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Manufacturing Process Mechanics - Science topic

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At the first 1 g of HIPS polystyrene thermoplastic polymer was mixed with 10 cc of toluene solution for 1 hour and a half using a magnetic stirrer.
The resulting solution was mixed with 0.2 g of hydrophobic sio2 nanoparticles for 1 hour using a magnetic stirrer.
The solution obtained from the previous step was dispersed under ultrasonic bath ( 5 x 100 second cycles )
Then polydimethylsiloxane Silgar 184 was mixed in a ratio of 10: 1 with the solution obtained in the previous step for 30 minutes.
And then 500 seconds (5x100) again with ultrasonic.
The resulting solution was immersed twice as a coating on aluminum substrates, wood and glass slides.
After 24 hours, the coating was dried in the oven for 30 minutes at 100 degrees
The contact angle of the water drop was 118 degrees (without polydimethylsiloxane) if the contact angle with polydimethylsiloxane was expected to increase but decreased to 100 degrees.
Is there a mistake in the protocol?
Is there a problem with the time it takes to put it in the oven?
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Dear Alireza Taheri, please refer to the following documents for better understanding of the contribution of both: PDMS and SiO2, to the contact angle changes. My Regards
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In hot forging process, when we heat the work piece up-to 1200oC. It surface begin to rupture, due to oxidation of iron. This oxide layer penetrates into the metal surface when we deform it with compressive forces. So, We are in the investigation of a best technique for descaling of hot metal. Our production is mixed and  batch. Our product variety.
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Use high pressure water Descaler. Most of forgings and steel producers are using to remove scale from heated billets / slabs.
Water spray @ 200 bar is applied through flat jet nozzles. This reduces billet / slab temperature @ 5 to 10 degree, which is acceptable in these process.
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Besides the minimizing the energy of welding and accelerating the cooling rate, are there any procedures to prevent grain growth of heat affected zone (HAZ)? 
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post heat treatment is the simplest method to restructure the grain growth in heat affected zone
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Cutting tools best suited for turning and drilling SS304L to study tool wear behaviour with Minimal Quantity Lubrication environment.
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I fully agree with Daniel Martinez Krahmer
PVD coated tools or inserts are more suitable for machining stainless steel. PVD technique enables suitable coverage of the sharp cutting edges as compared to CVD and retention of the coating on the cutting edges.
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While optimizing machining parameters through GRA, in the final step GRG of initial, predicted and experimental parameters were compared to find the effect of GRA. In this regard on what basis the initial parameter combination selection has been made. In articles there is no explanation about this. 
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in several paper about grey relational analysis combined with taguchi methode , I found initial parameter design to compare predictive value in confirmation test . For example : initial factor A1B2C2D1 compare with optimal result A2B2C2D2. Anyone can explain how determine the initial parameter design or initial optimal faktor? I really confuse about this.... Thank you
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In Terms of Process, Parameters and Application.
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They have same performance level in industry. Both of them used as a blasting process. Differences in term of materials one jet is good for machining and one use powder for blasting.
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Cojuld you tell us is there any mathematical equation that can be used to calculate the bottom diameter of pin in friction stir welding tool.
We are working in friction stir welding and friction stir spot welding and need to get the relationship between bottom pin diameter and workpiece thickness and hardness 
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Hi Jose and Ahmad
It is good to discuss about the required tools to get mathematical equation for pin Geometry in FSSW.
My Skype: raheem.khagani
Whatsapp: 009647706746363
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Workpiece spring back problem during Titanium machining occur due to the low Modulus of Elasticity (Young’s Modulus) of the material
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Annealing of the material before the machining will definitely help to reduce the mentioned property or else try the cryogenic machining 
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I need to know which materials required for the development of advanced materials should be abundantly available in the country with minimum important dependence. I need to replace aluminium alloy components with much much heavier steel components. There is no strength compromise was the main thing
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What's the problem? Do you want to use it at high temperature? Mg alloys are not as easy as pure Mg flammable. Be the way, if you use Mg as a bulk part it you wont be worry about flammability.
here is an example of flame-resistance Mg base alloys.
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The integration of evaluation at the product definition stage is based on constraints linked to manufacturing processes or to mechanical, electrical or thermal resistance. On the other hand, on evaluating the performance of products throughout their life cycle.
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Dear.
Before giving an answer to your question : "How to evaluate the integration at the design stage for the evaluation of the product"
I ask the following question :
What is concerned by "Integration" in your question ?
Can you detail more your question?
Yassine B.
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It is very important that the performance of weld metal should be same as SC NiFe-1 & 2 electrodes. 
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If you are looking for high-nickel electrode you migth check NiCro 31/27. If your parts operate at temperatures below 200C you might consider braze welding using e.g. CuAl8 or CuZn, etc. However, In my opinion the cheapest solution, which might work, will be use of an austenitic stainless steel grades such as 304 (AWS 308, ISO 14343-A: G 19 9 L).
Good luck.
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The vessel is 20 mm thick and as to resist to sparks with temperature of 2500 K and 30 bar for hundred of microseconds and has to be realized with a 5-axis CNC.
I could choose between 304, 316, 430 and 441, but if somebody have better ideas I may choose other ones. 
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I used a 304 that is very common and easy to manufacture. Thank you everybody for the help
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Hi friends.
Some of you know which is the best method to turning large pieces of Hadfield steels (Manganese from 12% to 18%)?
Tool material?
Tool geometry?
Dry or wet?
Cutting parameters?
Anything else?
Many thanks.
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Daniel: hay un sitio interesante: http://www.practicalmachinist.com/; también una publicación:
MACHINING OF HADFIELD STEEL : AN
OVERVIEW   Orhan Cakir
 que se puede bajar de internet .
Suerte
Reinaldo
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Dear all:
I'm working at an explosive manufacturing plant, the spent nitric acid coming from the nitration operation, has dissolved gases (NO2), which is evidenced by its brown colour, this causes problems at the nitric acid distillation tower.
I was given the task of proposing a solution. Was I had researched until now is:
*In nitric acid manufacture, the acid at the outlet of the absorption tower (the tower absorbs NOx gases into water to produce nitric acid) has the same problem. Solutions are: heating the acid, at a temperature sufficient to  promote gas desorption; contacting with air inside bubbling or packing towers to strip the dissolved NOx gases. See for example patents: US2142646, US 4062928.
*Decomposition of nitrous acid: 3HNO2<->HNO3+2NO+H2O. See for example: "Role of nitrous acid decomposition in absorber and bleacher in nitric acid plant" (Ingale et al), "Accurate rate constants for decomposition of aqueous nitrous acid" (Rayson et al).
*Decomposition of nitric acid: 4HNO3<->4NO2+2H2O+O2. See for example: "Kinetics of the thermal decomposition in the liquid phase" (Robertson et al).
*Equilibrium pressures of the system NO2-H2O-HNO3, see for example "Phase relations in the nitric acid nitrogen dioxide water system at physicochemical equilibrium" (Webster et al).
My problems are:
*Patents treat the topic very lightly, just in a few lines. Does someone know about parameters, procedures, references for size/design of NOx degassing/nitric acid bleaching operations?
*I have problems putting together papers information. I have some familiarity with nitric acid absorption operations modelling, and is generally assumed that species (NO2,N2O3,N2O4) experience heterogeneous reactions to give HNO3 and HNO2 in solution, also that NO has a low solubility. How to consider "dissolved gases" then?. For example the model presented by Ingale is an adaptation of the typical absorber model, which doesnt account for "dissolved gases".
Any help will be greatly appreciated.
Best regards.
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HI Pablo, I didn't arrive at a satisfactory solution to my specific issue. And switched job after a while, so I can offer too much  help.
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it is required in finding the volume loss (mm3) after conducting the wear tests on pin on disc trobometer
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Thank you Sir. 
I will try to calculate as suggested by you.
Will write you the results....
Thank you so much
Kind regards 
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The sample is 5mm thick, very slightly concave, and has 2 distinct layers (by eye). One darker layer (2mm) which is assumed to have been in contact with water, and another lighter layer (3mm) that is assumed to have been in contact with the steel pipe? See attached photo
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I do not see how you can estimate the age of such specimen based on the information you provide. It would be easier to answer your question if you trace the origin of the specimen based on information of the infrastructure from which you took the sample.
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Presently, I am trying to do incremental sheet metal forming using 3-axis vertical CNC milling machine in which the different forming tool(not a milling cutter) was used. I have attached the sample tool picture with this question. If anybody know the supplier of the tool, Please give me the details
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Hi Selvaraj,
The tool is not supplied by any supplier, rather it is easy and cheap to produce the tool on CNC lathe. For flat-end and hemispherical you can even use conventional lathe. One of the main consideration is which tool material to use. Generally speaking, the tool material hardness should be higher than that of metal sheet material that you want to use. 
Hope this answers your query.  Have a nice time experimenting.
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My scientific field is produce parts by additive technology, in particular, selective laser melting. Also, I'm wondering computer modeling of SLM process. I will be grateful for any information.
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First, you have to search some theorical and practical courses and workshops for the SLM process.Then try to search scientific papers on the optimization of machine parameters.Know how the machine really works and how each machine parameter affect the quality of the parts is,for me, mandatory.I can reccomend you some papers if you write me in private.
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I am working on additive manufacturing (DMLS specifically) of Titanium alloy (grade 5) for aerospace applications. Can anyone help me in guiding that whether severe plastic deformation (SPD) (any SPD process) can be done on the same? If yes, possibly what changes (advantages or disadvantages) in mechanical properties could occur?
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I agree with Omar (direct metal printing)  But there is another form of additive manufacturing through 3D printed sand molds and casting. This would give better properties. ExOne or Voxeljet printers.
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Dear everybody,
Of late I have been facing a porblem while machining the COLD DRAWN WELDED TUBES in the industry. Long continuous chips resuting built up edge, tool breakage and hence lower productivity. The material used is ST 52.3 with the following chemical composition.
%C 0.18-0.24
%Si 0.3(MAX)
%Mn 1.20-1.60
%P 0.02(MAX)
%S 0.02(MAX)
%Al 0.02(MIN)
The question is , what could actually be done to eliminate the built up edge fromation from a  metallurgical point of view? is it advisable to add any micro alloying elements to improve the machinability ? Any suggestion / ideas / comments / ref articles related to the above issue shared here are higly appriciated.
Thanks
Vinoth Kumar Mohan
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Since the point of view of the material, the built up edge formation can be reduce by using alloy elements like Pb, Bi, Te, and Ca.
Since of machining point of view, you can use coated inserts. This type of tool reduce the built up edge formation.
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all researcher 
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 Dear Sudhir Kumar
FSW  uses to join 6.3 mm (1/4 in.) thick sheets of polypropylene (PP), polycarbonate
(PC), and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) materials (Fig. 13.41). Recent work at
 has shown joint efficiencies for these materials ranging from 83% for PC to 95% for HDPE and 98% for PP. These joint efficiencies compare favorably with other polymer
joining methods such as ultrasonic, solvent resistance, hot plate, and adhesive bonding.
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I would like to simulate the temperature distribution which is occurring in the stir zone of FSP. here how can i measure the distribution through out the stir zone.
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The very simple method to identify the temperature of sit zone is by using a Thermal Imager.
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The drysliding behavior of coated steel with 65HRC has to be studied. Can you pls suggest me the suitable counter disc material for that. Most of the studies have been done with EN32 as counter disc. I like to know whether the same coating can be used on the counter part also or I need to go for higher hardened material / coating which ever is applicable. I dont feel testing a hard material (as pin) against the softer counter part wont make any sense. Kindly provide your valuable suggestions.
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Try tungsten disc
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I have severeal parameter about chemical dosing after doing jar test, and I want to know how to decide which the best selection about pump specification.
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I'm sorry for my reply, that's result is based to water quality test,
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I have principal stress distributions in fused glass pin, which press fitted in sleeve (obtained by FEM). In attached figure by gray lines i showed the trajectory of fracture from my own experience.
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 Ok. Thank's. Whether this area to be the maximum gradient of the transition from compressive to tensile stress? 
Material properties:
Design Tensile Strength 4.8x10 7 Pa (N/m2) (7000 psi)
Design Compressive Strength Greater than 1.1 x l0 9 Pa (160,000 psi)
Bulk Modulus 3.7x10 10 Pa (5.3x10 6 psi)
Rigidity Modulus 3.1x10 10 Pa (4.5x10 6 psi)
Young's Modulus 7.2x1 -10 Pa (10.5x10 6 psi)
Poisson's Ratio .17
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How a design and manufacturing of a new product can affect the supply chain process? If a company wants to order a new part for its supply chain and want it to be design and manufactured, how can this affect their supply chain?
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Dear Parmar. It is very interesting as usually people ask about how Supply Chain Affect Manufacturing. I would recommend the following books for further reading:
1. The Supply Chain in Manufacturing, Distribution, and Transportation: Modeling, Optimization, and Applications by Kenneth D. Lawrence (Editor), Ronald K. Klimberg (Editor), Virginia M. Miori (Editor).
2. Supply Chain Management and Optimization in Manufacturing by Harun Pirim, Umar Al-Turki, Bekir Sami Yilbas.
3. Manufacturing Planning and Control for Supply Chain Management by F. Robert Jacobs and William Berry
4. Manufacturing Planning and Control Systems for Supply Chain Management by Thomas Vollmann and William Berry
Happy reading...
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Ring compression test is quite often used in study of friction during bulk forming, I wonder whether it could also be used in mid-thick sheet metal to investigate the anisotropic behavior, and is the shape ratio 2:3:6 suitable for the sample cut form the sheet metal.Thanks!
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For me is not possible, for al last two reasons: the geometry of the sample test (cylindrical) and because the ring test involve a volumen of this sample.
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For a single step or multi-step stamping process, given some specific part geometry, is there any software tool capable to automatically generate the geometry of the stamping dies taking in account the necessary spring-back compensation?
Best regards
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I would like to thank you all for have spending your time to answer my question.
Best regards
Jorge Vilhena
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I am presently working on my master thesis. I had a multivariate scattered data, which i need to interpolate and get a polynomial representing these points so that i can find the values at other unknown points.
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If you have a model, try to do a curve-suface fitting before interpolation.
For rough initial data, review
and the fortran code of rutines companion
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During scan induction Hardening of steering rack at power around 140 kw (to achieve 3mm hardening depth) with 1600mm/min scan rate, some mid section of the rack or become soft . why?
That place is less HRC (around 20) compare to other area(60HRC)
Used quecnchant is Water with polymer 5-5.3% at the teperature range 21-26°C. Quench is immediatly followed by the inductor.
Can anyone say me the reason technically why ?
Thanks in advance.
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My question is why at the specific place in Ball thread area. 
140 KW  begins from the bottom of the ball thread area and the coil move upwards, the soft zone arise only at that place. 
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Dear all
Hello,
Recently, I'm interested in the weld distortion, especially in spot welding. I'm trying to apply the optimization problem, so studying and searching about it. I've found some researches such as inherent strain method, etc., however, they've no mentioned about "spot weld" in large structure. There were only 'bead-on-plate', 'lap joint', 'T joint' (i.e. the seam weld joints).
So, I wonder:
1) Can I apply the "inherent strain method" to spot weld application, in the same process?
2) Is there any reason they've not applied it before to spot welding?
Any help will be appreciated.
With regard
Minsik Seo
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Local/ Global approach is a variant of inherent strain method. In fact, in FE analysis of welding distortion, the shell elements are used in bulk of the structure replacing the local weld zone by equivalent boundary conditions (updated or not in successive analysis steps). The stresses and distortion so produced are analyzed under the assumption that local collapse (buckling) does not occur. The problem with resistance welding is that the sheet is so thin that buckling is imminent. Prediction of buckling (and consequent distortion) is so difficult and uncertain that no such attempts have been made (at least I am not aware of it in spite of vast literature on distortion in welding which i have read in connection with my projects on distortion in welding). The only references on buckling distortion are the experimental findings on the welding conditions (arc or laser etc.) beyond which buckling occurs for a particular plate thickness (see reference)
25. Terasaki, T., Effect of welding conditions on residual stress distribution and welding deformations in welded structural materials, Proc. 12th Int. offshore and polar engg. Conf., Kitakyushu, Japan, May 26-31, 2002, p 332-336.
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Is it possible that temperature of a solid with vaporization temperature of 500 C may shoot up to 1000 C when subjected to a laser?
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Yes, it is vaporization temperature.
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Please. In need information about rules, or methodologies to design shapes for preforming steps in hot forging parts. Reference books, papers, all information is better for me. 
If you have examples with the resolution will be the best!!!
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Dear friend
The book by professor Kurt Lange is awesome.Also, ASM has the very brilliant handbook,I think vol14 on forging.Personally, I prefer the old version.
Link for professor Lange's book:
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I'm working on gelcasting of alumina using Acacia as gelling agent. I varied the acacia content from 2% to 15 at lower composition, and 30-40% of Acacia. I used ageing, foaming then steam assisted hydrothermal treatment, but i m finding laminate and cracks during drying itself. So can any one tell me avoid this.
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Dear Anantha Dv
You can avoid this with:
1. Low heating rate and low drying temperature, as far as possible
2. Reasonable drying curve, for example some gelling agents are susceptible to 50-70oC so high heating rates at this temperatures can result in lamination
3. Proper aging conditions, inappropriate aging can be the cause of drying defects
4. Broad and continuous particle distributions.
5. Coarser grains (if possible). The coarse aggragates act as anti-cracks.
6. Organic fibers as drying aids (if possible), that can burn under water boiling temperature (110oC) and so on help the evaporation
7. Various gelling agents such as Hydratable Alumina
8. Dispersant and deflocculant agents to reduce mixing water and help the drying procedure
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We are working on Lean and the Toyota way but were thinking someone must have applied this to just maintenance??? Anyone out there??? Any feed back
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Lean is about how to eliminate waste of maintenance process
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I have developed five compositions using powder metallurgy and reinforments in increasing weight percentages were added to the  base matrix. And the density of the compacts from base matrix to the final reinforced sample is in decreasing order which also indicates that porosity is in increasing order. Finally , the results are to be justified with respect to the increasing pattern of porosity and I am having difficulty in finding porosity because of limited resources. If any one could help me out as to how to reflect the relative increase in porosity, I would be obliged.
Thanks
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Hi Sanjay,
The density or porosity of the sintered samples can be measured according to ASTM standard B962-15 which is based on Archimedes' method. The steps to perform this method are very simple.
1. Boil the samples for 40 mints in distilled water for degassing purposes.
2. Immerse the samples in the water to fill out any pores. and check the immersed weight = w1
3. take out the immersed samples and tap off the water from the top bottom surfaces gently and measure the weight , w2.  
3. dry the samples in an oven for 1 hr and note the weight, = w3.
then make the following calculation:
exterior volume of samples , V =  (w3-w1)/ density of water (~1.0 g/cc)
Bulk or Archimedes density = (w3)/ V
Volume of pores , vp = (w2-w3)/density of water 
Apparent porosity (%) = vp/V 
Relative density (%) = Bulk density / theoretical density. 
In order to preform such method you need to get an equipment/set-up as you can see in attached image, which is very simple to make or use.
Hope it helps.
Good luck,
Khurram
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I want to make cuvette (container) of 1mm pathlength (void) by injection molding. But I was told that there could be variations among various piece in the micron range.
CD/DVDs too are made by injection molding but they don't have any piece to piece variation in the micron range. I tried to dig literature but couldn't find any satisfactory answer. Would someone like to share their experience on how we can get very fine consistency?
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Dear Sir, Thanks for the references. I'll check them. 
I know how to make the tool - its exactly same as that for CD/DVD. You take a glass plate, coat it with photoresist, shine laser, develop it. Then vaccum deposit metal (200nm thickness) on it, then electroplate it with Nickel to a thickness of 300um. This Nickel plate has all the features (though complimentary) that were present initially on the glass sheet.
Making the nickel 'stamper' is clear to me. My concern is the (extent of) stringent control during the production of plastic component during moulding. Would the features remain intact during the cooling, or would they merge with each other spoiling the details?
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Hello everybody
We are trying to weld two thin (0.6-1 mm) aluminium sheet , made of AA2219, using FSW (lap joint). To ensure that welds are good, we need to cut specimens for tensile-shear tests. I am looking for the standard to manufacture those specimens.
Best regards
Nizar S. 
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As per Standard ASTM D1002
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Hi
I tried to simulate a friction drilling process with abaqus/explicit. Drilling tool and workpiece both of them are deformable. I usedelement deletion and also ALE method and element type is C3D8RT. In addition I activated element deletion.
The frequency of ALE is 3 and Remeshing sweep per increment is 15 and create an adaptive mesh control for improve aspect ratio and other option is on default.
Feed rate is 0.005 m/sec and spindle speed is 6000 rpm or 628 rad/sec
But, in my result I can not success to remove element
Please help me. Thanks
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You need
*Section Controls, name=EC-1, ELEMENT DELETION=YES
1., 1., 1.
and a failure criterion on you material
You also need to define the whole workpiece as a possible contact surface so that newly generated surface can be in contact with your tool, something like
*Surface, type=ELEMENT, name=interior
s_Set-4, interior
*Contact Inclusions
interior, toolsurf
I'm not using CAE for these things so I cannot tell how to do it there.
Hope this helps,
Martin.
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Can anyone suggest me the technical specification of High Speed Video Camera for analysing the variation of Arc in Arc Welding processes (MIG & TIG) ?
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Hi Deepak,
What exactly do you want to sense using a HSC? Do you want to visualise the arc plasma geometry or something else?
If you want to visualise the arc plasma geometry use a Bandpass filter in the NIR (maybe 700-800 nm) region along with a halogen lamp with sufficient intensity at that wavelength. This should give you clear pictures of the arc plasma.
Regarding the frame rate, even a frame rate count of 1000-2000 will give you sufficient idea about the process and hence it is important to consider what you want to see and then calculate the frame rate in a sense that particular event is captured within a single frame.
Yes of course it would be very useful to record the arc electrical characteristics using an  oscilloscope by synchronising it with the camera.  
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I have find out 25 barriers to product returns and recovery practices in manufacturing industry. I have also conducted survey in industries to get the opinion from people working in manufacturing industry and rated them on scal 1-5. Now i need to find the most dominating barrier and simultaneously ranking of each barrier? What technique i should apply 
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You may use Failure Mode Effective Analysis (FMEA) tools to identify critical and the severity of the barriers. By weighting on the occurrence and severity level in manufacturing, you may get the top 3 or 5 barriers that matters. 
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Hello,
I'm doing chrome etching on quartz surface. I'm using mixture of perchloric acid and ceric ammonium nitrate for etching.
Unfortunately this etching process leave residue that contaminate on quartz surface. I already try soaking the quartz with potassium hydroxide as detergent. But the effectiveness of this detergent still doubt since the residue still on quartz surface after soaking.
Is there anyone have experienced in cleaning after etching process?
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The quartz will run with HK(percholoric acid+ammonium nitrate) etchant to remove the chrome layer on the quartz. But the problem is this HK will leave stain and particle(residues) that stick to the glass and hard to be remove if if dry on the quartz.
So I need to find the detergent that absolutely can kill this HK residues that stick to the glass.
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Hello Mr Shabbir,
If I have understood your question right and read your explanation it could be that you mixed up some things.
In my understanding its
Hydraulic cylinder :
p(hyd)= F/ A(cylinder)  with the area of your cylinderpiston
Surface Force Stamp:  
Sigma(surf.press)= F/ A(pressing area)  -> F = sigma * A(pressing area)
Thus:
p(hyd)= sigma(surf.press) * A(pressing area) / A(cylinder)
A(pressing area) / A(cylinder) = K (constant)
Thus:
p(hyd)= sigma(surf.press) * K
Now you can translate your p(hyd) from you gauge into a Surface pressure which exists at your stamp.
regards,
Kamil Wlotzka
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Is there anybody ever conducted TMF with flat-sheet specimen?
The specimen dimensions(as figure below) meet ASTM E606 Standard Test Method for Strain-Controlled Fatigue Testing. 
However, I have a question:
Where can I attach extensometer? (To the wide or narrow facet ?)
Thanks.
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First of all, why should you do TMF on sheet? TMF is to simulate thermal transients in thick section components. In thin sheet, you cannot expect variaton in temp (and hence strain).  You therefore have to re-think about your experiment.
Hope you are not confused with simple strain controlled fatigue (isothermal fatigue) using thin sheet.
Anyway there are no fixed rule to attach extensometer. By common sense attaching on the width side would provide a better contact.
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I dont know how to incorporate the mechanical effect of coolant pressure on chip formation in machining.
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I was looking for something similar and I came across a paper which might be helpful. Please check http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877705813001999
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Please tell us: electrode wear affects how the quality of EDM machining?
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This general question can naturally not be answered in two or three sentences. The correct answer is already that the surface roughness and the wear of the selected process parameters depend.
The corner or edge wear is the main factor for a high machining accuracy, which has its cause in the fact that at the edges of the inhomogeneous electric field strength becomes the greatest and in this region the purge no longer is usually ideal.
The percentage is the wear of the removal rate is dependent on several things. A basic trend is that with short pulse durations of wear greatly increases and decreases for long pulse durations or is constant. One reason is that the main effect of the wear arises upon ignition of the spark. For these reasons, separate ignition modules are used, the only to have a minimum current.
Now you can still explain some more effects and still consider how large the working surface is and how effectively acts flushing, ......
Corresponding publications can be found in my reading list or for special designated applications can discuss it in more detail.
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I have two solid bodies and I want to optimize the difference between the corresponding volumes in order that the two body volumes will be equal. The two bodies are a sphere and a cube.
Do you any idea about the appropriate way of optimization?
Looking forward to your generous help.
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Dear, I second Mr. Jie Liu on this but I'd be able to comment on this if you describe your problem in detail. Specifically, the constraints you have in this problem.
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we want to minimize the burr size in drilling of St 37 with drill diameter of 34 mm and without using any pre-drill.
The burr wrap around twist drill and make us to stop feed and discharge the burr and then continue the process.
We want to do that without using pre-drill.
Thanks for your answer in advance
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Dear Daniel
My Bad, I talk about chip.
Thanks
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Dear All,
  i am working on FSW of Cu to SS  (3 mm Thickness) . after welding we have capture micro and macrographs. we have observed different macro and micrographs at samilar set of parameters....can any one help me to figure it out ?
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In FSW, there are some changes in microstructure features along FSW tool's movement, but these changes are local and periodical. These features can be seen as band structure in longitudinal section. Although this inhomogeneity is local, it can make difference between two cross sections. In order to ensure whether the microstructure is uniform at whole of the FSW tool's path, you can observe the microstructure in longitudinal section.
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As per observations its been heating up to high extent, When we are cutting materials - due to the high energy - some cases seems like hardening effect (heating and sudden cooling) and hence for the same set of inputs wire is breaking frequently.
Can any one suggest further more on this to analyse.
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Dr Schulze is right. I think that we have more than one question here:
1) what is the available energy for each pulse
2) wire breakage
1) has been answered already.  What I can add is, there is a power loss along the wire if the current pickup is not close to the spark.  When one measures the discharge voltage on a WEDM machine, it shows 50 to 70 V, whereas we know that it is  really about 20-30 V. The additional 30-40V are caused by the voltage drop on the wire (and energy loss)
Another aspect is the workpiece material. Here the relevant parameter is the specific resistance. This gives you the power loss in the workpiece (Ohm's law)
2) wire breakage keeping constant generator settings can have many causes:
- insufficient flushing (air bubbles ? variations in the pressure, flow?)
- wire advance speed variations
- geometry of the workpiece
- concentration of the discharges in one spot. One could read the excellent work of Dr Dekeyser "knowledge based system for WEDM" where he discloses a good Thermal model to predict the wire breakage  (PhD dissertation from Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 1988)
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I am conducting DOE on a laser structuring System. My objective is to only find the factors affecting the Ablation rate. I have certain Parameters which I can control, however after reading certain journals I realized there are some Parameters which influence Ablation rate, but I cannot measure them accurately (eg fluence or beam spot size). So in this case what would be the best way Forward? Would a Screening fractional factorial Experiment be effective for my objective? Or should I consider a Taguchi expt, however I repeat that I am not Aware of the interaction effects between the Input Parameters.
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Dear Justin, If you cannot measure those parameters you should fix them as nonvariable factors. By changing the DOE method you cannot eliminate the mentioned factors.
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How do I apply a double ellipsoidal heat source in welding simulations? What is the WELDSIM code ? how we can use it in welding simulation?
I am doing  simulation for electron beam welding . in this i have used DO LOOP to move the heat flux .the program is working very well but now i have to apply double ellipsoidal heat source in welding instead of surface heat flux .plzz give me suggestion how to apply this double ellipsoidal heat source.
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using ANSYS APDL is quite forward. first of all you have to know the position of your heat source. based on that you calculate the affected volume - with that information you know which nodes of your model are within the area of heat input. Each node represents a certain volume. by integrating the volume of all affected nodes you get the affected volume (this is only for checking the correctness of your calculation). However, in the same way you calculate the heat distribution: at the position of each node you can calculate the specific heat input q_i(x,y,z,t) and multiply this with the affected volume V_i. to check the result the sum of q_i times V_i must be the total heat input.
To realise this in APDL you have to know the variables of your element (node number, node coordinates) including free variables where you can apply the heat input.
hope this helps
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The total time period  of step is 5.5 sec but after 0.5 sec there are increments and changes in energy but no change in time.I have attached a snapshot showing the same.Please suggest.
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@martin baeker
thanx for the idea.. it seems to have memory issue as you suggested
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I'm testing a new process for joining metal sheets and Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (GFRP) as well as CarbonFibre Reinforced Plastics (CFRP)
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friction stir  welding may be suitable
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If a brittle material is locally compressed (statically, or dynamically) a ring crack starts at the surface. Due to the stress distribution in the bulk of the material, the ring crack growth at an angle (say 65°) from the axi-symmetry line.
The attached photo shows a perfect cone generated by impact of a steel sphere (at 150 m/s) on a flat SiC tile that was adhered to an aluminum alloy block.
What controls the cone-crack angle? Material properties or the stress distribution or both, and how?
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Spacibo Yury,
Do you have an article in English as well?
R ni garasho govarit par Ruskii....
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What are the parameters impacted during the grinding process of WC?
How to measure the parameters?
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There can be a number of parameters which can be studied depending on what you are trying to analyse.
If you plan to grind a WC insert and use it as a cutting tool during  say, straight turning, you may want to check its residual stresses as chances are that compressive residual stresses are induced in the WC insert. Incorporation of compressive residual stresses usually improve toughness, which may help the insert during machining. You may also want to check about 'grind hardening' which may happen as WC grinding usually involves low values of depth of cut.
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Hi everyone, the provided link is some information related to the bearing.  
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You have to consider the following:
1. Bearing mounting: How will the bearing be supported? using a housing? plummer block? What is the size of the shaft? etc.
2. Operating conditions: operation speed, duty, environmental factors (may require a sealed bearing)
3. Applied loads: Are the loads radial, or axial or both?
4. Expected design life: you have to do calculations for the expected life of the bearing in millions of cycles (L10)
SKF.com offers a selection wizard. You can refer to that.
Best of luck
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The material being used for printing is PLA. The extrude temperature is 230oC. The platform Temperature is 110oC. The problem faced while printing is fragile delaminated FDM (fused deposition modeling) parts.
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Hello,
If you have a machine from Stratasys Dimension Elite also FDM system then the problem with the temperature does not exist.
Almost all home FDM systems have this problem, depending on who is producer of.
So it must be that explores that temperatures are optimal.
Best regards,
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Its like when we are going at particular input conditions for geometry of different corners.
Usually cutting it will be given exact required dimensions but due to CC of 30% or 20% etc at that corners speed will be reduced of 30%, 20% etc if its the case the cutting width (kerf) obviously effected, which in turn affects our required dimensions?
Kindly give some explanation for it
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If you want, you can read this paper: On the influence of cutting speed limitation on the accuracy of wire-EDM corner-cutting. J Mater Process Technol
J.A. Sanchez · J. L. Rodil · A. Herrero · L. N. Lopez de lacalle · A. Lamikiz, here en RG.
Regards.
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Please provide any information on the maximum diameter of glass fibre reinforced epoxy (GRE) tank /glass fibre reinforced plastic composite tank available in the market.
What is the technical difficulty or is there any barrier to produce glass fibre reinforced epoxy (GRE) tank /glass fibre reinforced plastic composite tank in very large diameter, for example 50 meters in diameter?
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The thickness of the tank wil keep on increasing based on the pressure difference between the outside and inside of the tank. If the height is also large and is to be filled with liquid, the pressure difference will be quite a lot, assuming it is open tank and outside as well as inside is at atmospheric pressure.
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How can I laminate a layer on poly-olefinic injection molded part that non-uniform shaped?
This project needs to be cost effective and can be used on industrial scale.
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Try the lacquer made of polystyrene dissolved in acetone. Cheap as dirt and white.
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After machining of Electrical Discharge Machining, some black layer is observed deposited over the copper tool electrode. How these black layer can be removed without removal of copper molecule.
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I am of the opinion that they should check their sparking conditions again. Basically black layers or carbon deposits occur only if the arc erosion is primary. In special cases they can be eliminated by an improved flushing the still. It is even better, however, to verify the process parameters.
You can assume that they reach 95% of the discharge machining, which runs in the optimum parameter range, no deposits of this type. Do you want to check but also "unacceptable" parameter ranges, then you need to take advantage of the already made proposals to remove the black layer.
Best regards
Hans-Peter Schulze
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Currently additive manufacturing is innovative for various 3D structures.
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Great! thanks!
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As far as I know these rotor blades are made of carbon fiber composites. I thought that Smart Composite Microstructure Fabrication is a way to produce these blades but how can I build angular curves over rotor blade ? 
Thanks in advance for your answers. 
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Dear Kahraman;
It is possible that some of links below can help you.  From these,  a set of key words can be found that will help you. Typically, Materials processing and/or composite or heterostructures are required to high performance machines.
Further insight can be reach watching some small “mini-course” of the kid make yourself, as can be saw in links:
It is interesting also, as function of viewpoint of prices and inner structures:
For small scale, you can use materials proper for hobbyist as shown in the links below:
If further understanding is necessary, consider to access the follow links:
kind regards
Marcos Nobre
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I want people to discuss under that question about the possible materials which are used in Philae. What are their manufacturing process and I am also interested in electrochemical manufacturing processes. If anyone send me a beneficial link or source about it I will appreciate. 
Thanks in advance. 
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The main structure of Philae is made of carbon fibre and carbon fibre with aluminum honeycomb.
Obviously, there is a huge number of other materials used for the subsystems.
Additional structural elements and mechanisms are to a large extent made of aluminum, titanium and certain, space qualified, plastic materials.
Do you have any specific interest in a particular material? 
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Condition: Base Material P91 (SA/A 335 Grade P91) welded with P91 by TIG welding process using ER90S-B9, and the joint post weld heat treated at 760°C for 2hrs.
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Thanks for all the replies.
Regards,
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Sanding of wood is a crucial process to finish the surface of wooden products. Sanding of flat surfaces and straight edges on conventional machines (or even handheld/manually operated equipment) are usually practiced on wide scale in the relevant industry. However, it seems that sanding of wood on CNC machine is still require much investigation to identify proper parameters, applicability, and feasibility.
Anyone so far has worked with sanding of wooden products on CNC machines? I am particularly interested on results of applying the process on 3D carved or sculptured surfaces.
Many thanks for providing your answers.
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Many thanks Mr Mark.
Really appreciated.
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I'd like to compare the degree of crystalinity in a PA-9T component that is moulded by two different suppliers. I suspect there is a difference which may be causing us some issues. Is there a straightforward way of doing this?
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It is easy. Run a DSC test and determine the heat of melting Hf (j/g) and then use the hereunder formula:
Degree of crystalinity =  (Hf (j/g)/(H0* w))*100
H0 is enthalpy of fusion of 100% crystalline PA 9- You may find it by searching on net
w is percent of PA 9 in the composite
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I want to select material for part of a machine which operates in silicate and silica Abrasive environment. It is a magnetic separator that is used in iron ore processing and separate iron form other material existing in iron ore. Iron ore contain silica (quartz) and silicate which are very abrasive materials. I am considering tungsten. But I want to make sure it is the best choice in terms of resistance to abrasion and cost.
Does anyone have any suggestion?
Any suggestion would really be appreciated.  
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The type of the iron ore is very important. I mean that in the case the raw ore is BIF, it includes high amount of silica (Up to 20%) but ironstone, for example,  contains less amounts of silica
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hi
I am looking for some resources for this topic. Any papers that explain about the effect of nickel and molybdenium in SMAW welding would be suitable.
Thank you in advance for your cooperation.
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The subject is dealt with in the book by Norman Bailey and myself entitled,
The Metallurgy of Basic Weld Metal"
Glyn Evans.
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I have a supplier who has to make a ring about 2 m diameter, 40mm material with 20 radial holes at equal angles all around. The axis of the holes are also at an angle of 10 degrees related with the horizontal plane. They have a brad new Zeiss MMZ-B CMM without a rotary table. They are saing that is impossible to measure the true position of these radial angled holes. I think that they can. I cannot give a model due to the policy of the company. Please give me and advice. My experience in CMM is very limited.
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2 m diameter is large. Can it be placed entirely in the machine (is the machine large enough?) or is that why they need the rotary table?
If fit fits in the machine:
1. Are all holes angles to the same direction? If so, you can calibrate the probe in that direction/angle in order to measure a circle.
2. If the holes angles are all in different directions, you´ll be measuring ellipses. You´ll need to know the diameter of the hole and find a probe with a diameter that can touch the hole without coliding with the 'shaft' of the probe, as the holes are in a 10 degree angle. Look for a large probe diameter with a small shaft diameter. Probably you won´t be able to measure the hole in all extension. Take into account the tolerance of the measurement - it won´t be a perfect measurement, but the center of various ellipses of the same hole can give you a good idea of the angular position of the hole and maybe if the 10 degree angle is in the correct direction.
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If we do a bevel grinding and polishing of the diamond turned surface, them micro cracks will propagate. Till what extend it will affect the surface and its profile for the optical surface.
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As per my knowledge, Diamond turned surfaces do not require any post processing. Because it can produce nano and Angstrom level surface finish. if you feel any post polishing, I think you can go for MRF (Magnetorheological finishing).
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One method for making blockers is using a roll forging machines?. Another methods please?
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You know another methods, another machines to make blockers?
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