Questions related to Manufacturing Process Mechanics
At the first 1 g of HIPS polystyrene thermoplastic polymer was mixed with 10 cc of toluene solution for 1 hour and a half using a magnetic stirrer.
The resulting solution was mixed with 0.2 g of hydrophobic sio2 nanoparticles for 1 hour using a magnetic stirrer.
The solution obtained from the previous step was dispersed under ultrasonic bath ( 5 x 100 second cycles )
Then polydimethylsiloxane Silgar 184 was mixed in a ratio of 10: 1 with the solution obtained in the previous step for 30 minutes.
And then 500 seconds (5x100) again with ultrasonic.
The resulting solution was immersed twice as a coating on aluminum substrates, wood and glass slides.
After 24 hours, the coating was dried in the oven for 30 minutes at 100 degrees
The contact angle of the water drop was 118 degrees (without polydimethylsiloxane) if the contact angle with polydimethylsiloxane was expected to increase but decreased to 100 degrees.
Is there a mistake in the protocol?
Is there a problem with the time it takes to put it in the oven?
In hot forging process, when we heat the work piece up-to 1200oC. It surface begin to rupture, due to oxidation of iron. This oxide layer penetrates into the metal surface when we deform it with compressive forces. So, We are in the investigation of a best technique for descaling of hot metal. Our production is mixed and batch. Our product variety.
Besides the minimizing the energy of welding and accelerating the cooling rate, are there any procedures to prevent grain growth of heat affected zone (HAZ)?
While optimizing machining parameters through GRA, in the final step GRG of initial, predicted and experimental parameters were compared to find the effect of GRA. In this regard on what basis the initial parameter combination selection has been made. In articles there is no explanation about this.
Cojuld you tell us is there any mathematical equation that can be used to calculate the bottom diameter of pin in friction stir welding tool.
We are working in friction stir welding and friction stir spot welding and need to get the relationship between bottom pin diameter and workpiece thickness and hardness
Workpiece spring back problem during Titanium machining occur due to the low Modulus of Elasticity (Young’s Modulus) of the material
I need to know which materials required for the development of advanced materials should be abundantly available in the country with minimum important dependence. I need to replace aluminium alloy components with much much heavier steel components. There is no strength compromise was the main thing
The integration of evaluation at the product definition stage is based on constraints linked to manufacturing processes or to mechanical, electrical or thermal resistance. On the other hand, on evaluating the performance of products throughout their life cycle.
It is very important that the performance of weld metal should be same as SC NiFe-1 & 2 electrodes.
The vessel is 20 mm thick and as to resist to sparks with temperature of 2500 K and 30 bar for hundred of microseconds and has to be realized with a 5-axis CNC.
I could choose between 304, 316, 430 and 441, but if somebody have better ideas I may choose other ones.
I'm working at an explosive manufacturing plant, the spent nitric acid coming from the nitration operation, has dissolved gases (NO2), which is evidenced by its brown colour, this causes problems at the nitric acid distillation tower.
I was given the task of proposing a solution. Was I had researched until now is:
*In nitric acid manufacture, the acid at the outlet of the absorption tower (the tower absorbs NOx gases into water to produce nitric acid) has the same problem. Solutions are: heating the acid, at a temperature sufficient to promote gas desorption; contacting with air inside bubbling or packing towers to strip the dissolved NOx gases. See for example patents: US2142646, US 4062928.
*Decomposition of nitrous acid: 3HNO2<->HNO3+2NO+H2O. See for example: "Role of nitrous acid decomposition in absorber and bleacher in nitric acid plant" (Ingale et al), "Accurate rate constants for decomposition of aqueous nitrous acid" (Rayson et al).
*Decomposition of nitric acid: 4HNO3<->4NO2+2H2O+O2. See for example: "Kinetics of the thermal decomposition in the liquid phase" (Robertson et al).
*Equilibrium pressures of the system NO2-H2O-HNO3, see for example "Phase relations in the nitric acid nitrogen dioxide water system at physicochemical equilibrium" (Webster et al).
My problems are:
*Patents treat the topic very lightly, just in a few lines. Does someone know about parameters, procedures, references for size/design of NOx degassing/nitric acid bleaching operations?
*I have problems putting together papers information. I have some familiarity with nitric acid absorption operations modelling, and is generally assumed that species (NO2,N2O3,N2O4) experience heterogeneous reactions to give HNO3 and HNO2 in solution, also that NO has a low solubility. How to consider "dissolved gases" then?. For example the model presented by Ingale is an adaptation of the typical absorber model, which doesnt account for "dissolved gases".
Any help will be greatly appreciated.
The sample is 5mm thick, very slightly concave, and has 2 distinct layers (by eye). One darker layer (2mm) which is assumed to have been in contact with water, and another lighter layer (3mm) that is assumed to have been in contact with the steel pipe? See attached photo
Presently, I am trying to do incremental sheet metal forming using 3-axis vertical CNC milling machine in which the different forming tool(not a milling cutter) was used. I have attached the sample tool picture with this question. If anybody know the supplier of the tool, Please give me the details
My scientific field is produce parts by additive technology, in particular, selective laser melting. Also, I'm wondering computer modeling of SLM process. I will be grateful for any information.
I am working on additive manufacturing (DMLS specifically) of Titanium alloy (grade 5) for aerospace applications. Can anyone help me in guiding that whether severe plastic deformation (SPD) (any SPD process) can be done on the same? If yes, possibly what changes (advantages or disadvantages) in mechanical properties could occur?
Of late I have been facing a porblem while machining the COLD DRAWN WELDED TUBES in the industry. Long continuous chips resuting built up edge, tool breakage and hence lower productivity. The material used is ST 52.3 with the following chemical composition.
The question is , what could actually be done to eliminate the built up edge fromation from a metallurgical point of view? is it advisable to add any micro alloying elements to improve the machinability ? Any suggestion / ideas / comments / ref articles related to the above issue shared here are higly appriciated.
Vinoth Kumar Mohan
I would like to simulate the temperature distribution which is occurring in the stir zone of FSP. here how can i measure the distribution through out the stir zone.
The drysliding behavior of coated steel with 65HRC has to be studied. Can you pls suggest me the suitable counter disc material for that. Most of the studies have been done with EN32 as counter disc. I like to know whether the same coating can be used on the counter part also or I need to go for higher hardened material / coating which ever is applicable. I dont feel testing a hard material (as pin) against the softer counter part wont make any sense. Kindly provide your valuable suggestions.
I have principal stress distributions in fused glass pin, which press fitted in sleeve (obtained by FEM). In attached figure by gray lines i showed the trajectory of fracture from my own experience.
How a design and manufacturing of a new product can affect the supply chain process? If a company wants to order a new part for its supply chain and want it to be design and manufactured, how can this affect their supply chain?
1. Design consideration for the tool (punch and dies) for micro forming (Micro Manufacturing).
2. The suitable material used.
3. Its Manufacturability
Ring compression test is quite often used in study of friction during bulk forming, I wonder whether it could also be used in mid-thick sheet metal to investigate the anisotropic behavior, and is the shape ratio 2:3:6 suitable for the sample cut form the sheet metal.Thanks!
For a single step or multi-step stamping process, given some specific part geometry, is there any software tool capable to automatically generate the geometry of the stamping dies taking in account the necessary spring-back compensation?
I am presently working on my master thesis. I had a multivariate scattered data, which i need to interpolate and get a polynomial representing these points so that i can find the values at other unknown points.
During scan induction Hardening of steering rack at power around 140 kw (to achieve 3mm hardening depth) with 1600mm/min scan rate, some mid section of the rack or become soft . why?
That place is less HRC (around 20) compare to other area(60HRC)
Used quecnchant is Water with polymer 5-5.3% at the teperature range 21-26°C. Quench is immediatly followed by the inductor.
Can anyone say me the reason technically why ?
Thanks in advance.
Recently, I'm interested in the weld distortion, especially in spot welding. I'm trying to apply the optimization problem, so studying and searching about it. I've found some researches such as inherent strain method, etc., however, they've no mentioned about "spot weld" in large structure. There were only 'bead-on-plate', 'lap joint', 'T joint' (i.e. the seam weld joints).
So, I wonder:
1) Can I apply the "inherent strain method" to spot weld application, in the same process?
2) Is there any reason they've not applied it before to spot welding?
Any help will be appreciated.
Is it possible that temperature of a solid with vaporization temperature of 500 C may shoot up to 1000 C when subjected to a laser?
I'm working on gelcasting of alumina using Acacia as gelling agent. I varied the acacia content from 2% to 15 at lower composition, and 30-40% of Acacia. I used ageing, foaming then steam assisted hydrothermal treatment, but i m finding laminate and cracks during drying itself. So can any one tell me avoid this.
We are working on Lean and the Toyota way but were thinking someone must have applied this to just maintenance??? Anyone out there??? Any feed back
I have developed five compositions using powder metallurgy and reinforments in increasing weight percentages were added to the base matrix. And the density of the compacts from base matrix to the final reinforced sample is in decreasing order which also indicates that porosity is in increasing order. Finally , the results are to be justified with respect to the increasing pattern of porosity and I am having difficulty in finding porosity because of limited resources. If any one could help me out as to how to reflect the relative increase in porosity, I would be obliged.
I want to make cuvette (container) of 1mm pathlength (void) by injection molding. But I was told that there could be variations among various piece in the micron range.
CD/DVDs too are made by injection molding but they don't have any piece to piece variation in the micron range. I tried to dig literature but couldn't find any satisfactory answer. Would someone like to share their experience on how we can get very fine consistency?
We are trying to weld two thin (0.6-1 mm) aluminium sheet , made of AA2219, using FSW (lap joint). To ensure that welds are good, we need to cut specimens for tensile-shear tests. I am looking for the standard to manufacture those specimens.
I tried to simulate a friction drilling process with abaqus/explicit. Drilling tool and workpiece both of them are deformable. I usedelement deletion and also ALE method and element type is C3D8RT. In addition I activated element deletion.
The frequency of ALE is 3 and Remeshing sweep per increment is 15 and create an adaptive mesh control for improve aspect ratio and other option is on default.
Feed rate is 0.005 m/sec and spindle speed is 6000 rpm or 628 rad/sec
But, in my result I can not success to remove element
Please help me. Thanks
Can anyone suggest me the technical specification of High Speed Video Camera for analysing the variation of Arc in Arc Welding processes (MIG & TIG) ?
I have find out 25 barriers to product returns and recovery practices in manufacturing industry. I have also conducted survey in industries to get the opinion from people working in manufacturing industry and rated them on scal 1-5. Now i need to find the most dominating barrier and simultaneously ranking of each barrier? What technique i should apply
I'm doing chrome etching on quartz surface. I'm using mixture of perchloric acid and ceric ammonium nitrate for etching.
Unfortunately this etching process leave residue that contaminate on quartz surface. I already try soaking the quartz with potassium hydroxide as detergent. But the effectiveness of this detergent still doubt since the residue still on quartz surface after soaking.
Is there anyone have experienced in cleaning after etching process?
Is there anybody ever conducted TMF with flat-sheet specimen?
The specimen dimensions(as figure below) meet ASTM E606 Standard Test Method for Strain-Controlled Fatigue Testing.
However, I have a question:
Where can I attach extensometer? (To the wide or narrow facet ?)
I have two solid bodies and I want to optimize the difference between the corresponding volumes in order that the two body volumes will be equal. The two bodies are a sphere and a cube.
Do you any idea about the appropriate way of optimization?
Looking forward to your generous help.
we want to minimize the burr size in drilling of St 37 with drill diameter of 34 mm and without using any pre-drill.
The burr wrap around twist drill and make us to stop feed and discharge the burr and then continue the process.
We want to do that without using pre-drill.
Thanks for your answer in advance
i am working on FSW of Cu to SS (3 mm Thickness) . after welding we have capture micro and macrographs. we have observed different macro and micrographs at samilar set of parameters....can any one help me to figure it out ?
As per observations its been heating up to high extent, When we are cutting materials - due to the high energy - some cases seems like hardening effect (heating and sudden cooling) and hence for the same set of inputs wire is breaking frequently.
Can any one suggest further more on this to analyse.
I am conducting DOE on a laser structuring System. My objective is to only find the factors affecting the Ablation rate. I have certain Parameters which I can control, however after reading certain journals I realized there are some Parameters which influence Ablation rate, but I cannot measure them accurately (eg fluence or beam spot size). So in this case what would be the best way Forward? Would a Screening fractional factorial Experiment be effective for my objective? Or should I consider a Taguchi expt, however I repeat that I am not Aware of the interaction effects between the Input Parameters.
How do I apply a double ellipsoidal heat source in welding simulations? What is the WELDSIM code ? how we can use it in welding simulation?
I am doing simulation for electron beam welding . in this i have used DO LOOP to move the heat flux .the program is working very well but now i have to apply double ellipsoidal heat source in welding instead of surface heat flux .plzz give me suggestion how to apply this double ellipsoidal heat source.
The total time period of step is 5.5 sec but after 0.5 sec there are increments and changes in energy but no change in time.I have attached a snapshot showing the same.Please suggest.
I'm testing a new process for joining metal sheets and Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (GFRP) as well as CarbonFibre Reinforced Plastics (CFRP)
If a brittle material is locally compressed (statically, or dynamically) a ring crack starts at the surface. Due to the stress distribution in the bulk of the material, the ring crack growth at an angle (say 65°) from the axi-symmetry line.
The attached photo shows a perfect cone generated by impact of a steel sphere (at 150 m/s) on a flat SiC tile that was adhered to an aluminum alloy block.
What controls the cone-crack angle? Material properties or the stress distribution or both, and how?
What are the parameters impacted during the grinding process of WC?
How to measure the parameters?
Hi everyone, the provided link is some information related to the bearing.
The material being used for printing is PLA. The extrude temperature is 230oC. The platform Temperature is 110oC. The problem faced while printing is fragile delaminated FDM (fused deposition modeling) parts.
Its like when we are going at particular input conditions for geometry of different corners.
Usually cutting it will be given exact required dimensions but due to CC of 30% or 20% etc at that corners speed will be reduced of 30%, 20% etc if its the case the cutting width (kerf) obviously effected, which in turn affects our required dimensions?
Kindly give some explanation for it
Please provide any information on the maximum diameter of glass fibre reinforced epoxy (GRE) tank /glass fibre reinforced plastic composite tank available in the market.
What is the technical difficulty or is there any barrier to produce glass fibre reinforced epoxy (GRE) tank /glass fibre reinforced plastic composite tank in very large diameter, for example 50 meters in diameter?
How can I laminate a layer on poly-olefinic injection molded part that non-uniform shaped?
This project needs to be cost effective and can be used on industrial scale.
After machining of Electrical Discharge Machining, some black layer is observed deposited over the copper tool electrode. How these black layer can be removed without removal of copper molecule.
As far as I know these rotor blades are made of carbon fiber composites. I thought that Smart Composite Microstructure Fabrication is a way to produce these blades but how can I build angular curves over rotor blade ?
Thanks in advance for your answers.
I want people to discuss under that question about the possible materials which are used in Philae. What are their manufacturing process and I am also interested in electrochemical manufacturing processes. If anyone send me a beneficial link or source about it I will appreciate.
Thanks in advance.
Condition: Base Material P91 (SA/A 335 Grade P91) welded with P91 by TIG welding process using ER90S-B9, and the joint post weld heat treated at 760°C for 2hrs.
Sanding of wood is a crucial process to finish the surface of wooden products. Sanding of flat surfaces and straight edges on conventional machines (or even handheld/manually operated equipment) are usually practiced on wide scale in the relevant industry. However, it seems that sanding of wood on CNC machine is still require much investigation to identify proper parameters, applicability, and feasibility.
Anyone so far has worked with sanding of wooden products on CNC machines? I am particularly interested on results of applying the process on 3D carved or sculptured surfaces.
Many thanks for providing your answers.
I'd like to compare the degree of crystalinity in a PA-9T component that is moulded by two different suppliers. I suspect there is a difference which may be causing us some issues. Is there a straightforward way of doing this?
I want to select material for part of a machine which operates in silicate and silica Abrasive environment. It is a magnetic separator that is used in iron ore processing and separate iron form other material existing in iron ore. Iron ore contain silica (quartz) and silicate which are very abrasive materials. I am considering tungsten. But I want to make sure it is the best choice in terms of resistance to abrasion and cost.
Does anyone have any suggestion?
Any suggestion would really be appreciated.
I am looking for some resources for this topic. Any papers that explain about the effect of nickel and molybdenium in SMAW welding would be suitable.
Thank you in advance for your cooperation.
I have a supplier who has to make a ring about 2 m diameter, 40mm material with 20 radial holes at equal angles all around. The axis of the holes are also at an angle of 10 degrees related with the horizontal plane. They have a brad new Zeiss MMZ-B CMM without a rotary table. They are saing that is impossible to measure the true position of these radial angled holes. I think that they can. I cannot give a model due to the policy of the company. Please give me and advice. My experience in CMM is very limited.
If we do a bevel grinding and polishing of the diamond turned surface, them micro cracks will propagate. Till what extend it will affect the surface and its profile for the optical surface.