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Marine Biodiversity - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Marine Biodiversity, and find Marine Biodiversity experts.
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We will be conducting a survey for marine birds and mammals this summer and we were wondering if anyone has experience with using voice to text software to record marine bird/mammal observations during at-sea surveys? We are planning to use dLog survey software (R.G. Ford Consulting), or equivalent, which has a user interface with data entered into discrete boxes. Each observation is given a time and lat/long location once the user hits the RETURN key to log the observation. Given limited space for computer/handheld GPS/etc. near the observation platform, however, we would be interested in hearing if other researchers have been able to successfully use a voice to text software to record observational data. Such a system would help overcome the limited space issue.
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You can have a look at this -------
Sounding the Call for a Global Library of Underwater ...
https://www.frontiersin.org › fevo.2022.810156 › full
08-Feb-2022
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I am reading about pilot projects of seed production of Ostrea edulis, found only some abstract from old paper mentioning north Spain, but I don't know if it is actually working in the mariculture companies on the Med.
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Sustainable large‐scale production of European flat oyster ...
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com › doi › full › raq
by B Colsoul · 2021
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There has been seen a lot of impacts, some good, some bad. That depends on a lot of factors in each region. But overall, what is short, medium and long-term impacts of COVID-19 that we are going to see in the future of ocean sustainability?
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Reduction in water transport improved the water quality during lockdown
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Currently, microplastics (MPs) occurence researches in coastal and marine animals are performed in huge amounts, but their results concerning MPs abundances are not always given with the same unity.
  • From what I can tell from studies I read, most provide data using MPs/individual. There are some studies that sample in pools, and then, after ending samplings, calculate the MPs/individual data. It would be an issue if we compare MPs/individual data of two different studies: one that sampled in each individual and another that sampled in pools?
  • Should a specific study provide just the MPs/individual data? I think this study it would be sort of incomplete, considering that this data would not totally reflect the abundance of animals with different sizes, weights, and possibly ages, etc.
  • What is the best approach between other unities, such as MPs/g of the whole sample, MPs/g of their dry or wet weight? That are some formulas to convert samples weight for dry and/or wet. This is applicable for MPs?
I know much of that depends on the study's biological samples, and objectives, but I would enjoy reading researchers opinion about it.
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Dear Victor
Mostly expressed as items/m3, but you use another unites according to your specified work too!
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Atmospheric Ozone layer are being depleted day by day, with our pollution activities. This atmospheric Ozone absorbs ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun, particularly UVB-type rays. But, in the past decade Ozone layer have damaged a lot with the uncontrolled uses of CFC gases. Ozone layer depletion is also going on nowadays, with our adverse emission activities. This damages creating ozone holes and UVB radiation can easily pass through the hole.
My question is, what's the impact of UVB radiation on marine ecosystems?
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Have a look at this useful RG link for insights.
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Dear marine biologists,
Thank you in advance for helping me in identifying this Mediterranean limpet. These beautiful limpets were collected from Lebanese rocky shores, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.
I need to know which species is this? Patella caerulea, Patella vulgata, or Patella rustica / lusitanica?
Thanks :)
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Most probably Patella rustica.
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What is the correlation and impact of POC (particulate organic carbon) in fisheries and in aquatic biodiversity and abundance? How can affect fisheries management?
Ok we know that the larger the carbon or organic content, the more oxygen is consumed. A high organic content means an increase in the growth of microorganisms which contribute to the depletion of oxygen supplies.
Is there any research that shows for exemple if in a specific area the POC is increased the abundance of specific fisheries is decreased or vice versa?
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Thank you so much. I will use the information you provided!!
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I collected this skeleton shrimp from some algae and have not been able to match it to typical mediterranean endemic and invasive species. Have considered: Caprella acanthifera, C. dilatata, C. equilibra., C. septentrionalis, C. scaura, and Paracaprella pusilla. Would love some expert opinions! He is now living in my self-sustaining jarrarium. I have more images, so just let me know if there's a specific area I could focus on.
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Of course Caprella scaura, thank you @Abhishek Mukherjee
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Hi again marine biologists,
Thank you in advance for helping me in identifying this Mediterranean sea snail. These gastropods were collected from a rocky coast in Lebanon, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.
I need to know which species is this? Is it Phorcus turbinatus?
Thanks :)
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Photo number 1 is a fish that came out in the stomach contents of a Coryphaena hippurus collected in the Southeast Pacific.
Photo number 2 (Fish) and 3 (Otolith of the fish) is a fish that came out in the stomach contents of a Xiphias gladius collected in the Southeast Pacific.
Photo number 4 is a fish that came out in the stomach contents of a Xiphias gladius collected in the Southeast Pacific.
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Dear, sorry for the delay in responding; unfortunately we do not have a better photo, and by mistake the otolith was not saved. Best regards.
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the genus hydratina has been reported from gut of a marine fish from Pakistan.Does any body know any other marine or brackish rotifer from Pakistan?
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Class Seisonidea
This is the marine Class; they are relatively large and live in the gills of crustaceans. Hydratina senta,
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While shorfin mako and longfin mako have been listed as endangered species, their jaws are still welcome in shark jaw market with poor regulation, as a great number of people ardently display photos of their mako shark jaw collection on Facebook, Twitter and somewhere else. I find that while shark fin trade has drawn much attention, shark jaw trade, despites its popularity, has not been a highlight.
It is really hard to find a paper on the species composition of shark jaw market.
Even worse, some game fishing fishermen killed the living mako sharks and keep their jaws for trade or self entertainment.
Shark jaw trade of endangered species is as harmful as shark fin trade, and maybe even worse. It is because the harm of shark jaw trade has not been revealed to the public, while shark fin trade has been notorious. And some people even find excuses for their collecting endangered shark jaws, such as "this jaw is from a shark that dies a natural death" or "I got it from a legal aquarium".
Do you have any suggestions on mitigation of shark jaw trade of endangered species? Or have you ever studied this problem?
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Hi Li, the shark jaw trade can be reduced by providing information and awareness to public and relevant authorities.
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I need references on research that uses the drone to study biodiversity.
Some example in studys the marine biodiversity, modelling biodiversity in micro scale or biodiversity in particular habitat
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I know about using a drone to record fishermen. In your case, the dron can be used to determine biodiversity in amphibians and plants.
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This siliceous sponge was trawled in Tyrrenian sea  on Tiberino seamont in 450 m.
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Thank you. Roberto.
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We are planning to inventory the black and red corals growing on the Mediterranean sea bottom. I read about various methods amongst them the use of ROV with Sea bottom imaging sensors and cameras.
How to efficiently inventory Precious corals (Black, Gold & red)?
What are the most efficient gears to use for sea bottom surveying such species?
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It's an old topic, but, Are you sure to give available data (Geographic coordinates) for this undangered species?
Regards
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I am looking for current bibliography (books, articles...) about biogeography, specially about oceans, marine paleogeography and marine biodiversity patterns of distribution
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So many literatures available as mentioned by some answers.
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Help me to identify this Bivalve .collected from Gulf of Mannar India. I identified this specimen till genus level Meretrix, Is it Meretrix petechialis (Lamarck,1818)?
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Again Meretrix casta for sure!
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Hi everyone! need to get the identity of this nudibranch. Collected from the trawl net gear operated at depths 10-50 m. East coast of India.
best regards
Deepak
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Dear Dr Deepak Samuel Vijay Kumar,
This slug looks like Armina variolosa (Bergh, 1904).
Regards
Ravinesh @ Deepak Samuel Vijay Kumar
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Hello all. Many of you might have observed during the past several years that beaches around St. Thomas have been impacted by high amounts of brown algae known as Sargassum or gulfweed. I am working with UVI and trying to build a historical record of these events. If you have pictures or made notes of places where you saw massive amounts of these algae in the past I will greatly appreciate if you could share that information.
These stranded seaweed events have been implicated in the die-offs of fishes and turtles, as well as potentially affecting tourism because of the displeasing sights and smells as the algae rot. Many Caribbean governments and businesses have been financially burdened by conducting cleanups as well. Although records of these events in Puerto Rico and the Gulf of Mexico are somewhat available, I am having difficulty finding information for St. Thomas and other smaller Caribbean islands outside of newspaper reports. My goals is to use social media to get a clearer map of what beaches have been affected and when, in the hopes to design some management strategies and raise public awareness.
If you have witnessed these events, I will appreciate that you contact me with the following: 1) Location where the algae were observed, 2) Approximate date (month and year), and 3) a picture if available (to try assessing amount per area). If you are unsure of what the seaweeds look like, this article deals with the issue for the Gulf of Mexico: https://eos.org/f…/sargassum-watch-warns-of-incoming-seaweed
I will be grateful for any information you can share.
Dr. Edwin Cruz-Rivera
University of the Virgin Islands
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What’s the Status of the Sargassum Invasion?
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Very interesting project!
Will it take place in freshwaters?
What techniques will you use for sampling fish larvae / juveniles at the microhabitat scale?
How are you going to describe the vegetated beds?
A Malagasy PhD student is presently trying address identical questions in Toliara Bay, SW Madagascar (so, tropical marine species, a lot of them unknown at larval & juvenile stage...).
Best regards
Dominique
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Hi
In order to answer this question/problem, several remarks have to be studied.
1. General remarks:
Research studies are usually carried out on sample of subjects rather than whole populations. The most challenging aspect of fieldwork is drawing a random sample from the target population to which the results of the study would be generalized. The key to a good sample is that it has to be typical of the population from which it is drawn. When the information from a sample is not typical of that in the population in a systematic way, we say that error has occurred. In actual practice, the task is so difficult that several types of errors, i.e. sampling error, non-sampling error, Response error, Processing error,…
In addition, the most important error is the Sampling error, which is statistically defined as the error caused by observing a sample instead of the whole population. The underlying principle that must be followed if we are to have any hope of making inferences from a sample to a population is that the sample be representative of that population.
2. A key way of achieving this is through the use of “randomization”. There several types of random samples, Some of which are: Simple Random Sampling, Stratified Random Sampling, Double-stage Random Sampling... Moreover, the most important sample is the simple random sample which is a sample selected in such a way that every possible sample of the same size is equally likely to be chosen. In order to reduce the sampling error, the simple random sample technique and a large sample size have to be developed.
3. Specific remarks:
The following factors are highly affected the sample size and need to be identified:
  • Population Size,
  • Margin of Error,
  • Confidence Level (level of significance) and
  • Standard of Deviation.
4. Then, the sample size can be estimated by,
Necessary Sample Size = (z-score or t-value)2 * StdDev*(1-StdDev) / (margin of error)2 .
Regards,
Zuhair
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I'm trying to determine a few reef sites in the Florida Keys that may have both the shallow and deep morphologies of Eunicea flexuosa (formerly known as Plexuara flexuosa). I have attached photos of the two growth forms. Any help would be appreciated.
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Hi Selena,
Thanks for the info. I think the main difference, just visibly, has to do with the protrusion of the apertures/polyps. They do look very similar thoughl. This image is from the Nova Website (https://nsuworks.nova.edu/octocoral_all/122/) and looks like it is an accurate representation of the deep linage. I myself don't have a clear photo, but whenever I've seen it it looks very much like this. E. flexuosa though has very small and smooth apertures/polyps sometimes they are even concave-ish.
I actually haven't found the answer I was looking for so if you do have any places where you think they. might co-occur that would be great to know! Thanks for your help!
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Hi everyone,
I would like to know if there are online available and free world-wide datasets of sea surface temperature, net primary productivity, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen.
Best wishes,
Diego
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Check out the GlobColour project, which started in 2005 as an ESA Data User Element (DUE) project to provide a continuous data set of merged L3 Ocean Colour products. Through their website (http://hermes.acri.fr/index.php) you can access datasets dating back to 1997 and have re-processed, integrated and tested multiple freely available datasets. Depending on your time-series requirements, you may go for more reliable/accurate based on more recent/modern (individually or merged) sensors.
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I always reads in the internet saying that it is quite harmful to aquatic life and etc. But, at the same time I also found some researchers who use it in their formulation to makes a marine coating for steel. So, can I also safely assume it is fine? Or is there a method which can process ZnO into a non-harmful substance without losing its beneficial properties?
p/s sorry for my bad english. Thank you :)
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Hello,
Nano ZnO is friend for environment because, it not toxic but must cure during used it to ensure it not inter in human's body ( i.e lung )..
regards,
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I find it after a storm along the coast of Central Thyrrhenian sea.
Its dimensions are 40 mm. in height and 60 mm in length.
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Thanks to everyone ! Roberto.
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I got this jelly fish in huge quantity while trawling off Kochi.
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First Image Rhopilema sp, second and third are Cyanea sp.
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Need comments upon ID of this jellyfish from Arabian Sea?
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it could not match with Cassiopea.
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Dear researchers,
I am currently working on a project aiming to access the influences of a disturbance on coral reef fish assemblages.
As the title goes, I've encountered a major problem while computing FD indices. I am going to compute Functional Richness, Functional Evenness, Functional Dispersion proposed by Dr. Sébastien Villéger at 2008.
However, the lack of enough species/functional entities in most of our observation makes FD indices computation impossible (The size of the assemblage in every observation is small, usually less than species).
Here are some details of our research method
The field survey method we applied is "modified Stationary Point Count (SPC)", apart from the usual SPC, I select a patch of coral (ranging from 20*20cm2 - 150*150cm2 ) as an object and record down the species either swim by from less than 1m above or crawling on it, as well as the abundance of those species for 6 minutes. And thus we usually encountered less than 3 species. Three treatments are there and for each treatment, we collect 10 data (10 observation).
I appreciate any comment and piece of advice on this topic and thank you in advance.
Best,
Yu-De
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I concur with the prior answers. A methodological answer to why you're unable to calculate the metrics is because the FRic (at least in R package "FD") is calculated on a principal coordinates analysis that requires more species than traits in each sample. There are corrections (see ?dbFD or ?calc_metrics in R package "ecospace") you can use to try to get around the limitations. But if some samples really have less than 3 species, then you will not be able to calculate this metric. (Technically, all Villeger's metrics are based on PCoA space, but only FRic requires the "more species than traits" requirement for the convex hull calculation to work correctly. If using dbFD to calculate, you can "turn off" FRic calculation with dbFD(... calc.FRic=FALSE), and you'll still get the others.
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I'm trying to collect wild animals for ecological and aquaculture research and there seems to be very few of these in Sarasota Florida where we have subtropical weather.  The only place we have found any is in a specific shallow Thalassia seagrass habitat near deeper pass water during Summer and Fall.  I suspect the population is low and might be recruitment limited but maybe there are more animals in deeper water.  Any insight on this would be greatly appreciated.  
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Hi Tom, I have seen these refs, but this does help and I do appreciate your assistance on this. I. badionotus appear to be very patchy in distribution probably due to poor recruitment and low population levels. Their population decline due to high fishing pressure is concerning as they appear to be important reef sediment processors. Their presence in my systems looks to have a functional stabilizing influence on water chemistry. Thanks again for your help!
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Dear Colleagues,
When studying algae species, is there any standard points to take into account (depth, area...) to make a complete and good inventory (mediterranean sea)?
Thank you
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Thank you all of you
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I have a set of data on how the temperature effect sessile marine organisms, reef-building corals, during elevated sea temperature. During stressed period, the corals will bleach based on how much stress present and the tolerance of each species. Hence, I have the species of each corals I have found in my survey location (quantitative) and the level of stress expressed by each invdividuals (qualitative).
My goal is to get a comprehensive analysis of:
1) diversity of corals at each location (which I know, vegan in R)
2) The degree of stress expressed (I planned to use non parametric to compare between sites)
3) The degree of stress expressed based on each species recorded for each location, which is synergistic analysis of 1) and 2).
I am a bit clueless about which analysis should I use for the 3) goal. I hope anyone who has an idea of mixing both into one analysis which i can pin point what species is the most vulnerable at which location.
Thank you in advance for the attention.
Best regards,
Boo
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I think the opinion by Andrew Paul McKenzie Pegman is very right
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Dear all,
on a cruise in the central Sargasso Sea, I encountered numerous pyrosomes in the upper 100 m, which partly reached high abundances. Can somebody help with the species identification? I am not sure that the colour (quite divers) is really a good tracer for species and would appreciate any comments.
Best regards, Florian
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Photo IDs are very difficult, but it looks like Pyrosoma atlanticum, which has a worldwide distribution. Large numbers of this species were observed along the US West Coast and Alaska this year. Here is a bit more infor:
Description Cylindrical colony with tough consistency; characteristically provided with numerous longer or shorter truncate test processes, tapering into an acanthose, backwards pointing tip. Open end of colony with a tight diaphragm. Zooids tightly packed, rounded in shape, sometimes more angular or even triangular with a broad oral part of the branchial basket. Length of zooid up to 8.5 mm. Sexually mature zooids are found in colonies of 4-6 cm length onwards.
Colour Pink or yellowish pink; colonial wall opaque.
Size Length of colony up to 60 cm and 4-6 cm thick.
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I attach a photo of each of the two sides of the object. The object is roughly circular, it is 27 mm across, it is 2 mm thick and it weighs 1 gram. If wet, it sinks in water (density > 1). It does not react very much to acid (not calcareous?). I found it at low tide on the beach of Vogar (SW Iceland) in late August 2017.
Is it part of some marine biota?
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A vertebral endplate indeed, according to http://www.nhm.ac.uk/natureplus/thread/9095 it belongs to a cetacean
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Marine Biodiversity Records comes under Journal of the Marine Biological Association, UK. Will impact factor of JMBA be considered for biodiversity records?
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Hi, this journal was edit by Cambrigde before 2016. Maybe, for this reason, this journal need complete some years to recalculate IF.
Lilian
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Here I'm uploading fewer photos of Octopus. I unable to identify it as well as preserve it well, guide me how to do.
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Start your identification with FAO Cephalopod series of 3 books (2005-2013). Octopus are in Volume 3. Then proceed to the original descriptions. Other references for taxonomic process details are:
Guidelines for taxonomic descriptions of cephalopod species -Roper & Voss 1983
An Overview of Cephalopod Systematics Status, Problems and Recommendations -Roper 1983
Techniques for Fixation, Preservation, and Curation of Cephalopods -Roper & Sweeney 1983
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I am embarking on an exploratory research project on secondary metabolites of marine organisms particularly on sea stars and brittle stars. What natural products should I consider first? Im looking for a list of natural products and various methods I can use to identify and quantify them. I am planning to do zoochemical analyses, in vitro antioxidant activity, and cytotoxicity.
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How deep into a structure - an artificial or a natural reef - is utilized as habitat by settling organisms? e.g - how far inside a gap between boulders of a breakwater, we can expect to find encrusting organisms?
Any papers on the subject will be appreciated.
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Tomer,
The depth of colonization within a reef matrix is light dependant for encrusting autotrophs, but for sessile encrusting heterotrophs it's probably the water flow, i.e. food supply, that would be the key limiting factor. So the depth of colonization within the reef matrix is complex and will depend on numerous factors. The two attached papers may be of some help to get you started.
Tomas
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Dear All,
I have collected this fishes from Visakhapatnam fishing harbour. I think three species in Gobids and other one is very difficult for identification. Can anybody identify this fishes.
Regards,
K.Silambarasan
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Pl send me pics preferably fresh one I will try to Identify it.
Dr.Gore 
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These samples were gathered in freshwater in Iran (north of Iran) in pond. 
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This copepod is a  tiny  Cyclopoid . The identification requests  delicate dissection of  the legs with focus on  the differenciation  between the right  and left  4th or 5th leg  in male and female .From which habitat is the specimen ?
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TL ~10cm. Perth coast, Western Australia, March 2016. I believe it may be a juvenile Spangled Emperor (Lethrinus nebulosus) or a closely related Lethrinid. I would like to have confirmation so it can be included in a soon-to-be-published book on the fishes of Rottnest Island. Any help with identification or suggestions greatly appreciated.
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Thanks Thomas, any thoughts on the Lethrinid juveniles I saw at Rottnest? I posted pics in a separate question, cheers
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We found quite a few specimens of this ascidian on soft trawling bottoms in the southern Adriatic sea, the depth was below 100 meters. 
The size of the animal is around 5 cm. 
Thank you for the asnwers in advance. 
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I am not an ascidian expert, but I would suggest a recently published book.
Title: Ascidiacea of the European waters
Authors :  Riccardo Brunetti &Francesco Mastrototaro
Editors: Edagricole-New Business Media
Book series: Fauna d'Italia , 51
Date of pubblication:  June, 2017
ISBN 978-88-506-5529-8
Pagines: 472
Cover Prize  €54.00
online purchase
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I need an identification key for sargassum muticum and cysteria myrica 
(Morphology and histology)
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You must mean Cystoseira myrica, right? Cystoseira and Sargassum forms are usually distinguished by presence of stalked floats in Sargassum spp, and their absence in Cystoseira spp. look up in AlgaeBase. Hope this helps.
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Genus is also preffered. Thank you.
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Maybe Nereididae. It will be easier if the photo is taken at its ventral.
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We found this specimen when trawling on soft bottoms in the Adriatic sea, the depth was around 65 meters. Could you help me with the identification? 
Best regards
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A species of Alcyoniina (Octocorallia) without any doubt. Sclerites are clearly seen in your picture, with long spindles arranged longitudinally in the trunk of the colony, and in chevron (points) in the polyps. Perhaps Paralcyonium spinulosum according to depth and colony structure, but the sample should be carefully examined.
See: Weinberg S (1977) Revision of the common Octocorallia of the Mediterranean circalittoral. 2. Alcyonacea. Beaufortia 25: 131–166
 Good luck!
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This specimen was collected in the shallow waters of Maryland Coastal Bays (MCBs), USA
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Thanks Robin! 
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I got this shells from a fresh water lake. Please check the images and help to identify the same.
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Thank you @Junn Kitt Foor for the detailed explanation and reference. 
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I am looking for a picture taken from this fanworm species. It's distribution is in Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean sea.
A similar operculum is attached. 
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:/
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Marine tropical.
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Yes it is Megabalanus tintinnabulum (Linnaeus, 1758) 
best regards
Deepak
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Hi all,
These three specimens were also collected from Mumbai coast of India.I thought these belongs to the genus Agaronia and Bufonaria. Please share your experience for identification of these specimens up to species level.
Regards,
Rupam Samanta
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Hi Rupam
It is not O. bulblosa
1 & 2. Agaronia nebulosa (Lamarck, 1822)  (damaged andworn out shell)
3. Bufonaria rana (Linnaeus, 1758) 
3. Bufonaria echinata (Link, 1807)
best regards
Deepak
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Respected Scientific community ,
Please try to identify the following attached star fish images .
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Astropecten sp.
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I have 9 locations with 30 samples from each location. Each sample is a quadrat with species abundance data for multiple species. I want to generate a MDS plot using primer to visualize differences in community composition between the 9 sites.
However I want to use the centroid for each location in my MDS. I think I can calculate the centroid using PCO in Primer but I am not sure how. Does anyone have experience doing this in Primer? 
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Use the "distance among Centroids" function in the PERMANOVA menu. Then select the grouping factor. This will generate a distance mathrix, than you can use it to generate a PCO or MDS
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There is a lot of data on Caribbean mangrove root fouling communities but I am having a hard time finding anything from the Pacific.  Not sure if that is because of the mangrove species itself or if the roots just don't reach the subtidal.  Thanks in advance. 
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Thanks Tomas, these are great!
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I am interested in commercial cultivation of marine oysters/ mussels in field from secured river patches near the sea (Maharashtra, West coast of India). I would like to know about methods, timing, species etc. which will be convenient for that area. 
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Swapnil:
You may like to have a look at this link for insights:
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Syed
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photo is made in south Adriatic Sea at about 30 m in depth
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i believe Rebecca is correct.
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I am interested to know where basking sharks Cetorhinus maximus are occuring in the north Sea. Does anybody know a report or scientific paper on this?
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Nik
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You could try the Shark Trust.  They encourage people to report sightings around the UK. www.sharktrust.org/juniors/juniors_basking_shark_project might help.
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Coral reef environments are excellent indicator of ocean health. About 10% of the worlds coral are dead, 40% are below threat
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See SAMB (State of the Arctic Marine Biodiversity) report just published by CAFF
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What characteristics of species, such as temperate or tropical, sessile or motile, and so on, make them especially delicate to stressors inferable from environmental change?
What particularly about species makes them more prone to being affected by climate change?
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Hi Koleen,
Your question is similar to Lance Tolentino. I have worked on the spawning traits of fishes in the wild and in captivity and found temperature as one of the influencing factors that triggers spawning behavior. They have range of temperatures suitable for spawning.
This could be applied to other organisms as well, though temperature might have varied degrees of influence to different organisms. Migration of species is also an effect of temperature or change of environmental factors, that you may consider
I hope the above information could be of help in anyway to your query. Your topic is interesting. Keep on going and good luck!.
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In the case of the competition between barnacles Balanus and Chthamalus, Balanus outcompetes Chthamalus. It is known that most of the sessile organisms, especially the ones in marine ecosystems, compete through interference. But how does this actually work?
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Adding on to this, UCSC also mentions how overall Chthamalus has a shorter lifespan than Balanus, though Balanus is also subject to higher mortality rates due to its position on the rocky intertidal and its larger size. This may also be a factor in the ability of Balanus to out-compete Chthamalus. Here's a link to their site for future reference: http://www.eeb.ucsc.edu/pacificrockyintertidal/target/target-species-chthamalus-balanus.html
In terms of other sessile organisms, I find that the work of Chadwick and Morrow would help you get a better understanding of other competition mechanisms sessile organisms employ for their survival. For example, there was mention of soft corals using allelopathic chemicals in order to deter stony coral proliferation (Chadwick and Morrow 2011).
Please refer to the attached link for further information:
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Marine. Tropical. Family level is ok.
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Thank you for your answers. 
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Size: range from A (~80mm) to D (~120mm). Rottnest Island on 20/4/17. Could they all be juvenile Spangled Emperor (Lethrinus nebulosus) or a closely related Lethrinid? Any help with identification or suggestions greatly appreciated.
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Hi Todd
Thanks for your reply - much appreciated. I found these fish under our mooring in Thompson Bay, not too far off the Hotel Jetty. We have seen what we believe to be juvenile L. nebulosus at a number of sites around Rotto this last summer - and plenty of adults. Having research these ones at length I am quite convinced the little one is L. genivittatus as it is the only juvenile Lethrinid that has a pointed tip to the shoulder blotch which crosses the lateral line. The other diagnostic feature is the extra long second dorsal spine. Not sure about the others, but I am hoping they will hang around long enough for me to observe them getting older.
If you happen to have any pics of cryptic/unexpected fish at Rotto I'd love to see them. We are printing some verifiable pictures from the public in our book, which should be complete within a couple of months.
Cheers
Glen
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Sponge was collected at an intertidal zone in Philippines. Upon collection, sponge was of brown-reddish color. Spicules viewed under light microscope.
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Dear Adrienne,
this is not a sponge species, but a soft coral (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea) of the diverse genus Sinularia sp. You can find pictures of living colonies and a list of currently recognized species at https://science.naturalis.nl/en/people/scientists/leen-van-ofwegen/#sinulariaimages. The author, Dr. van Ofwegen is among the most experienced researchers of this genus. For species ID you would have to consider the diversity of sclerites in different parts of the colonies and usually refer to the primary species descriptions like Verseveldt's (1980) revision of the genus in Zoologische Verhandelingen 179: 1-128 and Verseveldt & Benayahu (1983) 208: 1-33. But this would need some time and practice... Further publications of more species by Dr. v. Ofwegen and various colleagues are available, including some genetic studies of the genus.
For a reliable ID possibly consult someone experienced in soft corals, best would be to send a sample section of a colony preserved in ethanole.
Hope this helps,
Cheers, Götz.
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I saw this shrub (up to 2m) on Mallorca in April and think that it's a Coronilla. However, all the Coronilla species I had a look at don't seem to have these prominent stipules. It was growing along the coast on the Cap de Formentor peninsula. Does anybody know what this is?
Thank you
Markus
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Cheers Andrew. That's what I thought but the C. valentina specimens I saw in the herbarium lacked these big stipules so it wasn't the perfect match for me....