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A common threshold for standardized coefficients in structural equation models is 0.1. But is this also valid for first difference models?
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Jochen Wilhelm I agree very much with your statement that "you should better do more research on the meaning of the variable you are actually analyzing." I think that this is generally desirable for many studies. I also agree that there is a tendency in the social sciences to overemphasize standardized coefficients and to not even report unstandardized coefficients. That is very unfortunate in my opinion, as I believe both are important and have their place.
That being said, there are fields (mine included: psychology) where we are dealing with variables that simply do not have an intuitive metric. Many variables are based on test or questionnaire sum or average scores. People use different tests/questionnaires with different metrics/scoring rules in different studies. What does it mean when, for example, subjective well-being is expected to change by 2.57 for every one-unit change in self-rated health and by 1.24 for every one-unit change in extraversion when self rated health is measured on a 0 - 10 scale and extraversion ranges between 20 and 50?
Standardized estimates can give us a better sense for the "strength" of influence/association in the presence of other predictors than unstandardized coefficients when variables have such arbitrary and not widely agreed upon metrics. The interpretation in standard deviation (SD) units is not completely useless in my opinion, especially since we operate a lot with SD units also in the context of other effect size measures such as Cohen's d. It allows us (often, not always) to see fairly quickly which variables are relatively more important as predictors of an outcome--we may not care so much about the absolute/concrete interpretation or magnitude of a standardized coefficient, but it does matter whether it is .1 or .6.
In addition, in the context of latent variable regression or path models (i.e., structural equation models), unstandardized paths between latent variables often have an even more arbitrary interpretation as there are different ways to identify/fix latent variable scales (e.g., by using a reference indicator or by standardizing the latent variable to a variance of 1). Regardless of the scaling of the latent variables, the standardized coefficients will generally be the same.
This does not mean that I recommend standardized coefficients over unstandardized coefficients. Variance dependence and (non-)comparability across studies/different populations are important issues/drawbacks of standardized coefficients. Unstandardized coefficients should always be reported as well, and they are very useful when variables have clear/intuitive/known metrics such as, for example, income in dollar, age, number of siblings (or pretty much any count), IQ scores, etc. Unstandardized coefficients are also preferable for making comparisons across groups/populations/studies that used the same variables. I would always report both unstandardized and standardized coefficients along with standard errors and, if possible, confidence intervals.
I believe there are many examples of regression or path models in psychology for which standardized coefficients were reported and that did advance our knowledge regarding which variables are more important than others in predicting an outcome.
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Particularly UK and Switzerland from 2020 onwards
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Thanks very much
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I am currently researching on the topic of Cryptocurrency Price prediction. If some want to collaborate they are welcomed. If someone wants to give their precious suggestions they are welcomed as well.
Looking forward to connect with best researchers.
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I have attempted this problem previously using AI techniques for exploration purposes. However, if you were using AI, you might get good results in prediction, but it all depends on the available data and the period of time you are considering. For example, if you are taking a period of time where the price volatility is high, probably your model would fail in prediction. Similarly, your model will be mediocre if your data has only prices neglecting other economic factors.
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If not forecasting, would you replace the forecast with a foresight prediction method?
We are entering the new year 2022 and it is at the turn of the year that many macroeconomic and microeconomic forecasts for individual markets and industries appear. On the other hand, companies listed on the stock exchange are happy to boast of their potential to create value in the first quarter of the year, present attractive forecasts of increasing sales, acquiring new customers and profits in the markets ... to tempt new investors into shares. Is it not sometimes as Peter Drucker stated years ago?
„The best way to predict the future is to create it.”
“Time is the scarcest resource. Unless it is managed, nothing else can be managed.”
What do you think about forecasting and planning the future?
I've added some inspirational leads
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Economic forecasting is the process of attempting to predict the future condition of the economy using a combination of widely followed indicators. Government officials and business managers use economic forecasts to determine fiscal and monetary policies and plan future operating activities, respectively.
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With the fast development of sodium-ion batteries (starting from ~2010.), is it possible that in the near future market share of Na-ion became comparable with today's state-of-the-art Li-ion counterpart?
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Na ion battery may not feasible for vehicle. it can take space of renewable storage for the grid support during uncertainty or possible net-zero trigate. Also, it has potential of research in this area to improve the power density for the EV market.
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There are many publications about the proliferation of private labels over the last years (for example, measured by market shares). But is this proliferation going on and on? Or has a new balance emerged? And if so, how can retailers and industry influence this competition? Or does the proliferation take place 'covertly'? For example, via high-quality or sustainable private labels.
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A vet good analytical question. Through my analysis of current research, this still differs from country to country. However, the attached article provides greater insights and future research directions for private labels. Lastly, as grocery retailers invest in innovation, there is room for an even more upward trajectory.
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My interest is on seed and linking it to the grain market
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Use different spatial soil maps according to land type and categories crops according to land type. Determine the effect of climate change on soil fertility and productivity in different regions of your study area.
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Can you suggest papers (2018-2021) about "The Impact of Internet Advertising on consumers behavior"?
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Dear Mamia,
I found it interesting:
Consumer Use of “Dr Google”: A Survey on Health Information-Seeking Behaviors and Navigational Needs
Kind regards, Alina
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Should the Federal Reserve Bank in the US be the main institution shaping and leading pro-growth active state interventionism?
In principle, YES, but it should be specified precisely the framework for a possible anti-crisis launch and implementation of the policy of active state intervention. The Federal Reserve Bank should continue to fulfill its current functions. In this respect, it is the most important institution in the US in terms of maintaining financial stability in the banking system and indirectly in the entire financial system. In addition, indirectly supports inter-branch, transactional, market, business and cross-border trade and capital flows. As the Federal Reserve advises on the issue of maintaining financial stability, it also translates into the entire US economy and also to a large extent on the entire global economy while the economy The US is recognized as a key global player. On the other hand, the Federal Reserve Bank, using its monetary policy instruments and the possibility of buying back lost commercial loans and junk securities, should focus on stabilizing the situation on the financial markets rather than on actively stimulating demand for securities, which may generate another global one in the long run. financial crisis. I examined this problem and described it in my scientific publications.
In view of the above, the current question is: Should the Federal Reserve Bank in the US be the main institution shaping and leading pro-growth active state interventionism?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
Dear Friends and Colleagues of RG,
The issue of the impact of monetary policy on the stability of financial systems in the context of the global financial crisis is described in the publication:
I invite you to discussion and cooperation.
Best wishes
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Recent financial and economic crises have shown that the interventionist, anti-crisis, lenient monetary policy consisting in lowering interest rates and the intervention purchase of lost assets from commercial banks from commercial banks (lost and worthless loans, junk securities) with the highest level of credit risk turned out to be effective as an instrument of anti-crisis policy, the aim of which is to limit the scale of unemployment growth, decrease in liquidity in the financial system, limit the scale of economic recession, etc. I described these issues in my publications on my Research Gate profile.
What do you think about this topic?
I invite you to the discussion,
Thank you very much,
Greetings,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Hi
I'm working on the mobile game market. I want to calculate advertisement effect & word of mouth effect separately in my model.
My tools are System Dynamics & Vensim.
Could you please help me or advice me how to calculate these effects better?
Thanks a lot
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Hello
Yes, My project was ended 10 months ago.
Thanks for your answer
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The unpacked-food stores (Unverpackt-Läden) got attention in Germany since 2014. There are different studies related to unpacked-food stores in Germany ( Splendid, PWC, and many articles) but none of them could able to give a clear insight on Market Size of the unpacked-food stores in Germany. I am very interested to know how to calculate the market size for Unpacked-Food Store in Germany.
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I appreciate Nayan Kadam for the valuable and demanding topic. Would be interested to know as well.
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Please can you list produce initial price before the covid and the price after the covid
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Interesting Question Augustina Aboagye
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I'm conducting a market audit regarding ERP solutions. I'm looking for quality research work related to PESTEL analysis. I'm glad if you can recommend me some high-quality research work. Thank you in advance.
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With Covid19, we have seen digital transformation happening so much faster: everyone able to do this was suddenly working from home, using the internet and the available digital access and platforms. Education was also put on hold unless it moved online: online-school, online-education got a tremendous stimulus.
Now, what is fueling the data economy, what is the "new green oil" of this digitally transformed world? It's DATA, and it's data fairly priced for the stakeholders, starting with identified data owners.
Please see here a link to some books on the subject, reviewing the rational for data use in every aspect of life, business, markets, society, and looking at the creation of Data Market Places, as well as diving into the detailed equations of how to price and how to make it happen in economic terms, as Data Microeconomics:
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Exactly. However, more planning is needed from now own. Thank you so much for your enlightening and innovative thoughts
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I am doing market research for Autism and IT-market in India. Now I am interested to combine the data of Autism and IT-Market. Which strategic or marketing model would you like to recommend?
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Following.
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Has the relocation of large factories from highly developed countries to countries with cheaper labor costs caused unfavorable situations of rising unemployment in some regions in your countries?
It turned out that from the global financial crisis of 2008, those countries in which the domestic industry was more developed faster.
Some industries, including large factories, have been expatriated to countries with cheaper labor costs.
For a corporation that decides to move such assembly plants, it is a business goal of saving labor costs.
However, in the city from which this factory emigrated, unemployment is rising. If it was a small town and the factory was the main employer, the problem of a significant increase in unemployment on the local market arose.
In some countries, restrictions have been introduced to limit the scale of this process of emigration of large production factories and sometimes entire branches of the economy to other countries.
How do you feel? Should the governments of individual countries regulate these issues, should liberalization be in this matter or should it be under the control of the state, i.e. the government of a given country?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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True. Textiles has moved from India to Bangladesh & Vietnam.
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World is facing an ordeal due to COVID-19 and it continues to spread rapidly around the world. Many countries had gone for nationwide lockdown and the country borders are closed. More than 3 billion people around the world is under lock down. Economies around the world slumped down. Just as no industry operates in isolation, no economy operates in isolation.
COVID-19 has adversely impacted economy globally. The post-corona economy will take time for its resurgence. What should we do globally or nationally for its fast resurgence ?
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I think it takes few years with graduate recovering steps...
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We are looking at a pandemic that will have consequences both in the short and medium and long term. In particular, we need to understand the reaction of financial markets to an event that affects the whole world and not individual countries, as has happened in past years.
📷
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One of the consequences of Covid-19 is the lockdown effect on the economy. This will hit earnings and output of goods and services. Then there is also the liquidity aspect where market rebounds on liquidity provided by Govt to counter the lockdown effects. End result is volatility. Markets are not stable. The initial violent reaction could be a worst case scenario with current intermittent rebound not sustainable. A vaccine is the panacea that will provide a basis for a sustainable market rebound.
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COVID-19 has emerged globally at unprecedented speed and scale. Experts don’t know how long this virus will take to its end. Various Nations have lock down whole country to prevent spread COVID-19. As a result of the lockdown, the commercial and business activities have been seriously affected and the availability of the business resources such as workmen, material, transport etc. has been troubled. The movement of the shipping lines carrying the material from the affected countries has also halted and quarantine has been imposed on them.
As a result of all above, I can anticipate a new market or new world post COVID-19 crisis.
Can I request to experts to presents their opinion on this new market post COVID-19 crisis ?
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Really, not only markets, but all aspect of our life on the Earth...
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Hi!
My name is Catarina and I'm looking for some help in Innovation Marketing- Product Innovation.
I'm going to join a project which aims to analyse the consequences of implementation of an improved product in a certain store -emphasis on the fact that this is about incremental innovation, which means improving an already existing product and not developing a new one.
What I need to know is:
  • How to perform a statistical analysis on changes in the market after the implementation of this case of innovation marketing, specifically product innovation, in order to assess the consequences of this implementation.
  • What methods should I use to conclude what the clients consider to be an innovation?
  • What statistical analyzes are usually performed in the evaluation of the implementation of Innovation marketing?
  • How to measure the weight of positive / negative aspects?
  • What are the stages of this study before implementation (forecast) and after (evaluation)?
All of these in a perspective of statistical analysis.
Also, if there is any documentation on this subject that could be helpful please let me know.
Thank you :
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Thank you so much!
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In connection with the use of computerized, automated transaction systems, does the scale of the issue of the psychology of securities markets decrease?
Please reply
Best wishes
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Dear Colleagues and Friends from RG,
The above discussion inspired me to formulate the following question:
What are the main determinants of research on behavioral reactions of investors on capital markets and consumer behavior on consumer goods markets?
On the basis of the above considerations and conclusions from the discussion on interesting issues discussed, I formulated the following thesis that in recent years the importance and applications of economics and behavioral finance have been growing. Therefore, it is crucial to define the dominant research determinants regarding behavioral reactions of investors on capital markets and consumer behavior on consumer goods markets.
Below I have described the key determinants confirming the formulated research thesis. To the above discussion I would like to add the following conclusion formulated as a summary of my previous considerations on this topic: Determinants of research on behavioral reactions of investors on capital markets and consumer behavior on consumer goods markets.
Economics due to the social issues of many subjects and problems in this field of knowledge, which it deals with is classified in many science centers in the field of social sciences. Social issues related to the economic conditions of people's lives, social determinants of economic development of economic entities and states, social policies led by states, behavioral factors of changes in economic situations in individual markets, etc. constitute a significant part of issues that are studied and described in the field of economics. Therefore, economics, even if not all of the issues it deals with, however, in most of the studied economic and financial issues falls within the scope of social sciences. In recent years, the importance of research in the field of behavioral economics, behavioral finance, etc. has grown.
In recent years, there has been an increase in the importance of behavioral economics and finance, including an analysis of the determinants of media shaping consumer opinions regarding company brand recognition, product and service offerings, etc. by increasing the importance of online information services, including social media portals. The growing importance of financial market psychology, the growing significance of behavioral factors influencing investment decisions of individual investors operating on capital markets and consumers making purchasing decisions on markets of popular products and services.
Therefore, the key questions that need to be answered are: Are investors active in the securities markets more cautious in making investment decisions after the global financial crisis, or are they more thoroughly analyzing the investment risk of investing in capital markets? Did any of you conduct research aimed at determining possible changes in the significance of financial market psychology and behavioral economics in capital markets, including securities markets, after the global financial crisis of 2008? If research shows that the importance of financial market psychology and behavioral economics in capital markets is decreasing, what is this mainly determined by? Is it the result of post-crisis greater awareness of investment risk among investors, or also a change in the structure of the dominant segments of investors operating on capital markets, or is it also the result of an increase in the number of transactions carried out by computerized transaction systems?
Business and economics are connected or determined to a significant degree with psychology. Examples of the most often cited, described and researched are emotionally determined behavioral behaviors of both consumers in consumer product and service markets as well as stock market investors in capital markets, including securities markets, in addition also currency markets, etc. Issues of the influence of psychological factors on economics can be found also within the scope of marketing activity directed at potential consumers of certain products or services. Supported by intensively conducted advertising campaigns, the sale of certain types of products and services is particularly determined by psychological issues used in advertising campaigns, which increase the scale of appearance and fashion activities for specific types of products or services. Sometimes the effectiveness of advertising campaigns depends to a large extent on whether the information message contained in advertising spots acts on human emotions and thus generates smaller or larger revenues from the sale of specific products or services. In financial markets, on the other hand, the impact of psychology on investment decisions of individual investors can be significant. Periodically, in situations of increased speculation in capital markets, imbalances in securities markets, there is a period of investment euphoria, sheep's momentum, investing fashion and, as a consequence, a strong revaluation of securities valuation (bull market) and periods of strong stock market recession, during which there is fear of investing, panic, getting rid of already undervalued shares, bonds, derivatives, etc. (bear market). Bull market and bear market phases appear periodically, sometimes cyclically in succession. If in capital markets, including securities, the importance of emotions can be an important factor influencing the decisions of individual investors, then the issue of financial market psychology may be an important topic of scientific research. Another interesting research issue is the determination of the importance of increasing the automation of the process of placing stock exchange orders in connection with the use of automated transaction systems by investment banks. Therefore, in the context of the above issues, it may be important to verify the research thesis that the growing importance of automated IT transaction systems used for computer orders for the purchase and sale of securities may reduce the impact of financial market psychology. If it was possible to examine this correlation, then another research issue for which a research project could be launched would be to determine the impact of automated IT transaction systems used by investment banks on the issue of stabilizing the stock market situation, the period of recovery after the emergence of the stock market crash, etc.
What research methods are used to analyze the behavioral and pragmatic behavior of individual investors operating in financial markets, including capital and securities markets? In addition, in related issues it is also interesting to find the answer to the following question: What currently dominate research methods are used to analyze behavioral and pragmatic consumer behavior in specific markets? Are there methods for precisely measuring consumers' pragmatic attitudes? The key is to distinguish the determinants that shape consumer behavior in market conditions. In my opinion, a good method of collecting data for the needs of this type of analysis are survey research methods, which cover consumers of a specific, cross-sectional group, segment of citizens, with specific characteristics. Then statistical elaboration of the results of conducted research should provide analytical material for the formulation of specific assessments and characteristics of both behavioral and pragmatism of specific actions undertaken by a selected segment of participants in a specific market, e.g. consumers of specific types of products and services.
In addition, advertising of consumer products and services serves to increase the demand for the advertised offer, and thus significantly affects the increase in consumption and also indirectly to change the behavioral behavior of social behavior and also to increase consumerism. In developed and developing economies, advertising is largely responsible for the rise in consumerism, but it is not easy to investigate to determine precisely what quantitative dimension this impact is. In connection with the above, in recent years the importance of the issues of data sentiment analysis obtained from social media portals has been growing in Big Data systems. For many companies, social media portals such as Facebook, Tweeter and others are a source of data on shopping and behavioral preferences used by companies operating in various industries and sectors for the purposes of marketing activities.
In line with the above, in my opinion the importance and applications of economics and behavioral finance have been growing in recent years. The above considerations show that many determinants are currently operating that shape changes in behavioral responses of investors in capital markets and consumer behavior in consumer goods markets.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
I conduct research in this area. The conclusions of the research I published in scientific publications that are available on the Research Gate portal.
In view of the above, I am asking you the following questions:
- What research methods are used to analyze behavioral and pragmatic consumer behavior in specific markets?
- What research methods are used to analyze the behavioral and pragmatic behavior of individual investors operating on financial markets, including capital and securities markets?
- What are currently theories of the development of emotional intelligence and logical intelligence in the context of research conducted in the field of behavioral finance?
- What are the main determinants of research on behavioral reactions of investors on capital markets and consumer behavior on consumer goods markets?
- Do advertisements of consumer products and services increase consumption and increase consumption?
- Is the importance of psychology of financial markets and behavioral economics in securities markets decreasing after the global financial crisis?
- Is capital market behavioral psychology still very important for capital markets?
- After the global financial crisis of 2008, is the capital behavioral psychology of the behavior of investors operating on these markets still important in capital markets?
- Are the determinants of investor behavioral factors still strong in recent years on the world's largest stock exchanges, including psychology of financial markets in interpreting changes in stock market trends on these markets?
- After the global financial crisis, are investors operating in the securities markets more cautious in making investment decisions, or do they more thoroughly analyze the investment risk of investing in capital markets?
- Were studies previously conducted to determine possible changes in the significance of financial market psychology and behavioral economics in capital markets, including securities markets, after the global financial crisis of 2008?
- If research shows that the importance of financial market psychology and behavioral economics on capital markets is decreasing, what is this mainly determined by?
- Is it the result of post-crisis greater awareness of investment risk among investors, or also a change in the structure of the dominant segments of investors operating on capital markets, or is it also the result of an increase in the number of transactions carried out by computerized transaction systems?
- How are behavioral finances related to behavioral behavior of investors operating on the securities markets changing due to the increasing use of ICT and Industry 4.0 in the scope of development and increasing the share in concluded automatic transactions, computerized transaction systems used by banks and investment funds performing short-term transactions , speculative, lasting even fractions of a second but with the use of large funds, so large that they are inaccessible to the average individual investor?
- What are the dominant, model behavioral reactions of investors operating on the securities markets?
- To what extent do changes in the behavior of individual investors in securities markets correlate with periodically occurring in these markets overvaluation (bull market) and undervaluation (bear market) valuation of securities?
- Do strong correlations of changes in behavioral responses of individual investors, i.e. periodically overvaluing (bull market) and undervaluing (bear market) valuation of certain assets also apply to other financial, capital and other markets? (e.g. derivative markets, currency markets, real estate markets, etc.)
What do you think about this topic?
What is your opinion on this topic?
Please reply
I invite you to discussion
thank you very much
Best wishes
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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After the launch in 2009 of Oasis of the Seas by Royal Caribbean International, followed in the period 2010-2019 by 4 ships of the same class followed by 2 more ships in the coming years, there were no larger ships: in terms of length or beam or capacity (number of passengers).
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According to the Seatrade Cruise Orderbook updated in November 2019, in the period until 2027 the 102 new cruise ships will be so divided in terms of passenger capacity:
· >5.000 lower berths: 15 ships
· 4000-4999 lower berths: 14 ships
· 3000-3999 lower berths: 9 ships
· 2000-2999 lower berths: 13 ships
· 1000-1999 lower berths: 6 ships
· <999 lower berths: 45 ships
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Do you think bot's like this https://tradesanta.com/en have theoretical support?
It's posible to predict the market fluctuations?
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Sure. Easy as pie.
Oh...you want the predictions to be accurate too?
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I am working on my final thesis where i am trying to identify the potential industries (ex. Manufacturing, Aviation, consumer electronics etc.) for a solution that i have in the automotive maintenance market and i want this solution to enter in the another industry.
so to analyse the potential industry what are the parameters i should consider (ex. Market size, market growth, etc )
it would be really helpful if someone could suggest some papers or research articles or any suggestions.
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A solution for one industry may not be solutions for another industry. You will be able to implement solutions for one industry to another if the problem in both industries is the same. The secondary issue is whether the solution for one industry can be commercialized in another industry. It could be adopted in an another industry if the cost of including the solutions is acceptable and profitable. For example, remote diagnostic technology solution in the automotive industry (OnStar) was effectively used decades ago in the telephone industry, and it will be used in future in all the household equipment such as refrigerators, washers, dryer, etc. Yes, a solution for one industry can be introduced to another industry if the solutions fits in the business model and create value for both the company and customers.
Thanks.
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What do you think are the most important sources of financial and economic crises?
Which sources contributed to the generation of financial and economic crises in the past?
What do you think sources of future economic crises will dominate in the future? What kind of economic crises will dominate in the 21st century?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
Dear Friends and Colleagues of RG
The issues of risk management in the context of determinants of the global financial crisis, globalization processes, technological progress and other factors I described in the publications:
I invite you to discussion and cooperation.
Best wishes
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The greedy nature of financial managers and political corruption
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I am looking for historical data (from 1980s till today) about the audience market share on the TV markets of the European Union. The data should be using SHR method, the whole population.
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I'd get in touch with the EBU or the Council of Europe: https://www.obs.coe.int/en/web/observatoire/industry
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Halal certification is becoming more and more important. In the literature, especially research on consumers is intensive. However, it is seen that the researches on the enterprises are limited. Halal certification awareness levels of enterprises with supply mechanisms may have an impact on customers with demand mechanisms. It is useful to specify the relevant factors in this respect.
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Christian Arnold I do not agree that non-Muslims consider cruelty. Every nation that consumes meat is cruel from your perspective. When it comes to living things, plants are alive. Then those who cut and eat plants are cruel. The issue is that halal certificate for human health meets the requirements of other certification systems and has a system above them.
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Does anyone have a copy of the book :Cloud Robotics Technologies, Solutions, Challenges, and Market Opportunities 2018 – 2023
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Hi Parag,
I saw the table of content but would require the text for each content.
Thank you.
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You are a daily user of bicycle, but you are not an amateur cyclist. How much would you like to pay for a new bicycle that needs 1-5% less power and that never suffers misalignements of the chainring? Let's consider data in % of a common mid-range bicycle's price.
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Can we see the invention?
The statement of never again having a chain misalignment is too vague, specially coming form the inventor.
Do you have a link or patent to see what it is?
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I'm looking for a Scale (measurement) for customer buying decisions, If anyone can help me to get this scale
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Thanks a lot Phongsak Simmonds
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I know that in some years SAE Level 5 Autonomous Cars will be sold in the market, but probably just as concept cars. When do you think they will become a competitive solution in the market at affordable price?
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I think it will take long time (may be more than 10-20 years), as there are number of factors affecting/not clear yet, it includes:
1. Government policies
2. Acceptance and Trust level by the common people
3. Rules for the autonomy, specifically who will responsible for any accident, if any
4. Cyber Security threats
5. Road conditions
Thank you.
Ankit Patel
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Target Costing
Definition: Target costing can be viewed as a proactive cost management tool used to reduce the total cost of the product, over its complete lifecycle, through production, engineering, research and design. It helps the firm in managing the business in reaping profits in the extremely competitive market.
Simply put, target costing is a process of ascertaining and attaining full stream cost, at which the intended product with specific requirements, must be produced so as to realise the desired profits, at an anticipated selling price over a specified period. It involves the discernment of maximum cost to be incurred on a new product, followed by the development of sample that can be profitably created for that target cost figure.
Target Costing and Product Development Phase
Target Costing and Product Development Phase
In this technique, the costs are planned and managed out of the product or process early in the introduction phase like development or designing, instead of performing it in the latter phase of product development.
Target Costing applies to new products and succeeding generations of a product. It begins with understanding the market thoroughly and an intention to satisfy customer needs, concerning product quality, features, timeliness and price.
Target Cost
Target Cost = Anticipated selling price – Desired profit
Target Cost refers to an estimate of product cost reached by deducting a desired profit margin from the competitive market price.
Target Costing Process
Establishment Phase of Target Cost
Establishment Phase of Target Cost
Determine selling price for the new product and estimated output from market analysis and target profit.
Ascertainment of the target cost by deducting the profit from the selling price.
Functional cost analysis for specific components and processes
Decide the estimated product cost.
Make comparison between estimated cost and target cost.
If the estimated cost is greater than the targeted one, then repeat cost analysis, to reduce the estimated cost.
Final decision to be taken, on the introduction of the product, once the estimated cost is on target.
Cost management while production is performed.
Attainment Phase of Target Cost
Attainment Phase of Target Cost
In target costing process, the cost which is directly influenced by it is given priority, which includes material and purchase parts, tooling cost, conversion cost, development expenses and depreciation. Nevertheless, it is a comprehensive cost management technique, so all those cost and assets which are influenced by initial product planning decision are taken into account.
Target Costing Principles
Price-led costing
Cross functional teams
Customer focus
Focus on product design and process
Lifecycle cost reduction
Value Chain involvement
Target Costing is all about planning or projecting the cost of a product prior to its introduction, to make sure that products with low margin are not introduced, as they are not able to reap sufficient returns. It is also used for controlling the design specification and production techniques, and encouraging a focus on the customer.
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Sorry, but what exactly is your problem/question?
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Hi, I am looking for important and contemporary theories related to
Customer Analysis, Competitors Analysis and FTO. I am just looking for contents of these three areas. You can suggest your work. I am very new in this topic so requiring very basic ideas to complex ideas. Regards
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With respect to customers, indicators should be calculated:
NPS (Net Promoter Score)
CSI (customer satisfaction index)
ACSI (US customer satisfaction index)
CE (customer engagement)
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Dear community,
We're currently performing a market study on different products. Now we would like to compare those products with products that address a similar market segment and look at differences. I.e. I think a hybrid-electric car is somewhat similar to a rooftop PV installation as both of them address environmentally conscious customers and feature similar investment volumes. However, the customer interaction with the product is completely different. Do you know any literature on such things to back up the reasoning?
All help on this topic highly appreciated.
All the best,
Beni
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So far, the best I found were the segmentation basis from Frank, Massy and Wind 1972: 27 in Wedel, Wagner A. Kamakura, 2000: p.7, as visible here:
However, the approach is always the other way around: You have a product a try to identify the right market. I need a method for the reverse: looking at a product and roughly characterising the segment it addresses.
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Dear colleagues
We have developed a technique for revealing electricity market behavior. We need as much as practical data to show the effectiveness of our proposed technique. In this regards, we need data from an electricity market in which congestion is negligible, since our proposed approach does not consider congestion in this stage.
It is intended to apply the proposed technique from the prospective of an electricity market. Any guidance would be highly appreciated.
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Hello Dear Mohammed ,
according to my information, the electricity market depends on the country you are in and each country has its own market
You can determine your question, which country do you mean? Or you mean in general
Best Regards
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I'm interested to discuss current market trends related to summer school at the university level. I would appreciate at least one trend from you!
example: This is how interest of summer schools varies worldwide with respect to time. (attached)
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A good and interesting question, but I am not familiar with this subject
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I would like to present the proposal to start summer school program at university and as per my research, there is a need. I did study of Market Analysis, Customer Segmentation, Size & Growth of Market, Competitors analysis..etc. and now I would like to know how could I prepare the proof of concept. The one solution is a pilot program but on a piece of paper, how would I illustate the Poc using my research?
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The proof of concept is a a test of the prototype of the system intended to be implemented. This will determine if the project is feasible or not.
You can look on sample templates online to give you an idea. The result of your initial research will form part of the POC.
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Hi everybody, 
I am preparing the presentation for my phd thesis and I would like to add some really concrete motivations to the introduction slides. My thesis focuses on the 3D-growth of III-V semiconductors monolithically grown on silicon. In the first part of my talk I should introduce the defects due to the monolithic growth of III-V on silicon and the different strategies used to filter these defects.
Therefore, I was thinking of starting with a slide of main motivation which will let the audience understand the following problem: defects affect the cost in semiconductors devices, therefore manufacturing companies are wasting money due to this. If we solve this problem we could potentially save this amount of money. However, I want to be more clear than that and give them some actual numbers. How much do defects cost for manufacturing companies ?
Of course, it would be amazing if you could point out some market analysis (qualitative and quantitative analysis), survey papers, etc. Thanks for your help. Ida LUCCI
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Dear Ida Lucci,
Geetak's document addresses the so called manufacturing yield due to wafers' size, die size, and defective dies distribution function (that is a manufacturing parameters initiated defect distribution model on a wafer). It is not exactly what you looking for, as you want to show a single die yield improvement by such process steps that reduce the density of defects on a die by changing process and / or A3B5 components parameters. In other words, wafer statistics are not your key interest at first, until you understand what are the key mechanisms that reduce defects on a single die. If you know the answer, all you need to do is to assess the cost increase or decrease that is related to the defects reduction and then to see, if the overall manufactured dies cost sustainable or not with the positive effect of each particular device functionality improvement (as far as say reliability, parameters of operation improvement, etc.)
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I am designing the summer school program for university and I'm interested to calculate the market size by either top-down or bottom-up approach. Please give your best rough figures!
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Dear Nayan,
The size of the market depends on relative quality and relative price. The lower the price for participating students, the higher is the potential market size for the given quality level.
Success!
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Will artificial intelligence combined with the analysis of data collected in Big Data database systems be used in automated forecasting of valuations of securities and other assets on capital markets?
In the background of the plot of the film "Transcendence" from 2014, directed by Wally Pfister, the topic of analysis is analyzed by a computerized system combining artificial intelligence with human consciousness loaded into a computerized system of artificial intelligence connected to Internet resources and using the resources on its own.
This independence also means access to various databases, including internal Big Data database databases belonging to certain corporations, including listed companies that are issuers of securities.
The artificial intelligence connected to the Internet, according to a specific strategy, also independently conducts transactions on the market of valuable securities.
In addition, it establishes statrtsets offering innovative technologies, which in a short time become large capital companies characterized by a high capitalization of exchange quotations of shares of these companies listed on stock exchanges.
The above-presented film "Transcendence" presented above picture of integration of artificial intelligence, human consciousness and Internet resources is a picture of typical science fiction.
However, on the other hand, the function of this image is also to inspire to discuss the potential possibilities of integration of the above-mentioned elements into one system of autonomous and working in the Internet resources artificial intelligence, in addition also containing some human feelings.
The above image from the movie "Transcendence" became an inspiration to formulate the following question below.
The mentioned motif from the movie "Transcendence" looks impressive and convincing in this film mainly because it has a full spectrum of innovation.
The use of new, innovative instruments for forecasting specific economic categories usually works until these innovative instruments continue to be innovative, ie until they are disseminated to the majority of participants in specific markets.
In view of the above, I am asking you to answer the following question: Will artificial intelligence combined with the analysis of data collected in the Big Data database systems be used in automated forecasting of valuations of securities and other assets on capital markets?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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True valuation of any asset class is present value of future receivables. Factors affecting future receivables may be both quantifiable as well as subjective to some extent. Past data analysis with big data & artificial intelligence can help in forecasting those factors and give better result, but is may not be considered solution to the problem.
Various techniques used in forecasting asset class valuation plays the role of small torch in the dark, big data analysis with artificial intelligence can increase the power of torch to some extent.
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In some countries where the model of the classical trade sector prevailed, in which there were many small stores, including specialized for specific product and service offerings serving local markets of various customer segments, the emergence of large-scale stores, discount stores, supermarkets and hypermarkets proved to be a threat to existing small local stores.
Many small shops ceased to function. This could have an adverse effect on the local labor market. How is this rated in your countries?
Are the confederations developing the development of small local stores developed? Are these small local stores affiliated, economic chambers are set up to defend this trade segment in your countries?
Do small trade companies and small stores in your countries are threatened by developing large-scale stores through hypermarkets?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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In Indonesia, modern stores, including modern minimarkets, supermarkets, or hypermarkets are the real threat for traditional stores. Besides their attractiveness to shopping (such as range of products, location, or longer business hours), it is also caused by the shifting trend to shopping among people, especially younger ages. They try to minimize human interaction, pay cashless, and make modern stores as a lifestyle. Eventhough modern market are allowed to operate nationally, due to higher autonomy among local government create some city/ regions deny modern markets. Others try to protect traditional business through stricter regulation, such as minimum distance from local markets, location requirements, length business hours, etc. On the other hand, some local stores make innovation through enhance their personal touch to consumers, provide delivery service, and diversify their products.
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Hi, now I'm looking for existing literatures to apply Cox Proportional Hazards Model as survival analysis to customer churn predictions in marketing field.
Customer churn prediction is important in terms of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and can be applied to following fields:
- Continuous service (such as )
- Continuous product (such as mobile apps)
- E-Commerce (such as Amazon, e-bay)
- Retailers (such as supermarket)
Do you have any suggestion?
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In an open and globalized economy and considering the financial markets influence, I ask for your collaboration, from a theoretical point of view, to propose economics postulates that can reduce social inequality and give better solutions to complex problems such as sustainable growth and the equitable distribution of wealth. Thank you in advance.
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Sustainable development and their social and economic dimensions
Social development commitments are:
  Eradicate absolute poverty by a date to be determined by each country.
  Support full employment as one of the basic policy objectives.
  Promote social integration based on the promotion and protection of all human rights.
  Achieve equality and equity between women and men.
  Accelerated development in Africa Least developed countries.
  Ensure that social development goals are included in structural adjustment programs.
  Creating an "economic, political, social, cultural and legal environment that enables people to achieve social development".
  Enabling everyone to have equal access to education and primary health care.
  Strengthening cooperation for social development through the United Nations
Economic development is generally defined as the process through which a comprehensive and sustained change occurs, accompanied by an increase in real average income, an improvement in income distribution for the poor, an improvement in the quality of life and a change in the structure of production. According to this definition, development contains a number of elements, the most important of which are:
  Inclusiveness, development is a comprehensive change that involves not only economic, but also cultural, political and social.
  The continuous increase in real income average long period of time, this suggests that development is a long-term process.
  An improvement in the distribution of income in favor of the poor and the alleviation of poverty.
  Need to improve the quality of goods and services provided to individuals
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On returning from a visit trip collecting stories and making college class visits at Purdue University and Indiana University regional campuses in northwest Indiana, I have been weighing the state of publishing and whether writers from the "Rust Belt" "Flyover Zone" have a hope of being read outside their local region. This is not only applicable to the United States "Rust Belt" and "Flyover Zone" but analogous zones across the planet.
A key to Thorstein Veblen's theory of "conspicuous consumption" in his study _The Theory of the Leisure Class_ is social emulation. Each narrow band of socially-stratified society looks up to a slightly higher band and embarks on a furious program of "emulation" or mimicking their "betters." And when this is accomplished the active agent moves on to emulate a higher rung. Veblen helpfully supplies comparisons to bird behavior and the rituals of pre-industrial society, such as the Inuit "potlatch" as analogous to the upper-class debutante's "coming out" ball.
So, in the United States instance, any editor in New York or on the East Coast will see a less-status-y setting and instantly know "Sorry. This is not for us. Good luck elsewhere." Yes, taste matters. As Veblen writes, "a beautiful article which is not expensive is not accounted as beautiful" ("Theory" 132). With a slight shift, we might add that "a beautiful text not placed in an expensive setting is not beautiful."
What effect upon cognitive development and the mental evolution of creative writers does this process entail? The embodied subject so often enthusiastically dissected in pages of the Modern Language Association journal says little about the bodies and Foucaultian embodiment in the "Flyover Zone" or "Rust Belt," although I have addressed the issue by starting a "Rust Belt Literature" group in the MLA online commons. The same "emulative" avoidance seems to be at work since our new "Rust Belt Literature" MLA group is relatively low-traffic. Seven members at last count. MLA groups for the lesser poets of the Scottish Hebrides of the late 18th Century often boast more members than this.
Some creative writing students have devised work-arounds such as (1) pretending to have lived in Paris or (2) writing in a vacuum where characters walk in a vague setting like dry ice fog in a low-budget film to disguise the less-status-y real setting. These texts show some initiative and focus in CW students. However, perhaps, creative writing classes could find a more accurate name in flyover country such as Evasive Writing? Does Veblen fit?
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Novelists didn't need to be told about conspicuous consumption and waste and the leisure class by the wonderful Veblen. Certainly he formulated them in a systematic way, but Dickens, Thackeray, Zola, didn't require his orderly exposition to make the point about patterns of wealth.
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In which of the 2 demands do low calorie sweeteners like Splenda, Xylitol, Stevia fit?
What type of demand do they have?
Elastic demand or Inelastic?
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Dear all,
may you be so kind to suggest me some paper dealing with a complete market analysis of Equity Crowdfunding (also know as Crowdinvesting) in UK and USA?
Thanks you in advance!
Salvatore
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Hi Salvatore
I recommend two articles both from Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice: 1. Ahlers, Cumming, Gunther, and Schweizer (2015) Signaling in Equity Crowdfunding, and 2. Vismara (2016), Information Cascades among Investors in Equity Crowdfunding.
Raymond A. K. Cox
Thompson Rivers University
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In analyzing a countrywide product quality assessment what would be the best sampling plan? Does stratified sampling reduce the biases? Is there any apps or tools available to use with GPS and other location data? Would appreciate your contribution.
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Stratified sampling is a good idea even there is reason to believe that the distribution departs considerably from normal distribution.
In ArcGIS one can subdivide the attribute table by a certain characteristic and create subsets of the original data.  This can be followed by purposive sampling.
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Hello,
There are several research articles describing peptide drug market. Unfortunately, until now i haven't found any entirely dedicated to peptide generics market.
Additionally, when i finally found a small reference in one article about peptide generics market, it contraindicated with other article:
In The emergence of peptides in the pharmaceutical business: From exploration to exploitation:
"It is remarkable that generic sales already account for a considerable portion of the peptides’ market. In 2011, generics represented 35% of the peptide market, with three of the five top selling peptides being generics [5,62]."
[5] Badiani K.Peptides as drugs. Int Pharm Ind 2012;4(2):84–90.
[62] TMR TMR.Peptide therapeutics market – global industry
analysis, size, share, growth, trends and forecast; 2013
[2012–2018].
In Peptides Gain Traction in Drug Development
"On a commercial level, several peptide-based therapeutics have reached blockbuster status, defined as having sales of $1 billion or more, or near blockbuster status (3). These drugs, using 2011 global sales figures from company annual financial reports, include:
Teva Pharmaceutical's Copaxone (glatiramer acetate),(...) (2011 global sales of $3.6 billion)
Abbott's Lupron (leuprolide acetate),(...) (2011 global sales of $810 million)
AstraZeneca's Zoladex (goserelin acetate),(...) (2011 global sales of $1.1 billion)
Novartis' Sandostatin (octreotide acetate),(...) (2011 global sales of $1.4 billion)
Eli Lilly/Amylin Pharmaceuticals' Byetta (exenatide)(...) (2011 global sales, Eli Lilly, $423 million, Amylin, $518 million)
Forteo (teriparatide recombinant),(...) (2011 global sales of $951 million)."
I checked it, all of them are originators.
Information that in 2011 about 35% of peptide market was made up by generic drugs is based (in several articles about peptide market) on transparency market search report. Unfortunately i don't have availability (nor money) to check it. Is this report trustworthy?
To sum up:
Does anyone know what is the real contribution of generics to peptide market?
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Hello Frida,
Thank you for your answer.
In fact insulin is a little bit tricky example. Although historically and academically it is defined as 'peptide', FDA defines it as a 'protein'. (See "Scientific Considerations in Demonstrating Biosimilarity to a Reference Product"). Additionally, nearly all (or maybe all?) insulins on the market are currently manufactured using recombinant DNA technology. Because of that, non-innovative insulins are registrated as biosimilars.
To sum up, according to FDA insulins are neither generic, nor peptides. :)
Best Regards,
Dorian
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Looking for crossdocking tools for handling operations in warehouse. If any knows please share your view on this. I appreciate your support on this.
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Hi Venkata,
research-wise, it might be useful to have a look at this recent article
It can give you an idea about what the tool you will choose should be able to do in terms of cross-docking management (design, planning, scheduling).
Hope this helps.
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I had the opportunity to play it with a group of Latin American professionals in Montevideo in June 2015 and it was a very interesting experience. The Game was idealized by Martim Smolka from Lincoln Institute of Land Policy and Carlos Morales from Erasmus University.
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HIS Laboratory - Erasmus University - Rotterdam
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describe this relationship? 
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Dubai Financial Market? 
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I am writing my master thesis with the topic of long term effect of negative online reviews and positive online reviews on product sales. My focus is to compare the effect of negative online reviews and positive ones and investigate their impact on sales over time. Currently, I have the tablet product reviews database from Amazon.com with time interval of 24 weekly sales data. Besides, I also have another cross-categories database from Amazon.com with only 3 or 4 weeks sales information.
According to previous researches and relevant articles I read so far, the VAR (Vector Auto Regressive) model is quite popular and useful for time series marketing analysis. However, the VAR model usually requires a longer time period. The time interval of the existing database that I use is not sufficient for VAR model.
So, the data is not sufficient for me to continue my research idea if I want to apply VAR model. The process of crawling and obtaining useful database seems quite complicated for me in a short time (limited time with master thesis). I am desperately searching for other solutions for my research idea. Is there any other model that I can apply on this topic?
If I insist to use VAR model with such a short time interval, what should I do with the model? I read an article that maybe I can reduce the number of parameters in the model, e.g maximum 5 parameters in the model.  
It will be of great help for me to have some advice. Many many thanks!
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Dear Huang, 
I think the non-linear ARDL approach is just appropriate for your research, how to run this technique is illustrated in the below link: 
Good luck 
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Lift is measure used in association rule mining.
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thanks for answer
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My topic :  "Do you think the use of billboards would be effective in increasing public awareness about fashion" 
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Everything depends on what kind of information do you want to get. I think it would be better if you prepared the questionnaire on your own, after that presented the questions that you wan to ask here and asked about some feedback.
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Any suggestions are more than welcomed.
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There are very few new new products.  Instead, most new products are much like other competitive products, so comparing is relatively straightforward--look at how comparable products have performed.  You can also do this on a consumer basis by looking at how consumers have reacted to comparable products.  Here the metrics might be things like category and brand penetration, period-to-period repeat buying rates, purchase frequency and so on.  Fortunately, these are metrics that are routinely tracked by commercial market research companies.
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Please kindly suggest the best method for economic assessment of certified product and possible sample of questionnares and interview method.
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For people or dificulties to store it, the fisch have also to be well 
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I would like to find some similar studies, about this topic.
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Dear Miss Golami,
Maybe you would like to consult the paper by KUSHWAHA et al.   published in the Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services,  vol. 22, p. 85-95, to appear in 2015.
Best regards,
Frederico
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How do i use PEST analysis and Porter 5 forces analysis to analyse the competitive environment  for 787 dreamliner?
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For the analysis of problems in business, there are several models that have been successfully used in determining the extent of the impact of the factors analyzed for a certain phenomenon. One of the frequently used in cases of high degree of uncertainty in the analysis, is the rule of thumb (If <a number of conditions are met> then < a number of activities can be performed >.).
In order to make a successful analysis based on Porter’s 5 forces model, it is necessary previously to determine the factors that contribute to the end result - whether and to what extent they affect the profitability of the industry. These factors are actually the five forces, which are further divided into their sub factors of influence, and these are the element of analysis in order to obtain information that will formulate a strategy for the business plan. One way to determine the weight of each of the factors provided is that each of the sub factors have more or less the same degree of influence and if each of the sub factors are assessed with "high" (3), "medium" (2) or "small" (1) impact on increasing rivalry and decrease of the attractiveness, then subsequently the conclusion for the impact of each factor can be assessed as "high", "medium" or "small" according to the average of the estimates of the sub factors. With the same algorithm it can be determined which sub factors can be involved in assessing the impact of each of the factors.
Example of the calculation of the influence of the 5 forces on industry attractiveness: ∑rates of sub-factros÷number of sub-factors=rate of the force, i.e. Rivalry among existing competitors.
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Ranbaxy merger with Sun Pharma captured the market's interests recently. Talks between Pfizer and AstraZeneca over a $100 Billion deal is another one. Is there a new wave of market dynamics or trend happening in this Industry.
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Very simple.
The need to innovate and streamline operations. India, especially, the pharmaceutical companies are hard pressed for the scale of operations. You can find this wave of acquisition happening across the verticals, right from pharma to banking sector, every player in a market like India will look to seek the advantage of scalability. All can not be like Reliance Industries which will start from scratch. So you can see this trend going further stronger in the coming days.
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I am writing this because for such a deceptively simple problem, I have been unable to construct an example.
Two producers compete in the quantity of some homogenous good produced. They face a common market demand
In such a setting, I wish to show, by means of an example, not a mathematical proof, the existence of multiple Nash Equilibria in pure strategies and continuous payoff spaces.
Can anyone construct a simple Cournot Nash duopoly with equal cost resulting in Multiple Nash Equilibria outcome but positive prices and profits?
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In fact I found an example of multiple Nash Equilibria as the intersection of reaction functions.  I have the hard copy book but its a little difficult to scan so here is it taken from google books.
Fudenberg, D. and Tirole J. Game theory Boston: MIT Press, 1991 page 25.
As you can see there are a 3 intersections of the tworeaction functions I would like the equation of this curve. (B,C and D) and assuming the second order conditions for a profit maximum is satisfied at each intersection then there would be three Nash equilibria. In particular, Fudenberg and Tirole unfortunately said (page 24) "we spare the reader the derivation of such reaction functions from a specification of the cost and demand functions". Unfortunately to be able to replicate this diagram, I would like to know the analytical specifications of these lamniscate/figure of 8/devil's curve reaction functions.
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I am doing a kind of market analysis about recombinant protein kits. Im searching to determine which problems exist with the different products (ex : Pichia, E. coli, S. cerevisiae or Y. lipolytica kits).
Which improvement do you preconize?
Can you help me please?
Thanks for all your answer!
Remi
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Thanks for your advices !
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At this point due to the problems in EU gas supplies (developments between Russia and Ukraine) and the fact that these developments enhance the orientation of EU countries on the increasing security of supply LNG again becomes one of the important factors. Specifically, three gas market (the EU market, North American and Far East) have totally different gas prices. For example, USA gas consumers pay about 25-30% of the EU price and the Far East pay about 9 times higher price than USA customers. American gas exports, after export terminals in the United States become operational, as well as after loosening export controls oil and gas from the time of "oil shock" in 1971), for which the price competitiveness of LNG, to me it would depend on the source of supply and changes in the global oil market and the three regional markets natural gas under the influence of new players in the market LNG. American LNG will be competitive to current suppliers to the EU, Australia have a cost advantage in the markets of the Far East, India, Japan. Some market analysis show that importing LNG from the USA could have a beneficial effect for importing  countries in EU and Asia. At the moment, Europe is buying the USA LNG on the old continent's spot markets, where the prices are hovering now in the range of 320-340 USD per 1000 m3 of liquefied natural gas, and the price past summer was even lower, around 240-270 USD.
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I agree with your point of view. Speaking of America’s shale gas, in my opinion, the first USA or Canada shale gas exports can reach EU not before two or three years from now.
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I am currently working on a paper that requires me to get a measure of cointegration and then find out how some factors between the two integrated market after the measure of cointegration.
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Dear Francis, as you said you estimate the long-term multiplier and the peed of adjustment (coefficient of the error correction term) by estimating the VECM using the software Eviews for example.
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Likerts scale is a 5 point scale which evaluates responses better than a dicotomous (Yes / No) answer. These two responses are affected by external locus of control (ELOC) to the decision formulated from the total outcomes of analysing a questionnaire.
UNDECIDED - Particpants on two occassions say this, when
  1. They do not want to get into problems,  by answering this
  2. They do not really know the answer/
NOT APPLICABLE - Particpants say this, when they are not within the ambit of exposure or expeience to a particular question.
We are attempting to evolve a new scale covering all the aspects and removing the impact of ELOC which otherwise would camouflage the right outcome of a study.
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Likert scaling assumes that distances on each item are equal. Five ordered response level seem to be the most common type.
Likert scales may be subject to distortion from several causes. For instance, respondents may avoid using extreme response categories (central tendency bias).
Designing a scale with balanced keying (an equal number of positive and negative statements) can obviate the problem of acquiescence bias. 
I have attached a few relevant ink which discuss the effect of Locus of control: 
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There are different models that are being used to estimate the stock returns under event study methodology such as; arbitrage pricing theory (APT), capital asset pricing model (CAPM), modified market model (MMM) and market model (MM).
My question is which one is better between the market model and CAPM to estimate the return while studying dividend announcements? How will alpha and Beta be estimated under the market model and CAPM in the equation for event study methodology’ i.e Rit = αi + β (market return) + εit?
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Dear Muhammad Ashfaq,
In my studies (dividend announcements, M&As and IPOs) I have used both the Market adjusted returns and the OLS market model and the results are similar. For a more detailed analysis, please refer to Brown and Warner (1980; 1985).
Good luck for the results :-)
Fabrizio Rossi
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The extensive literature in behavioral finance made it clear that there are many behavioral factors that influence investors' decision making process, however can somebody kindly tell me how investor behavior can be studied using market volatility, and on what parameters of market volatility can the behaviour be studied?
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For investors following risk-based strategies, rising volatility on a given asset translates directly into less capital allocated to that same asset. The converse is also true.
BR
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I'm trying to find a way to do a path distance allocation while giving the input features (health centers) a kind of attractiveness factor.
I did some tests with the MarketAnalysisToolbox (update01262010) but I'm not yet convinced if this is the right tool. It was the only tool I found in this context though.
In the end I would like to have something like a probability surface showing for each point in the raster the probability to visit which health center. Do you know what I mean?
Has any one suggestions how I could reach this? When I take the probability surfaces the marketAnalysisToolbox is generating for each health center, how could I combine them in a way that it would make sense?
PS: I don't have access to the Business Analyst but an advanced student licence for ArcGIS 10.1 Desktop
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Answer
Try cost path analysis procedure and make a cost raster dataset by taking into account the attractiveness (use zones of different "attractiveness").