Requirements Engineering

Requirements Engineering

  • James O Coplien added an answer:
    Is it possible to change the software quality after it has been compiled?

    Is it possible to change to software quality like performance, security and etc. after its deployed? 

    Now we have cloud computing, which makes it possible for fast publishing the service and change its environments based on what the user need, does it sound to say that is also possible to plug in quality to existing service to meet the user non-functional requirements?

    James O Coplien

    I'd like to know what you mean by "quality" and "after compiling" before fully answering. If you mean conformance to requirements, the only way you can improve a compiled version of the software is to wrap it in other software that disables some of its functionality (e.g., by limiting ranges on parameter values, controlling the sequence in which APIs are invoked, or excising some APIs altogether). This doesn't change the requirements conformance of the software component itself but may improve the quality of the system in which it is embedded. The extreme case would be to take a bad module and to put it together with another module that completely replaces its functionality. Though the software is part of the deliverable it is never called, its function having been taken over by the surrogate.

    If you embed that software into software that takes none of these approaches, you can only *lower* the overall quality. Think of a hardware analogy: if a board has just one badly designed integrated circuit that has a certain number of failures in a trillion (FITs), adding more chips will only cause their FIT values to lower the end-to-end reliability — unless a high-reliability component is used to hide/wrap the faults of the one under consideration.

  • Gagandeep SIngh Narula added an answer:
    What are the challenging issues of ontology engineering in Non-functional requirements elicitation and specification?

    In literature, I found many approaches that deal with NFRs including Ontology based approach. I found issues related to ontology engineering viz. merging mapping, expressiveness, among others and issues in NFRs viz. conflict, integrity, etc. but I have some confusion regarding issues in ontology engineering in NFRs elicitation and specification. I am not clear what kind of issues regarding ontology in NFRs that we can consider as a challenging task for research work. Please provide your valuable guidance regarding this. Hopefully waiting for your reply. It will help me a lot.

    Thanking you, 

    Gagandeep SIngh Narula

    There are tools for automatic ontology merging and mapping like PROMPT, Chimaera. You can connect PROMPT with Protege

  • Victor Ribeiro added an answer:
    Who coined the term "non-functional requirement"?
    The currently earliest paper I found containing the term is by Yeh and Zave (1). In (2), Zave speaks of non-logical properties.

    (1) R. T. Yeh and P. Zave, “Specifying software requirements,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 68, no. 9, pp. 1077–1085, 1980.
    (2) P. Zave, “A comprehensive approach to requirements problems,” presented at the Computer Software and Applications Conference, 1979. Proceedings. COMPSAC 79. The IEEE Computer Society's Third International, 1979, pp. 117–122.
    (3) J. Mylopoulos, L. Chung, and B. Nixon, “Representing and using nonfunctional requirements: a process-oriented approach,” IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 483–497, 1992.

    Am I on the right path? Different suggestions are welcome.
    Victor Ribeiro

    Do you have the paper  R. T. Yeh, “Requirements Analysis - A Management Perspective”?

    Could you send me?

  • Srikanth Kavirayani added an answer:
    Can we write requirements through Simulink Specification Models? If so, can they be used as inputs to Simulink design models?

    Models are considered as requirements.  A new set of models known as specification models in Simulink by mathworks are introduced. My question is can we use these specification models as requirements rather than having requirements in the form of text. 

    Srikanth Kavirayani

    It is may be easier to script the requirements as a configuration file and load the variables to workspace and then proceed to simulink.

  • Ana Pinto added an answer:
    Who defined the term 'requirement' for the first time?
    Does anyone know who the first (systems-, software-, ...) engineer was to coin this term? Merriam-Webster says the term has been around since 1662.

    I will soon be looking at the paper titled “Conceptual models for determining information requirements” by J. C. Miller, 1964, but I don't know if this is a match yet.

    The first software engineering paper to implicitly define the term was presented by Royce in 1970.
    W. W. Royce, “Managing the development of large software systems,” presented at the IEEE WESCON, 1970, pp. 1–9.

    The first software engineering paper to dedicate a section to the term was the one by Bell and Thayer of 1976.
    T. E. Bell and T. A. Thayer, “Software requirements: Are they really a problem?,” presented at the 2nd international conference on Software engineering, San Francisco, California, United States, 1976, pp. 61–68.

    Do you know earlier ones?
    Ana Pinto

    The word 'requirement,' according to the OED is first attested in English in 1530. But its first meaning and the second one are obsolete today. The 3rd meaning, which is the PE one, is first attested, again according to the OED, in 1662.
    1. The act of requiring; a requisition, request.
    1530 Gardiner in Froude Hist. Eng. (1881) I. 290 My Lord Cardinal, that obtained his legacy by our late Sovereign Lord's requirements at Rome.
    2. The fact of being requisite; necessity. Obs.1
    1658_9 in Burton's Diary (1828) III. 248 Mr. Speaker would not without requirement mention the name Danvers.
    3. That which is required or needed; a want, need.
    1662 Glanvill Lux Orient. xiii. 125 For this Justice is but the distributing to every thing according to the requirements of its nature.

  • Nahid Hajizadeh added an answer:
    Can anyone please suggest a tool for drawing feature tree for a software product line?

    I need to draw a feature tree. I have been trying to use Feature IDE for Eclipse. But it is not working. Please suggest me some other tool that I can use for creating the feature diagram of a Software Product Line. Dependency relations such as optional feature, mandatory feature, cardinality etc. should also be shown in the diagram.

    Nahid Hajizadeh

    try fmp ( or EMF (

    EMF most recommended.

  • Marat Abilov added an answer:
    Today there are a lot of RE tools, but a small number of them use fine - gained use case specification.
    Few of these tools support transformations from use case models to another analysis or design model. What is your opnion on why?
  • Shruti Jaiswal added an answer:
    How can we validate a research in Requirements Engineering?

    Actually I am working in Security Testing, so how to get some data set for validation. The data set that I require must contain the threats/attack with their frequency and point of attack for a particular organization/website.   

    Shruti Jaiswal

    thanks Alfredo Lascano, Anurag Goswami, Naoufel Boulila for your supportive and valuable reply

  • Omar S. Gómez added an answer:
    Are there any studies on complexity/comprehension rankings for UML diagrams?

    Do you know any studies that present rankings for complexity/comprehension for all UML diagrams, e.g. how class diagram ranks among all or structural diagrams, how statecharts rank among all/behavioral diagrams?

    Omar S. Gómez


    Otero and Dolado have reported some experiments where comprehension is examined in UML dynamic models.



    Otero, M. C. & Dolado, J. J. An Initial Experimental Assessment of the Dynamic Modelling in UML Empirical Softw. Engg., Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002, 7, 27-47

    Otero, M. C. & Dolado, J. J. Evaluation of the comprehension of the dynamic modeling in UML Information and Software Technology, 2004, 46, 35 - 53

  • Selvarajah Thuseethan added an answer:
    What role does usability evaluation play in testing software especially when it has to do with human-computer interaction?
    In human computer interaction, users of software can provide feedback on the performance of a particular software. What role does usability evaluation play in ascertaining the production of high-quality software?
    Selvarajah Thuseethan

    Refer the following article

  • Hasnain Iqbal Butt added an answer:
    What are the major online collaborative requirement gathering techniques in software requirement engineering?

    Hi all,

    What are the major online collaborative requirement gathering techniques in specifically software requirement engineering? As we can see many of these like; Questionnaire forms, E-mail, Discussion Board, and conducting Polls etc.

    Hasnain Iqbal Butt

    @Eliab: I visited Polarion software for requirements management portal. It's good one technique for gathering requirements.

  • Daune West added an answer:
    Can anyone point me to the best papers describing 'non-functional' or 'soft' requirements please?
    I'm interested in the link between knowledge elicitation and requirements analysis/elicitation and, in particular, the role of 'soft' or 'non-functional' requirements.
    Daune West

    Florian, thank you very much for this - I know these authors' older papers on this but I havent read this one - many thanks for pointing it out to me

  • Ausberto S. Castro Vera added an answer:
    Do know you any tool to automatically classify requirements?

    I am looking for a tool that automates the classification of requirements (into categorise like functional requirements, data constraints, usability requirements, security, look-and-feel...). I've seen a number of papers in requirements engineering describing classification techniques. However their tools are not made available.

    I am wondering if you know any of such classification tools available to download?


    Ausberto S. Castro Vera

    Visual Paradigm

  • Mehrpooya Ahmadalinejad added an answer:
    Can anyone provide me information about ISO 24766:2009 (Guide for requirements engineering tool capabilities)?

    A technical Review or a Summary note needed!

    Mehrpooya Ahmadalinejad

    @reza rasekhi : I need Some Information that leaks from the Standard ! You know in our Situation We can,t  Access to Purchase it !

  • Maya Daneva added an answer:
    Are there any reference models or frameworks in Requirement Engineering newer than E. Geisberger REM (2003) for information Systems?

    I Found some roadmaps in Pressman& Sommerville books. 

  • Gayane Sedrakyan added an answer:
    Are there any well-known tools to assist with testing business requirements written in natural language?

    Are there any tools to assist with checking the testability of requirements?

    Any tools to support writing/generating test scenarios out of requirements?

    Any methodologies/publications behind?

    Gayane Sedrakyan

    Dear Hanlie

    Thanks for your suggestion. I did a quick look and found a series of products features of which include requirements engineering among others. Could you be more specific about which product is used for test generation specifically? Do you also perhaps know if it's open source and/or available under educational license?

  • Yang Jia added an answer:
    What are the best conceptual model simulation tools based on your experience?

    Is it an open source tool?

    What modeling language/method/diagrams does it use?

    What type of simulation is that, e.g. symbolic animation, prototyping, ...?

    Research methodologies/publications behind?

    Yang Jia

    gproms maybe

  • Kestutis Kapocius added an answer:
    What is your opinion on the use of business vocabularies (glossaries) in various information systems/software projects?
    As you may have noticed, inclusion of business vocabularies (also referred to as glossaries) into the project activities is trending, yet this process is often lacking objective feedback and consolidated opinion from the experts and industry. Do we really need specialized/additional solutions for that? If you are working in the field of business analysis, business modeling, requirements engineering, IS design or development, I would like to hear your opinion!

    Or better yet, please consider filling out an anonymous five minute survey that is being conducted by the Center of Information Systems Design Technologies of Kaunas University of Technology and is available at
    On the last page of the survey, there is an option to leave extended feedback, if you wish to do so. Each answer is extremely valuable to us!

    We would appreciate your response by March 24th. Feel free to also forward it to your fellow colleagues, both academicians and practitioners. And big thanks to all of those who have already contributed!

    I must also add that this survey is part of research that we plan to publish in the form of a paper, if we get enough feedback (which is harder to achieve than we thought). So you will be the first to know when it happens!
    Kestutis Kapocius

    Just a brief update: the paper has been made available on IEEE Xplore. Just search my last name, there won't be much to choose from. And if you can't access this database but still want to see the paper, let me know.

  • Marat Abilov added an answer:
    What Requirements Engineering Modeling Language do you know? In particular for Software Product Lines?
    The aim of the question is gather information about the Modeling Languages used by Requirements Engineering community and in particular for Software Product Lines in Domain Engineering phase.
  • Noor Bakar added an answer:
    Is there anybody here working on feature extraction from natural languages requirement specifications for reuse?
    My preliminary data analysis is available here. Hope to get response from SoftwareEngineering Communities in here.
    Noor Bakar

    Maya, Thanks for your reply!! That is a very helpful link that you have for us. I will definitely join the forum. See you there!

  • Taghi Javdani Gandomani added an answer:
    What are the early cost estimation techniques used for software cost estimation?
    I want to know about the cost estimation techniques used in software cost estimation at present. What are the early, immediate, instant or emergency cost estimation techniques?
    Taghi Javdani Gandomani

    There in no instant cost estimation unless you have a well-defined history of your previous estimations and you have enough knowledge about the future project in terms of requirements, limitations, required platform and infrastructure. 

  • Marelis Virgen Pérez added an answer:
    Is anyone interested in Requirement Engineering (Pattern to Requirement Statements)?
    I am starting a RG Project to work through an example for developing an approach to using requirement pattern concepts, UML profiles, and a UML CASE tool to generate requirement statements.

    If interested please let me know, this will be open to anyone who wants to participate, or check on our progress,
    Marelis Virgen Pérez

    I'm working on the topic of how to prioritize non-functional requirements for critical software, anyone can help me????????

  • Ken Robinson added an answer:
    Is it possible to do a software cost estimation before requirement collection?
    Software development is a big issue in the price of the software. For example, say someone asked how much money it took to make a shop management software (or any software). They did not say anything about this software but asked only how much it cost (without requirement). But what could be the answer, because without the necessary information it can't be answered. In the case of software development many have a cost estimation but have no way to do a software development cost estimation without requirement collection. Is this also a problem you have come across? What is your advice on this situation?
    Ken Robinson

    Let me add a comment that doesn't strongly depend on the process used, or alternatively perhaps the process doesn't matter.

    I don't have recent data, but not that long ago somewhere around 85% of very large software projects (we're talking $multimillion) failed due to failure to satisfy the requirements.  Essentially this means that many projects proceed without precise requirements; most likely some vague ideas about what is required.  Further, requirements are informal, but there satisfaction needs to be able to be verified in the implementation.  The latter is, of course, usually not done effectively.

    It seems to me that this can only be effectively done using rigorous, formal verification.  But that is rarely done.  For a technique that could be used, see Event-B.

About Requirements Engineering

Requirements engineering (RE) is a systems and software engineering process which covers all of the activities involved in discovering, documenting and maintaining a set of requirements for a computer-based system.

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