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Publications related to Maritime Law (1,049)
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Preprint
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This chapter restates the law that shapes maritime affairs in Namibia, focusing on its linkages to international law. Namibia has a long coastline, measuring 1,572 kilometres along the Atlantic Ocean. As a result of the Benguela Current wind-driven upwelling system, the country boasts one of the most productive fishing grounds in Africa. Namibia al...
Article
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Measuring sailing ship plumes provides comprehensive and real‐time emission data. However, accurately tracking and measuring ship plumes still requires research. This study describes a tracking and measurement method of ship plumes using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). A UAV ship exhaust measurement system and monitoring process were developed. D...
Presentation
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Search and rescue is an operation to render assistance to persons in distress at sea regardless of the nationality or status of such a person or the circumstances in which that person is found in accordance with the applicable Maritime Law and Conventions. Search and Rescue, often known by the acronym SAR, is the process of identifying the location...
Article
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The ship exhaust sniffing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system can be applied to monitor vessel emissions in emission control areas (ECAs) to improve the efficiency of maritime law enforcement and reduce ship pollution. To solve the problems of large size, heavy weight and high cost of ship exhaust sniffing sensors, in this paper, a unique diffused...
Article
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This paper will describe the case of the seizure of a British tanker by Iran in the Strait of Hormuz. Iran is a country bordering the Strait of Hormuz. It has the power to enforce compliance with transit transit regimes. With this authority, Iran confiscated the British-flagged Stena Impero tanker which was suspected of violating international mari...
Article
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The stability of a ship is one of the most crucial and critical aspects of its safety and navigational safety, and maritime laws and maritime ordinances govern it. The research outlines vital elements of liquefaction of bulk cargoes loaded on ships, leading to loss of ship stability and severe consequences for the crew's safety and the vessel itsel...
Chapter
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This policy brief discusses the public–private complementarity in higher education institutions (HEIs), specifically in terms of discipline or field of study. Using recent data from the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), we describe the current enrollment and graduation distributions using simple public–private comparisons across disciplines. W...
Article
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Fisheries in the East China Sea (ECS) face multiple concerning trends. Aside from depleted stocks caused by overfishing, illegal encroachments by fishermen from one nation into another’s legal waters are a common occurrence. This behavior presumably could be stopped via strong monitoring, controls, and surveillance (MCS), but MCS is routinely rated...
Conference Paper
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The world is facing an unexpected situation due to the negative impacts of the Covid-19. The situation is changing in different sectors of the world at present. Covid-19 is showing different challengeable issues, especially in matter of enforcement of laws. International communities are concerned about maximum enforcement of international laws to c...
Article
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This study would be significant, especially for Trade Unions and shipping lines, and to make newcomer professionals more aware of the nature and alternatives available for labour compensation. This paper contributes to readers’ empirical and practice insights on maritime labour, law and professional practices, including management issues and implic...
Article
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Annotation. The author of this article has been reflecting on the commercial use of maritime spaces, to be tried, as briefly as possible, to highlight the most interesting facts about the oceans. The author touched upon the impact of human activity on the ocean and the expansion of the variability of the commercial use of its spaces. In the article...
Article
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Kinmen’s coastline has gradually retreated in recently years, which has resulted in changes in coastal landforms. Research shows that possible factors are ocean currents, monsoons, tides, coastal development, and other anthropic factors such as unauthorized sand mining in the sea area between Kinmen and Xiamen. This study utilized a literature anal...
Article
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Indonesia, the world's largest archipelagic state, tends to punch below its weight in regional maritime affairs. Part of the explanation for this puzzle lies in Indonesia's underdeveloped and ineffective maritime governance system. This article seeks to develop ways to overhaul Indonesia's maritime governance by focusing on one specific but potenti...
Article
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Indonesia is known as a maritime country, where the ancestors of the Indonesian people were also known as sailors. In the Indonesian Archipelago, which is located between two continents, namely Asia-Australia, as well as two Indian-Pacific oceans. Regarding the analysis of Iranian tankers violating international maritime law by entering Indonesian...
Book
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The UK and Greece, both surrounded by sea and both being island countries, are placed in the two corners, North-West and South-East, of Europe. The geographical distance of the two countries is also reflected on the divide between two distinct legal traditions. The UK clearly represents the Anglo-Saxon Common Law system. Greece, on the other hand,...
Article
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Maritime jurisdiction plays an important role in international trade and marine transport. It involves special kinds of rules that vary among different countries and legal systems. Thus, in international maritime jurisdiction, the coordination and settlements of jurisdictional conflicts are vital for the uniformity of international maritime law. Th...
Article
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This paper discusses the creation and use of the new Macquarie Laws of War Corpus (MQLWC). The corpus consists of the 110 documents of international war law stored in the International Committee of the Red Cross treaties database, starting with the 1856 Declaration Respecting Maritime Law (Paris Declaration) and ending with the most recent amendmen...
Article
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Modern accounts of Atlantic piracy depict the Royal Navy as an effective police force that, in the course of a generation (1697-1730), transformed the Atlantic from a violent frontier into a locus of orderly commerce. Scholars who see a sharp decline in piracy in the early-18th century argue that a governmental campaign of law enforcement and moral...
Conference Paper
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Maritime Business is an international field of activity that provides economic and politic advantages, obtains prestige in the international community as well as provides employment opportunity for citizens of a nation. It is necessary to determine the maritime rights and interests of our country to define and implement a maritime strategy to acqui...
Article
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The articles states that the delimitation of the continental shelf in the Aegean has been the main contentious issue between Greece and Turkey for the past 50 years. It has been unsuccessfully brought before the International Court of Justice, has been repeatedly discussed in the Security Council and has given rise to at least one delimitation agre...
Article
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ABSTRAK Undang-Undang Islam sebenarnya sudah lama berakar umbi di Malaysia sejak kedatangan Islam di kepulauan Melayu. Hal ini boleh dilihat dengan kodifikasi perundangan di Kerajaan Kesultanan Melaka yang menggubal Hukum Kanun Melaka dan Undang-Undang Laut Melaka yang berteraskan syariah dan adat. Perkara ini juga diikuti oleh kerajaan kesultanan...
Article
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The modern legal regime of a flag State’s status “ecological” obligations is composed by a legislation (laws and regulations) of two levels: international and national. The legislation of both the levels is consistent with the generally accepted international rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures, the “UNCLOS’82”, the rights of...
Article
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Lo scritto si confronta con il richiamo al «diritto vivente» che ha caratterizzato la rivendicazione dell’autonomia del diritto della navigazione di Antonio Scialoja, Fondatore della scuola napoletana del diritto della navigazione. Lo stesso Scialoja aveva riconosciuto che la formula era ispirata a quella elaborata dal sociologo del diritto Eugen E...
Article
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This article questions the need for the use of two legal fictions in modern maritime law: that a vessel/ship can in certain instances be treated as an extension of flag state territory; that a vessel/ship is an entity with human attributes. The article addresses the first 'fiction' mainly in the context of applicable international law as well as En...
Thesis
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MASS is the future of shipping. Technological advancement has taken humans to the moon and space, which was earlier explored only by machines. However, the same technology has proved that machines can replace human presence at sea, which is an advancement of the human race. The world is widely accepting MASS, and it has proved to be the key to the...
Chapter
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The Arctic is composed mainly of frozen sea surfaces located along the northern land areas of the American, Asian and European continents. Since the Arctic is impossible to actually occupy, there have been disputes over its delimitation for a long time. This issue, together with the issues of environmental protection and ensuring sustainable econom...
Thesis
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After years of speculation, with the unexpectedly fast melting of Arctic ice, the Northern Sea Route (NSR) is seeing growth in traffic surpassing even Russia’s own predictions. However, the literature on this is still largely lacking an in-depth, comprehensive evaluation of the legality of Russia’s extensive control regime over the NSR; an issue whi...
Article
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Climate change is predicted to have an extremely destructive effect on Bangladesh. Natural disasters may take place even more frequently and be greater in magnitude. A rise in sea levels could submerge a considerable proportion of the country. The legal regulations per specific aspects of maritime law are the priority of lawyers as natural risks li...
Article
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Indonesia has taken steps to adjust its laws and regulations regarding maritime law with UNCLOS 1982, with the establishment of Law Number 6 of 1996 On Indonesian Waters however, this step not yet followed by adjustments to the laws regarding continental shelf, namely Law Number. 1 of 1973 On Indonesian Continental Shelf. The purpose of this resear...
Article
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Indebtedness That Was Not Collected due to the Public Policy of the Russian Federation. This article is the comment to the case.The state court ruled that the revising of the case by the arbitral tribunal after the reversal of the award was a violation of the public policy of the Russian Fed�eration and the award was reversed again. Also, the stat...
Article
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Developments of multi-use floating islands are accelerated by an increase in offshore activities and pressing needs to create extra space in coastal regions for the surging population. The Horizon 2020 EU funded research project Space@Sea developed a modular floating island concept for offshore multi-use applications and examined current legal issu...
Article
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The development of the legal framework for the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) and other zonal management tools is due to the need to establish their nature (environmental or socio-economically oriented); to determine the interaction of the norms of international environmental law and maritime law; to ensure the harmonization of the...
Article
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Carrier’s duty to provide a seaworthy vessel has been one of the most fundamental principles in maritime law and hereby a core element of every contract of carriage of goods by sea throughout maritime history. Notwithstanding the duty was initially appraised to be absolute obligation under common law, it has been then boiled down to whether exercis...
Conference Paper
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Owing to the work of the International Maritime Committee (CMI) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO) that the international maritime standard was developed. It is recognized that SOLAS (Safety of life at sea 1974), MARPOL (Marine pollution 1973/78), STCW (Standards of training, certification and watcheeping 1975/78) the maritime labor...
Article
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A new technical age is on the horizon for the maritime community. Within the next year, crewless vessels, save for the shore-based controllers operating from afar, will emerge from production plans. Fully autonomous vessels run solely on Artificial Intelligence is not so far in the distance, with projections seeing them in the next decade. China is...
Article
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对地理特征的认知塑造一个国家的海洋安全思维。印尼具有“群岛特征”(陆地分散、海上邻国多和海域广阔)和“海权特征”(海上战略位置、良港和重要航道、海洋资源)两组地理特点,分别指向海洋“作为威胁”和“作为秩序来源”两种相互矛盾的认知模式。如何处理这对矛盾成为厘清印尼海洋安全思维发展的核心问题。在民族国家建构初期和冷战背景下,印尼着重应对与“群岛特征”相关的安全威胁。以苏西洛为转折点,印尼开始追求“海权特征”带来的秩序福利。群岛海洋安全思维的长期实践塑造了当前印尼海洋安全现状和合作逻辑:“重陆轻海”政策导致海洋安全能力落后,使印尼重视提升海上执法能力的务实合作;海盗问题的跨界性质使印尼提供安全公共产品的意愿较低,产生了“搭便车”的合作逻辑;1982年《联合国海洋法公约》确认了印尼的“岛国内海”权利...
Article
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Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has become one of the important technical means of marine monitoring in the field of remote sensing due to its all-day, all-weather advantage. National territorial waters to achieve ship monitoring is conducive to national maritime law enforcement, implementation of maritime traffic control, and maintenance of nationa...
Article
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em>Indonesia is an archipelago where the tourism sector plays important roles to create jobs and increase economic growth. Derawan Islands, Maratua Island and the small islands around them have beautiful underwater landscape, located in Berau Regency, East Kalimantan. Many buildings established in the form of hotels and resorts located on the seash...
Article
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For many, laws and regulations are inescapable with their apparent global reach, whereby, governments across the world establish laws and regulations governing their respective countries and states. With such an extensive reach, the common person may never raise the question of what rules and regulations they must follow. However, with over 60% of...
Article
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Decreasing the environmental pollution is a main target to develop the sustainability economics in the world nowadays. In where, the shipping transportation industry plays an important role to develop the national economics. Additionally, the Intelligent Shipping Transportation Systems (ISTSs) are proposed and discussed in this special collection t...
Article
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This article attempts to answer the question of the existence of lex mercatoria as a generally recognized commercial law built on ancient maritime trade customs, subsequently supplemented by city and fair law in medieval Europe. The article explores the genesis of international commercial customs on the territory of medieval Europe up to the 17th c...
Article
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The South China Sea is a strategic marine area in terms of natural resource potential and international trade routes. For decades, territorial disputes have occurred with peaceful solutions from regional organizations, international courts, and even contributions from outside the claimant state. This paper examines the efforts made to contribute to...
Article
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Can value allocation be left to managerial discretion and does corporate law provide the basis for a balanced stakeholder management and a fair allocation of results? This question is central in an age of inequality. We argue that it can be reappraised by building upon the case of maritime law. Whereas in corporate law, the board is in charge of al...
Article
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Safe & Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships
Article
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This article analyzes Alfonso X’s maritime and naval policy in relation to the northern coast of Spain. New towns granted by the king, the policy of royal privileges to the ports, the participation of the Cantabrian ports in the naval war of south Peninsula are studied. The policy of promoting the northern ports was accompanied by the establishment...
Article
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This research aims to examine and discuss the factors that give rise to disputes in the maritime environment from an international perspective as well as dispute resolution through the International Court of Law of the Sea, International Courts, Arbitration or Special Arbitration Procedures, and Conciliation Conciliation. The juridical normative ap...
Article
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In the field of maritime law enforcement, it is a key technology to achieve stable tracking of the black smoke exhaust of ships. Based on correlation filter tracking algorithm, a novel ship black smoke exhaust tracking algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm can complete the real-time tracking of ship black smoke exhaust. In addition, it can...
Conference Paper
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Environmental conservation and management are considered very important concepts in the recent world, where the importance of maritime security and maritime law are major factors. One of the major problems facing the Indian Ocean at present is managing environmental issues. As the research sample, the major countries in the Indian Ocean, India, Sri...
Article
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The aim of the article is to compare selected national maritime laws, in the area of the cargo carrier’s liability. The author has analyzed the liability regime in the several most important parts of this regime. The connection between the national maritime regulations and the international maritime conventions regulating the carrier’s liability is...
Thesis
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The adoption of the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) for seagoing ships has improved the situation, however, controlling emissions from inland shipping was included in the national target. As a result, though the reduction possibility of CO2 emission from inland shipping found a significant pros...
Article
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English Maritime law as it applies to Surveyor Claims for Cargo and Colllision Damages.
Article
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Merchant shipping is one of the most demanded types of transportation in the modern world. According to some reports, up to 80% of all cargo is transported by sea. In this regard, the issues of legal regulation of this complex and full of implementation nuances activity acquire particular importance. The specific condition of such seaports as Sevas...
Article
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Programmes of migration regulation in the Mediterranean Sea constantly evolve and adapt, changing in accordance to shifting migration patterns and EU policies. Despite the commitment to governing mobility in this sea, migrant death continues to be a significant and indeed growing problem in the Mediterranean. While scholars have examined how the ge...
Article
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p> This study aims to analyze a blowout from an oil and gas leak owned by PTT Exploration and Production (PTTEP) Australasia in the Montara oil field in the Indonesian Timor Sea, and how to resolve disputes between Australia and Indonesia. A qualitative approach was used in this study, whilst the data collection technique was through library resear...
Article
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As an 'Ocean Nation,' it is essential for Taiwan to make efforts to conserve its aquatic zones through marine protected areas (MPAs). Marine protected areas have considered one of the most precise methods of maintaining sustainable ecosystems and restoring fish stocks. This article discusses the legal regime for marine protected areas currently app...
Article
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Technological development is advancing more rapidly than regulatory regimes. The adaptability of regulatory regimes and integration with technological advances are hindered by cumbersome legislative and bureaucratic processes. The wind of change which technology brings to the world has blown through the maritime industry as with many other industri...
Article
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The book titled, International Law and Actual Issues in Viet Nam is a collection of articles related to legal regulations and international law enforcement practices in Vietnam. The book was compiled by Professor Nguyen Hong Thao as Editor-inChief of the Vietnam Society of International Law. Professor Nguyen Hong Thao serves as Vice Chairman of the...
Article
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INTRODUCTION. On t he b asis o f pr o visi o ns o f t he 1982 UN C o nventi o n o n t he L a w o f t he S ea a n d o t h er l e gal documents, the article analyzes topical issues of the current and future international legal regulation of the use of maritime autonomous surface ships (MASS), which are capable of completely transforming the shipping...
Article
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Natuna merupakan sebuah Kabupaten yang terletak pada Provinsi Riau Indonesia. Perairan Natuna yang berada ditengah Laut Cina Selatan atau berada pada titik perbatasan Laut Cina dan Indonesia, kembali memanas dan mencuri perhatian pemerintah Republik Indonesia. Seperti halnya saat ini, China membuat ulah kembali sehingga menimbulkan sebuah persengke...
Article
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The article addresses the advantages and shortcomings of multi-level system of ensuring safety of navigation. The principle of the navigation safety is considered as fundamental determinant of changes in maritime laws and regulations at the international, regional and national levels. At the same time, the most important feature of the modern syste...
Article
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Xi Jinping’s political authority was not preeminent among cadres of the Communist Party of China when he assumed the General Secretary of the Central Committee in November 2012. After his inauguration, Xi advocated a slogan of “Chinese Dream” for realizing the “great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation” and pursued the policies for expanding the “co...
Book
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Boundary disputes in the South China Sea have been a long-standing threat to peace and security in East and Southeast Asia. Without agreed definition of boundaries, provisional arrangements to develop resources in the disputed area have become the favored, and most effective, solution. Therefore, joint development between various countries has take...
Conference Paper
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In order for unmanned maritime systems to provide added value for maritime law enforcement agencies, they have to be able to work together as a coordinated team for tasks such as area surveillance and patrolling. Therefore, this paper proposes a methodology that optimizes the coverage of a fleet of unmanned maritime systems, and thereby maximizes t...
Article
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Turkey and Greece are again dragged into a new conflict in the East Mediterranean. Turkey and Greece vie for supremacy in the eastern Mediterranean. Turkey, for its part, indicated that Greece's claim to the territory would amount to a siege in the country by giving Greece a disproportionate amount of territory. This study aims to rethink the confl...
Article
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Due to technical and cost limitations, the monitoring of emissions from ships sailing in open water within ship emission control areas (ECAs) is relatively rare. The present study adopts a monitoring method involving an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that takes off from a patrol boat to measure the concentrations of SO2 and CO2 within the plumes of...
Book
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Coast guards are a multi-role player and provide a variety of services at sea. They are responsible for a wide array of missions, including search and rescue, maritime safety and security, national defense, border control, the protection of sea lanes, the preservation of the marine environment and law enforcement. The unique nature of coast guards...
Article
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This study is aimed at sketching out one of the outstanding influence from Dutch to Nusantara. It was the forming of the maritime law which known as scheepvaart aangelegenheden in Batavia that becomes the focus of this study. By doing this, the Dutch government had its own regulation to control each port centralizing in Batavia. With this regulatio...
Chapter
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Since the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) ban on the use and carriage for use of heavy fuel oil (HFO) for ships operating in Antarctic waters came into effect in 2011, the international community has been engaged in a discourse on whether to adopt a similar standard for ships operating in Arctic waters. The issues are complex as, in add...
Article
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The critical aspects of the international legal regulation of shipping in the Arctic discussed on the interna-tional Arctic agenda are analyzed. The authors examine the specifics of the Northern Sea Route legal status from the perspective of the leading role of the Arctic coastal states and the possibilities for countries to specify at the national...
Article
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In the Nigerian admiralty jurisdictions, when a shipowner or the ship-agent commits an offense that falls within a maritime claim, admiralty marshal or his delegated substitute deals with the offender to arrest the ship so that it does not take another route. Ship arrest requires that the applicant or the claimant should possess a maritime claim. T...
Article
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THE PECULIARITIES OF TEACHING MARITIME LAW TO THE FOREIGN STUDENTS OF KHERSON STATE MARITIME ACADEMY (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING GROUPS) Summary. The article deals with the peculiarities of teaching maritime law to foreign cadets of Kherson State Maritime Academy. The problem of their adaptation as well as the peculiarities rel...
Article
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Nigerian maritime cabotage laws evolved to add efficiency to the country’s maritime industry, especially in the area of indigenous fleet expansion, ship building and human capacity development. The aim was to curtail foreign dominance and unequal competition by non-Nigerian operators. Since the enactment of the Cabotage Act, attempt at successful a...
Article
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The pursuit of an internationally recognized regime which governs the allocation of risk of liability has been the predominant purpose of maritime law. At the same time, it is also necessary to set a time limit within which a legal action may be brought against the carrier. There are two regimes which govern the carriage of goods by sea and are ado...
Preprint
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Abstract. Due to technical and cost limitations, the monitoring of emissions from ships sailing in open water within the ship emission control areas (ECAs) is relatively rare. The present study adopts a monitoring method that uses an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that takes off from a patrol boat to measure the sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide emi...
Research Proposal
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A proposal to apply ePersonhood in the context of maritime law for autonomous ships.
Article
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This paper represents an analytical and critical study regarding the issue of the assistance and salvage at sea and its reward which are based upon the Jordanian Law, on the one side, and the International Conventions on the other side. Based on an objective and neutral overview, the paper focuses on the Jordanian Commercial Maritime Law's deviatio...
Chapter
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This chapter examines how some concepts and contractual terms used by maritime law tend to lag far behind what is actually going on in maritime practice. The stubborn persistence of the 1946 version of the New York Produce Exchange time charter form, provides just one example among many. Sometimes—often—international instruments of maritime law hav...
Article
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Objective to create a legal mechanism for unification of the legal norms regulating the commercial operation of maritime transport. Methods historicallegal formallogical systemic comparativelegal statistical methods. Results the relevance of the topic is due to the importance of the development of specific legal relations in maritime transport an...
Article
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China is one of the largest maritime powers bordering Russia. Our countries have long-standing ties of friendship and cooperation. In this regard, studies of the legal system of the PRC, including in the part relating to the law of the sea, are of particular relevance. China is a country with maritime traditions dating back to ancient times and...
Chapter
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Hugo Grotius, the seventeenth century Dutch scholar, is most famous for his contributions to modern international law, particularly the law of the free seas. Yet, he has had just as lasting an effect on the formation of modern contract doctrine, originating in the same text that produced his maritime law. Grotius instigates a change in the theologi...
Article
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The rules of cross-border trade and investment in Eurasian space are undergoing a significant transformation. The latter results from the shift in trade routes across post-Soviet jurisdictions, which still rely on natural resources’ trade and transit. Those are so far controlled by state-owned enterprises sometimes operating in joint ventures with...
Chapter
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Since the beginning of the CMI in 1897, unification of maritime law – in all its aspects, with related commercial practices – has been a foundational objective (art. 1 CMI Constitution), whatever hurdles it has to overcome. To that end, CMI has promoted the establishment of national associations of maritime law and co-operates with other internatio...
Article
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S. D. Goitein left a tangible contribution in many areas relating to the cultural, economic, social, political, and legal history of classical Islam. With three monumental studies—the first volume of A Mediterranean Society, Letters of Medieval Jewish Traders, and India Traders—and numerous academic articles, he also left an indelible imprint on ou...
Article
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SAILING LAW – A QUESTION ABOUT THE STATUS OF THE DISCIPLINE AND THE RESEARCH PROGRAM The traditionally established divisions of law are currently subject to modification occurring in line with the phenomenon of regulating more and more human activities. While the division between public and private law, as well as the catalog of legal branches is...
Book
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The report illustrates how public international law, and specifically the international law of the sea, can be harnessed as a tool for detrimental security measures at sea. By juxtaposing the rights contained in the inter­national maritime law, the malicious hybrid actor has the opportunity to create a confusing and challenging situation, in which...
Article
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This article will focus on the legal framework that applies to the Arctic ocean and highlight the legal grey areas that hybrid campaigns could invest in to violate international maritime law and law relating to the use of force.
Article
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The heightened importance of maritime security issues, coupled with strategic competition between the major Indo-Pacific powers China and the United States, have turned the extensive maritime domain of Southeast Asia into an arena of great uncertainty. Here, various countries’ civilian and military maritime services navigate, operate, compete, and...
Article
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According to Protocol 10 signed by the Greek Cypriot Administration of Southern Cyprus (GCAC) on 1 May 2004 with the European Union, the EU acquis has been suspended in the northern part of the island (in the territory of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus [TRNC]). All of the island is regarded as European Union land. (EULP, 2003) The Greek Cy...
Article
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It is notable that the legal and geopolitical aspects are considered as critical dimensions of spatial planning because they are the political aspects of spatial planning. The width the Persian Gulf and human structures as artificial islands, legal and geopolitical dimension and political nature. In this paper, we analyze the legal and geopolitical...
Article
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This article highlights the importance of generic and thematic competences when translating commercial texts. It focuses specifically on the relevant theoretical framework for international marine cargo insurance and the genres produced within any claim procedure. The aim is to inform translators about the situational context and the documents invo...
Article
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The aim of this research are to find out: (1) data proceed from database with the topic maritime and marine that can access by the user through the OPAC: (2) precision of the data in database: (3) the precision between data proceed by the standard tabulation of literature (keyword) and title in database; (4) the precision between data was inputed w...