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Marine Algae - Science topic

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I came across this seaweed at mid to low tide level on the rocky shores of Sindhudurg (Central West Coast of India. Is this a Valoniopsis pachynema?
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Megha Pandya madam, Thank you.
Aron Santhosh Kumar Y Sir, Thank you.
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Hi, when I DNA extract from sargassum (brown algae), I did not see any band on agarose gel or band is very weak. please help me.
thanks
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Maurissa Sakti .. Could you share the protocol you used to get the best result or at least the good one among all protocols you tried? Maybe someone here could give a suggestion to solve the problem by modifying the solution or some step to make it a better result.
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Bioinsectisides are popular now for crop protection. The proponents would like to ask some recommendation for capturing VOC compounds from marine algae the is easy. What formulation of non-toxic aerosol type bioinsectiside can be compatible for VOC.
Hypothetical Material:
Active Ingridient - VOC from Marine Algae
Inert Ingridient - ???
Thank you.
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These plants also include Cinerarieliste Feverfew (Dalmatian chamomile), the extract of which served as the basis for a bio-insecticide. Such a seemingly harmless flower grows on the Balkan Peninsula off the coast of the Adriatic Sea, and is also cultivated in the North Caucasus, Central Asia and some European countries.
As a result of high-tech processing, Pyrethrum (pyrethrum) is obtained from the inflorescences of mountain chamomile - a contact poison that enters the insect's body through the chitinous cover or the respiratory system, and then spreads through the body through the cavity fluids, causing paralysis of the nervous system.
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I came across this seaweed at mid to low tide zone on rocky shores of Sindhudurg (Central West Coast of India). More prominently seen during monsoon season. I feel this is a Chaetomorpha antennina.
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You are welcome Siddhesh Bhave
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An alternative livelihood can be generated from marine algae.
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Sargassum is a type of seaweed or brown algae (macro-algae) which generally inhabit in shallow water and coral reefs.
  • This algae can be used to make paper, tissue paper or paper bags, as it usually consists of cellulose and hemi-cellulose which are raw materials of paper (preventing cutting of trees to make paper or prevent use of plastic bags).
  • Can use dry algae biomass to burn as fuel, replace coal with dry algae as it will release less carbon dioxide.
  • Can be used to make cosmetics, makeup, pharmaceutical products, sunscreen, anti-aging cream and for hair strengthening treatments. Sargassum is rich in iodine, bromine, mineral salts and vitamins and also have the ability to absorb fats.
  • Seaweed can be used to treat joint pains and skin diseases (burns), as they have high antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-fungal properties.
  • Seaweed is also used in food and beverage industry, normally used in cocktail drinks.
  • Farmers can use seaweed as fertilisers. they should collect the algae from the coastal zone which will indeed benefit the ocean as it allows a better survival rate of marine organisms. The farmers should let it dry in the sun for two to three days, wash and store for later use.
  • Sargassum seaweed is a nutritious food rich in carotenoids, cellulose, protein, and aspartic and glutamic acids. Sargassum seaweed contains polysaccharies, which support healthy bloody pressure and blood sugar.
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Hi Everyone
Could you please name journals which publish review article related to Algae Biotechnology for free within less duration.
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You can try Trends in Biotechnology (IF: 14.343)
Thanks
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Hello, can somebody help me to identify this specie of Chlorphyte? I find it in a reef in front Veracruz and I think it´s a Caulerpa, but I am not sure.
Thank you for your help.
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This is more likely Caulerpa mexicana. Caulerpa mexicana has branchlets that are not constricted at the base, and a flat midrib. Caulerpa taxifolia has branchlets that are constricted at the base, and a compressed but not flat midrib. Caulerpa mexicana is also more common in the Gulf of Mexico.
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I was looking for Caulerpa lentillifera earlier today in Kenyan South Coas in Kibuyuni, Kwale county. I found a different kind of sea grape. I am certain that it is of the genus Botryocladia, but I am uncertain of the species. Does anyone have an idea about this macroalgae?
I hope the photos are clear enough.
Also, has anyone come across Caulerpa lentillifera in the Kenyan coast? Please let me know.
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Thank you very much, José!
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What is the criteria should I follow to study the antioxidant effect of an extract of marine algae?
I mean determination of the concentration that recommended to be administrated in water.
Is there a standard method should I follow?
Should I perform a toxicity test first?
Could I use the concentration to the its effect on amino acids and fatty acids metabolism of adult Zebrafish?
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Have you checked whether the extract from the marine algae has potential antioxidant properties?
If No, You may go with spectrophotometric analysis (Antioxidant assays- DPPH,ABTS,ORAC,NO).
Further, you may proceed with cell lines or any normal cells to check the reduction in intracellular Reactive oxygen species of your extract.
Now, for the concentration you may start with the a higher say 1000uM and reduce it to lower concentrations based on the literature .
However, when you go for in Vivo model it is necessary to go for toxicity analysis to check the different parameters like mortality, malformations, heart rate etc. so that you can set a concentration. Also, the concentrations set for in vitro and Vivo antioxidant activity will vary.
You can go with DCFDA analysis. Further SOD,CAT,GPx for you in Vivo antioxidant studies.
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How much cleaned diatom frustule cost in the market? and how much is the demand?
Is their any companies interested to produce frustule?
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Hi,
"Frustules" are on the market since years = diatomite = fossil diatoms...best regards, Michael
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This can be detailed or anecdotal, quantitative or qualitative. Over the course of years or decades. Anything that reports changes in the size of the canopy forming species.
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I am trying to obtain polysaccharides from several unicellular, eukaryotic marine algal cultures, without any intact cells (or salt). Purity is not my hugest priority - I don't mind getting a few proteins or other molecules. I also don't mind if the polysaccharide comes from within the cell. I've tried prefiltering with 0.45 and 0.22 micons, then preciptating with ethanol, methanol, calcium chloride, and calcium hydroxide, and none of these seem to work. I'm considering just busting the cells open at this point and getting any polyacrylamide I can get. I'm using total carbohydrate assay to measure if I got anything, and eventually Alcian Blue. I've been optimizing with Chaetoceros tenuissimus. Any help would be greatly appreciated!!
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samples belong to the Sundarban tidal area.
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Good that you got the answer from others.
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We have obtained gold nanoparticles in the laboratory by reducing Au (III) ions in the presence of marine algae. How can they measure their size?
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I recommended the answer provided by Dilip Kumar Pal
Best Regards Laura Bulgariu
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I was wondering about the role of free fatty acids in dinoflagellates, more specifically the symbiodiniaceae? What are the metabolic pathways and where are the different types of lipids usually manufactured?
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Thank you Dr. Mukherjee
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Dear RG Colleagues,
I am doing a survey on the plant material (species, genus ...) which is the subject of several field of research in each department/city/country. Your contribution will be a great help. Best regards Abdenour
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Thank you all of you for your consideration and answers
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It looks like the bigest known centric diatom is Ethmodiscus rex, which frustule can be bigger than 1 mm.
Do you know the other biggest centric diatom(s)?
Which centric diatoms are the smallest?
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Round, F. E. (1980). Forms of the giant diatom Ethmodiscus from the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Phycologia, 19(4), 307-316.
"In spite of its large size - up to 2 mm in diameter - and its frequent occurrence in the tropical phytoplankton assemblage this diatom has received very little attention"
(with no reference to a particular species)
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So many literatures available as mentioned by some answers.
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It is experimentally proved that turf algae in combination with sediment prevents the settlement of coral larvae. My field observations are contradictory to it. I observed lot of new recruits on hard substrate which has been covered with turf algae and sediment. Is there any other factor which could aid the settlement of coral larvae on a turf algal substrate?
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Hi
I'm student aquaculture in MSC And I'm going dissertation topic work on the algae.please guide me
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I don't do the algae research. May be later. Thanks you.
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We are trying to produce in the laboratory gametophytes and sporophytes of Laminaria digitata and Saccharina latissima together with Palmaria palmata. Still we are struggling to get rid of the diatoms present in our fertile material. Even pre-treatments with iodine or bleach, as well as manual scrubbing and several washes with filtered and autoclaved seawater do not help to solve the problem. Thanks to everyone that can give a hand for this!
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If you have still this problem, treatment with GeO2 in sterilized seawater containing 1% Triton X-100 may be helpful.
Best wishes
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I am working on isolating fatty acids from marine algal extracts. GC-MS results show the presence of fatty acids I am looking for. But the fatty acids don't get separated on don't even move on column. I tried all levels of solvents from Pet Ether to Methanol-Chloroform system. But no result. Where am i going wrong?Or is there any other approach to isolate them?
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We decided to develop a method for separation and determination of fatty acids from different tissues by high-performance liquid chromatography. That method allowed us to determine cholesteryl ester composition and content in umbilical cord arteries. Studies were performed on the umbilical cord arteries taken from 10 newborns delivered by healthy mothers and 10 newborns delivered by mothers with preeclampsia. Cholesteryl esters were isolated by thin layer chromatography. Fatty acids were liberated by basic hydrolysis and analyzed by HPLC of their p-bromophenacyl derivatives using detection at 254 nm. It was found that saturated fatty acids were the main group of fatty acids incorporated to cholesteryl esters in all control and preeclamptic umbilical cord arteries. Preeclampsia caused a significant increase in cholesteryl ester content in the umbilical cord arteries. An increase of neutral lipid content in vessel walls of newborns delivered by mothers with preeclampsia may be one of the factors that evoke the initiation of hypertension in utero and its amplification throughout childhood and adult life. The described method reduces time and cost consumption and allows us to determine almost all fatty acids forming cholesteryl esters contained in the tissue sample.
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Can anyone help me to identify two species of Codium found in Sayulita, Nayarit (Mexico)? I made a cross section to watch the utricules in an attempt to identify them using a bibliography but I still found it difficult.
The dark green one is A)
The light green one is B)
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Rafael Martín Martín
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Hi everyone,
I would like to know if there are online available and free world-wide datasets of sea surface temperature, net primary productivity, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen.
Best wishes,
Diego
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Check out the GlobColour project, which started in 2005 as an ESA Data User Element (DUE) project to provide a continuous data set of merged L3 Ocean Colour products. Through their website (http://hermes.acri.fr/index.php) you can access datasets dating back to 1997 and have re-processed, integrated and tested multiple freely available datasets. Depending on your time-series requirements, you may go for more reliable/accurate based on more recent/modern (individually or merged) sensors.
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I will be going into my 3rd year of study in September and have decided to do an experimental project in the areas of Microplastics in water bodies. Does anyone have any suggestions for topics? I am struggling to think of a specific title within that area. This sort of project would have a 10 week time limit so it would have to be suited to fit that timescale.
I have thought of microplastics in phytoplankton, sediment samples, freshwater samples and possible drinking water samples as well.
many thanks
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Hello, it's an emerging topic both of interest & health concerns. For a time limited project, it would be nice if you confine your analysis within daily-life items, not only water but most commonly used processed food items packed in plastics. Good luck.
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Hi, I'm Minjae.
My sample is a Dunaliella, the green microalgae growing well on salinity culture media including 0.6M NaCl. In these days, I'm searching on the ROS detection assay which is possible to apply on my cell.
I used DCFDA cellular ROS detection assay kit (ab113851, abcam).
I modified several experimental conditions to fit on my sample.
1) Because this cell is cultured on salinity culture media, it could be affected by osmotic pressure. So, I couldn't use DW to dilute 10x buffer. (Manufacturer's protocol recommends the dilution of 10x reaction buffer into DW.) Instead of DW, I used the salinity culture media inculding 0.6M NaCl. "Is it possible to use salinity culture media, instead of DW?"
2) There are many reports using this ROS detection assay kit for animal cells which do not have pigments (autofluorescence). However, Dunaliella has green autofluorescence induced from a chloroplast. To solve this problem, I measured the value of resuspended cell into 1x supplemented buffer as a negative control, and calibrated the value based on the values of negative control.
I attached my result. The Dunaliella cells (A, B) were exposed to high light condition to make them ROS generation. From my result, it showed that A(red) and B(blue) have similar ROS contents at the 20uM DCFDA treated conditions.
To confirm that the kit was applied well on my cell, TBHP was treated to the sample. The value was increased than DCFDA samples, and it seems that the kit is working well in my case. All values were calibrated to relative value than none (without 20uM DCFDA).
The data showed significant differences between negative controls, but I'm still not sure with my data. Because its signal intensity is too low compare to other results from animal cell lines. "I know that it is a stupid question... how much level of intensity is necessary to show the data meaningful?"
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Hi there
Algae cells are much better at protecting against oxidation damage than animal cells (algae is expose to many more toxic chemicals than animal cells)
Algae cells have many different mechanism to prevent oxidative damage, the only cells that show some level of protection like algae cells are cancer cells (not all, but many)
I did test for oxidative stress on C vulgaris cells, but using flow cytometry (measuring individual cells ), I tested generation of O2* superoxide and H2O2 radicals
However, you need to use more controls, specifically negative ones, to rule out any autofluorescence
Three controls
stained negative (heat-killed cells, 20 min at 80°C),
stained cell blanks (no stimulus added: light, only labelled with dye),
cell blanks (no stimulus, no dye) and then specific positive controls as you have used
As long as the difference is significant and you use proper controls, then it will all make sense
I hope this helps
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Any suggestions on making an aquarium chiller or are there any cheap and reliable ones out there that I could buy?
Has anyone made their own for culturing experiments?
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Hi Adam
You could use the cold water from your household water supply. Just add a T to the cold water pluming, make a spiral to place in the aquarium, connect the spiral to the T with a solenoid valve and a thermostat. This should give you sufficient thermal control for this temp range. Just make sure that there is enough circulation around the spiral.
Good Luck
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I want to know , I 'm try to cultured one and I'm waiting the result
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It will deactivate the cell functionality. I have tested for three different species (chlorella, scenedesmus, spirulina) and was not able to obtain any growth.
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Try using nets with thallus, later, try monoline rope
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I need an identification key for sargassum muticum and cysteria myrica 
(Morphology and histology)
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You must mean Cystoseira myrica, right? Cystoseira and Sargassum forms are usually distinguished by presence of stalked floats in Sargassum spp, and their absence in Cystoseira spp. look up in AlgaeBase. Hope this helps.
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I used dried and ground Sargasssum spp. to enrich surface sediments. Took sediment samples (that may have bits of Sargassum spp.) and determined chlorophyll-a spectrophotometrically. I am wondering if the chlorophyll-a could come from the dried Sargassum ssp., and not benthic diatoms.
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There is likely to be chlorophyll-a in sediment samples from benthic microalgae such as diatoms. I would test the chlorophyll-a in sediments unenriched with your dry Sargassum spp (background). Also test the chlorophyll-a within your dried macroalgal powder. Then you will be able to see whether the chlorophyll-a signal from enriched sample is above the background + the macroalgal powder chl-a signal.
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I have attached herewith, the paper by Pirbazari et al., (2014) where the Foumanat tea waste was alkaline treated. The SEM images thus presented have clear differences between the treated and the untreated biomass. But one of the features that have not been discussed upon is the flaky material present in excess in the untreated biomass but absent/ present very little in the treated biomass. 
I have made the similar observation in my study. My doubt is as to which component of the plant material is this? NaOH has removal effect over lignin and part of hemicellulose. Is it one among the two or something (some other plant component) else that I have missed considering?
I would be grateful to any suggestions that would make the discussion complete and clear.
PS. I have added a sticky note on the flaky material in the SEM image of the attached paper.
Thank you. 
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Dear Smruthi,
It is very difficult and risky to identify a compound from a simple photograph, especially in such a complex "soup". I think the best candidates should be among the extra polymeric substrates (EPS) that are part of the biofilms and flocs of the activated sludge.
This, of course, is merely a hypothesis to be verified.
Jacques
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Marine tropical.
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Yes it is Megabalanus tintinnabulum (Linnaeus, 1758) 
best regards
Deepak
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Need help in phytoplankton identification: this round-shaped thing was seen under 40* objective: sample collected during a red tide at early summer of the east china sea, at a density of about 4* 105 / L, dominant species co-identified was Gonyaulax spinifera (color of tide was rather light, with large amount of foam)
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Dear Dr Zhang,
It is true the photo was  not clear. and the scale was missed. could you pls tell me the cell size of this cell? By the color and shape, I thought it was one of dinoflagellate but it was not noctiluca. I had found the nocticula in coastal of Eart China Sea. could u pls offer more photos with different view?
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Hi experts
Attached please find some figures representing a species of filamentous and mat forming species of Cyanobacteria collected from the Upper intertaidal rocks of the eastern Medit Sea. The color of this species brown to yellow to somewhat gold. First, I believed that it is a species of the Oscillatoriales but I am not quite sure anymore since the apical cells looks different. Can anyone help me identifying the genus and may also speculate the species. It's hard to identify Cyano, I know... Ohh, here are some more details: Trichoms are cylindrical, about 12-13 µm in diameter and (1.5-) 2-4 (-5) µm thick.Tubes are up to 18 µm thick. Scales of figs. are 50 µm or 200 µm (1 fig). Thank you very much.
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Hi people
I want to thank you all for your replies. Frankly, at the beginning I thought that it might be a species of the Lyngbya genus and we have several species her that I identified previously from the intertidal zone, but as Maria Van Herk noted, Fig. 4 (the last one) indicates that it might be something else...
I do own Jiří Komárek big fat book of the Heterocytous genera and species but not the other books of the Oscillatoriales and the Chroococcales. I hope that you have the book regarding the Oscillatoriales....
Yoram, I replayed to you personally
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Hello all
I have old 150-180 ml water samples that have been fixed in formalin. The goal is to document changes in anabaena (dolichospermum) strains as well as in diatoms starting from 1977 to present day. The trick is that the anabaena colonies need to remain intact. This is promlematic because of the size of the samples and the fact that the anabaena floats but the diatoms do not. I am also afraid that filtering will ruin the colonies. Note: These are just plain water samples, no plankton net was ever used.
Does anyone have any ideas on how to achieve this?
Best regards
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Dear colleague!
If I understand you corectly, You have only formalin fixed samples and you want to document changes in strains of Anabaena species and diatoms from these formalin fixed samples?
Best wishes
Bohuslav
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genes specifically: rcbL and rcbS
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thank you @SurenderSingh :)
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Sponge was collected at an intertidal zone in Philippines. Upon collection, sponge was of brown-reddish color. Spicules viewed under light microscope.
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Dear Adrienne,
this is not a sponge species, but a soft coral (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea) of the diverse genus Sinularia sp. You can find pictures of living colonies and a list of currently recognized species at https://science.naturalis.nl/en/people/scientists/leen-van-ofwegen/#sinulariaimages. The author, Dr. van Ofwegen is among the most experienced researchers of this genus. For species ID you would have to consider the diversity of sclerites in different parts of the colonies and usually refer to the primary species descriptions like Verseveldt's (1980) revision of the genus in Zoologische Verhandelingen 179: 1-128 and Verseveldt & Benayahu (1983) 208: 1-33. But this would need some time and practice... Further publications of more species by Dr. v. Ofwegen and various colleagues are available, including some genetic studies of the genus.
For a reliable ID possibly consult someone experienced in soft corals, best would be to send a sample section of a colony preserved in ethanole.
Hope this helps,
Cheers, Götz.
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Hello everyone, I try to sieve protozoa, fungi and bacteria from soil solution with different sizes of meshes, then wash them off from the mesh, so far i dint find useful literature about this, anyone has some ideas ? thanks a lot!
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Rather than sieving you could try density gradient centrifugation using a density agent such as Percoll, Ludox, or sodium polytungstate.
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During the last summers, extensive blooms of mucilaginous algae have been observed along the French Mediterranean and NW Italian (Liguarian Sea) coasts. Does anyone have information about a similar phoenomenon along spanish Mediterranean coasts?
Thak you 
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Mucilaginous algae have been described in Portugal and North Spain costs. I have found tha attached newspaper article in Catalonia. Perhaps this is more interesting for you than the atlantic coasts.
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it is seen in freshwater and green in colour
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It is Desmidium only....no Spondylosium....Kindly refer West & West Monograph for identification...
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I know it grows there but that is according to a fish pen breeding website that lists it as a food for milk fish. http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/W6928E/w6928e07.htm. but I cannot find any recent surveys/biological inventories regarding the algae of Laguna Lake. 
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Dear Hazel,
I suggest you to check this publication which talks about two species collected in Rizal and Laguna: Cladophora diluta and C. luzoniensis. 
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We are looking forward to perform a genomic DNA extraction for a whole genome sequencing on a monoculture of algae such as Dolichospermum and Microcystis and on the diatom Nitzschia. What is the recommended gDNA extraction kit for species such as these? Will the gDNA extraction kit differ when you're looking at a different genus or species?
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Hello, Blia!
We had sucess using Invisorb Spin Plant Mini Kit.
Good luck!
Thaís
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We are preparing an application for the study of these algae in the next four years (1918-2021). The main questions are: a) optical properties of habitat; b) relations with Cyanobacteria; c) special food web on the basis of large green algae. Colleagues interested in cooperation or presenting questions are welcome!
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I expect it to be a broad works and it needs a lot of effort. All the best
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Hi Sir, I would like to ask how did you collect pure moina from a pond / lake ? Nature water bodies should consist of a lot of microorganisms like copepods too.
Thank you.
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Dear Kelvin,
sorry for my slow response, I do not see any notifications here.
If you have the equipment to produce (opportunity to buy) enough Chlorella, to provide such the pond, soon Moina will change the pond so that the rest of the zooplankton will not survive. Moina spp. are aedificators, ecosystem engineers.
Professor Hudec is absolutely right, the valid name is Moina affinis Birge, 1893. But I'm not sure that this is the right name for your population, because a huge number of undescribed yet species are shown for these cladocerans.
However, species from this group are not good for aquaculture due to relatively low productivity.
For absolutely unlimited (exponential) growth of M. macrocopa population in the lab I use 200,000 Chlorella cells/ml (20-50 ml beaker/female) per day. For small species, like M. micrura - at least 5 ml at same food concentration.
It is very important to use a fresh harvest of Chlorella, collected at an exponential stage of growth. Dry Chlorella powder gives a very poor result.
If you have any questions, please ask by email: Vlad.Tchougounov at gmail/com
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I have collected this sargassum from Sunset view point beach in Kanyakumari,India. Can someone please identify which sargassum specie is this ? I have attached a pic of it..thankyou..!
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close up of receptacle, position of air bladders , branching, leaf margin etc. are required for Identification of Sargassum
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The genus dinophysis is toxic dinoflagellates by increase DSP toxin which cause fish kill and other aquatic organisms mortality. I want to know how many species belonging to this genus recorded in the world
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Dear colleges
Thank you very mush for good information's about my answer  
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Culturing of pure or dominant Moina in an earthern pond has been very difficult as copepods tend to grow and become the dominant species within a short period.
Are there any method to eliminate copepods but remain Moina? or separate copepod and Moina?
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Dear Kelvin, the phytoplankton preference you will have to find out at your level. That is because different varieties have different likeness.
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 I need to obtain unialgal culture of cladophora then the axenic culture of it, what is the best way to do that?
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You are welcome :D
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Hi all, I know it may be difficult to identify coral species from a photo but it would be great if anyone can point me to identify these corals up to genera.
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1- Merulinidae - Favites sp. but it could be different genus. You need skeleton to confirm both genus and species.
2- Merulinidae - Favites (flexuosa?) but you need skeleton to confirm both genus and species.
3- Merulinidae - Platygyra sp.  but you need skeleton to confirm both genus and species.
4- Poritidae - Porites sp. but you need skeleton to confirm the species.
5- Merulinidae - Favites sp. but it could be different genus. You need skeleton to confirm both genus and species.
6- Merulinidae - Platygyra sp. (or Leptoria) but you need skeleton to confirm both genus and species.
7- It's a sponge... Xestospongia? I'm not a sponges specialist.
8- Merulinidae - Dipsastrea sp. but you need skeleton to confirm both genus and species.
9- Merulinidae - Another species of Platygyra (daedalea?) but you need skeleton to confirm both genus and species.
10- It's a soft coral... Lobophyton? (Sinularia?)
Merulinidae is not an easy group to identify underwater (like most scleractinian corals :-) people might say. It will be great if you could collect a large piece for taxonomic check, and subsample for molecular purpose. Keep me posted!
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Dear phytoplanktonologists,
Do you know this colonial planktonic diatom? It has been found in Azov Sea in autumn. Is it a Chaetoceros species?
It is the only photo I have.
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Thank you, Dimitar and Rene.
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It is collected around mangrove arial root from the Red Sea?
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Mohsen,
It also may be Caulerpa sertularioides , it is difficult to tell from that one picture but please have a look at:
Also please have a look at this key, it may help you to identify what species you dealing with:
I observed C. sertularioides on the mangrove roots in Indonesia.
Tomas
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Removal of Chlorella from Hematococcus in BBM medium  
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I think you have to follow the isolation technique such as....serial dilution followed by agar plating method using BBM...on agar plate Hematococcus will produce astaxanthin and chlorella never produce remain green color only...so based on the color you can pick-up the colony and further you can purify by the same technique..
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i read about using it with mycotoxin
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Based on the structure of this Cyanotoxin, which has a positive charge, I think that the Bentonite Clay Can absorb this kind of toxin due to it,s high negative charges.
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how to identify the cyano bacterial compounds what are  their   specific key factors , and what is the specific similarities in betwwen cyano bacteria - algal blooms
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thank you sir very interesting and valuable answer , u have done  the great and practical work has been working in realistic way in James river Estuary Virginia  , thanks for your input 
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They are from a TEMPORARY STREAM from south Spain. Fixed by ETHANOL 
Colonies size 5 a 10mm, mucilaginous colonies floating through Rannunculus vegetation
Cell size around 9-10micras. distributed in 4 celled groups surrounded by a mucilage,with fragments of remains from mother cell wall.
thanks in advance
Maria 
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Hello Maria,
I agree that you should look into Tetrasporales and other palmelloid algae. Though, you may not be able to identify this in fixed state and especially fixed with ethanol. Here are the photos of similar findings in swamp canals in Ukraine. I think, it might be Asterococcus limneticus and Gloeococcus alsius, but I'm not very sure.
Good luck,
Yuriy.
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I want to carbonise the marine algae. Please tell me the possible procedure 
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Sorry, I am not to help you but I am going to follow other answers. Regards
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Can anyone share me the publication "Planktonic dinoflagellates" (by Hallegraeff et al., 2010)?
Hallegraeff GM, Bolch CJS, Huisman JM, de Salas MF (2010) Planktonic
dinoflagellates. In: Hallegraeff et al, editors, Algae of Australia phytoplankton of
temperate coastal waters. CSIRO Publishing / ABRS. Melbourne. pp. 145–212.
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Thank you Dr. Króliczewski ! I will try.
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I'm working on the effect of silica levels on marine polar (Chaetoceros neglectus in Southern Ocean) and tropical diatoms (Actinocyclus octonarius in Malaysia).
I'd like to know the current composition and the threats of silica in polar and tropical waters. 
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Hi Xiting, 
Thank you for sharing the paper! I haven't read in depth yet but I could see it was good.
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Algae Identification
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Those two groups are both included in the book mentioned above.
Regards
Sanet
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Dear researchers,
Can any one help me in identifying these microalgae. i feel first one is a member of Euglenoids and other one chlorophyceae. 
With Regards...
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Elaya:
If you expect good answers then please provide sharply focused images.
Best
Syed
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Those dinoflagellates founs in the Black Sea. I think they are Prorocentrum, but could not saythe exact specific name. May be they belong to P. compressum.
Does anybody know the specific name of that dinoflagellates (Prorocentrales)?
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That species have been found in th Black Sea.
Are they Dynophysis? What is the species name? Are they belong to one species?
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I would like to know how the positive tubes are scored in MPN for microalgae. Fluorometry or chlorophyll a or any other plating method ?
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if they are all about the same size - you could create a calibration curve for a spec- but really the easiest way is to use a haemocytometer counting slide
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The seaweed was collected from the Pacific Ocean (near Pisco, Peru) in September.
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Hi Rando!
According to the 1st picture, that red algae could be Ahnfeltiopsis concinna as Priyanka mentioned; however, plants of Ahnfeltiopsis durvillei can also match with its characteristics. In my opinion, A. durvillei is more probable because this species is one of the most abundant intertidal species at middle levels along the exposed, rocky coast of Peru (Dawson et al. 1964).
In the second picture, it seems that the thalli of that algae are flattened at some point. In this case, Asterfilopsis furcellata could be the species.
In the third picture, the yellowish algae could belong to Ahnfeltiopsis and red to dark-brown ones could be Ahnfeltiopsis or Asterfilopsis furcellata. The difference in colors is due to possition in the intertidal (yellowish if it s more exposed to the light or dessication). Also, the small blades attached to the rock could be Pyropia/Porphyra, however it is necessary a better picture to confirm that.
Does the last two pictures belong to the first one? If this is the case, the abscence of hypha-like filaments in the medulla could support the idea of Priyanka; however these filaments are also not present in A. durvillei.
As a recommendation, for red algae belonging to Phyllophoraceae (as Asterfilopsis and Ahnfeltiopsis) reproductive structures are necessary for correct iddentification.
Best luck!
Btw, Pisco is a really good place! I have some collections from there
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I am thinking to make supercritical Carbon dioxide extraction technique more economic and sustainable by add value to products that do not have value.
One of the products will be Tetraselmis suecica (marine algea), I will extract lipid from the biomass, and I need to isolate polysaccharides from the rest product (mucilage), as far as I know it is a mix of protein and polysaccharides?  
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see  the following reference, thanks
Enzymatic and acid hydrolysis of Tetraselmis suecica for polysaccharide characterization
by
Azadeh Kermanshahi-poura,  1, Toby J. Sommera, Paul T. Anastasa, , Julie B. Zimmermana, b
Bioresource Technology, Volume 173, December 2014, Pages 415–421
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The impact of ecological factors on the content of bioactive compounds sulfated polysaccharide in brown seaweed
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A very good book, with plenty of lead references is:
Seaweed Ecology and Physiology by Hurd, Harrison, Bischof and Lobban 2014. Second Edition. Cambridge University Press.