grass are few examples of mosquito repellent plants. 
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Pls help me about immunity system in americana periplaneta
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Can you identify these hemoparasites that i found in rodents?
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I don't think anybody can identify them on the basis of these pictures, certainly not as long as no multiplying forms are shown. And even then, one would need molecular tools.
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?
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ELISA results identifying Plasmodium falciparum infection
status in Anopheles spp. you can see (Sanford et al., 2014).
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Experimental evidences suggests that HIV infection is not transmitted via arthropods including mosquitoes. However, one paper investigated possible transmission of HIV-1 by African soft tick, ornithodoros moubata. This vector has the potentiality for mechanical transmission of HIV viruses (which otherwise do not survive in arthropods) under field conditions. But this is an old research and any new insights on this topic?
Is this a cause for alarm? As far as we know, HIV is not transmitted by bites of ticks, mites or mosquitoes and there are no evidences to suggest that retroviruses are transmitted by arthropods. 
Evaluation of mechanical transmission of HIV by the African soft tick, Ornithodoros moubata.
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There is no indication they biologically transmit the virus.  No molecular or immunological studies found any virus binding sites in the midgut for example of mosquitoes.
Insects are really not very good vectors of almost any virus (with a few exceptions).  The shear number of viruses out there is astronomical and insects are not shown or even implicated in most.  The only exception are the arboviruses and to be truthful if you look at the biology of these viruses you will find that even susceptible vectors are really not that good at transmitting most of them.  The viruses end up getting blocked by midgut or salivary gland barriers or there just are not enough in a blood meal to even infect a vector.
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I found some larvae on my Culex oviposition traps and observed them to be predatory to other mosquito larvae as well as cannibalistic to other of its instars. The larva is slightly larger than of common mosquitoes but smaller than Toxorhynchites. Could not produce a clearer pic as of the moment. Thank you!
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First by looking at your photo I'd say you have a Corethrella sp. and not a mosquito.  They are predatory and fairly closely related to mosquitoes.  You might email Art Borkent in Canada about your specimens.  He recently revised the family worldwide and I bet you have a new species.
In terms of mosquitoes certainly the genus Lutzia or subgenus Culex (Lutzia) depending on the taxonomist has many predatory species.  It is hard to tell about your photo but I still bet it is a Corethrella sp.
Corethrela are interesting because the females feed on frog blood and are attracted to frog calls.
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I am using heparinised blood
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Have you tried defibrinated blood? I haven't worked with Aedes but I for Culex and Anopheles rubbing the membrane (I used parafilm) under your armpit (preferably after a hard day in the lab) attracted them to the blood feed quicker. Although they will then develop a preference for your odour!
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I caught mosquitoes in an area but I need to determine the vector density.
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Hi, this isn't a direct answer but hopefully a useful one anyway. Have a look at WHO's "Training module on malaria control: Entomology and vector control", both the participants' and tutors' guides. The link to both documents can be found here:
Hope this helps.
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I need identification keys for European species only! Thanks a lot!
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It will be fair to use the key from Middle East like Lane 1982.
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I would like to compare the morphometric features of these three forms for any possible diagnostic features.
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In India it is still not over! Your paper is quite old. Is Biologica  an international journal?
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I will be happy if you could send me fultext articles with detailed methodology and discussion
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Attached  find some literature for your digest if they can assist
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I am trying to determine the development cycle and description of the immatures
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I suggest this very fine and detailed work, with very nice pictures: Tremblay E., 1958 - Studio morfo-biologico sulla Necrobia rufipes De G. - Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia agraria "Filippo Silvestri", XVI, pp. 49-140.
Best regards,
Rinaldo Nicoli
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Hello, I am planning to carry out an experiment involving Plasmodium falciparum infected Anopheles mosquito. For this, I have to artificially infect the mosquito with human blood containing gametocytes, after collecting the blood in to heparinized tube. So, in what condition should i keep the sample to prevent exflagellation of the microgametes for successful infection of the mosquitoes and for how long can I keep it before carrying out the experimental infection? 
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I like both answer and are right.
Thanks you both
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The following organism was found coming out from a AIDS-patient with a skin ulcer.
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this is mealworms of tenebrio molitor
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these ticks are collected from wild rabbits please anyone can confirm me their species.
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First two photographs  belongs to nymphal stage of Hyalomma sp ticks due to longirostrum , bifid  first coxa and sickle shaped ventral plates, Other 3 photographs belongs to Hemaphysalis sp ticks due o the presence of lateral prolongation in the third segment of pedipalp , spur in the first coxa and absence of ventral plates
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Insect oviposition is a complex but critical activity in the life cycle of an insect. With a variety of factors that influence both physiology & subsequent behavior, that lead to egg deposition by an insect which tries to ensure safety to their progeny. Many females succeed but few may fail in their attempt to start new life.
I look forward to your valuable inputs (with respect to your model insect & expertise) on how these two key elements could be better utilized for pest control.
You may restrict your answers on the above aspects that are influenced by oviposition attractants & repellents.
Thanking you all.
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Sir
Use leaves of Peppermint, Mentha avensis plant and covers the top 5 cm layer of stored grain (post harvest products) by said treatment, u will definitely avoid oviposition and damage by/due to stored grain pests in storage. 
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For the study of mosquito life cycle i needed to know the mosquito breeding methods which are feasible at our area which is dry and sub temperate.....
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Please check the MR4 protocols for mosquito rearing. Also you can get some humidifiers / water coolers in the rooms for increasing humidity. 
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yes, that is correct, just read the ECDC statements on Dengue:
Potential vectors are not as likely to carry diseases-competent virus' as they might be in Brazil and/or other countries with mediterranean climates. But in European countries with suitable climate (e.g. mediterranean), the issue is currently discussed.
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Recent field tests with human-derived odorants for mosquito attractants to traps did not include consideration of L-lactic acid as part of the human-produced odor blend plus CO2 (Acree et al., Science, 161:1346-1347,1968).  Since lactic acid does not elute from a GC column, conventional GC-MS does not see or record it.  
Is there a better direct analytical method? 
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I'm not a chemist but you may want to have a look at Benier and others (2000 and 2001) analyzing skin emanations. They were able to detect Lactic acid through conventional GC-MS in spite of the difficulty.Picking from the work of Benier, the Takken lab at Wagenigen university, Netherlands have evaluated Lactic acid as a synergistic attractant of Anopheles gambiae s.l.. The compound is now considered an active part of synthetic blends for trapping malaria mosquitoes (Kline et al 2007; Okumu et al 2010; Olanga et al 2010; Mukabana 2012). The effectiveness of these blends is currently being evaluated in relatively large field trial in Rusinga Island under the umbrella of Solarmal - a malaria project that seeks to reduce malaria transmission using odour-baited mosquito traps. This might be totally irrelevant. I just though I might add it here :)
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