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Article type: The Earth has become increasingly overcrowded as a result of rapid urbanization and population growth, with strong predictions that its carrying capacity could be overstretched soon. As a result, it is important to test the possibilities of growing plants under space exploration conditions, especially gravitational balance. Since micr...
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The meta-frontier model technique is employed to compare the technical efficiency levels of improved and local maize seed variety farms in Ghana using a cross-sectional data from 214 farmers. The study shows that inefficiencies in maize production relate to exogenous variables considered even though some of the variables are not statistically signi...
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Multicellular organisms use transcripts and proteins as signaling molecules for cell-to-cell communication. Maize KNOTTED1 (KN1) was the first homeodomain transcription factor identified in plants, and functions in maintaining shoot stem cells. KN1 acts non-cell autonomously, and both its messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein traffic between cells throu...
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Background Biochar is an important material for remediation of Cd in contaminated paddy soils. However, different biochars have variable effects on bioavailability of Cd while single biochar cannot properly amend immobilized Cd. Co-production of biochar from peanut shells and maize straw at different mass mixing ratios (1:0, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3). The cha...
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Objectives To assess potential non-target effects of genetically engineered/modified (GM) maize that produces insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), numerous field experiments have been conducted worldwide. Field data are often variable and influenced by uncontrolled factors and meta-analyses can recognize general effects with incr...
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Background Numerous biotic and abiotic factors are responsible for losses of grains quality and quantity during storage. Insecticides used to control stored grain insect pests are not only hazardous to mammals and environment but also induce resistance in insect pests towards these synthetic chemicals. A current trial was conducted, during 2020, in...
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Objective A systematic review of animal and human studies was conducted on genetically modified (GM) food consumption to assess its safety in terms of adverse effects/events to inform public concerns and future research. Methods Seven electronic databases were searched from January 1st 1983 till July 11th 2020 for in vivo, animal and human studies...
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Nixtamalization, which means cooking maize in alkaline water, is the central technique for the culinary use of maize in Mexico and Central America. Without this procedure, relying on maize as the basic starch staple is inadequate because of nutriment deficiencies. Mexico has more than 50 principal racial types of maize, and these differ in grain qu...
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Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), also known as fall armyworm (FAW) is a polyphagous pest which can cause significant losses and is considered a global threat to different crops and a risk to food security. Currently, in maize, the pest is predominantly controlled by pesticides or transgenic events. However, the use of b...
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Using fertilisers is indispensable for closing yield gaps in Sub Saharan Africa. Current fertiliser recommendations, however, are often blanket recommendations which do not take spatial variation in soil conditions within a region or country into account. Soil maps can potentially support fertiliser recommendations at a higher spatial resolution. T...
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In 2019–2020, Bangladesh imported 5.2 million metric tonnes of petroleum products, worth 2.5 billion USD, and 50% of the imports were consumed by the transportation sector. Having limited natural oil reserves and being heavily dependent on oil imports, the country is vulnerable to shocks in the international oil market, which can jeopardize its con...
Conference Paper
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In this paper, we build a simple, multi-seasonal mathematical model describing the dynamics of the maize stalk borer Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). We consider in this model the main harmful stages of the pests and the control methods used by farmers to reduce pest populations from one maize cropping season to another. Firstly, immature s...
Article
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Cover crops have multiple benefits, such as improving water quality, providing a green manure effect, and storing carbon in the soil. They can, however, reduce drainage significantly during key periods of hydrosystem recharge, especially in winter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of cover crops and/or crop diversification...
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The application of technology for water erosion control plays an essential role in development of sustainable agricultural systems. The paper presented observes the study results from a period of six years in terms of losses of mineral nitrogen and available forms of phosphorus and potassium in the cultivation of wheat and maize on sloping terrains...
Article
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This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietary replacement of maize with sweet potato peel in the diet of Clarias gariepinus juveniles. The levels of the SPP inclusion in the experimental diets were 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. All the diets were iso-nitrogenous. One hundred and fifty (150) C. gariepinus juveniles (33 g ~ 35 g) were r...
Article
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An undeveloped root system generally leads to low water utilization efficiency and decreases the yield in spring maize (Zea mays L.). Little is known about whether changing the fertilization depth can optimize the root distribution to improve the water productivity and maize yield. During 2019 and 2020, we conducted a field experiment with spring m...
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Quilombola communities found in the Cerrado region of Brazil are inhabited mainly by groups of African ancestry. They tend to use agricultural management without technical assistance, which degrades soil quality. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the carbon and nitrogen pools in the Quilombola areas under different soil management types....
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The agro-morphological traits of seven bread wheat genotypes were assessed 4 genotypes were collected from International Wheat and Maize Improvement Centre Mexico, 2 from Nuclear Institute of Agriculture Tandojam, and 1 from Wheat Research Institute Sakrand, based on (RBCD) with 3 replications. The results indicated the number of grains/spikes were...
Article
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The increased reliance of novel agriculture on extreme artificial input of chemical fertilizers has caused numerous environmental problems related to greenhouse effect, soil deterioration, and air and water pollution. A field study was carried out at Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam during Kharif 2013. The analysis of variance illustrated tha...
Article
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Ammonia (NH3) volatilization is the main pathway, by which nitrogen (N) losses from calcareous and alkaline soils occur, and is responsible for economic losses and environmental hazards. We hypothesize that the application of biochar and urease inhibitor (NBPT) can mitigate NH3 production from urea by reducing its hydrolysis and the abundance of re...
Article
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The present study was aimed to assess the efficacy of individual and combined effects of novel fuller earth, rock phosphate, and biochar (grapefruit peel) at 1% dosage on maize plant growth, soil chemical properties anduptake of toxic metals (TMs), such as Cu, Zn, Fe, and Cd, by maize plant sown in Korangi (district of Karachi, Pakistan) heavily po...
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Maize growth is limited by various environmental factors. There is a variation in response of different maize cultivars released in different years to environmental changes. The objective of this study was to investigate the drought resistance of two maize cultivars released in different years, Jingke 968 and Zhengdan 958, under two environmental f...
Conference Paper
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One of the major obstacles to producing Maize is the various types of maize leaf diseases. Early detection using computer vision and image processing techniques can be one of the most powerful solutions to overcome this problem. This paper proposes a detection method based on image processing techniques to identify the defected maize leaf infected...
Article
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The livestock sector plays a very vital role in improving the food security status of people in the world. Maize and soybean are traditionally the main energy and protein sources in livestock diets respectively. However, with the consideration that the livestock sector is growing as well as the world’s population, an alternative ingredient or suppl...
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Phytohormones are plant growth regulators, temporally or spatially produced by plants in response to varying environmental conditions. A pot experiment was conducted in Old Botanic Garden, the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan to evaluate the effect of foliage applied GR24 on physiological, mineral nutrients, and yield attributes of m...
Article
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In the past ten years, ground and aerial platforms with several sensors have been rapidly adopted for phenotyping diverse biotic, abiotic stressors and other characters during the crop plant's growth stages. An increase in yield achieved from traditional breeding programs worldwide are no longer sufficient to meet the projected demand for the three...
Article
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In Africa, commercial and smallholder livestock production enterprises are growing, thereby increasing the demand for livestock feeds. Convectional ingredients mainly maize and soybeans have been and still are the main sources of energy and protein in livestock diets respectively. But with the growth of the livestock sector, the world’s population...
Article
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Alternate furrow irrigation with proper irrigation intervals could save irrigation water and result in high yield with minimum irrigation water and costs during dry season. Field experiment was conducted at two locations for two consecutive years to investigate the effect of alternate furrow irrigation with irrigation intervals (AFI with normal, re...
Article
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Sweet maize is an annual plant that is extremely useful and economical for planting and harvesting. However, maize stands are damaged quickly in the case of nutrient and water deficiency. This research was carried out under dripping irrigation conditions and control plots without irrigation, involving seven different maize hybrids. The obtained res...
Article
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During adaptive radiation, mitochondria have coevolved with their hosts, leading to gain or loss of subunits and assembly factors of respiratory complexes. Plant complex I harbors ∼40 nuclear and 9 mitochondrial-encoded subunits and requires stepwise assembly for integrating different intermediates via assembly factors. In mammalian, the mitochondr...
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Maize plays an indispensable role in meeting high food demand. It is globally one of the most widely adopted and cultivated crops. Hybrid development from fixed inbred lines is one of the tactics to boost maize production. The national average maize yield in Ethiopia is low and thus, selection of promising germplasm, knowledge of combining ability,...
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Agriculture in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico, grew last year, and pesticide use problems have been reported; however, there is no information about the use and management of pesticides in farms. In this study, the main pesticides used by farmers were identified in two types of agriculture: open-air (milpa) (OA) and enclosed area (shade house and gr...
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Water restriction causes physiological disorders and reduces maize yield in semi-arid regions. The objective of this study was to correlate instantaneous physiological variables with the grain yield of maize using different replacement percentages of water lost through evapotranspiration and to fit a multiple regression model to estimate grain yiel...
Article
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Experiment was made in AL- Qadisiyah province on maize during the autumn season 2007, to know the impact of four levels of phosphate fertilizer (zero, 160, 200, 240 kg P2O5/ h) and two batches.First add all the amount of phosphate fertilizer at one time when agriculture, and the second was added in two waves, when agriculture first and the second a...
Article
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The agriculture sector is a key driver of economic growth and provides employment opportunities across the globe generally. However, in today’s world, agricultural product demand is more influenced by taste, prices, and nutritional value due to climatic variation. The study has analyzed the current situation grain productivity by using the data of...
Article
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La asociación entre caracteres de la evaluación en campo e indicadores de calidad de semillas y sus componentes genéticos son factores importantes para ampliar la caracterización del germoplasma en un programa de mejoramiento genético. Los objetivos fueron analizar la relación entre los valores medios y los efectos de aptitud combinatoria, y explor...
Article
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Agriculture is an integral sector in China mandated to feed over 1.3 billion of its people and provide essential inputs for many industries. Sichuan, a central grain-producing province in Southwest China, is a significant supplier of cereals in the country. Yet, it is likely to be threatened by yield damages induced by climate change. Therefore, th...
Experiment Findings
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A major challenge diminishing the profitability and sustainability of the poultry industry is the astronomic increase in price of feed ingredient such as maize which is progressively eroding off the expected profit margin of poultry farmers. A total of two hundred and forty (240), day-old broiler chicks were used in four weeks feeding trial to inve...
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Application of biocontrol products containing atoxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus to reduce aflatoxin content in crops is an effective strategy for managing aflatoxin in several regions throughout the world. We report the development and validation of two aflatoxin biocontrol products, Aflasafe TZ01 and Aflasafe TZ02, for use in maize and gro...
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An incubation study was carried out to investigate the effects of litter quality, i.e. ¹⁵ N-labelled maize (C/N of 25.5) and Rhodes grass (C/N of 57.8) leaf litter on microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE) and priming effects in a moderate alkaline soil at two different temperatures (15 and 25 °C). CUE values were calculated from the isotopic compos...
Article
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Plant fw2.2-like (FWL) genes, encoding proteins harboring a placenta-specific eight domain, have been suggested to control fruit and grain size through regulating cell division, differentiation, and expansion. Here, we re-sequenced the nucleotide sequences of the maize ZmFWL7 gene, a member of the FWL family, in 256 elite maize inbred lines, and th...
Article
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Agricultural production is sensitive to climate variability, so climate change-agriculture sector nexus is topical in developing countries. To this end, this study examines the impact of climate change variables—rainfall and temperature—and non-climatic factors on maize production in Somalia for the period between 1980 and 2018 using the autoregres...
Article
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The aim of this investigation was to study the possibility of converting the mechanical transmission of rotary plow to the hydraulic transmission and its effect on fuel consumption, power requirements, mean weight diameter (MWD) and field efficiency. Four shares peripheral speed for plow of 2.36, 3.29, 4.24, 4.9 m/s were identify, with four differe...
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In this research, eco-friendly material represented by maize stalk (MS) obtained after acid treat-ment was employed for simultaneous removal of Cu2+, Pb2+, Ni2+, Cd2+, Cr3+ and Fe3+ (MX+) from simulated textile aqueous matrix and tannery wastewater produced by the leather industry. The acid treatment of MS was done with 4 M HCl. The influence of ex...
Article
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Abstract: 【Objective】The objective of this study is to establish and perfect the method for precise characterization of maize germplasm resistance to Pythium stalk rot (PSR) and Gibberella stalk rot (GSR), and then precisely evaluate maize accessions with rich genetic background for resistance to stalk rot, and to screen out resistant germplasm and...
Article
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Using the GECROS model, we simulated the effect of improvements in photosynthesis a range of growth parameters, including yield, and on the εc (the conversion efficiency of absorbed solar energy to the chemical energy of biomass) and εi (the efficiency of solar energy interception or absorption by the canopy) parameters of the Monteith crop growth...
Article
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Glyphosate is one of the most widely used non-selective herbicides, and the creation of glyphosate-resistant cultivars solves the problem of limited spraying area. Therefore, it is of great significance to quickly identify resistant cultivars without destruction during the development of superior cultivars. This work took maize seedlings as the exp...
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In this study, the effects of malted sorghum-based diets (MSBD) on carcass characteristics and meat quality were investigated in broiler chickens. Two-week-old Ross 308 broilers were randomly allocated to three groups (each with five replications) and were then reared on either 0 or 100% (red (Mr Buster) or white (Segaolane)) malted sorghum commerc...
Article
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The experiment was conducted to study the effect of tillage, mulch and irrigation on soil moisture, yield and yield attributes of hybrid maize (var. BARI Hybrid Maize-6). Two tillage practices (minimum tillage and conventional tillage), two levels of mulches (no mulch and rice straw mulch @ 3 t ha-1) and three irrigation frequencies (one irrigation...
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Vitamin A deficiency poses health risks for children, pregnant women, and nursing mothers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and Southeast Asia. Provitamin A–biofortified maize varieties can contribute to minimizing the adverse effects of vitamin A deficiency in areas where maize is a staple food crop. Identifying suitable testers is important to breed pr...
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Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the greatest signifi cant grain crops in Ethiopia which ranked second only next tef in local production. However, its production is limited due to incorrect line spaces between crops. Therefore, fi eld research was conducted at Dambi Dollo University during the 2020/2021 growing season under irrigated conditions for th...
Technical Report
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Plan de manejo de la roya del sorgo (Puccinia purpurea, Cooke) Resumen: El sorgo (Sorghum bicolor) está clasificado como el tercer cereal más comúnmente cultivado en el mundo después del arroz y el maíz. Algunos de sus atributos útiles son la tolerancia a los ambientes secos, alto contenido de azúcar, altos rendimientos de biomasa forrajera por...
Article
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The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is a worldwide pest of gramineous crops and a major pest of corn. Kenya has, in the recent years, reported massive outbreaks of this pest causing huge economic losses in maize fields. The indiscriminate use of insecticides has led to the evolution of insecticide resistance. This presents serio...
Article
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Plant phenotyping is essential in plant breeding and management. High-throughput data acquisition and automatic phenotypes extraction are common concerns in plant phenotyping. Despite the development of phenotyping platforms and the realization of high-throughput three-dimensional (3D) data acquisition in tall plants, such as maize, handling small-...
Article
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Spectroscopy is a rapid, non-destructive, and low-cost analytical technique that has the potential to complement more resource-intensive analytical methods. We explored the use of spectral methods to differentiate maize genotypes and assess aflatoxin (AF) contamination in maize kernels. We compared the performance of two instruments: a research-gra...
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Effects of heavy metals addition on growth and accumulation in maize and Barley