Science topic

Marine Mammals - Science topic

Marine mammals, which include seals, whales, dolphins, and walruses, form a diverse group of 128 species that rely on the ocean for their existence. They do not represent a distinct biological grouping, but rather are unified by their reliance on the marine environment for feeding.
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Publications related to Marine Mammals (10,000)
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The diapsid plesiosaurs were pelagic and inhabited the oceans from the Triassic to the Cretaceous. A key evolutionary character of plesiosaurs are the four wing-like flippers. While it is mostly accepted that plesiosaurs were underwater fliers like marine turtles, penguins, and maybe whales, other swimming styles have been suggested in the past. Th...
Article
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Geotechnical survey is an important prerequisite to the construction of offshore wind farms. However, the impact of underwater survey noises has not yet been studied in details. In this paper, we studied transmission of underwater noises from offshore exploratory drilling (OED) at the Xiamen port. The noises were categorized into three types: hamme...
Article
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Have you ever heard about, or maybe even seen, a whale or a dolphin that was helplessly lying on the beach or stuck in very shallow water? These are called “stranding events” or “strandings,” and have been documented since the fourth century. Back then, strandings involving cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) were welcome events because the...
Article
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Marine mammals form important part of food chain. Now a days its common phenomenon that mammals are stranding at sea shores. It has become highly requirement of marine scientists, environmentalists and Navy to analyze acoustic signatures of mammals and establish suitable signal processing algorithms for various marine applications. So filtering of...
Technical Report
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Social/communicative signals produced by two Harbour porpoises were recorded at the Harderwijk Marine Mammal Park (the Netherlands), while the animals were swimming freely in an indoor pool. Typical sounds, of which it was assumed that they were social or communicative signals, were a 'woop' signal and a 'grunt' signal. These sounds had in common t...
Article
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The subsistence practices of Later Stone Age (LSA) foragers and herders living in Namaqualand South Africa are often difficult to differentiate based on their archaeological signatures but characterizing their dietary choices is vital to understand the economic importance of domesticates. However, ethnohistoric accounts have provided information on...
Article
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Marine mammals are highly vulnerable to oil spills, although the effects at both individual and population levels are not fully understood. A first approximation to evaluate the possible consequences of oil spills on marine life is using ecological risk assessments, which are analytical tools used to assess the likelihood of adverse environmental e...
Article
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Marine mammals are very diverse because of the oceanographic conditions of Mexican waters (where 36% of the current species worldwide are found); however, scientific research on many of these taxa is still at the basic stages. The goal of this study was to assess the scientific information available for these species and to determine research prior...
Article
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Records of aquatic mammal fossils (e.g. cetaceans, pinnipeds, sirenians, mustelids, and desmostylians) from Latin America (Mexico to Tierra del Fuego, including Antartica) span since the mid-1800s. Aquatic mammal fossils received little attention from the scientific community, with most of the first studies conducted by Northern Hemisphere research...
Article
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A strategic instrument for the sustainable conservation of the fragile marine ecosystem is the designation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), within which various regulations exist for the protection of highly vulnerable species and habitats. These regulations can be depicted on Electronic Navigational Charts (ENCs) based on the new International Hy...
Article
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Understanding how predator foraging behaviour is influenced by the distribution and abundance of prey is a fundamental challenge in marine foraging ecology. This is particularly relevant in Southern Ocean ecosystems where the relationships between select predator species and Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) can inform ecosystem conservation and...
Article
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Marine megafauna occurrence was recorded in the deep-sea region bordering the abyssal plain ~400 km north-west of Luanda, Angola. The survey took place during an Environmental Baseline Study (EBS), prior to drilling exploration activities, with the goal of characterizing the habitat and biodiversity of the region. Offshore shipboard surveys were co...
Article
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Knowing the hearing range and sensitivity of a marine mammal is fundamental to determining its potential for being impacted by ocean noise. Enabling stranding responders to perform hearing tests on stranded odontocetes is the most likely means by which most odontocete species will be tested and by which population-level variability in hearing will...
Article
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A twelve-year hiatus in fishery-independent marine mammal surveys in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (ETP), combined with a mandate to monitor dolphin stock status under international agreements and the need for reliable stock status information to set dolphin bycatch limits in the tuna purse-seine fishery, has renewed debate about how best to a...
Article
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Teeth are the primary tool used by most mammals to capture and process food. Over the lifetime of an individual, they progressively wear through contact with each other (attrition) and with food (abrasion), creating distinctive patterns that reflect function and diet. Unlike their terrestrial cousins, many marine mammals capture prey via suction, w...
Article
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Sperm whales are a marine mammal famous for the aromatic substance, the ambergris, produced from its colon. Little is known about the biological processes of ambergris production, and this study aims to investigate the genetic mechanism of ambergris production in the sperm whale based on its chromosome-level genome. Comparative genomics analyses fo...
Technical Report
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The Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) produces airborne, as well as underwater sounds. Each year in March/April (1993) a male walrus at the Harderwijk Marine Mammal Park produced, what is considered to be, rutting whistles. Two recording sessions showed that these identical whistles consisted of a predominantly pure tone, slightly varyin...
Article
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Sharks and rays are key functional components of coral reef ecosystems, yet many populations of a few species exhibit signs of depletion and local extinctions. The question is whether these declines forewarn of a global extinction crisis. We use IUCN Red List to quantify the status, trajectory, and threats to all coral reef sharks and rays worldwid...
Article
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This report proposes that fish use the spinal-rhombencephalic regions of their brain to support their activities while awake. Instead, the brainstem-diencephalic regions support the wakefulness in amphibians and reptiles. Lastly, mammals developed the telencephalic cortex to attain the highest degree of wakefulness, the cortical wakefulness. Howeve...
Article
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The fin whale behavioural repertoire is still largely unknown. As part of a larger focal study on the welfare and health assessment of individual fin whales found in the Gulf of St-Lawrence near Sept-Îles (Québec, Canada), we encountered a large group of 13 individuals swimming and diving in synchrony. Here, we present the detailed encounter throug...
Article
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In the last four decades, dugong (Dugong dugon) aggregations have been rarely reported from the geographically isolated, vast seascape of the Andaman Islands, India. The Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004, hunting, coastal development, and habitat loss are the major causes of this change in the social system of dugongs in the Andaman Islands. Our long-te...
Book
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Si vous lisez ces lignes, c'est que nous sommes en train de communiquer ! Tous les êtres vivants le font, de la « simple » bactérie aux plus grands mammifères marins. C'est nécessaire pour trouver un(e) partenaire, se protéger, se procurer de la nourriture, ou même se coordonner dans des tâches collectives. Au cours de l'évolution, les animaux ont...
Article
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Recently, Coxiella burnetii has been described as a novel pathogen potentially contributing to decreased pup production in Australian fur seals (AusFS, Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Pacific gulls (PGs, Larus pacificus) are known to scavenge AusFS placental material during the fur seal breeding season. It is hypothesized that PGs may act as vec...
Preprint
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This paper discusses and reviews the current taxonomic status and zoogeographical distribution of the mammals of Yemen. Data were collected from previous literature in addition to field observations during 2017–2018. This checklist includes 100 species of wild (terrestrial and marine) mammals currently occurring and those that went extinct within t...
Article
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Exposure and experience with ethical dilemmas and controversial socioscientific issues provide a link to students’ lives or a pathway for sympathy/empathy and care, where youth use emotion to engage with the scenario and develop critical thinking skills to respond to ethical issues. For this theoretical paper, I focus on how informal science can be...
Article
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First report of acorn barnacles on fishes. The fish was caught off Mayport, FL, U.S.A. (30.416°N 81.405°W). These symbiotic acorn barnacles, C. testudinaria, are known as an epibiont on sea turtles, marine mammals, crustaceans, mollusks, and sea snakes (Williams & BunkleyWilliams, 2019b–d) but to our knowledge have never previously been reported fr...
Article
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The eastern Great Australian Bight (GAB) is a significant marine ecosystem, featuring a range of marine mammals and large pelagic fish including blue whales, sharks and tuna. Previous research has classified the region as generally oligotrophic, apart from late austral summer months when seasonal upwelling triggers phytoplankton blooms in the regio...
Article
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Successful conservation and management of marine top predators rely on detailed documentation of spatiotemporal behavior. For cetacean species, this information is key to defining stocks, habitat use, and mitigating harmful interactions. Research focused on this goal is employing methodologies such as visual observations, tag data, and passive acou...
Article
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Marine mammals are divided into three groups, with similar adaptations resulting from their aquatic lifestyle: sirenians, pinnipeds, and cetaceans. The present work focused on the South American fur seal, or Arctocephalus australis, a carnivore included in the pinnipeds group. We assessed whether the anatomical features of the Arctocephalus austral...
Chapter
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Man-made persistent pollutants (such as PCBs, pesticides and trace metals) reach aquatic organisms through the food chains. Pollutants are ingested and assimilated by smaller organisms, and their concentration in tissues increases from prey to predators. Being at the top of the food chains, marine mammals accumulate some of the highest environmenta...
Chapter
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Bioacoustics combines the fields of biology and acoustics to answer questions about hearing, sound production and sound communication in animals. Marine mammals have specialised hearing abilities and use sounds in different ways underwater. How do whales and seals use sound for communication and to find prey? How are they affected by human-made sou...
Article
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After nearly 30 years of experience with offshore wind energy (OWE), the industry is moving past the initial learning phase and into large-scale development. One of the strongest motivations for OWE is that projects are large enough to replace fossil-fueled electricity production that we know is a primary contributor to the ongoing climate crisis....
Chapter
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In recent decades, global plastic consumption has rapidly increased. Large quantities of plastics enter the environment in various ways, often ending up in the oceans. Plastic debris is nowadays found in any aquatic ecosystems. Due to its long durability, plastics may drift around with ocean currents for decades. Nowadays, plastic debris can be fou...
Article
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Photobacterium damselae subspecies damselae, an abundant, generalist marine pathogen, has been reported in various cetaceans worldwide. We report a bottlenose dolphin in the eastern Mediterranean Sea that was found stranded and dead. The dolphin had a severe case of chronic suppurative pneumonia and splenic lymphoid depletion caused by this pathoge...
Article
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Climate-driven alterations of the marine environment are most rapid in Arctic and subarctic regions, including Hudson Bay in northern Canada, where declining sea ice, warming surface waters and ocean acidification are occurring at alarming rates. These changes are altering primary production patterns that will ultimately cascade up through the food...
Article
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Marine sediments from the western coast of southern Africa record the origin of the Benguela Upwelling System, one of the most productive in the world. High productivity, in turn, is reflected in a diverse marine mammal fossil assemblage, comprising whales, dolphins and a phocid seal. Here, we describe new records of baleen whale (mysticete) fossil...
Chapter
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Many young students dream about a career working with marine mammals. Although marine mammal jobs are limited and highly competitive, there are several ways to obtaining them. But, there is no magic formula to pursue a career in marine mammal science. We describe various skill sets and experiences that can improve your chances. Not the least, it is...
Article
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The Caspian seal (Pusa caspica) is an endangered species that only lives in the Caspian Sea. Little information is available on its exposure to contaminants, and no data exists for Southern sub-populations. From 2011 to 2016, tissues samples were collected from 20 Caspian seals to (i) Define the concentration of trace elements in five different mat...
Article
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Grey seal predation on marine mammals has been reported throughout the northern hemisphere except for the Baltic Sea. After the Baltic subspecies (Halichoerus grypus grypus) was on the brink of extinction in the early 1990s, numbers increased steadily during the past three decades from a few thousands to more than 40,000 in 2020. In recent years, g...
Chapter
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There are various types of interactions between marine mammals and fisheries, and their presence in the same area inevitably leads to conflicts. Marine mammals may lose their lives as bycatch, which is the incidental catch of non-target species in fishing gear. On the other hand, some marine mammals specialise in feeding on fish caught in fishing g...
Article
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Several decades of research and monitoring in the northern Gulf of Alaska (NGA) have revealed climate-related shifts in ocean temperature and salinity. Accompanying these shifts have been changes in the abundance and diversity of species, from single-celled plankton to fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Research is documenting long-term change in...
Chapter
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Marine mammals include toothed and baleen whales, as well as seals, sea lions, sea cows, sea otters and polar bears. They are adapted to an aquatic life in oceanic, coastal and riverine habitats. They range in size from sea otters to blue whales. The extreme diversity of marine mammals is related to their adaptations to different habitats and their...
Article
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Por ser un depredador tope y tener adaptaciones de vida semi-acuática, el lobo marino de California (Zalophus californianus) es una de las especies de mamíferos marinos más relevantes e interesantes que tenemos en el Golfo de California, el acuario del mundo.
Article
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Strandings of marine mammals, seabirds, and marine turtles in coastal areas can provide valuable information on their ecology. However, gathering information by field teams often incur high costs and effort. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to detect stranded animals during beach monitoring programs. The st...
Article
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Antarctica and the Southern Ocean are the most remote regions on Earth, and their quite pristine environmental conditions are increasingly threatened by local scientific, tourism and fishing activities and long-range transport of persistent anthropogenic contaminants from lower latitudes. Plastic debris has become one of the most pervasive and ubiq...
Article
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The Caspian seal (Pusa caspica) is an endangered species that only lives in the Caspian Sea. Little information is available on its exposure to contaminants, and no data exists for Southern sub-populations. From 2011 to 2016, tissues samples were collected from 20 Caspian seals to (i) Define the concentration of trace elements in five different mat...
Article
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Rapid anthropogenic climate change is driving threatened biodiversity one step closer to extinction. Effects on native biodiversity are determined by an interplay between species' exposure to climate change and their specific ecological and life-history characteristics that render them even more susceptible. Impacts on biodiversity have already bee...
Preprint
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The Northern California Current is a highly productive marine upwelling ecosystem that is economically and ecologically important. It is home to both commercially harvested species and those that are federally listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Recently, there has been a global shift from single-species fisheries management to ecosystem-...
Preprint
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The number of strandings and unusual mortality events that involve marine mammals may have increased, and potential pathogens of the respiratory tract have been found during examination of individuals in many of these events. Given that the core microbiome is key to understand host-bacteria relationships and to identify their relevance for host hea...
Article
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Integración de datos de biodiversidad para la educación y el turismo: mamíferos marinos nativos en la región subantártica de Aysén, Chile aeet ASOCIACIÓN ESPAÑOLA DE ECOLOGÍA TERRESTRE Ecosistemas 31(3):2410 [Septiembre-Diciembre 2022] https://doi. > Recibido el 1 de junio de 2022-Aceptado el 07 de noviembre de 2022 Integración de datos de biodiver...
Article
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Aim Greenland is one of the places on Earth where the effects of climate change are most evident. The retreat of sea ice has made East Greenland more accessible for longer periods during the year. East Greenland fjords have been notoriously difficult to study due to their remoteness, dense sea ice conditions and lack of infrastructure. As a result,...
Preprint
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There is great interest in ecology to understand how wild animals are affected by anthropogenic disturbances, such as sounds. Behavioural response studies are an important approach to quantify the impact of naval activity on marine mammals. Controlled exposure experiments are undertaken where the behaviour of animals is quantified before, during, a...
Article
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Marine mammals in the North Atlantic have experienced severe depletions due to overexploitation. While some species and populations have now recovered, there are numerous other anthropogenic activities impacting their North Atlantic ecosystem. Studying marine mammals is often associated with logistical challenges, and many species have an elusive n...
Article
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The use of marine mammal bone as a raw material in the manufacturing of gaming pieces in the Scandinavian late Iron Age has been observed and discussed in recent years. New empirical studies have created a chronology as well as a typology showing how the design of the gaming pieces is tightly connected to different choices of raw material; from ant...
Article
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Reproductive costs represent a significant proportion of a mammalian female's energy budget. Estimates of reproductive costs are needed for understanding how alterations to energy budgets, such as those from environmental variation or human activities, impact maternal body condition, vital rates and population dynamics. Such questions are increasin...
Article
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While foraging, marine mammals undertake repetitive diving bouts. When the animal surfaces, reperfusion makes oxygen readily available for the electron transport chain, which leads to increased production of reactive oxygen species and risk of oxidative damage. In blood and several tissues, such as heart, lung, muscle and kidney, marine mammals gen...
Article
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Pain, usually caused by a strong or disruptive stimulus, is an unpleasant sensation that serves as a warning to organisms. To adapt to extreme environments, some terrestrial animals have evolved to be inherently insensitive to pain. Cetaceans are known as supposedly indifferent to pain from soft tissue injury representatives of marine mammals. Howe...
Article
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In 1865, the authority of Carmen de Patagones, the southernmost settlement of Argentina at the time, sent a description of the Atlantic Coast fisheries to the Office of National Statistics. The document was based on a report of the sailor Luis Piedra Buena, and alluded to a “mystery” around the difficulties to tax the coastal resources. This articl...
Article
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Environmental data is crucial for planning, permitting, execution and post construction monitoring of marine renewable energy projects. In harsh conditions in which marine renewable energy is harvested, integrated monitoring platforms comprising multibeam imaging sonar systems coupled with other sensors can provide multiparametric data of the marin...
Article
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This study is the first to assess the occurrence of micro-litter ingested by marine megafauna in the north-eastern Aegean Sea. A total of 25 specimens from four species of marine mammals, including dolphins and monk seals, and two species of sea turtles, found stranded along the coastline of Samos Island, Greece, were selected for the analysis. Lit...
Preprint
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increased nutrient levels and algal blooms can also cause drinking water problems in communities near dead zones and upstream. humans, fish, marine mammals, birds, and other animals are all adversely affected by the toxins produced by toxic algal blooms. The purpose of this study is The effect of The combined system of Hydrodynamic Cavitation , Ozo...
Preprint
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Background Edwardsiellosis is a serious systemic bacterial disease of Edwardsiella tarda which is known for causing diseases in humans, reptiles, amphibians, marine mammals and other warm-blooded animals. E. tarda is the most important diseases causing bacteria that leade to severe economic losses in fish farms of many countries due to its admirabl...
Article
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Widely recognized environmental changes have been negatively impacting communities in the Arctic for decades. The increased prevalence of open water in the Bering Sea during winter months, also known as sea ice loss, has uprooted annual traditional subsistence activities across the Bering Sea region. This article investigates the consequences of se...
Conference Paper
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The Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) is a marine mammal that uses both coastal and marine habitats. Parturition, breastfeeding, pup rearing and sleeping all take place on terrestrial (dry) part of remote and inaccessible coasts. Being a rare species living only in two remote main regions in the world, the eastern Mediterranean and the ea...
Article
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Gillnets are one of the most common fishing gears globally and provide a fundamental contribution towards the income of millions of people as well as to the supply of protein. At the same time, bycatch from gillnet fisheries is one of the biggest threats to seabirds and marine mammals worldwide, because their habitats coincide spatially and tempora...
Article
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The author describes an ethnic Chukchi village of Meynypilgyno, located on the border of the Chukchi and Kamchatka Peninsulas. In recent decades, the ethno-linguistic picture of this village has significantly deteriorated: there are no speakers of the Kerek language left. According to the 2010 census, there was one person in Meynypilgyno who consid...