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I would like to start my PhD studies based on Environmental engineering and science. Therefore I need to prepare an effective research proposal as a part of finding my appropriate supervisor. I would like to get suggested topics from you all in one of my following research areas:
1. Renewable resources (materials/energy) at construction or agriculture
2. Green roof technology.
3. Water quality conservation and restoration
4. Life cycle assessment
Since most of the readers of this discussion are well experienced researchers than myself, I would like to keenly here every suggested topics from your sides. Please allocate some time for this discussion and let me know some valuable topics. Thank you.
I'm trying to simulate a ball falling in a plate using COMSOL solid mechanics.
I tried to simulate it by prescribed displacement of the ball with a wave function (so the ball impacts and rebounds without fall infinitely). However, I would like to precisely measure the plate's deformation profile as material energy absorbed response. (I am using the johnson-cook plasticity model for the plate).
But the problem is that this boundary imposes the penetration value instead of being a response from the plate's material.
I thought to use a contact model that measures the overlap of materials (like LSD, constantly used in DEM simulations). However, COMSOL does not allow the use of elaborated contact models in the mechanical module.
So, what is the more realistic boundary condition to simulate the ball rebounds as a response of the plate material?
Though, the fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology is very old and widely used to fabricate plastic parts.
it does not give the significant surface quality of products. The anisotropy is also there.
what are the significant and technical factors to still use it even for traditional material like ABS, PLA, and PC?
What are the advantages of considering material and energy waste in manufacturing?
I wonder, could it be used Lanthanum chromite or Molybdenum disilicide (MoSi2) to replace current Pt anodes in the electrolytic reduction of
-spent oxide fuels
- oxide materials
in LiCl-Li2O Molten Salt?
Advanced energy materials
I'm trying to work out how much soils in systems like HESCOs respond to blast and absorb energy. Going with this, I'm also trying to estimate how much energy will result in breaching the geotextiles.
I am wondering if there is any literature review or any other types of information about the consumption of different materials, e.g. cement, concrete, and steel in the construction of different building types, i.e. residential and non-residential, especially in Australia. I also would like to know if there is any literature review about the embodied energy of the different materials, and the impacts of the consumption of the different materials on energy consumption and Co2 and GHG emission the building operation phases? As you know, building materials have somehow lots of things to do with building efficiency during the operation phases by affecting cooling, heating, ventilation, and even lightning, hence have lots of things to do with Co2 and GHG emission, and have an essential role to be considered in any mitigation action plans.
In fitting EIS data (in corrosion of metal alloy studies) by means of electrical equivalent circuit (EEC), could the double layer capacitance (Cdl) value or constant phase element (Q) value present in the circuit be higher than 1E-4 Fcm-2 ?
Because diverse atmospheric/weather conditions in the world may vary the performance of air electrode (electrocatalysts materials) in the battery. How do we approach this challenge?
I am currently studying bachelor's degree in Environmental Engineering and have to do my thesis. When I talked with my supervisor, he suggested the above topic to me. I am working in Ikea too, so this topic kind of suits me. But, I have little idea how I can go forward with the topic and what kind of data can I collect? I am also thinking about the topic ''Future of Furnishing'', where I discuss about the possible changes in the furniture industry in the future for a more sustainable chain. How should I move forward so that I can
some researched and do a proper thesis. I dont know if I am making any sense at the moment. But, any suggestions are warmly welcomed.
how to compare the energy and power densities of a new supercapacitor fabricated in laboratory with the commercially available supercapacitors or the existing energy storage devices?
i have gone through some research article in which the authors have compared the energy and power density (in the form of Ragone plot ) that they have obtained with the commercial supercapaciotrs and with conventional energy storage devices like Li-ion battaries, fuel cells, and ultracapacitors. but i wonder how to get the reference data for making the comparison plot as they have done in their comparison study.
i have attached the few images which i have downloaded from google for the reference .
So please help me out in this regard,
Process flow modelling could be the basis for the creation of a suitable approach by mapping the lifecycle of Material, Energy and Waste (MEW) process flows.
CE= M0∫tIdt/(Fb ʋan ∆COD)
Where M is the molecular weight of oxygen (32), F is Faraday’s constant (9.64870x104 Coloumbs/faraday), b=4 indicates the number of electrons exchanged per mole of oxygen, ʋan is the volume of liquid in the anode compartment (250 ml) and ∆COD (CODin= 250, CODout= 20 mg/litre)is the change in the COD over time, ‘t’.
for 2D materials in energy storage application. What kind of new material can be doped or what kind of 2D material can be chosen with just a simple chemical method? Because most of the methods have been done with CVD technique, mechanical exfoliation etc and we want to execute it with simple chemical method..
For same materials, in different research papers, some people use KOH and some use Na2SO4 and yes different concentration also.
What is the easiest way to find out the optimized electrolyte and its concentration rather than trying out all possible electrolytes?
I am trying to make two electrode cell with electrodes from the prisitine commercial battery. Specifically, LiFePO4, graphite from commerical battery and 1M LiPF6 in EC/DMC were used. As shown in attached figure, the multi-meter just showed 0.363V. I double-checked connection between wire and current collector. Are there any possible problems and solutions?
I have made highly porous carbons and I need to measure their specific capacitance using both cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge curve.Do you know how I can determine what is the best potential window for different samples?is there any relation with the porosity of the carbon and potential window?
Thank you so much
Pervoskite based photovoltaic devices are similar to light dependent resistors. It does not generate current as in the case of conventional semiconductor based solar cells. Any Comments on this?
I want to try graphene oxide (GO) as an insulator (instead of oxides Al2O3, Cr2O3 and TiO2). With respect to electrical conductivity, GO functions as an electrical insulator, because of the disturbance of its sp2 bonding networks. As a product of strong acid/base treatment, the atomic structure of GO is quite disordered compared to the hexagonal (honeycomb) lattice of highly crystalline pristine graphene. However, the successful resonant-tunneling devices require ordered/crystalline insulators. Despite its relatively poor crystallinity and hence carrier mobility, GO and its derivatives have shown several promising applications as advanced materials for energy conversion technologies.
1) I was not able to find any work devoted to application of graphene oxide as an insulator material for MIM and MIIM diodes. As you know, Dr. Moddel et. al. published a paper on thin-film graphene diode (http://ecee.colorado.edu/~ moddel/QEL/Papers/Zhu13a.pdf). However, graphene is electrically conductive.
2) We would want to grow or deposit the graphene oxide onto gold surface. Before proceeding for deposition of 100 nm Au layer, 3 nm Cr is deposited to serve as adhesion layer.
The CV and GCD graphs are based on raw excel datasheets and do we need to submit those with the mass of active materials?
I prepared Ti3C2-MnO2 composite as electrode for supercapacitors. The sample gave some promising results but the CD profile is faradaic instead of the normal Ti3C2 and MnO2 EDLC behaviours. Attached is the CD profiles for Ti3C2 pristine, MnO2 pristine, and Ti3C2-MnO2 composite.
Is there any difference between Bioethanol and Ethanol. Are the two practically same or different.
I have to calculate the variation of efficiency of photovoltaic modules with the PV cell temperature. Theoretically, given the PV technology, it depends on energy gap, photogenerated and reverse saturation density current. I would like to compare the model values with the measured ones. Have you got any paper or reference about such comparison ?
One of the key requirements to improve the efficiency of solar cells is to be able to couple the energy from the external source to the harvesting device in the optimum manner. For this you need broadband electromagnetic coupling. In photovoltaics, the glass-air barrier typically reduces the coupling due to the Fresnel reflections, and nature has inspired a number of solutions by tuning the refractive index at the interface. What are the most efficient routes to doing this that is also amenable to application on large areas so has to be scalable and broadband.
We have tried the following: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/296847813_Ultra-broadband_light_trapping_using_nanotextured_decoupled_graphene_multilayers
Can this technology be used in more than just solar cells, but also other energy harvesting devices ...
I have measured sucrose solution dielectric property (real part and imaginary part )from 500 MHz to 20 GHz, and calculated conductivity. But for my experiment I need to know the solution conductivity at 100 KHz and 10 MHz. I may need to fit my 500 MHz to lower frequency, which now I have no clue. I have also measured sucrose solution conductivity used conductivity meter, I believe the measurement frequency is at KHz range. If between KHz and MHz there is not much difference, I was wondering if I can simply used the value I measured by condcutivity meter for both 100 KHz and 10 MHz.
I have a lead acid battery of 150 Ah (C20), I want to know the following parameters
1. Internal resistance
2. Nominal voltage
3. Maximum Capacity (Ah)
4. Capacity (Ah) @ Nominal Voltage
5. Nominal Discharge Current (A)
6. Fully Charged Voltage (V)
7. Maximum Capacity (Ah)
Based on my knowledge I think the best candidate for alkali medium (with molarity of higher than 0.1 M) is Hg/HgO electrode.
However, I only have Ag/AgCl reference electrode and Calomel electrode in my lab. I was wondering if SCE can be used as a reference electrode in KOH 1M electrolyte.
I saw some people use it alkali solution, but still some people use Ag/Agcl too! (which is not recommended for alkali solution due to formation of silver oxide).
Thanks for your time
Which metals apart from platinum, tantalum, gold etc can be used as current collector with 1M H2SO4 as electrolyte in symmetric Supercapacitors?
and in what voltage range?
Is silver or aluminium foil, or silver coated nickel disc a good choice?
what is the criteria for binder selection in battery or supercapacitor electrodes in term of electrolyte, active material, electrode type? which binders are used till now for electrode fabrication?
I am intending to use sodium metal foil for sodium ion batteries testing.
May I know where can I get sodium metal foil as I cannot find any Suppliers in Singapore. Do I need to get sodium metal foil by cutting sodium metal cube myself? Or are they available in market?
I am modelling material and energy demand for Energiewende in Germany. Are there any German-level(not global) studies except for KRESSE report of Wuppertaal Institute which deal with material requirements for energy transition? I saw works of Alex Bradshow, but they are more order of magnitude and again on global level.
I am a bit more interested in scientific researches of not monetary but rather materials (metals) costs. And second, I am interested in researches answering how much energy is required to build renewable energy based power generation (to some degree, the EROI of power mix)?
pavement material energy consumption and GHG emission data-base.
Why imaginary part of dielectric constant (e'') Vs frequency show a decreasing behavior in low frequency region (for ferrite) ? However in many books i found imaginary part of dielectric constant (e'') Vs frequency in low frequency region seems to be constant and equal zero.
Hi. I'm planning the experiment using hydrogen storage alloy.
The experiment will be carried out like below.
First, dissolve a lot of hydrogen in alloy as possible.
Second, heat the alloy using induction heating and the alloy is melted after all.
Third, the hydrogen is emitted from the alloy.
I want to know the alloy that has low melting point..
Are there any papers that describe the information about hydrogen dissolve conditions or properties?
Capacitance values below 1pF suffer from poor tolerance due to the predominance of stray effects which themselves have parallel capacitance values in the same range. For instance a 1pF surface mount capacitor will have a stray capacitance of 0.1 to 0.5 pF in parallel which makes it to appear like a 1.5 pF capacitance to the circuit. Changes of even this small magnitude have very drastic effects in Precision circuits. Can anyone suggest me techniques which can be applied on existing SMD Capacitors which can nullify this stray capacitance effects.
The use of a coolant is necessary to regulate temperature in hydrogen storage tank based on metal hydrides. What kind of coolant is more efficient and most used actually?
I am a student in Newcastle University doing my final year process on the thermal gasification of woody biomass to produce methanol.
I am assigned to design a water gas shift reactor to shift the H2:CO ratio to be 2, and I have researched that in order to produce Methanol, only one single adiabatic high temperature water gas shift reactor is needed.
May I ask how to go about doing the material and energy balance?
What is the physical meaning of the fitting circle with center below x axis?
Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) and Internal Resistance (Ri) are two measures for the evaluation of a supercapacitors' resistance. The former is evaluated through the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the latter, through the cyclic charge-discharge (CCD) experiment and the potential drop on current peak at the initiation of the discharge. Disregarding the obvious distinction in the method used for their measurement/evaluation, what is their difference (if any)?
Basically, the sources of the resistance in a supercapacitor are the same independent from the method used to measure and quantify them:
The intrinsic resistance of the electrolyte (R electrolyte), diffusion resistance of the electrolyte among and into the porous structure of the active material (R diff), contact resistance between the active material and the current collector (R cont) are the most well-known sources of the resistance.
On the other hand, ESR and Ri, to the best of my knowledge, are intended to measure the same things. So, as far as the global magnitude of the cell resistance is concerned (like in the case of power density estimation, where, the specific contributions of the different components to the global cell resistance are not important, but their summation instead) why should ESR and Ri be different? and if they are, what is the criterion for the use of either ESR or Ri ? There is no reliable agreement on this in the literature (some use ESR and some other the Ri).
I am doing it for a supercapacitor study. I got the data but I am not sure whether it is acceptable or not. Should I use galvonostatic charging discharging? I am attatching two of my chronopotentiometry data. Please help me.
I have sintered pellets of Ce-doped SrTiO3 at 1400 degree Celcius for 24 hrs. the color of green pellet was light-orange but the sintered pellet is black in color. Please tell me the reason behind this color change.
Do you think that the substitution of Fe in LiFePO4 or doping Mn, Mg, Cr or Co, improves its poor conductivity?
There are so many papers on water splitting using TiO2 based photocatalysts. However, the yields of hydrogen production are very low. I think some compositions other than the trends need to be synthesised and tested...I would like to have your opinion on this and would like to welcome your views.
How do I calculate the efficiency of a battery if the charging discharging rate is given?
Amorphous or crystalline metal oxides, which one will show excellent performance on electrochemical energy storage application? and what are all the possible reasons?
E.g. graphite, graphene, nanotubes, diamonds with mass around 10 mg, two electrode cells, and current around 1A/g in non-aqueous solution (3V). We see so many different values in the literature that is hard to known which is the most appropriate. Can we say 5uF/cm^2 for a flat carbon substrate?
Will NMP corrode the metal surfaces?
I need to synthesize Mn2O3 nanoparticles for some supercapacitor application.
I am looking for some application of Titanium nitride (TiN) nanoparticles. What are the possible applications of the TiN nanopartciles?
For my pg project, I need to fabricate a supercapacitor with maximum energy density. What type of material (graphene/GQDs/MnO2 etc.) should I use?
What is the maximum presently fabricated energy density of supercapacitors (commercial and theoretical)?
At low calcination temperature I saw the formation of solid solution but at high temperature there was two phase
Is it true that frequent step change in load current and charging the battery with step input current affects the battery life (lead acid battery life)? If yes, in what ways? And are there any relevant links or papers that I can refer to, to understand about this topic more deeply?
I would be interested in the compaction pressure to apply in order to pelletize composite materials for thermal energy storage. I could not find this information in the interesting article. Could anyone help me with this information? Thanks in advance.
In my opinion this information can only be revealed by following the galvanostatic cycling curve of the material, and trying to see if the material reacts as a whole (alloy) or as different components with Li or Na ions. I would be interested if there is a better definition. Could you point out the complexity as some materials feature mixed characters?
I would like to deposit Pt on graphite. I used PtCl2 as precursor. To dissolve PtCl2 I used aqua regia. Will any problem arise if i use Ag/AgCl as reference electrode or i can use Pt wire as reference electrode
If 2 electrode setup using 6M KOH doesn't show any redox peak does that mean there's no pseudocapacitance happening?
We know that the pseudocapacitance is from the faradic reaction when KOH electrolyte is used
NiO + OH- <-> NiOOH + e-
The redox peak will always be present in a 3-electrode cell which confirms that NiO is being oxidised and reduced, I'm just curious to know whether the faradic reaction had taken place but it's just not detectable in a 2-electrode setup or it simply didn't happen at all.
For now, I've read that H2SO4, Na2SO4 and KOH are being used the electrolyte where all of these do not give any redox peak. So does that mean I'm free to use any electrolyte that gives the best value?
I've electrospun some PAN composite nanofibers, followed by stabilization and carbonization. I'm now trying to use it as my working electrode in a 3 cell electrode configuration set up for cyclic voltammetry test.
Usually I'll immerse half of my PAN film in the electrolyte but noticed that the electrolyte is being soaked up by capillary effect, so now the area exposed to the electrolytes is more than the immersed section.
Has anyone experienced any problems similar to this?
I obtained measurement curves from DSC. It's endothermic heat flow vs. time or temperature, my concern is how to obtain the slope=deltaP/deltaT via the software or using data.
As per my knowledge the answer is no. And recommended one Hg/HgO. But still people are reporting with ref to Ag/Agcl. Are they doing the experiment with Hg/HgO and converting or using quasi reference?
These are three references
Does anyone know how to remove excess Sb in CoSb3 or related antimonides?
Our lab possesses a heat flux DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter) and I would like to measure the thermal conductivity of salts by modifying the DSC. Could anyone suggest another easy-to-use apparatus and/or method?