Science topic

Masks - Science topic

Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)
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Publications related to Masks (10,000)
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Photo composition is one of the most important factors in the aesthetics of photographs. As a popular application, composition recommendation for a photo focusing on a specific subject has been ignored by recent deep-learning-based composition recommendation approaches. In this paper, we propose a subject-aware image composition recommendation meth...
Article
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Specular highlight detection and removal is a fundamental problem in computer vision and image processing. In this paper, we present an efficient end-to-end deep learning model for automatically detecting and removing specular highlights in a single image. In particular, an encoder—decoder network is utilized to detect specular highlights, and then...
Article
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Face mask wearing was an important preventative strategy for the transmission of the COVID-19 virus. However, the effects that occluding the mouth and nose area with surgical masks could have on young children’s language processing and emotion recognition skills have received little investigation. To evaluate the possible effects, the current study...
Conference Paper
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In smart homes, when an actuator's state changes, it sends an event notification to the IoT hub to report this change (e.g., the door is unlocked). Prior works have shown that event notifications are vulnerable to spoofing and masking attacks. In event spoofing, an adversary reports to the IoT hub a fake event notification that did not physically o...
Article
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The growth of abnormal cells in the brain's tissue causes brain tumors. Brain tumors are considered one of the most dangerous disorders in children and adults. It develops quickly, and the patient's survival prospects are slim if not appropriately treated. Proper treatment planning and precise diagnoses are essential to improving a patient's life e...
Article
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Building footprint is a primary dataset of an urban geographic information system (GIS) database. Therefore, it is essential to establish a robust and automated framework for large-scale building extraction. However, the characteristic of remote sensing images complicates the application of the instance segmentation method based on the Mask R-CNN m...
Chapter
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Bridges are critical to the functioning of any transport network and the failure of a bridge can have devastating effects, not only in relation to fatalities or damage associated directly with the collapse, but also to the functioning of the transport network in the aftermath. Traditional methods for inspection and monitoring of bridges are labor-i...
Chapter
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This article presents an inexpensive artificial intelligence solution aimed at increasing indoor safety of COVID-19, including a number of important aspects: (1) breakdown of the process (2) Method for mask identification (3). Assessment methodology of social distancing The Arduino Uno sensor system uses an infrasound sensor or heat camera, whereas...
Article
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One of the main issues with deep learning is the need of a significant number of samples. We intend to address this problem in the field of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), specifically in the context of Diabetic Macular Edema (DME). This pathology represents one of the main causes of blindness in developed countries and, due to the capturing di...
Article
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In the post-COVID scenario, the annual increase in plastic waste has taken an upsurge due to the disposal of plastic masks, gloves and other protective equipment. To reduce the plastic load ending up in landfills and oceans or dumped at roadsides, the potential of using plastic polymers in different sectors has been investigated over the years lead...
Article
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Camouflaging may be characterized as a set of actions and strategies more or less consciously adopted by some autistic people to navigate the neurotypical social world. Despite the increased interest that this phenomenon has garnered, its nature remains elusive and in need of conceptual clarification. In this paper, we aim to put forward an inclusi...
Article
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Droughts affect the interannual variability of global land carbon fluxes and are expected to exert widespread impacts on the carbon cycle given a future climate with more intense and frequent droughts. Evidence indicates that the impacts of droughts on the carbon cycle vary in different seasons, but a quantitative examination of the seasonal differ...
Article
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Machine learning and computer vision techniques have grown rapidly in recent years due to their automation, suitability, and ability to generate astounding results. Hence, in this paper, we survey the key studies that are published between 2014 and 2022, showcasing the different machine learning algorithms researchers have used to segment the liver...
Article
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Snow plays a crucial role in the climate. In particular, snow controls the surface temperature and stabilizes the energy budget due to its spectral characteristics. However, snow can be affected by climate change. If the snow cover extent (SCE) diminishes due to global warming, the rate of introducing radiance to the surface increases because non-s...
Article
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Membrane materials might be used for face protection because they can decontaminate the inhaled air from particle pollution and viruses like the SARS-Cov0-2 which damages our respiration system. In this study, plyethersulfone membranes (PES) were synthesized with green solvent at room temperature and its filtration effectiveness was investigated ag...
Article
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This study aimed to evaluate VHP as a decontamination method for decontaminating reusable PAPR; determine if PAPR is compatible with VHP; and determine how long it takes for hydrogen peroxide to off-gas for the mask to be safe for reuse. Off-gassing validation study which consisted of doing three VHP decontamination processes followed by three Off-...
Article
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Reconstructing the missing data for cloud/shadow-covered optical satellite images has great significance for enhancing the data availability and multi-temporal analysis. In this study, we proposed a deep-learning-based method for cloud/shadow-covered missing data reconstruction for time-series Landsat images. Central to this method is the combined...
Article
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Objectives IgA Nephropathy (IgAN) is common chronic kidney disease with a high incidence. This study aims to analyze comprehensively therapeutic clinical trials for IgAN registered on ClinicalTrials.gov. Methods Therapeutic trials for IgAN registered on ClinicalTrials.gov. up to 15 August 2021 were obtained. The general characteristics, features o...
Article
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Launched in 2017 the Green Belt and Road policy acts as an important upgrade to China’s recent core foreign strategy (i.e., the Belt and Road Initiative) and aims to balance the economic development and environmental harmony in countries along the routes. In this paper, we take the implementation of this green policy as a quasi-natural experiment a...
Article
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Although monoclonal antibodies have greatly improved cancer therapy, they can trigger side effects due to on-target, off-tumor toxicity. Over the past decade, strategies have emerged to successfully mask the antigen-binding site of antibodies, such that they are only activated at the relevant site, for example, after proteolytic cleavage. However,...
Article
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Background More effective vaccine candidates against variants of concern as a booster dose are needed in people primed with two-dose inactivated COVID-19 vaccines. Methods This randomised, double-blinded, investigator-initiated phase 2 trial aims to evaluate immunogenicity, durability, and safety of an mRNA vaccine candidate (RQ3013) and three othe...
Conference Paper
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Target speaker extraction (TSE) aims to mimic human selective attention to extracting our interested voice from the multi-talker environment. Time-domain methods represented by SpEx+ have promoted the process of TSE tasks while residual noise, squeaks, and over-suppression still exist in the extracted speech. In this paper, we explore three ways to...
Article
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A major environmental issue of the rise in garment production is a steep increase of textile waste. At the same time, recycling technologies appear to be promising avenues for sustainability transitions of the fashion industry. This article examines the chances and challenges of scaling recycling technologies for textiles and considers the collecti...
Article
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The aim of this study is to develop and evaluate an automated filter tester based on an electrostatic counter for determining penetration or filter efficiency and pressure drop of surgical masks and N95/KN95/KF94/FFP masks. The prototype of the automated filter tester was built based on the TIS 2424-2562 and TIS 2480-2562 standards and experimental...
Article
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The goal of this study was to use light scattering and electrostatic particle counters to evaluate the particle filtration efficiency of surgical masks. Samples of surgical masks that have been approved by the FDA were chosen for testing in this study. Particle filtration efficiency was measured using polystyrene latex spherical particles with diam...
Article
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Background The COVID-19 pandemic caused four waves of infection in Israel until October 2021. Israel was the first country to offer vaccinations to all the adult population followed by boosters. This study addresses how mortality rates reflect the effects of the pandemic. Methods Total mortality rates and rates of mortality without COVID-19 deaths...
Article
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To slow the spread of COVID-19, many people now wear face masks in public. Face masks impair our ability to identify faces, which can cause problems for professional staff who identify offenders or members of the public. Here, we investigate whether performance on a masked face matching task can be improved by training participants to compare diagn...
Article
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Background COVID-19 has affected millions of people worldwide. Clinical manifestations range from severe cases with lethal outcome to mild or asymptomatic cases. Although the proportion of infected individuals does not differ between sexes, men are more susceptible to severe COVID-19, with a higher risk of death than women. Also, men are pointed ou...
Article
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BACKGROUND Son preference is culturally rooted across generations in India. While the social and economic implications of son preference are widely acknowledged, there is little evidence on spatial heterogeneity, especially at the district level. OBJECTIVE To derive estimates of son preference for the 640 districts of India and examine spatial het...
Article
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Objective Portable gas exchange instruments allow the assessment of peak oxygen uptake (V̇O 2peak ) but are often bulky, expensive and require wearing a face mask thereby limiting their routine application. A newly developed miniaturized headset (VitaScale, Nuremberg, Germany) may overcome these barriers and allow measuring V̇O 2peak without applyi...
Article
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Facial expressions provide key information for successful social interactions. Recent research finds that accurate perception of emotion expressions decreases when faces are presented with face masks. What is unknown is how individual differences in social intelligence may influence perception of masked emotion expressions. In this study, participa...
Article
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Over the past two years, face masks have been a critical tool for preventing the spread of COVID-19. While previous studies have examined the effects of masks on speech recognition, much of this work was conducted early in the pandemic. Given that human listeners are able to adapt to a wide variety of novel contexts in speech perception, an open qu...
Article
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Much health communication during the COVID-19 pandemic has been designed to persuade people more than to inform them. For example, messages like “masks save lives” are intended to compel people to wear face masks, not to enable them to make an informed decision about whether to wear a face mask or to understand the justification for a mask mandate....
Article
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Background To evaluate the efficacy of retinal photography obtained by undergraduate students using a smartphone-based device in screening and early diagnosing diabetic retinopathy (DR) . Methods We carried out an open prospective study with ninety-nine diabetic patients (194 eyes), who were submitted to an ophthalmological examination in which un...
Article
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Machine vision faces bottlenecks in computing power consumption and large amounts of data. Although opto-electronic hybrid neural networks can provide assistance, they usually have complex structures and are highly dependent on a coherent light source; therefore, they are not suitable for natural lighting environment applications. In this paper, we...
Article
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Surgical face masks waste is a source of microplastics (polymer fibres) and inorganic and organic compounds potentially hazardous for aquatic organisms during degradation in water. The monthly use of face masks in the world is about 129 billion for 7.8 billion people. Therefore, in this contribution the utilization of hazardous surgical face masks...
Article
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Speech masking is a technique used for protecting speech confidentiality, which is realised by adding maskers to cover target speech. Numerous studies have demonstrated the native and non-native differences in perceiving masked speech, but few have compared the effect of masker types from the perspective of effectiveness of speech privacy and their...
Article
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This paper describes a new chaotic jerk system based on two different nonlinear functions. The modified signum and rectangular functions are incorporated into the system at different positions. The system can generate double-scroll and new four-scroll chaotic attractors by adjusting only one coefficient (k). The chaotic behaviors of the proposed sy...
Article
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Slips are side-shoots or fruit with large crowns that grow from buds on the pineapple ( Ananas comosus L.) peduncle. The slips are widely used for pineapple vegetative propagation when crowns are left attached to the fruit that is marketed. There is a difference between the two most popular low-acid pineapple hybrids grown worldwide. The ‘Pineapple...
Article
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Floating markets are not only a unique type of market but also sustainable tourist attractions. The literature focuses on both of floating market Covid-19 preventive measures and tourist' satisfaction dimensions. The study is using quantitative research by concentrated on the tourist's satisfaction of an anonymous Floating Market in Nakhon Pathom p...
Article
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The ratio between arterial blood partial pressure of oxygen and fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO 2 /FiO 2 ) was largely used for grading and managing the respiratory failure in non-mechanically ventilated COVID-19. In these patients, the assessment of the true FiO 2 in the inspired mixture may be difficult with consequent inaccuracies in PaO 2 /FiO...
Article
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Objective Menopausal status impacts risk for many health outcomes. However, factors including hysterectomy without oophorectomy and Menopausal Hormone Therapy (MHT) can mask menopause, affecting reliability of self-reported menopausal status in surveys. We describe a step-by-step algorithm for classifying menopausal status using: directly self-repo...
Article
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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected all healthcare systems worldwide. Effective COVID-19 preventive measures, including wearing a mask, hand washing, avoiding the “Three Cs”, and city lockdowns, could decrease other infectious diseases. The case numbers of the major infectious diseases in Thailand were investigated (pneumo...
Conference Paper
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This work proposes a method to estimate mobile robot rotation using spherical moments and machine learning. A polynomial fisheye camera model has been used to generate each image considering flying camera along a pre-planned trajectory. A dataset with 2400 images is created and labeled using Blender. The images are processed before it is fed into t...
Article
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Climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies are gaining visibility and support. Decision-makers are defending the extension of large infrastructures that are low greenhouse gas (GHG) emitters, as a way to act quickly and massively without calling into question existing economic models. This situation depoliticizes these projects, masking th...
Article
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Cover enhancement is an important adversarial steganography method used to enhance the security of image steganography, which utilizes adversarial perturbations to attack deep learning-based steganalyzers. However, current adversarial steganography methods tend to introduce unexpected and detectable artifacts without considering the characteristics...
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While compound weather and climate events (CEs) can lead to significant socioeconomic consequences, their response to climate change is mostly unexplored. We report the first multi-model assessment of future changes in return periods for the co-occurrence of heatwaves and drought, and extreme winds and precipitation based on the Coupled Model Inter...
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This research investigates the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on consumers’ perspectives of beauty and individual cosmetic products. Since the first confirmed case of COVID-19 was announced on December 31st, 2019, the search volumes of Google News have been updated and information on confirmed cases of the disease has been collected. This study us...
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Background To evaluate whether the specific choroidal neovascularization (CNV) characteristics measured using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) can predict the 6-month prognosis of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy. Methods Patients with type 1, type...
Article
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The thickness detection of quantum well has always been the research focus, especially for In <sub xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">x</sub> Ga <sub xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">1-x</sub> As-based indium-rich cluster (IRC) structure,...
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Intensive pesticide use increased concern about the potential acute and chronic health effects of pesticides in general and among applicators in particular. This study aims to explore occupational and environmental pesticide exposure and health risks among pesticide applicators and residents. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in...
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Background Health, social and economic crises triggered by the Coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19) can derail progress and achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. This commentary analyses the complex nexus of multi-dimensional impacts of the pandemic on people, prosperity, planet, partnership and peace. From our analysis, we generate...
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span lang="EN-US">The decision on school reopening has evoked mixed reactions from parents as they become nervous regarding this action and are uncertain to send their children to school. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the teachers’ perspectives on the readiness and challenges of school reopening in Malaysia. A study was conducted th...
Article
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In this article, an innovative algorithm for instance segmentation of wires called Ariadne+ is presented. Although vastly present in many manufacturing environments, the perception and manipulation of wires is still an open problem for robotic applications. Wires are deformable linear objects lacking of any specific shape, color, and feature. The p...
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Identifying breast cancer utilizing artificial intelligence technologies is valuable and has a great influence on the early detection of diseases. It also can save humanity by giving them a better chance to be treated in the earlier stages of cancer. During the last decade, deep neural networks (DNN) and machine learning (ML) systems have been...
Article
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Commercially available children’s cloth masks range widely in material type and fabric structures, methods of construction, layering, and shape, and there is a lack of sizing systems, anthropometric data or guidelines specifically targeting the fit assessment and design of cloth face masks for children 4-6 years old. To better identify and understa...
Article
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Mask-wearing during the COVID-19 pandemic has prompted a growing interest in the functional impact of masks on speech and communication. Prior work has shown that masks dampen sound, impede visual communication cues, and reduce intelligibility. However, more work is needed to understand how speakers change their speech while wearing a mask and to i...