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I am quite confused. I know that parallel planes do have the same Miller indices. However, as you can see from the attached XRD pattern, there is (003) family of planes having different Miller indices. Why so? What actually happening here
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you are right, all these peaks arise from parallel planes.
The 003 planes are paralell to the 006 planes, and paralled to the 009 planes etc, but parallel to the 002 and the 001 planes as well.
However their interplanar distances are different und thus the diffraction peaks show up at different angles
Alltogethers all these planes are multiple order planes of the 001 plane.
Please remind the Bragg law:
n*lambda= 2*d*sin(theta)
You may rewrite this equation as:
lambda= 2*d/n * sin(theta)
one also has for any d(h,k,l)/n = d(nh,nk,nl)
You may check the validity of this equation for all crystal systems.
The formulas for dhkl are for example summarized in the attachment, taken from the Klug&Alexander book on 'X-Ray Diffraction Procedures'...
Ggod luck and
best regards
G.M.
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Hallo every one,
I did nanoidentation experiment :
1 photoresist with 3 different layer thicknesses.
My results show that the photoresist is harder when it has thicker layer..
I can't find the reason in the literature.
Can any one please explaine me why is it like that??
is there any literature for this?
best regards
chiko
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The nano layer thickness is very very small layer, otherwise it's cannot use by Resistivity method and it has VES limitation.
Best regards.
P. Hakaew
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I have attached the Phase diagram of Mn and Mo. I need some explanation about these graphs. thanks
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Hello!
What do you want to know about it?
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I am trying to understand why it happens in atomic level
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Dear Sohrab,
The previos answer is almist full. This metal has almost zero thermal effect on resistivity. Hence, the net change in length (volume) under the pressure is detected directly (without noise due to heating). Read on the naterial in
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I have dyed jute-cotton blended fiber with onion peel and other tannin-containing mordants. But after FTIR analysis, we could not explain if there was an increase in bond formation due to the use of tannin than the non mordanted.Now is there a better spectroscopic method for better understanding bond formation in dyed sample and are there ways to determine the amount of bond formation in a particular sample?
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FTIR is a very good method of identifying these bonds. For this you need to normalize the two spectra (natural and treated) at the peak near 1500 - 1510 cm-1. Then you'll se the difference between the two samples
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Why is the satellite peak visible in the Cu2+ but not in Cu0?
The photoexcitation on the Cu site can lead to two final states, i.e. one: where after the creation of the 2p core hole the ground state configuration 3d9L is left roughly intact, second: where after the core hole creation one electron is transferred from the shell L into d state(3d10L-1). Latter one usually applies to the main photoelectron line.
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As I said, it would not be the same because the valence orbitals involved in the process would not have the same energies. In the case of Cu2+, the process is additionally facilitated by Ligand-Metal Charge transfer (LMCT) processes:
The position of the ligand in the spectrochemical series may further affect the shake-up shift energy since there are strongly and weakly splitting ligands.
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Hi all,
I am in need of the physical and thermal properties of food grade silicon / BPA free silicone.
I am doing a comparative study on the design of mats used in the microwave ovens and other general thermal applications. This involves the iterations in the design and the materials grades.
I have selected few designs from the available sources. The design involves the pattern of the ribs that helps in heat dissipation.
I am struggling to get the material properties for the food grade silicone or BPA free silicone. The properties helps us to conduct the thermal analysis for the mat.
It will be highly helpful if you can help me in getting the properties of the food grade silicone or BPA free silicone.
Below links are for the design references for the product for which I am supposed to make the comparative thermal analysis..
Edits made :
Silicon is replaced with Silicone.
Tag word Silicon is removed.
Thanks,
Prabhu
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Thank you for the useful background. So it wasn't silicon, or silica but rather silicone... A little work on Google and RG will help you. In 2 minutes I have found the general descriptions: https://lifewithoutplastic.com/silicone/
and something on thermal properties (from poorly conductive to conductive). See attached. Fermi estimates can easily be found by Googling the appropriate property (e.g. 'conductivity') followed by the word 'silicone'. Good luck with your research.
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I discovered two distinct phenomena when cracks begin to form at α and β phases in titanium alloys. How does this difference mechanism come about?
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Dear Hasfi,
The reasons for the initiation of cracks are related accumulated internal stresses between the α and β phases in titanium alloys. These external stresses in the process of operation tend to balance. Cracks can be observed in both solid particles and softer particles of the structure. To avoid this negative effect, normalization is performed to a certain extent or the chemical composition of the spawn is changed in order to reduce external stresses.
With respect
Emil Yankov
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Hi for everyone,
I would like to do a Life Cycle Assessment comparison for teak timbers from various geographical locations. Could you please share with me any data that you have for carbon footprint on timber with their corresponding information?
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Please have a look at enclosed PDF..
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Generally observed at low strain rate for fine grained material.
For industrial scale
which are viable materials?
which parameters need to alter?
Kindly express your views.
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Agree with Mohammad Abboud sir
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As every keyword have certain experts associated with it, based on their area of expertise. Can we initiate a devoted section for research collaboration, especially for the calls requiring bilateral or multinational collaborator?
Presently, My group is looking for a German collaborator in the area of " High performance based C-C composites" on following call "http://www.dst.gov.in/sites/default/files/DST-DFG-JointCall-10AUG2018.pdf"
Finding it difficult to have a relevant and interested group from Germany. kindly text me if anyone finds this call interesting.
Please share how I should proceed to search for interested researchers from Germany, My present approach is searching research papers on said area and mailing to the researcher if find relevant.
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Prof. Ajitanshu Vedrtnam: In my opinion, the projects are more than enough instead of your suggested section.
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For photoelectrochemical applications.
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yes, it is suitable.
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we want to produce VAR electrode (d=150 mm) from scraps (Ti 6-4) for melting (with attached shape). what is best solution for producing of initial electrode? can we cut it to small pieces and pressing in related mold and welding final discs together? is this way practical?
please guide me if you please.
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CIP
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Hello all,
I´m currently working for a medical device company. We are trying to understand the buckling effect during an insertion force test.
We use a flexible PVC extrusion with these properties:
Hardness: 95 (ASTM D-2240)
Specific gravity: 1.73 (ASTM D-792)
Tensile strength psi: 3400 (ASTM D-638)
Elongation%: 250 (ASTM D-638)
100% Modulus psi: 2860 (ASTM D-638)
This extrusion is inserted into another medical device and the force required to insert the extrusion must be below 4 lbf. However, it is noted that during insertion procedure the extrusion buckles, losing force and failing test. The extrusion is inserted using a fixture to guarantee that 4lbf are being applied, there are some cases where the readings of the force tester are below 4lbf but the extrusion get stuck and didn't pass all the way thru the medical device not reaching the desired end position. Our guess is that the column force is lost as result of buckling.
Extrusion length is about 10 inches, OD is about .077” and ID is .035”, this isn’t a solid extrusion. For this case, we would like to know much force (lbf) can be applied to the extrusion before buckling. Seems like we might use Euler formula, but it is unclear to me how to use the formula adding the factor that this isn’t a solid column, I assume wall thickness may be considered.
I appreciate any help to solve this doubt.
Thanks!
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A quick check with pens and papers-
Use Euler's Buckling formula
max load P= EI*(pi)^2/L^2. L is the insertion point (into hole, box, whatever) to holding point (where the pipe is gripped and applied force. E is young's modulus. I is area moment of inertia, I=(pi/64)* (D^4-d^4). D is outer and d is inner dia of tube
This bold portion would work just fine to use the area moment of inertia of a hollow column.
For eccentric loading, use the Secant formula instead
But wait! if PVC tube is way too flexible to be considered to be elastomeric rather than linear elastic, there can be error, because Euler's formula was derived for linear elastic deformation of columns.
If standard simulations (Solidworks, Comsol, Ansys) seem too hard for you, go to some user friendly online simulation interfaces like simscale. Just upload 3D image of files in their simulation IDE, give input parameters, and you are done within a few minutes to hours.
Go for it.
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Need to do strain controlled fatigue test on ASTM E606 specimen. What I have referred from a research literature they have given strain ratio R, of 0.5 and a frequency of 0.2 Hz and strain levels of 0.7%–3.0%, 70% decline of peak load could anyone tell me how to decide this values ? From where they used the values there is no reference paper they have used in that particular research article.
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Hi Dinesh
Strain controlled fatigue testing is important to study the behaviour of components undergoing either mechanically or thermally induced cyclic plastic strains that cause failure within fewer cycles (<10^5) than high cycle fatigue (>10^5-10^6 cycles).
The testing conditions are usually determined by the specific application you are considering. Doing this preliminary investigation will allow you to get more meaningful and useful results from the strain controlled tests.
So I would recommend to try to collect some initial indicative data to better plan the test conditions (temperature, R, frequency, strain levels). If the components (or an older version of the components) are already in service you can get some good indications by applying some strain gauges and thermocouples to the parts to understand what sort of strains they undergo and at what temperatures. If the components are still in the design phase then you will need to carry out some hand calculations or run some FEA analyses to get a feeling of what strain the parts will experience once in service.
Having said this, in terms of strain levels you can consider that you enter within the high cycle fatigue range when the part undergo loads that generate stresses below half of the yield strength of the material i.e. 0.2% so you want to stay above this value. In general you could run tests at strain level within 0.2% and 20-40%. It depends also by the material and test temperature. Then with the Coffin-Manson equation you can relate cycles to plastic strains.
To determine the values of temperature, frequency and R for your tests, as previously mentioned, it would be better if you use values close to your actual application to collect more reliable and useful data.
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Dear all,
I am studying the combustion of diesel, biodiesel, gasoline mixtures, and at this stage of the project, I must import the previously developed Physico-chemical properties of these fuels into fluent and analyse the validity of the Physico-chemical data for each fuel individually. I came across some solution for creating a new database, saving it as a .scm file and importing it into fluent, however, my Physico-chemical properties are temperature-dependent, which means it is not simply a constant but varies with temperature.
I appreciate it if you kindly help me out with this if you had encountered this before.
FYI, the Physico-chemical properties are as follows:
liquid density, vapour pressure, surface tension, liquid viscosity, liquid thermal conductivity, heat of vapourisation, vapour heat capacity, vapour diffusivity, vapour viscosity/thermal conductivity, liquid heat capacity and critical properties.
Alan Zandie
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Follow
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How to sift and separate particles of a certain size from a set of particles of different micrometer sizes?
for example we have 1kg of metal powder with size between 20 um to 120 um
we want to separate 30um particles, how can we do this?!
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Respected Madam,
For separating 30 micrometer particles US Sieve Mesh Number 450 is recommended. Refer the attachments for more details.
Hope this information is useful.
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Dear all,
I am working on the development of magnesium alloy AZ91 composites by powder metallurgy route. During the sintering of pure alloy samples, there is a decrease in density. Generally, density increases after sintering. What can be the possible reason for this anomalous behaviour? I have read in some papers that this can be due to foaming. Also, please tell me how I can avoid this?
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The sintering process of a compact particle found to continue within two decoupled stage , particles shrinkage by densification and growth by coarsening behavior at higher temperature. At densification stage the loss of unstable materials will permit the internal pores formation of certain volumes and shapes. The small pores and\or concave surface morphology are able to shrink as mass transfer by inward atomic diffusion from the bulk of the particle towards the pore surface and fill the pore space. On the other hand large pores and\or a convex surface morphology is not able to shrink as mass transfer by outward atomic diffusion from the pore surface towards the bulk of the particle is dominated and, enlarge the pore space and leading to what you called process of foaming that responsible for lowering the density.
Now, owing to the higher surface to volume ratio of the particles of nano-size (less than@100nm) compared to that of sub-micron and micro-size, the outward mass diffusion of trapped material is faster. This could leave larger pores that are thermodynamically stable and not able to shrink, so the coarser particles permit shrinkage at a higher rate than those at lower sizes. Please any feedback is welcome to frame the discussion picture.
Best regards.
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Hi,
I am working on the fabrication of perovskite solar cells. To improve their performance, I am trying to prepare doped perovskites. However, I am faced with the challenge to optimize the dopant concentration ratio ( mol%). Can anyone please shed light upon the following question?
1: What factors should be considered while deciding the concentration ratio of the additive for perovskites?
Thank you for your support.
Kind Regards,
Abdul Sattar Chaudry
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To start the optimization, initially you may consider few recent literatures to get an idea about a range of additive concentration. You may add particular amount of additives from a stock solution to a precursor solution of perovskite. For polymeric additives, the concentration may be required very less amount (0.1-1 mg/ml) and for small molecules it may be in the range of 1-10 mg/ml. So u can fabricate few opto-electronic devices (Photovoltaic/LEDs etc) and analyze the morphology of the perosvskite materials with wider range of additive concentration to select the optimum one with highest performance.
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is it necessity to homogenize cast ingot of wrought superalloys (such as Hastelloy X, haynes 25 etc.)? if hot forging or hot rolling were done without homogenizing heat treatment what is happen?
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It is important to avoid cracks during the following conformation processes.
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How to do theoretical calculations to determine the relaxation rate from radiative processes for any materials (doping system ) (DFT)?
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  • This rate can be calculated starting from n the host matrix refractive index, ν0 the central radiative transition frequency, c the vacuum speed of light constant, and σem is the frequency-dependent radiative transition cross section of the emission band using the following formula (see figure).
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I am trying to dissolve chickpea protein isolate in water but it's not soluble even with raised temperature and constant shaking. Can anyone please suggest the appropriate method or solvent other than water in which chickpea protein isolate gets completely soluble.
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After the synthesis of a compound at the mono Crystal form I process by structural determination. I ground the product and passed in XRD powder, when I calculated the distance and the lattice planes with HKLgen (using the cell parameters found for the single crystal), I cannot index my spectrum powder? (I did the same for three other hybrid compounds is always the same).
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Both of these standards are relevant to testing materials at high temperatures.
When can we use ISO 834 and when can we use Standard ASTM E119?
What is the main difference between them? Is Fire Curve similar in them?
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ISO are international Standards that has representations from all countries Which include ASTM, Both Provides guideline for technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services. For example, building materials need to meet the requirements of ASTM in North America, and in Europe or(Globally) by ISO.
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Thickness and diameter shrinkage percentage of the Al2O3 sample (after sintering):
Diameter 20%
Thickness 18%
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thanks for your important question
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The grain orientation spread is a powerful tool to reveal recrystallization on the structure evolution. However, I still couldn't clearly understand the GOS result shown with the mechanical behavior effect.
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I've attached the picture from the histogram, relative frequency against GOS value (degree). I want to know the correlation between high or low-intensity frequency in low-angle grain boundaries with mechanical behaviors?
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I am testing on the impact of different keycap textures e.g. matte, gloss, rough which measured by Ra, Rpc. Can you suggest on the test that represents or simulates 2 years usage on gaming or heavy usage keycaps?
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Dear Kanticha Korsesthakarn , may be the following testing tools would be useful for your work:
Hope it helps.
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I am currently working on a soft strain sensor having a wavy fluidic cyclic channel. To get data in the form of electrical, I have to attach electrodes to both ends of the fluidic channel of the soft strain sensor and it must be properly attached so that fluid in the channel may not come out of the channel. But I am confused, which electrodes should I use for this sensor?
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Thank you so much Mr. Cuff, your answer helped me to think more widely. Thanks for telling me about your experience, it is really helpful.
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I am a novice student doing a research project on water absorption in polymer composites with sodium silicate coating.
I want to ask about how to determine the result of the percentage of water absorption which is the sum of the percentage gain in body weight and the percentage of dissolved matter lost
for example, the conditioned weight is 9.76 grams then the wet weight at the time of immersion for 24 hours is 7.05 grams. Because there was a reduction in weight, my specimen was reconditioned with the result that the reconditioned weight was 6.83 grams.
Is it true that the percentage increase in weight was -27.77% and the percentage of dissolved matter lost was 30.02%? Then to determine the percentage of water absorption, just add (-27.77%) + (30.02%)?
Is there something wrong with my calculations?
please help in that case. thank you
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Dear all, it looks correct what you have done according to ASTM standard norm. However, it is quiet wise to use different analysis techniques to confirm your results, mainly dielectric one. Please see attached files. My Regards
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Can I apply this method in general for such objects?
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Vasyl Peter Kladko The Williamson-Hall Plot. W-H plot is used to calculate the crystallite size and microstrain from complex XRD data. That's when both the crystallite size and microstrain vary as a function of the Bragg's angle, we can only calculate these parameters from XRD data using W-H plot. I have provided the practice file (Origin file) as well as the calculation file (Excel file) in the video description. Thanks
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Recently I tested a novel superhydrophobic coating by means of potential curves. What is odd is that I found a significative change in Ecorr (from 800 to 500 mv in comparison with the bare metal...) but instead of a lowering of Icorr I found an increase in ICorr (10-8 bare metal to 10-7 protected). The coating is conductive (it's C based). I have no idea how to interpret the results. Any ideas?
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@Sarah in my case it was related to the nature of the coating which was conductive. I can share with you the article we published if needed
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Why do we say matter is finite?
This is a question to start the discussion.
In my opinion, matter is unlimited in terms of behavior and change (changing), and it is structurally limited.
But material is limited, both in terms of behavior and structure (it is limited in both cases).
What is immaterial?
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Dear Sara Gordan, it is that because the structure is well defined. The changes that is seen in matter are the consequences of its surrounding, to tell pressure and temperature. Exemple water has a defined chemical structure, being H2O, whether it is solid, liquid or gas (vapor). My Regards
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Crystalline index
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Crystallinity index is the ratio of the crystalline peaks to the crystalline+amorphous peaks. Amorphous peaks are the noise in XRD data, while, from crystalline+amorphous, we mean the whole XRD profile. In the following 17 min video, I have explained in detail the crystallinity index and how to calculate it from XRD data. In the first 2.5 min, I have first explained 'what is meant by the crystallinity index'. In the rest of the video, I have taught 'how to calculate the crystallinity index from XRD data in origin for crystalline as well as amorphous materials. If you need anything further to ask, let me know. I'll appreciate your feedback on the video tutorial. I have attached the discussed files (Origin file and Excel template) here, as well as, they can be accessed from the description in the video. Thanks
How to calculate crystallinity index from XRD data using origin
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Dear all,
Sorry for my poor English, I have a question want to know.
Recently, I was doing a experiment about TEM image analysis. But this image was very irregular compared to other ones. I added 2 images for explaining my question. Both samples I use is AA6061 alloy, the only different part is there is one sample(fig. 4-1.2M-1) which has been applied on current.
fig. 2-1.2M-4 is normal one, it has a lot of planes I can do some research, but another one(fig. 4-1.2M-1) has only 1 plane.
These 2 sample both underwent heat treatment.
fig. 2-1.2M-4: current stressing after annealing
fig. 4-1.2M-1: only annealing
I am wondering that if dislocations or residual stresses had be eliminated or the orientation had re-arranged in the annealed sample?
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The images you uploaded are calculated FFT images from your real space TEM images. For me it looks like following: the sample in 2-1.2 was oriented close to a low index zone axis, and therefore you get this quite nice pattern. As you said, there are lots of lattice planes visible and you can measure and index them.
In Fig 4-1.2, you only see one lattice plane. This is due to the orientation of the sample in the TEM. Try to tilt it to get to a zone axis. Then you should see more planes, since the sample seems to be crystalline.
What kind of sample do you have? (material, preparation for TEM,...)
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I want fast method to measure moisture content in raw material, I think NIR method is good but someone said this method is not more accurate especially to coarse aggregates.
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Dear Saman
Quantitative prediction of soil properties such as; salinity, organic carbon, soil moisture and heavy metals can be conducted using various calibration models – such models were developed depending on the measured soil laboratory analyses data and soil reflectance spectra thereby resampled to satellite images - to predict soil properties. The most common used models are stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR), partial least squares regression (PLSR), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), principal component regression (PCR) and artificial neural networks (ANN). Those methods are required to quickly and accurately measure soil characteristics at field to improve soil management and conservation at local and regional scales. Visable-Near Infra Red (VIS-NIR) has been recommended as a quick tool for mapping soil properties. Furthermore, VIS-NIR reflection spectroscopy reduces the cost and time, therefore has a wonderful ability and potential use as a rapid soil analysis for both precision soil management and assessing soil quality.
please have a look the following links . you may find your suitable answer
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From FTIR peaks, we can generally calculate the elastic property and the Debye temperature from the Waldron model of a composition.
What else we can calculate aside these calculations?
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Dear Rakibul Hassan , the peaks or bands of a FTIR spectrum provide information about the vibrational modes of chemical groups present on your sample. FTIR is useful to identify new or unknown materials based on their spectra and also to detect contaminants, additives or to detect decomposition products of your material caused by material use or exposure to environmental conditions or working conditions.
The technique is also useful to study structural variations of semicrystalline polymers and to identify polymorphic materials among many other applications.
Hope it helps.
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I have some h-BN powder which I need to use to prepare film by using drop-cast technique on Si/SiO2 substrate . Please tell me which solvents at which proportion should I use along with the experimental procedure.
Which condition will also ensure that the nanoparticles will not form any separated islands on the substrate and will be well dispersed in the solvents?
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I do not believe your suggested method is viable. To get a film of BN you'll need an evaporative technique, IMHO. I hope someone will prove me wrong as I learn more that way.
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what is best way to producing of wire rod 10 mm or less of superalloys such as Alloy 718 (Inconel 718) to reach optimum mechanical properties? casting in VIM (Vacuum induction melting) is probably first step, is it essential remelting (ESR or VAR) for wire production? what is aspect necessary for mold dimension (diameter) in casting and remelting to produce wire rod of 10 mm?
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Hot rolling is preferable process with heat treatment by annealing and normalizing.
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Hello we all know the electronegativity scale and concept of elements in the periodic table
However when it comes to whole materials such as polymers, nanomaterials and etc
How can we understand theoretically if the synthesized material is highly or poorly electronegative ??
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Dear Gabris Mahamid, the following documents are extremely important in case you want to go deeper in this subject. Also it is nice if you take a look at 'Israelchevilli's book' on intermolecular forces. My Regards
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I'm working with a photo polymer resin use blue light to solidifies it. I want to find the Poisson's ratio and shear modulus for solid part after light curing. What testing device or testing method I can use to find these material properties?
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The your sample can be measured nondestructively with shear gages and the shear modulus can be calculated from the measurements. A shear gage is a kind of strain gage that is used for testing rigid composite materials. And Poisson's ratio of samples like yours can be measured nondestructively with standard strain gages. As Mohammad Abboud has mentioned, stay in the elastic region of the material (no breaking or plastic deformation - only elastic bending)
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I’m doing a simulation of a compression test with an hyperelastic material, defined with Mooney-Rivlin 2 parameters, on Ansys.
I’m obtaining different results making both displacement controlled and load controlled:
If I set a 3 mm linear displacement, I obtain a 30 N force reaction;
If I set a 30 N linear load, I obtain a 4 mm deformation.
I tried changing the strain rate because hyperelastic material should change the deformability with the strain rate, but it doesn’t change at all the results.
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Can you share your Ansys model in .cdb format?
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I'm looking to assemble a goniometer for an experiment involving adhesion/roll of blood on different materials. Effectively I need to put together a stage, where the angle can be adjusted/set and measured precisely while the material is firmly secured. As well as this I will need to be able to take photographs of the roll, so the setup should allow for lights/camera.
There are several online but they are £££. Any experience creating a similar setup appreciated! Links to components would be great.
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As it turns out, I built a goniometer for roll-off angles for our lab from very cheap source materials. You start with a protractor with an adjustable arm, such as this one:
Glue (cyanoacrylate glue is good) it to a sheet of acrylic (1/8 is good) so you can mount it easily on a wall or whatever.
Then, cut a piece of sheet acrylic that is a little shorter than the arm and wide enough to hold your samples. I think ours is like 3"x2" or so. If it's too big it'll be hard to use. Glue it to the retracting arm of the protractor, being careful not to get glue on the joint or other side of the arm.
Now, get some double-sided tape to mount your samples and keep them flat. Dispense whatever droplet size of fluid you like onto the substrate, and tilt the arm+stage until the droplet rolls off. You may need a range of pipettes to run your testing:
That ought to do it; it works well enough for our lab and we develop/QC hydrophobic coatings day in and out.
Good luck!
Eric
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It should be either decrease or increase for nth time during heat supply. Is there any possibility of irregular temperature sequences as shown in figure. In that picture the highest temperature lies around 168 °C, but that values keep decreasing and increasing. What causes it ?
The method of heat supply is two- probe electrode method. Probe material is copper. The values were recorded using a thermal camera. Time and current value is constant.
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As shear strength of AA2024-T4 alloy is inversely proportional to the temperature. is there any equation to predict shear strength of AA2024-T4 with respect to temperature?
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I believe you can hardly find any literature which correlates shear strength/yield strength with temperature for a specific alloy. That said, you will find an interesting article here ( ), which might be of some help.
I am also enclosing our recent paper ( ), which correlates different work-hardening parameters and processing temperature during plane strain compression of Aluminium 6016 T4 alloy. I look forward to seeing similar research correlating shear strength and processing temperature of AA2024-T4 alloy in the near future.
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I would like to coat MXene (Ti3C2Tx) on FTO glass substrate using doctor blade deposition technique, for which i think a binder is essential for the adhesion of MXene onto the FTO. The post treatment of the FTO after deposition will be restricted to 150C, could anyone suggest me a binder which could evaporate within the range of 150C during the post treatment of the FTO.
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I think you should test for Acetone
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I am testing the impedance of a material that will be used for ECoG electrodes.
I was told to test it at a frequency range from 1 Hz - 100 kHz but why is this range used? I wasnt able to find a satisfactory answer.
Which impedance values are good for recording and why? Is there a range ?
Kind regards
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Lester Viray can you help him professor
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Before obtaining the yield stress vs inelastic stress for compression and stress vs cracking stress in tension using Concrete Damage Plasticity model, do we need to convert the engineering stress-strain curve to true stress-strain curve or we have to process engineering stress-strain data ?
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Abaqus requires
Yield stress vs Inelastic strain in compression,
Yield stress vs Cracking Strain in tension.
The examples in the attached excel file may be helpful.
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Hey,
i have to choose a fatigue testing machine for additive manufactured metal parts.
Materials would be generic metals such as stainless steel, inconel etc.
The goal is to create simplified woehler / SN curves in a short time.
How can i decide which machine fits best?
Im looking for advantages and limits of the different machine types such as servohydraulic, electrodynamic, resonant pulsators and ultrasonic testing machines.
Also what is the limit for my test frequency to not get false results?
Thank you
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Greetings,
I used servohydraulic Instron to conduct fatigue test. I'm satisfied with the overall set-up of the machine. Ultrasonic fatigue test is developed to save time for very high cycle fatigue (10^7 to 10^10) at 20 kHz. Frequency indeed has effect on the fatigue behavior of the materials. High frequency could induce self-heating during the fatigue test, affecting the S-N curve. Therefore, self-heating of the materials should be eliminated to obtain reliable results.
Kind regards.
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In order for microspheres with carbonate composition to be interpreted as fossilized cells, it is necessary to analyze the sedimentary / petographic / diagenetic context. In the case of Irati Subgroup, the samples are stromatolytic. That’s means, the presence of fossilized microorganisms is more likely in comparison to most carbonates. Moreover, the sample are silicified and also with cells permineralized by silica with morphologies that are clearer than their dolomitic equivalents. In addition, we interpret that silicification and not dolomitization was responsible for the preservation of cells. Other sedimentary / petographic / diagenetic contexts can also produce cells with carbonate composition. This is the case is showed by Ayllón-Quevedo et al. 2007 (Sedimentary Geology 201: 212–230), in which the microspheres are very similar to those of the Irati, but are not silicified. That is why each case must be analyzed in its particularities.
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because of Designing of VAR furnace, operator have problem to detected arc position and arc gap during the melting process. in some cases using of special video camera is mentioned but there is no more information abut operation and set up in vacuum or outer case. also how could reduce noise of ambience (from supply power) and have good resolution. please guide me in this area.
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1. Look at the devices with which you can track the amount of energy consumed. And bring these indications closer to the indications of the optimal process. 2. To reduce the effect of noise on the environment, which includes the personnel operating the oven, it is necessary to equip them with effective protective equipment (goggles, earplugs).
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I need references articles that explain the drawings for the following materials, which illustrate the diagram between DR UV-Vis spectrums of the following materials blank sample as expressed in Kubleka-Munk function versus
the measured wavelength and the materials are ZnO, CuO, Fe2O3, and Co3O4.
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We need to model deformable metal powder. It will be further used in simulation process.
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You can model powder by 90 percentage density by Gurson model available in Abaqus software.
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i have a question regarding dielectric constant of gold,cobalt oxide (co3O4) and n-tpe silicon . i find only one publication on this issue showing dielectric function cobalt oxide(CoO) 12.9 and gold 6.9 at 25 degree centrigrade ..can any one suggest where I can consider this for my simulations ?
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I would like to know the various transition metal chalcogenides or dichalcogenides (Se or S based), it would be most appreciated if their synthesis is also shared.
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Dear Lokesh,
Selenides should have the better conductivity due to the narrower electronic band gap. As a rule of the thumb the band gap decreases with increasing polarizibility of the anions. As an example we can consider the Cd chalcogenides:
CdS 2.42 eV yellow body colour
CdSe 1.74 eV red body colour
CdTe 1.56 eV black body colour
However, this only concerns the intrinsic conductivity, while p- or n-type dopants can enhance the conductivity tremendously. Many TM chalcogenides can be made by precipitation from solution, as e.g. ZnS, CdS, HgS by the addition of S2- anions.
All the best,
Thomas
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Hello,
I have the option to write a Bachelor thesis about a simulation of a test bench for elastic materials in Ansys/Abaqus. To be honest I am an industrial engineer and I have only experiencie with CAD and just a little bit of construction knowledge. But that isn´t much.
It is still intriging to me to try it out, because it sounds very interesting and I feel like I could learn a lot.
I just do fear that I am underestimating the amount of time and dedication this will take to master the thesis in 3 moths. You can see the part of the testbench that I will have to simulate in the attached picture. From what I understood first I will have to model this part of the test bench, than I will have to calculate the mechanical forces, I will have to find out the material characteristics and calculate some thermodynamics.
Do I need knowledge about the behavior of the material? or does Ansys/Abaqus do this part for me?
I know this isn´t much information, but I wanted to ask what do you think about it? Is it risky for me to try to learn and write it down in 3 months?
Thanks a lot!
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Probably the most important question to answer is what effects you need to include.
If it is all just linear elasticity, that's fine.
If plasticity or contact come into play, you can probably manage.
If your task is more complicated, it will be difficult.
And if your supervisor has no good knowledge of Abaqus, don't do it.
Never, ever take a thesis topic where no expert supervisor is available in case things go wrong. I've seen supervisors with no FEM experience hand out bachelor thesis topics that would actually be challenging as PhD thesis....
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Object while returning into atmosphere attends Hypersonic speed and to save what's inside, what material should be used to manufacture heat shield.
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Active cooling, such as transpiration cooling, in combination with UHTC is also a possible solution for particular missions. In the case of transpiration cooling, the UHTC wall would be porous. One of the interesting aspects here is that when an inert gas is injected though the pores, it can protect the UHTC from the outer hot gas and thereby prevent or reduce oxidation. As a result, the full potential of UHTC's high melting point can be exploited. A number of papers have been published on this from different groups.
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I am looking for paint or in an extreme case a coating material on inAtmosphere flying object to reduce the heat dissipation caused by aerodynamic heating for a relatively longer period, considering the speed range of upper hypersonic range.
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I can not find literature with comprehensive description about break downing of as-cast of CP Titanium after Vacuum Arc Remelting (VAR) process. what is best rout for hot rolling of CP titanium Gr.2? rolling in alpha area (about 700 C) is preferred in some cases, is it practical for 20 Kg ingot?
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Thank you dear Carsten Siemers
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When we slip our finger on a material, there exists friction between them and this friction differs when we slip our finger on another material. Since the characteristics of the materials such as roughness or stickiness are different, is there any model to provide the COF with respect to the material's characteristics?
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Dear all, find attached the Book recommanded by Dr. Pierluigi Traverso. My Regards
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We have grown h-BN in MOCVD and the as-grown sample showed the Raman peak (E2G) around 1367 cm-1 which is expected. However, after annealing at nitrogen at 1200o C the peak got shifted and we found it at 1346 cm-1 as shown in the figure. Interestingly, the same thing happened while annealing was done in oxygen too. However we found the intensity was too high. Could you please explain what these peaks are?
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In this other paper, the authors observe no changes on the Raman shift of the E2g band after annealing at high temperatures, just the peak becomes sharper till they heat at 1700ºC, when the peak dissapears, assuming a destruction of cristalinity.
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can anyone suggest a simulation software for studying the material properties?
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Thermal: Ansys
Mechanics: Abaqus or Catia
Programming: Visual-basic or Matlab
Multi-physics: Comsol.
...... etc.
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Ti Gr.7 (Ti-0.2Pd) is most corrosion res. grade of Ti alloys. for manufacturing of round bar we want compressing of sponge Ti by Pd, but weight of Pd is modest (about 60 gr in 30 Kg of round bar). What is best way for alloying and blending Ti with Pd for next briquetting and VAR (Vacuum Arc Remelting) step?
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I think you can consider also ball milling to mix Pd and Ti as powders, then remelting you can control the alloy ad you prefer,
best regards, Simone
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Hi everyone, could you please send me any reference you know about Titanium or Nickel based alloys fatigue behavior? or if there's an article comparing them both, Let me know.
thanks.
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Dear Dr. Mahdi Khodaparast,
titanium alloys are in competition with nickel-based alloys particularly in aerospace applications, where the lower density of titanium alloys is of advantage. For these applications fatigue strength is of primary importance.
I suggest to have a look at the following papers:
-Comparing fatigue behavior of titanium and nickel-based alloys
Joachim Albrecht
Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 263, Issue 2, Pages 176-186 (1999)
-An investigation of small fatigue crack behavior in titanium alloy TC4 under different stress levels
Lei Zhu, Xuteng Hu, Rong Jiang, Yingdong Song, Shoudao Qu
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering
Volume: 233 issue: 15, page(s): 5567-5578 (2019)
-The Very High Cycle Fatigue Behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy
M.Janecek, F.Nový, P.Harcuba, J.Stráský, L.Trsko, M.Mhaede and L.Wagner
ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, 128 (4) 2015
-Fatigue behavior in nickel-based superalloys: A literature review
L. Garimella, P. K. Liaw & D. L. Klarstrom
JOM, Vol. 49, Article number: 67 (1997)
-Microstructural aspects offatigue in Ni-base superalloys
Stephen D. Antolovich
Phil.Trans.R.Soc.A373: 20140128 (2014)
Enjoy reading and best regards, Pierluigi Traverso
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I have been googling "Rene 142" Mechanical Properties but i didnt find anything. need some help
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I am trying to simulate solar cell in AMPS .
But for simulation it needs material property like Relative Permittivity, Bandgap Eg (ev), Density of states in conduction band Nc (cm-3), Electron mobility μn (cm2/v/s), Hole mobility μp (cm2/v/s), Donor concentration Nd (cm-3), Acceptor concentration Na (cm-3), Affinity etc.
is there any easy way to get all the property of a individual material in a particular website or resource.
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Angular shape not spherical
Or
Other than spherical geometry.
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All particles are angular. A sphere is a mathematical concept only.
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Hi,
I have impregnated my activated carbons with a solution of PEI (Polyethyleneimine) using either methanol or water as solvent.
I was wondering how I could work out the amount of polymer which has been actually loaded onto my carbons after carrying out the wet impregnation procedure.
I've been recommended to use a gravimetric method (i.e. mass balance). However, in order to have a reliable figure, I'd need to make sure to completely remove the solvent (methanol or water) without losing any polymer. Could you suggest any suitable drying conditions in order to achieve that?
Also, could you recommend any alternative method? For instance in some papers authors performed TGA for impregnated and virgin carbons and worked out the actual PEI loading as difference in their volatiles content (assuming that the excess of volatiles in the impregnated sample is due to the polymer decomposition). Which type of temperature programme could I use in this case?
Thanks,
Antonio
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You can remove most of the moisture by freeze drying.
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Suppose that we have a strip of piezoelectric material and this strip is subjected to a load on its surface and it is required to calculate the voltage across the thickness of the strip. What are the steps to do this? What assumptions should be made regarding the constitutive relations?
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The attached PDF file contains the piezoelectric and pyroelectric output equations.
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The unit of Tafel slopes are mV/decade (for cathodic and anodic slopes).
What mean the decade?!
is it (log scale) only ?!
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