Science topics: Mathematics

Science topic

# Mathematics - Science topic

Mathematics, Pure and Applied Math

Questions related to Mathematics

I tend to consider mathematics the body of axioms, definitions, systems of logic, and their results. If you're not adding to this body, you're not doing mathematics.

Arithmetic, calculating, solving, and so on, just seem more like accounting than mathematics. If anything, I would call these things "calculus" after the original Latin root word, referring to a stone used for counting.

Maybe it's pedantic. But I don't think so. A lot of people who "hate math" really hate "calculus." And honestly, being good at mathematics, at constructing proofs, etc is so different from being good at working with numbers. I'm decent at the former. I'm horrible when it comes to the latter.

Math passed through centuries in three stages

The first, around 450 BC, continued until 1923 and is called Euclidean mathematics

The second, which began in 1923 when John Poulaye came up with new concepts, including the introduction of so-called imaginary mathematics (complex numbers) and continued until 1950 when the entrances to mathematics became the group ...

I'm using this question to set up possibly a platform for a further question in the future. Did Gödel's incompleteness theorems really shatter the dream of looking for some foundational base for mathematics? Do we need any foundations, whether in the sense of the logicist, the formalist or the intuitionist (or what have you), for mathematics at all? These are some of the related questions. It would be nice to know if anyone out there is still engaging in such a research. Views from all other (non-mathematical) disciplines are also welcome.

Modifying the original Feistel structure will it be feasible to design a lightweight and robust encryption algorithm. Somehow changing the structure's original flow and adding some mathematical functions there. I welcome everyone's view.

in solving mathematical problems we consider momentum equation energy equation as well as concentration equation to model our physical problem but why homo-hetro? what they describe physically? and how it help us?

Many literature on RGBd images says object detection can be improved using depth map features(Geocentric features) but i didnt find any mathematical proof how these features are added with RGB images in order to improve accuracy of object detection?

Hello all

I am looking for the mathematical relationship (direct or indirect) between the effective density of states in valance band and the external applied field.

Thank you.

A mathematical tool used on bands to determine a particular feature or phenomenon

We make the following proposal to the Mathematical community.

Anyone well versed in Logic and Set Theory will be familiar with the concept of cardinality and the nature by which the cardinality of the real numbers R as a whole over the natural numbers N was established.

There is a clear

**reason**why the**diagonalisation**argument [Diag(N,R)] works in the way of the above establishment.Being able to pinpoint the

*reason,*will have the effect of being able to prove \kappa{S_1} > \kappa{S_2} for sets S_1 and S_2 having the necessary characteristics, by performing : [Diag(S_1,S_2)].To aide in clarifying the above, we have attached a diagram.

We will be presenting the above idea in a conference in India.

Dear all, I need a friendly reference from any paper or book chapter to study about seismic ray tracing. I read about seismic ray theory from Cerveny's book, and it's very hard to understand because it contains a very high level mathematical language. I also need a reference that gives kind of flowchart explanation how to do seismic ray tracing. I'm glad if you could help me. Thankyou.

Yep. RG is equating science with experiments. There may be those who like this, but experimentation is NOT THE ENTIRE SCIENTIFIC METHOD (and I would argue that experimentation is THE LEAST OF IT -- especially if one is developing a new perspective and approach). RG appears to have no appreciation for "just" verified observations -- even though that may be exactly what really new discovery looks like . Those observations may, in time (but not right away), be followed by experimentation. Verified observations by themselves may be very important and all we have for some time (in some new areas/kinds of investigation).

The outrageous bias of RG is so great that they now hide the Project Updates (of the Log) with multiple queries about one's experiments and hypotheses -- as if all good, clear hypotheses could be put "in a nut shell" (in a small "blank", with little context) AND that experiments are all that matter (or at least all that deserves several special headings). How about a heading for: "Verified Observations"?

I would ask: What experiments did Einstein do to lead and come up with his understanding of the universe? Did he start with experiments? NO!! He started with observation and MATH (which is basically verified observation). True, eventually some experiments were done to VERIFY HIS IMPORTANT OBSERVATIONS -- but all this did NOT begin with experiments..

And, all of this is not to mention major swathes of Biology. Come on, give us a break.

**Game Theory**

Game theory is a tool for the analysis of the interaction among usually rational agents, the formulation of hypotheses about their behaviour and the prediction of the results of each interaction. From this standpoint it is very suitable for the analysis of environmental problems and for the definition of self-enforcing environmental agreements that are founded on cooperation and stability.

**Enter game theory**

What we have here is a particular kind of group decision problem known as

*a game*, where one party’s decision is influenced by the actions of another party and vice versa.The mathematical theory of such games is rich, with many important applications.

*Game theory*, as it is known, was originally developed during the Cold War to model the nuclear arms race and first strike strategies.

Since then, the theory has become indispensable in economics and is enjoying applications in diverse areas such as ethics, biology, dating, and, more recently, in environmental management and policy.

One of the enduring lessons of game theory is that in certain common situations, cooperation can be hard to achieve and may be difficult to maintain.

What do you suggest for example for wastewater treatment? did you have experience of that? would you please help by sharing your documents, experience, knowledge and etc. ?

My topic is; i

**An Assessment of Problem Solving Skills in Mathematics of Elementary Pupilsl: Basis for Curriculum Development**according to the probability theory,

suppose that we calculate the experimental probability of students who prefer mathematics and it was .70%from a sample of 20 students (14/20), is that correct to use these percentage (70% to calculate the probability of prefer mathematics in case of applying the same survey on a sample of 200 students?

It's a well know fact that the vector integrals are generalized forms of general integrals, such as

1 - Line Integral is a generalized form of Simple/Single Integral

2 - Surface Integral is a generalized form of Double Integral

3 - Volume Integral is a generalized form of Triple Integral

But when I go through the books, there is no difference shown between the Volume and Triple Integral.

In some books, authors are explaining all the above except Volume Integral and they are also not mentioning that Volume Integral is same as Triple Integral - Erwin Kreyszig

In some books, authors are writing like "Triple integrals or Volume Integrals can also be defined..." - Jordon and Smith

Could anyone please give some clarity explanitions on this...

Suppose in a three layer supply chain there are three different profit function TPs, TPm, TPr then total integrated profit is TIP=TPs+TPm+TPr, if we put TPs=0 then is it reduce to two layer supply chain or not?

Mathematics means the first science

Like in the question, is there a mathematical way to divide a given rectangle into minimal amount of any squares (some squares could be the same and the side length of every square could be any real number)?

If not for any squares, then maybe for squares and rectangles with integer side lengths?

Example:

given rectangle: 16x17

What is the minimal amount of any squares on which we can divide this rectangle?

In the solid, specially metals, the thermal conduction can be done with lattice fluctuations and free conducting electrons, where the role of electron is more significant.

I want to show the above explanation with some mathematical formula that arise from a physical considerations. But the problem is, I don't know where to start .... can anyone help me ??

Hello, i need to extract 3d coordinates from a 2d image with a purpose to give these coordinates to a manipulator because i want it to grip a screw. I know by default the pixel coordinates ,the distance between camera-screw, the specifications of my camera and i dont know the right mathematic transfomation to find the 3d coordinates. Could you help me?

thank you for your advise!

I want to know the Scopus or ISI or SCI journals of Mathematics, Managements and Engineering which provide a fast review process without a publishing fee.

The subject of the results of mathematics is the focus of discussion and discussion among philosophers and scientists. Some of them say that mathematics is absolutely certain and absolute in all cases where science was simple. Others emphasized that mathematics is relative in terms of particular results with what mathematics saw from multiple formats. Thus, you can describe mathematics

Delve into your own expertise. The idea that problems-they can be mathematic- are not being successfully unravelled is often dismissed in the belief that they will be answered in some distant future. But what if human knowledge and human ingenuity is finite. A1 ingenuity must also be finite.

Always buildings are damage by an Earthquake. So we have prevent to lose the people poverty, How?

I recently watched the movie "Ant-Man and the Wasp". The subatomic scene got me thinking:

How small or large can an object/something get?

If it was realistically possible to reduce or increase the size of a car or a person like in the movie - is the process infinite?

Can weird things begin to happen either way (small or large)?

can any one suggest mathematical equation for predicting calorific value and kinematic viscosity through density

There are several model equations reported in literature. I have got the experimental values of moisture ratio and drying time. How can I fit the experimental data to the following equations? How can I obtain various model constants? Any software to be used or it has to be done mathematically? Please guide me with some good literature/links/software to carry out this study.

How can we use regression analysis for find out constant using these models. Can we solve it by non-linier regression with excel solver? Different models are following:

Lewis MR = exp(kt)

2 Page MR = exp(ktn)

3Modified Page MR = exp[(kt)n]

4 Henderson and pabis MR = aexp(kt)

5 Yagcioglu et al. MR = aexp(kt) + c

6 Two-term MR = aexp(k0t) + bexp(k1t)

7 Two-term exponential MR = aexp(kt) + (1a)exp(kat)

8 Wang and Singh MR = 1 + at + bt2

9 Thomson t = a.ln(MR) + b[ln(MR)]2

10 Diffusion approach MR = aexp(kt) + (1a)exp(kbt)

11 Verma et al. MR = aexp(kt) + (1a)exp(gt)

12 Modified Henderson and pabis MR = aexp(kt) + bexp(gt) + c exp(ht)

13Simplified Ficks diffusion (SFFD) equation MR = aexp[c(t/L2)]

14 Modified Page equation-II MR = exp[k(t/L2)n]

I want to design a microwave absorber and in order to evaluate the performance I need absorbance v/s frequency plot. Kindly assist me.

I also want to know that do I need to consider S-parameters because mathematically absorbance is given by, A=1-|R|-|T| and if owing to ground surface we say T-->0. Thus, A=1-|R|. R is given by magnitude of S11.

That's why I wondering to know that is it possible to analyze the absorbance v/s frequency plot in CST or I need to calculate manually undertaking the |R|.

**I think mathematics is involved in all other sciences**

**But she is not considered her servant**

What do you think of the development of mathematics books in the primary stage on the problems of society?

It’s all strange, yet true – quantum theory is the most accurate scientific theory ever tested and its mathematics is perfectly suited to the weirdness of the atomic world.

Some people consider mathematical axioms as points of strength of mathematics, other say that axioms are points of weakness.

My question is why?! Is it so difficult to prove mathematical axioms?

What do we mean by dyslexia?

Is it directly related to mathematics education?

I am researching the barriers to learning Mathematics from the perspective of the student. recommended articles or researchers would be gratefully received.

We do have velocity variations (with reference to magnitude and direction) within an individual pore; as well as along the various (tortuous) pores (along the direction of fluid flow).

But still, all these microscopic variations in magnitude and velocity (somehow or magically) get cancelled or nullified; and what we have is the (mostly) well defined - only one - resultant direction of fluid flow - in a saturated groundwater system at the macroscopic scale.

Is there an effort to prove mathematically that this final - single - resultant fluid flow direction at the macroscopic-scale results from the conglomeration of velocity variations at the microscopic-scale - in a typical saturated groundwater system?

I want to run some algorithm and generate data from that algorithm and transmit that data to another raspberry pi. In this process, i want to calculate energy. Like, how much energy did that pi consumed from processing the algorithm to transmit the data.

Is there any mathematical equation or software techniques or hardware techniques which can help me to calculate consumed energy by raspberry pi?

Thanks in advance.

There are lots of Optimization method /Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) in literature. Some of them is more effective (for solving linear/nonlinear problem) compared to other. But we don’t know which will fit our model. As a result we checked for everything as we can do. But cant get the desire result. Some of those methods are 1. Genetic algorithms (GA) ; Haupt and Haupt (2004) 2. Pattern search (Mathlab) 3. Particle swarm optimization (PSO), Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO); Eberhart and Kennedy (1995) 4. Bee optimization; Karaboga and Bosturk (2007) Pham et al (2006) 5. Cuckoo algorithm; Yang and Deb (2009, 2010) 6. Differential evolution (DE) ; Storn and Price (1995, 1997) 7. Firefly optimization; Yang (2010) 8. Bacterial foraging optimization; Kim, Abraham and Cho (2007) 9. Ant colony optimization (ACO) ; I Dorigo and Stutzle (2004) 10. Fish optimization; Huang and Zhou (2008) 11.Raindrop optimization ; Shah-Hosseini (2009) 12.Simulated annealing ; Kirkpatrick, Gelatt and Vecchi (1983) 13.Biogeography-based optimization (BBO), 14. Chemical reaction optimization (CRO) 15. A group search optimizer (GSO), 16. Imperialist algorithm 17. Swine flow Optimization Algorithm. 18. Teaching Learning Based Optimization (TLBO) 19. Bayesian Optimization Algorithms (BOA) 20. Population-based incremental learning (PBIL) 21. Evolution strategy with covariance matrix adaptation (CMA-ES) 22. Charged system search Optimization Algorithm 23. Continuous scatter search (CSS) Optimization Algorithm 24. Tabu search Continuous Optimization 25. Evolutionary programming 26. League championship algorithm 27. Harmony search Optimization algorithm 28. Gravitational search algorithm Optimization 29. Evolution strategies Optimization 30. Firework algorithm, Ying Tan, 2010 31. Big-bang big-crunch Optimization algorithm, OK Erol, 2006 32. Artificial bee colony optimization (ABC), Karaboga,2005 33. Backtracking Search Optimization algorithm (BSA) 34. Differential Search Algorithm (DSA) (A modernized particle swarm optimization algorithm) 35. Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization and Gravitational Search Algorithm (PSOGSA) 36. Multi-objective bat algorithm(MOBA)
Binary Bat Algorithm (BBA) 37. Flower Pollination Algorithm 38. The Wind Driven Optimization (WDO) algorithm 39. Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO) 40. Generative Algorithms 41. Hybrid Differential Evolution Algorithm With Adaptive Crossover Mechanism 42.Lloyd's Algorithm 43.One Rank Cuckoo Search (ORCS) algorithm: An improved cuckoo search optimization algorithm 44. Huffman Algorithm 45. Active-Set Algorithm (ASA) 46. Random Search Algorithm 47. Alternating Conditional Expectation algorithm (ACE) 48. Normalized Normal Constraint (NNC) algorithm 49. Artificial immune system optimization; Cutello and Nicosia (2002) 50. fmincon .

Besides this there are many other optimization algorithm recently invented which are generally called Hybrid optimization Technique because it’s a combination of two method. If we share our experiences then it will be helpful for all of us who are in the field of optimization. I may be missing some methods, researcher are requested to add those algorithms and the way of use like many model needs initial value, weight, velocity, different type of writing objective function etc. I am facing some problems that’s why I make this format which will definitely help me as well as all other researchers in this field. Expecting resourceful and cordial cooperation.

The success and the failure in PISA assessments caused different debates, but there is no data linking success with teaching methods. Some countries attempted to draw conclusions about their education policy, while in others failure was associated with student's anxiety regarding tests. On the basis of a text that explains the reasons for success in Finland * I wonder if all five factors match other countries conclusions about successful participation. With respect to this factors can you provide data about the teaching method (s) you think are positively related to success in mathematics;

* George Malaty University of Joensuu, Finland: "The five main reasons are the success of pre-service teacher education, the culture of the teaching profession, the success of in-service teacher education, the different efforts which have been made to develop mathematics education and the daily traditions of school life in Finland "

I have been struggling to find

**the fundamental equations behind infiltration and runoff processes modeling in WOFOST;**I am mostly looking for a mathematical description of the modelling approach, however any kind of info related to these two processes (within WOFOST) is more than welcome.Hello.

I am trying to quantify the accuracy of my western blot. I have loaded cell extracts with increasing protein content. My alpha-tubulin loading control intensities seem to be relatively constant (which makes no sense to me because they should theoretically increase with protein content). Does anybody know how I can mathematically quantify the accuracy of my Western blot with the band intensities?

Thank you.

To me, an Erdös number seems like a harmless piece of trivia, akin to having the same astrological sign as some celebrity or sleeping in the same hotel room that a famous person had once slept in. I realize that a network of linked Erdös numbers may have interesting topological properties, but other than that, do they show anything of general significance?

I have found coursed that has prerequisite of math for learning machine learning and also they provide an introduction to these but are unable to cover it entirely.

I mean how to distribute the amplitude and phase in particular way?

I would like to know how the

*predicted R-Squared*are calculate because I want to use it to determine whether I am overfitting a my regression model by including to many terms, based in Mr. Jim's blog http://statisticsbyjim.com/regression/interpret-adjusted-r-squared-predicted-r-squared-regression/There is some way that it can be automatically calculated by SPSS or do we need to calculated it by hand?

**NOTE:**I am using SPSS, just in case if someone has a particular advice.

Thank you in advance!

I am currently working on a final year project which involves the aerodynamics around an airfoil.

while I am familiar with the post processing activities with CFD software, I am not entirely sure how I can attain the Lift Coefficient (Cl) data from the CFD pressure and velocity data.

I know the mathematical relationship between Cl and Cp (pressure coefficient) but surely there must be a way to directly extract Cl from the Cp calculated by the software.

Thanks.

**In fact, this problem has been deeply troubling us:**

1. Are “infinite sets” in present set theory “actual infinite sets” or “potential infinite sets”?

2. Are infinite elements in infinite sets “actual infinite many” or “potential infinite many”? If they are “actual infinite many”, how can we conduct the quantitative cognitions to them; and if they are “potential infinite many”, how can we conduct the quantitative cognitions to them? If Set A has more eliminates than Set B, can we say “Set A is more infinite than Set B”? can we really have “infinite”, “more infinite”, “less infinite”, “more more infinite”, “less less infinite”, “more more more infinite” “less less less infinite”, “more more more more infinite”, “less less less less infinite”, “more more more more more infinite”, “less less less less less infinite”, “more more more more more more more infinite”, “less less less less less less infinite” and “more more more more more more more more infinite”…?

3. What kind of mathematical tool of “one-to-one correspondence” is? When we conduct the quantitative cognitions to different infinite sets with “one-to-one correspondence” tool, is it “one element corresponding to one element” or “many elements corresponding to one element” or “many elements corresponding to many elements”, is it “potential infinite many elements corresponding to potential infinite many elements” or “actual infinite many elements corresponding to actual infinite many elements” or “potential infinite many elements corresponding to actual infinite many elements”?

4,

**one-to-one coresponding***can we have many different bijection proofs with different**results between two infinite sets? If we can, what conclusion should people choose in front of two opposite results, why?”*Do you think that the iThenticate/CrossCheck/Similarity Index would cause heavy and serious confusion in mathematics? Even destroy, ruin, damage Mathematics? Our mathematics and mathematicians should follow and inherite symbols, phrases, terminology, notions, notations in previous papers, but now we have to change these to avoid, to escape, to hide, to decrease the iThenticate/CrossCheck/Similarity Index! It’s very ridiculous for mathematics and mathematicians! Mathematics is disappearing! being damaged!

**I have a series of (x,y) data that should be fitted by an equation (In order to find the equation parameters: A, D, T).**

**In the fitting tab of OriginPro software, the software needs some initial values for parameters.**

**How these initial values must be determined?**

**Equation: y=A*exp(DT/(T-x))**

**Parameters: A, D, T**

**The datasheet is attached.**

Dear researchers , I'm a student in Master 1 (EDP) , and am a beginner in research , I have one international paper entitled " A new special function and it's application in probability " , I want people here to Give me comments to improve that research for the futur contribution in mathematics ? , Now I want theorist in probability and numerical analyis to give us any constrictive opinion about that research in all needed sides , For checking that paper via the journal webpage , just to check this link , Thanks som much for any comments or any kind of help.

Do you think research results have been applied in practice to mathematics applied with other sciences?

The problem disclosed by Zeno’s Paradox is still there and the exactly same idea is still working well. Let’s see one of the modern versions of Zeno’s Paradox

1＋1/2 ＋1/3＋1/4＋．．．＋1/n ＋．．． （1）

=１＋1/2 ＋（1/3＋1/4 ）＋（1/5＋1/6＋1/7＋1/8）＋．．． （２）

>1+ 1/2 ＋( 1/4＋1/4 )+（1/8＋1/8＋1/8＋1/8）＋．．． （3）

=1+ 1/2 + 1/2 + 1/2 + 1/2 + ．．．------>infinity （4）

Such an antique proof (given by Oresme in about 1360), though very elementary, can still be found in many current higher mathematical books written in all kinds of languages.

Here, with limit theory and technique, we see a “strict mathematically proven” modern version of ancient Zeno’s Paradox:

1, in Harmonic Series, we can produce infinite numbers each bigger than 1/2 or 1 or 100 or 100000 or 100000000000000000000 or… from infinite infinitesimals in Harmonic Series by “brackets-placing rule" to change an infinitely decreasing Harmonic Series with the property of Un--->0 into any infinite constant series with the property of Un--->constant (such as Un’ >10000000000000000000000000) ;

2, the “brackets-placing rule" to get 1/2 or 1 or 100 or 100000 or 100000000000000000000 or… from infinite items in Harmonic Series corresponds to different runners with different speed in Zeno’s Paradox while the items in Harmonic Series corresponds to those steps of the tortoise in Zeno’s Paradox. So, not matter what kind of runner (even a runner with the speed of modern jet plane) held the race with the tortoise he will never catch up with it.

Lacking the systematic cognition to “infinitesimal”, no one in the world now can answer following question scientifically and this is the very reason for many “suspended infinite related paradox families” in present classical infinite related mathematics:

Are “dx--->0 infinitesimal” in calculus and “Un--->0 infinitesimal” in Harmonic Series the same things? If ”yes”, why we have totally different operations on them? If ”no”, what are the differences and how to treat them differently and why?

--------Could anyone tells how many items of “Un--->0 infinitesimal” in Harmonic Series you use to produce the first Un’ >10000000000000000000000000, how many items of “Un--->0 infinitesimal” in Harmonic Series you use to produce the second Un’ >10000000000000000000000000, how many items of “Un--->0 infinitesimal” in Harmonic Series you use to produce the third Un’ >10000000000000000000000000?

The emergence of new infinite system (new 'infinite' idea, new number system and new limit theory) determines the production of "new mathematical analysis". The mathematical analysis based on the classical infinite system is called "classical mathematical analysis", and the mathematical analysis based on the new infinite system is called "new mathematical analysis (the fourth generation of mathematical analysis)".

There is no infinite related mathematical analysis without the “infinite related number forms”. So, the “quantitative cognizing work on infinite related number forms” is an important and unavoidable task for mathematical analysis. But our studies have proved that in present mathematical analysis, people have been admitting the being of “potential infinite, actual infinite” concepts, unable to deny their qualitative differences and the important roles they play in the foundation of present classical infinite theory system and, unable to deny that the present classical mathematical analysis is basing on present classical infinite theory system. The fact is: on the one hand, present classical mathematical analysis can not avoid the constraining of “potential infinite--actual infinite” concepts and their relating “potential infinite number forms--actual infinite number forms”; on the other hand, no clear definitions for these two concepts of “potential infinite--actual infinite” and their relating “potential infinite number forms--actual infinite number forms” have been constructed since antiquity, thus naturally lead to following two unavoidable fatal defects in present classical mathematical analysis:

（1）it is impossible (unable) to understand theoretically what the important basic concepts of “potential infinite, actual infinite” and their relating “potential infinite number forms--actual infinite number forms” are. So, in many “qualitative cognizing activities on infinite relating mathematical things (infinite relating number forms)” in present classical mathematical analysis, many people actually don’t know or even deny the being of “potential infinite, actual infinite” concepts and their relating “potential infinite number forms--actual infinite number forms”--------the “qualitative cognizing defects on infinite relating mathematical things (infinite relating number forms)”.

（2）it is impossible (unable) to understand operationally what kind of relationship among the important basic concepts of “potential infinite, actual infinite”, their relating “potential infinite number forms--actual infinite number forms” and all the“infinite number forms as well as their quantitative cognizing operations” are. So, in many “quantitative cognizing activities on infinite things (infinite number forms)” in present classical mathematical analysis, many people have been unable to know whether the infinite relating number forms being treated are “potential infinite number forms” or “actual infinite number forms”, no one has been able to avoid the confusing of “potential infinite number forms” and “actual infinite number forms”, no one has been able to know whether or not treating “potential infinite number forms” or “actual infinite number forms” with the same way or different ways. What is more, many people actually don’t know or even deny the being of “potential infinite number forms” and “actual infinite number forms”--------the “quantitative cognizing defects on infinite relating mathematical things (infinite relating number forms)”.

The above two fatal defects have decided since antiquity the absence of “infinite carrier theory” and the confusion of “abstract infinite concept and its concrete infinite mathematical carrier” which have been making us impossible to construct the scientific and systematic theory of “infinite related concrete number form (the mathematical carriers of abstract infinite concept)”, impossible to construct the “potential infinite--actual infinite” relating number forms as well as the “potential infinite--actual infinite” relating number system and its relating treating theory, thus unavoidable forming an insurmountable obstacle in the “quantitative cognizing process on infinite things (infinite number forms)” in present classical mathematical analysis. And, it is impossible to know what those “’both potential infinite number forms and actual infinite number forms’, ‘neither potential infinite number forms nor actual infinite number forms’ mathematical things” are, and can only treat all of them with the “flow line (pipelining)” unified approach （such as the three formal languages in three generations of mathematical analysis: before standard analisis, standard analisis, non-standard analisis）. So, many members of different infinite related paradox families in present “potential infinite--actual infinite” based classical mathematical analysis have been produced one by one naturally (the newly discovered “strict mathematical proven” Harmonic Series Paradox is a typical example), forming a thousands-year old suspended huge black cloud of paradoxes over present classical infinite related science and mathematical analysis.

I have a set a={x1,x2,x3}, b={y1,y2,y3} and c={z1,z2,z3}. X are financial variables from my dataset, Y and Z are financial variables from other dataset. Each value is in thousand dollar. I want to find which set (set b or set c) is closer to set a. So, I used the euclidean distance. But, the resulted distance is too big because the difference between value is thousand of dollar. Hence, I divided each distance with the mean of set a to make it smaller with range of 0-1:

Distance (b,a) = euclidean(b,a)/mean(a)

Distance (c,a) = euclidean(c,a)/mean(a)

I'm not sure if this is mathematically correct or not. Is there any better way?

Mathematics has been always one of the most active field for researchers but the most attentions has gone to one or few subjects in one time for several years or decades. I'd like to know what are the most active research areas in mathematics today?

Dear Researchers Fellows,

I am seeking a post doctoral position in mathematics education working on integrating technology in teaching and learning mathematics or educational measurement.

Any suggestion is highly appreciated.

Best regards,

Considere a completely randomized design, where every unit is randomly assigned to a treatment group. Let's say we have 30 observations and 3 treatment groups. When we choose one observation at random, it has 1/30 of chance of being selected, then the second one has 1/29, and so on. However, I've been told that there is a mathematical proof showing that, in the end, every single observation has the same chance of being selected to be part of a treatment group.

Is this true?

Thanks & Regards.

Hi,

How many mL of FeCl3.H2O solution is required to just dissolve 1 g of copper in 1 hour? Please provide the chemical and mathematical equations too!

With Regards,

Suhas D.

I know how to plot a 2D real vector. Let's say I have a vector 'a' represented in a row matrix, a = [1 1]. I can plot it in xy plane and I will be getting a line having the equation x=y.

Similarly, I know how to plot a complex number. Let's say I have a complex number z=a+ib. I can plot in real-imag plane and I will be getting a similar line having the equation x=y.

But I don't know how to plot a complex vector 'c' represented in a row matrix, c = [1+i 1+i].

Kindly guide in plotting other alternate complex vectors such as [1+i 1-i], [1 i], [i 1]

Hi everyone,

Is there some suitable mathematical or empirical law that allow us to get the stress drop of an earthquake and the corner frequency; using the seismic moment?

thank you all

**Does mathematics benefit/advance from such theories/models?**

**Relevant Reference Link:**

Do you know if there is a mathematical approach (or any publication that came out with something similar) that state the age cut-off between the [(206/238)/(207/206)], and [(206/238)/(207/235)] discordancy degree calculation?

Is there a quantitive measurement of how equilateral a triangle? Such as the following:

**Triangle A(2,3,4)**

**Triangle B(3,3,3)**

**Triangle C(10,10,1)**

Is there a measurement such that

**0**is a triangle that doesn't satisfy the triangle inequality theorem and**1**is a perfect equilateral triangle, assuming that a triangle's side length range is**not infinity**but rather constrained between**(0,c].**Therefore I should get:

**Triangle A = some value between 0 - 1**

**Triangle B = 1**

**Triangle C = value close to 0**

The Monod equation is a mathematical model for the growth of microorganisms. But the mushrooms do not follow this trend as they have a phase where spawn running is carried out. Also, the biomass increase is differed from other microbes.

The attached images shows the difference.

Please tell me can we still use Monod equation to to express specific growth rate of mushrooms and substrate utilization?

or which model will be more suitable in my case?

Thanks

**Relativistic gamma can only be positive, in the time dilation equation.Hence , modulus of relativistic gamma has to be applied. If this error is taken into prudent account, cosmic speed of particles greater than 1kg and 1s is one-third the speed of light.Hence only meagre, kinetic relativistic effects are possible in nature.**

For shell elements, is the elasticity tensor for linear-elastic & isotropic materials the same in a local curve-linear (convected) system vs. a local Cartesian system?

I wonder because intuitively, for a shell element & linear-elastic isotropic material, the only direction that matters (material-property wise) is the z direction. And in this case, the local z axis is aligned with the curve-linear coordinate system. But how do we mathematically show it?

If we have a matrix with both zeros and ones, in Matlab we just 'find' command to find the indexes of those nonzero elements. But how can we find it mathematically . can anyone help me with that.

Suppose I find 1000,00(one lakh) 2x2 matrix responding to eogenvalues : e1,e2

Then which one I will accept and which 99999 matrices to reject.

Give yoir views. My findings are mathematically correct.

B.Rath

I have been struggling to get endorsement for putting preprint in arXiv, but I a unable to get it. What is the best method to get endorsement in arXiv for physics or mathematics?

The state [uud] is given. The transposition (12) is a symmetry of this state e.g. (12)[uud]=[uud]

Let us calculate the result under acting of the cycle (132):

(132)[uud]=[duu]

But (132)=(23)(12), so

(132)[uud]=(23)(12)[uud]=

=(23)[uud]=[udu].

Where is the mistake?

**FYI:**"

*Is mathematics an effective way to describe the world?*",