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Marine Invertebrate Biology - Science topic

Marine Invertebrate Larvae; Benthic Ecology
Questions related to Marine Invertebrate Biology
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The 76 species of Amphipods recorded till now from the west coast of India come majorly under the suborder Amphilochidea and Senticaudata. Looking for the identification key which differentiates them from one another?
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Thank you Rahul Khot Sir.
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We have obtained some electron micrographs showing what appears to be developmental stages of some type of small eukaryotic organism colonizing/parasitizing the tissues of mammalian hosts. Samples tested included sterile deep needle aspirate of subcutaneous nodules, filtered lysed whole blood, and urine sediment. The hosts may have a unique genetic defect allowing them to become infected with eukaryotic parasites, or, the putative parasite may have efficient strategies for suppressing the hosts immune response.
We are curious about the identity of this possibly novel organism. None of us in the research group have more than basic knowledge of invertebrate taxonomy, but based on the presence of organized calcified “tube or shell”-like structures, we are hypothesizing that it may be some type of polychaete or mollusk? The opinion or thoughts of anyone skilled in such classification would be very appreciated. Thanks!
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ربما يوجد ذلك
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These are a few polychaete samples taken from Belize. The grid size is in mm. Any help identifying the order or even family?! Thank you!
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For me, it possibly looks like a eunicid...but better quality would be needed in order to confirm it. Also, it would be very useful if you could take some pictures of the prostomium.
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I'm doing my postgraduate studies and I am developing my research on the taxonomy of polyclads (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida). In addition, I am doing molecular taxonomy, so I am interested about knowing the best molecular marker for this taxa.
I thank in advance for your help and support.
Kind regards
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I agree with Fred R. Opperdoes with his answer.
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I have a ciliate problem in my aquaculture system and would like to ID two ciliates that I believe feed on mollusk?  I have photomicrographs... 
Are there any ciliate experts out there who might help?   
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Hi, William,
Here in Brazil there is an excellent expert in ciliates. His name is Thiago da Silva Paiva. You can try to get in touch with him by e-mail: paivatds@gmail.com
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Hi All,
at the Museum of Nature South Tyrol, in Bolzano / Bozen, Italy, we're keeping in aquarium for more than 10,5 years 3 American horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus.
What is the maximum longevity of American horseshoe crab in aquarium?
Thank you!
Sincerely,
Massimo
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Dear Daniel Taylor,
many thanks for your reply! I didn't know this paper. It is for me very interesting.
Sincerely,
Massimo
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This siliceous sponge was trawled in Tyrrenian sea  on Tiberino seamont in 450 m.
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Thank you. Roberto.
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I have read some reports on cone snails regarded as its primary predator, but have not found any papers detailing specific predators of the bearded fireworm based on stomach contents, field observations etc.
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This ovigerous mass was 4 meters deep, on a soft seabed but also near hard seabed, probably produced by a gastropod mollusk, can anyone tell me if there is an atlas of the eggsmass of the gastropods?
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Thanks to everyone for the suggestion, the picture was taken in Ionian Sea, near Santa Maria di Leuca
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I am currently analysing temporal and spatial zooplankton groups and in many samples from the same time period there appears to be a very high proportion (~90%) of the same group (Cladocera). I have been unable to find literature related to whether zooplankton (specifically cladocera) can develop in blooms under optimum conditions, similar to those of phytoplankton.
If anyone could point me in the direction of any literature related to this topic, it would be greatly appreciated!
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This bivalve looks like Cardita senegalensis based on the elongaeted shell on the posterior side of the shell. It also has a close resemblance to C. calyculata which has a shorter extension. Elevated blunt thorn-like structures are noticed in the ribs with mild orange dots. 
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geographical spread suggests Cardita leana but the shape is very similar to Cardita caliculata which could have been introduced by the Red Sea. The specimen is very similar to one that i find in Mediterranean Sea.
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It is hypothesized that harpacticoid copepods are the only meiofaunal organisms to develop larval stages because their nauplii share the same habitat as the adults. I am interested to know whether the nauplii (larvae) and copodite stages of harpacticoid copepods are pelagic or benthic compared to calanoid or cyclopoid copepods?
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Dear Moumita, as you know some marine harp. cop’s. are planktonic. So, for them there is no choice like to develop in plankton. Anyway in freshwater some copepods (cyclopoids) had been found in bottom conditions in wintering (look publ. of Natalia Kovalchuk in hydrobiological J. - in RG! But if I understand well we’re speaking about freshwater benthos! Thus, being involved about 40 years with alive samples of different habitats both fresh and brackish waters I'm absolutely sure that naup. & copep. of h. in freshwaters are mainly inhabited the same biotope as adult that is benthos, periphytos (if fast flow of stream) or submerged in case of lenthic basins! This provide much better survivance of youth as protect them against raptor cyclops!
Andrey
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Soon I will be collecting data on the group composition of zooplankton samples (genus/group level), I was just wondering whether it is appropriate to present this data in the form of a diversity index (such as Shannon-Weiner, Simpsons, Berger-Parker etc.) or whether this is more restricted to communities identified to species level?
Would it be better to simply present this data as richness, proportions or frequency?
Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated.
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This ovigerous mass was found 10 meters deep, in the Tyrrhenian Sea, near the Argentario Mount, but it was also found in the harbour of Trieste in 2009. Which invertebrate could have produced it?
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T you very much Godfried
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Good day to all. We have this data on mercury content of our collected sediments (mg/kg) and we would like to know if the amount of mercury that we have is normal or above normal. Are there governing bodies which sets these parameters for us to infer something with the results of our analysis? Thank you and God bless us all.
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Can anyone help identify this parasite attached to the caudal fin of Caranx hippos obtained from the Gulf of Guinea off Lagos?
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Please let me known if it has only two holdfast, or there are variation in number in others specimens.
We had observed variation in some specimens of Lernaeenicus (L.longiventris) lacking some holdfast. 
Do you have more specimens in order to look them and verify some details. on the labium 
best regards
Rcastro
you can send me details to my e-mail :raul.castro@uantof.cl
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Barnacles, mussels, etc. attach to surfaces to settle on the bottom. Many other crustaceans also attach spermatophores on the female body surface for reproduction.
Do they all use the same kind of "glue"? I guess the first example (barnacle, mussels, etc.) is well known (due to biofouling-related research), but what about attaching spermatophores in other crustaceans? Spermatophores need to last long enough to transfer sperm, but how long? What is this glue/cement and how does it work? How long does it stick and why doesn't water dissolves it? how and where is it produced in the male body? Can you name examples?
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Dr . Rodrigo J. Gonçalves
Glutinous layer of the spermatophore is dissolved by the substances released by the ovary during spawning and spermatozoa from spermatophore is released to facilitate external fertilisation. Spawning takes place within 6-10 hrs of deposition of spermatophore. If spawning does not take place  within 6-10 hrs glutinous layer may be progressively dissolved by water to get detached from open thelycum. 
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What echinoderm species are these? Please help identify the following species. I have pre-identified some which are
Pic 1 - P. nodosus
Pic 2 - L. laevigata
Pic 3 - A. planci
Pic 4 - T. gratilla
Pic 5 - D. setosum
 All of these were collected from the Philippine waters. I cannot identify the rest. Thanks!
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This is very crude possible ID.. my best guess only based on the picture and common species found.
Pic 7: Choriaster granulatus
Pic 10: Holothuria atra
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We found quite a few specimens of this ascidian on soft trawling bottoms in the southern Adriatic sea, the depth was below 100 meters. 
The size of the animal is around 5 cm. 
Thank you for the asnwers in advance. 
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I am not an ascidian expert, but I would suggest a recently published book.
Title: Ascidiacea of the European waters
Authors :  Riccardo Brunetti &Francesco Mastrototaro
Editors: Edagricole-New Business Media
Book series: Fauna d'Italia , 51
Date of pubblication:  June, 2017
ISBN 978-88-506-5529-8
Pagines: 472
Cover Prize  €54.00
online purchase
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We found this specimen when trawling on soft bottoms in the Adriatic sea, the depth was around 65 meters. Could you help me with the identification? 
Best regards
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A species of Alcyoniina (Octocorallia) without any doubt. Sclerites are clearly seen in your picture, with long spindles arranged longitudinally in the trunk of the colony, and in chevron (points) in the polyps. Perhaps Paralcyonium spinulosum according to depth and colony structure, but the sample should be carefully examined.
See: Weinberg S (1977) Revision of the common Octocorallia of the Mediterranean circalittoral. 2. Alcyonacea. Beaufortia 25: 131–166
 Good luck!
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This specimen was collected in the shallow waters of Maryland Coastal Bays (MCBs), USA
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Thanks Robin! 
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I got this shells from a fresh water lake. Please check the images and help to identify the same.
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Thank you @Junn Kitt Foor for the detailed explanation and reference. 
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I am looking for a picture taken from this fanworm species. It's distribution is in Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean sea.
A similar operculum is attached. 
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:/
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Marine tropical.
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Yes it is Megabalanus tintinnabulum (Linnaeus, 1758) 
best regards
Deepak
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Respected Scientific community ,
Please try to identify the following attached star fish images .
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Astropecten sp.
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Can some one tell the identification of this limpet collected from Pakistani coast? length 7mm.
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Shahnawaz:
You may also find this link useful:
Best
Syed
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photo is made in south Adriatic Sea at about 30 m in depth
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i believe Rebecca is correct.
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Hi all,
This specimen was collected from Mumbai coast of India. I think this belongs to the Genus Astralium. But I have a confusion with its species name. Please share your experience for identification of this species.
Regards,
Rupam Samanta
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Yes it's a young specimen  of Astralium semicostatum (P. Fischer, 1875).
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I am in need of a specific name for the Phakellia sp. sample I am currently studying on since I am not an expert on marine species. Here's a photo.
Any answer will be appreciated. Thank you.
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Hi Abigail! While I'm not an expert on sponges I can send you a link of a study by UPD on the shallow water marine sponges found in Cebu. One of the species listed is Phakellia cavernosa. Hope it helps!
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Sponge was collected at an intertidal zone in Philippines. Upon collection, sponge was of brown-reddish color. Spicules viewed under light microscope.
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Dear Adrienne,
this is not a sponge species, but a soft coral (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea) of the diverse genus Sinularia sp. You can find pictures of living colonies and a list of currently recognized species at https://science.naturalis.nl/en/people/scientists/leen-van-ofwegen/#sinulariaimages. The author, Dr. van Ofwegen is among the most experienced researchers of this genus. For species ID you would have to consider the diversity of sclerites in different parts of the colonies and usually refer to the primary species descriptions like Verseveldt's (1980) revision of the genus in Zoologische Verhandelingen 179: 1-128 and Verseveldt & Benayahu (1983) 208: 1-33. But this would need some time and practice... Further publications of more species by Dr. v. Ofwegen and various colleagues are available, including some genetic studies of the genus.
For a reliable ID possibly consult someone experienced in soft corals, best would be to send a sample section of a colony preserved in ethanole.
Hope this helps,
Cheers, Götz.
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Please help to trace this uniquely colored crab chela. 
The chela has been encountered on last March from a fisherman's net from Saint Martin's Island of the Bay of Bengal. The catcher just threw crab away considering trash fishery (thinking brightly colored so possibly be non-edible). The chela was the only remain attached to the net and has been preserved.
Went through country's encyclopedia and recently updated IUCN redlist of crustaceans of Bangladesh. Saw no entry in it. However, I think the chela belonged to a swimming portunid crab.
I know the identification can be hard to do from such a remain. Such lilac-purple color seems so intriguing to me. 
Any insight on the identification will be very much appreciated. 
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@Nestor Hernando Campos and @Flavio A. Alves-Junior 
Many thanks for the comments!
Identification has been confirmed. It was of Podophthalmus vigil.
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Hello,
I am looking for help with a presentation I am doing for my Microbiology class. I am doing a research presentation on tardigrades (aka water bears or moss piglets). As part of this project, I decided to "hunt" for some tardigrades of my own and successfully found some in a Spanish moss sample collected nearby a local lake. In the sample, I noticed several cells that appear to be peritrichous with an "x" shape in what appears to be a nucleus. The tardigrades appeared to gather around these cells and even possibly cling to them. I was wondering if anyone could give me some ideas as to what they could be so I could do some further research and maybe describe a possible relationship between the tardigrades and these cells. For some reference, this was viewed under a compound light microscope with a 40x ocular lens, for a combined magnification power of 400x. These cells appeared to be over double the size of the tardigrades and were stagnant. Any help is greatly appreciated. You can see the "cell" pictured her. It is hard to make out, as there is algae gathered around it. I also keep calling this a cell, but given it's size, I'm not sure if it's single-called, or a multicellular organism. Thank you.
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Thank you so much! I actually already have given my presentation, but was asked to give it again for another class, so this is right on time for my follow-up presentation! Thank you once again.
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I'm not sure about the species on the center, that is found in a marine phytoplankton sample from Mozambique.
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Is it Hemiaulus hauckii?
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For its Peronia verruculata (Cuvier, 1830), asking for expert suggestions.
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Agree with the above. It is Peronia verrucluata. Have collected specimen during low tides from the Gulf of Kutch. 
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Hi, Please help me to identify this sponge?
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It looks like sun sponge but colour is somewhat different. 
Please explore google images and confirm from some experts!
Good Luck!
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My student tried a method of gradually adding freshwater with 10% ethanol until ending with a 50:50 seawater:freshwater concentration, but it did not work.
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Thank you Tim, I agree with you. We're only trying the cold and our original method to see which one works best. We will only do gonadosomatic index, so I guess either one is OK?
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Can you help to identify the creature that clung to the coral?
Obtained from the Persian Gulf.
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there are a number of green algae that look like this. I assume these are gas-filled spheres that can be deflated.
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These corals were observed in the central Red Sea. In some of these photos Acropora if it is possible I need species name. For other even genus name is enough.
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Hi, Jaafar, thats nice to read you - it seems that you are still looking for corals...
Most pictures also show Acropora, but not in all cases its easy to know what coral in particular you're asking for. The photos ## 2 and 3 show some Xeniids, possibly Ovabunda sp., but for species ID samples would need to be checked. Further on # 3: Pocillopora, Millepora exaesa. Photos ## 8, 9 remind me of A. humilis, may be # 5 as well, together with 2 colonies of Montipora sp. For the other Picture I can't enlarge some details, if you send the pictures directly to me, I could try to ID the genera. Good luck for your work, cheers, Goetz.
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These eggs were found in shallow water, along Latium coasts, in springtime.
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Some species have white eggs. The Pharaoh's cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis I worked for my Ph.D has totally white eggs. A link is below
The egg mass of Sepiella inermis is black. No black Sepia eggs in Indian waters.
Sepia officinalis has black eggs
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sample location is intertidal rocky surfaces of Visakhapatnam coast, East Coast of India.Is it animal or algae?
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A co-worker found this unknow flatworm along a citycanal in Amsterdam. We have no idea what this might be, so any help is welcome. It is probably non-indigenous. It was collected using a pondnet in the canal, but it may prove not to be aquatic after all.
Thanks, Ton
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Hugh Jones identified it as M.adventor
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I would like to know the best sampling methodology to separate meiofaunal polychaetes from substrate. I have once sampled soft-bodied meiofauna by using magnesium chloride (MgCl2) as anesthetic, but I do not know if there is another similar substance to use. I would rather not use the "bubble and blot" methology as it is better to obtain organisms with hydrophobic cuticle. 
I would also like to know if meiofaunal polychaetes are more abundant in some substrates than in others.
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Magnesium chloride is the best method, and even better if you prepare the solution isotonic with the water of the samples. The substrate depends on the groups of meiofaunal annelids that you are aiming for. If you have more doubts, write me directly,
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The diameter of the basal disc is 7 mm, found among hydroids in Central Mediterranean Sea.
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NorthEastern Atlantic and Mediterranean species, also under Aiptasiogeton pellucidus (see Manuel 1981) and Aiptasiogeton comatus (see also Schmidt, 1972). There is a number of cromatic forms and names, the true relationships among they (and then the final specific epithet to be used) is probably an interesting open question awaiting for an additional study. This is not Sagartiogeton laceratus. See also the recent revision of Grajales and Rodriguez, 2011 on Aiptasiidae.
All the best
Pablo
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Please I need help on the pollution tolerant level for the following marine benthic invertebrates collected along the coastline of my sampling site. Phylum which is Arthropoda and Class Crustacea for Hermit crab, Sand flea and Prawn. Second one is Phylum Mollusca and Class Gastropoda and Bivalvia for a snails and shells. The last one is Phylum Annelida Class of Polychaeta. These are the common benthic invertebrates in my samples for measuring the Pollution by their diversities, Tolerance scores if there is any and the last one if there is any available resources that could help me out to identify whether these invertebrates are pollution tolerant or intolerant?
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thank you all for your great advice
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I found these oribatids in sediment samples. I would like to know if I should include them in my study on the benthic community in caves of the northern plain of Yucatan.
I have read that the vast majority of oribatid mites are strictly terrestrial but there are some families that are found in freshwater habitats ranging from springs to lakes.
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I am quite sure the specimens on the pictures are terrestrial (group Oribatidae?). Quality of the pictures is not enough good to be sure, but it seems that on most pictures the legs are absent/broken – quite well seen on the first photo. This means the animals are dead. Aquatic specimens in the surface water are usually slightly coloured (red, yellow, green) and have relatively long legs. Another group are living in the substrate of the rivers, springs (in small spaces between pebbles, stones), they have shorter legs and they are whitish, actually almost transparent.
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The collegues in our institute have tried hard to develop molluscan cell culture techniques. However, the cells maintained a low viability and scarcely survived for more than one week (including cells from gill, mantle, or haemocytes), leaving alone primary culture or subculture. I was eager to know why this happens, and how to improve the conditions of the cells.
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After 24 hours, haemocyte kept in anti-aggregant had significant decrease of viability.
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I am looking for some pictures of gelatinous organisms for which there is strict copyright on the net for all pictures.
We did an identification guide for non-commercial use for the french MSFD (Marine Strategy Framework Directive) in order to help monitoring those organisms through a simple protocol (for conservation and management issues, no commercial use). 
I am looking for pictures of those specific species:
Cyanea lamarckii
Discomedusa lobata
Drymonema dalmatinum
Marivagia stellata
Nausithoe punctata
Rhopilema nomadica
Soestia zonaria
Please, if you provide me with a picture, give the name of the author and which type of licence you prefer (pure copyright, no right to copy or re-use the picture from the document where it will be put) or common creative licence (can be copied, but name of author has to be written and it cannot be used for commercial use). 
Thanks a lot in advance!
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Hi,
Thanks for the "usage rights" of google (already done). It is exactly why, on nearly hundrer pictures of gelatinous organisms acquired for the guide, I am only missing those 7 species for which only pure copyright exist on the net.
Thanks David, I will :)
Still looking for nice donators then!
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Hi Can you help me to identify this sponge?
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This sponge was collected in the shore... south east Indian coast.
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I just collected these specimen along the coasts of Kerala, from the rocky substratum. Attached the photo of the specimen with this message, Help me to identify the specimen.
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Dear Nandha Gopal, 
looks like Zoanthus sp
Regards
Ravinesh
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Something like an identification key, especially for freshwater microalgae
Or maybe can someone of you with experience in this field help me in identifying some species i collected from two lakes in Algeria.
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think nothing of it
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This specimen found in the Badamu formation.
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Hi,
You may find this book interesting:
Fossilized Fleshes: Recent Evidences of Old Creatures of Kerman
M. R. Mozafari, ‎and M. Tajrobekar - 2006
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After spawning induction of razor clams (Solen regularis) using dry chilling method (4-6 degree Celcius) and thermal shocking technique (27-30 degree Celcius). The gametes released were mixed to carry out the artificial fertilization. The fertilized eggs were found but there was no D-shaped larvae formation in every attempts.
Many parasites were released by the clams during spawning induction such as Ciliates sp., Cercaria sp., Trematode and even Copepode.
Your comments and suggestions are welcome.
Thank you.
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did the sperm and eggs were kept in separate tanks before fertilisation? if so then how much of the sperm was used for fertilisation?.. note that if after fertilisation eggs were not cleaned with fresh clean water then there is a very high chance of bacteria infection pausing greater risk to the fertilised eggs.
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Hi Every body
can you help me for identificate this samples?this samples were in the Persian gulf.
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See the book: Seashells of Eastern Arabia, from BOSCH D.T., DANCE S.P., MOOLENBEEK R.G and P. GRAHAM OLIVER, edited by S.peter Dance, Motivate publishing, London,  ISBN 1 873544 64 2; 296 pages; 1995; printed in Dubai.
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Dear all,
A colleague found this polyclad among mussels on a harbor wall in Zeebrugge(Belgium). It measures 2cm. Can someone help with the identification?
Thanks in advance
Jan
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dear colleaugue, I can not tell you the name of the species because I am not a specialist, and it is not possibilwe a correct determination based on a photos. Nevertheless, I recorded a similar infestation in mussels from the Adriatic Sea and a study on a similar infestation in Tunisian has just published. To follow the developments of this apparent expansion might be of interest.
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Collected from closed cenotes in Yucatan, México. 
Photos:
1 y 2 Gastropods measure approx. 2.4 mm
3 Gastropods (juvenile?) 0.67 mm
4 y 5 Egg?
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Hi Rebeca,
in my opinion it is a hydrobiid species belonging to the genus
Pyrgophorus
maybe the species Pyrgophorus parvulus (Guilding 1828)
The native range of Pyrgophorus parvulus is the Caribbean area and coastal South America – including Cuba, the Lesser Antilles, Venezuela, and Mexico (Harrison 1984).
see: Harrison, A. D. (1984) Redescription of Pyrgophorus parvulus (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae) from St. Vincent, St. Lucia, and Grenada, West Indies. Proc. Acad. Natl. Sci. Phila. 136: 145-151.
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I have collected the specimen from the West coast of India.  
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