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I am designing a trial for my PhD investigating the effects of vermicast on three commercially grown crops (onions, potatoes, maize). Soil transport will depend on the types of machinery used (power harrow, ripper, disks, potato harvester). I am unsure how long to make buffer zones between plots to avoid dilution of vermicast in the core sampling area. What search terms/phrases should I use to find research about the distance soil can be transported during passes?
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Thank you. I did a pilot trial last year and used 2 m buffer zones. I believe this was enough to keep the core sampling area free from dilution/contamination. However, I will be using plots for multiple years and each year will involve additional soil/vermicast transfer therefore I need to allow for this with larger buffer zones. The trouble I have is that I don't know how far soil is transported during cultivation, sowing and harvesting. Any research you can recommend on this would be appreciated.
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My Objective is to simulate the impact of climate change on maize yields in Isingiro District under future climate scenarios. 0.8435° S, and 30.8039° E
Where can I get the above R Scrit for simulation for RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 from?
Will be greatful if any one who has can share with me
regards
Wycliffe Tumwesigye
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Hi Wycliffe Tumwesigye here is a script to download data from CMIP6 or CMIP5 using Python that can be useful for you:
"""
! pip install esgf-pyclient==0.3.0
!pip install requests-cache==0.4.1
from pyesgf.search import SearchConnection
import os
import requests_cache
requests_cache.core.CachedSession
#from pyesgf.search import SearchConnection
#import os
#import pandas as pd
import requests
from tqdm import tqdm
import xarray as xr
#import requests_cache
requests_cache.core.CachedSession
lista_modelos= ['ACCESS-CM2','ACCESS-ESM1-5','AWI-CM-1-1-MR','BCC-CSM2-MR',
'CAMS-CSM1-0','CAS-ESM2-0','CMCC-CM2-SR5','CMCC-ESM2','CanESM5',
'EC-Earth3','EC-Earth3-Veg','EC-Earth3-Veg-LR','FGOALS-f3-L',
'GFDL-ESM4','IITM-ESM','INM-CM4-8','INM-CM5-0','IPSL-CM6A-LR',
'KACE-1-0-G','MIROC6','MPI-ESM1-2-HR','MPI-ESM1-2-LR','MRI-ESM2-0',
'NESM3']
conn = SearchConnection('https://esgf-node.llnl.gov/esg-search', distrib=True)
ctx = conn.new_context(project='CMIP6',
experiment_id=['historical'],
realm=['atmos'],
variable='uas',
frequency='mon',
source_type=['AOGCM'],
variant_label='r1i1p1f1',
source_id= lista_modelos
)
ctx.hit_count
ctx.facet_counts['source_id'].keys()
# Obtain urls lists
lista_urls=[]
for i in range(len(ctx.search())):
try:
result = ctx.search()[i]
print(result.dataset_id,'..............ok')
lista_urls.append(result)
except:
pass
print('-------------------------------')
print('Lista finales')
lista_urls
# Download the first model for example
tr=[x for x in lista_urls if lista_modelos[0] in x.dataset_id]
files = tr[0].file_context().search()
lista=[]
for i in range(len(files)):
lista.append(files[i].opendap_url)
print(lista)
ds = xr.open_mfdataset([x for x in lista], chunks={'time': 120}, combine='nested', concat_dim='time')
ds_mei=ds.where((ds.lon>=-90+360) & (ds.lon<=-60+360) &(ds.lat>=6) & (ds.lat<=25),drop=True)
ds_mei=ds_mei.sel(bnds=1)
# Plot example
data = ds_mei.uas[0,:,:]
print(type(data))
data.plot.contourf(levels=35,cmap='jet',add_colorbar=True, x='lon',y='lat');
# Write the netcdf to a route
ds_mei.to_netcdf('uas_'+lista_modelos[0]+'_Historical.nc',format='NETCDF3_64BIT', mode='w')
"""
I hope it helps
Best regards!
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Hello specialist. I am working as a field technician for maize seed production. I would like to ask someone with experience in yield estimation of maize by tools or any calculator. I have been sawing on the internet, that people use satellite data, but I don't ins and outs of that. please introduce and guide me. Many thanks.
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Estimate planting population density, then multiple it x plant grain yield estimated. You can check on Google some papers calculating ear grain yield through ear dimensions. Regards.
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Dear colleagues,
I want to simulate the maize grain number with 6 level temperature stress experiments by APSIM-MAIZE. I have tried to modify the temperature fuciton from the default value (8, 34, 44℃) to a modified value (5, 30, 41℃), which concluded from Wang (2018).But, the simulation was not good for grain number.
Thus,
(1) how to modify the temperature function with my heat stress experiments?
(2) what's the calculation formula for maize grain number in the Maize Module?
in addition, my phytotron controlled-temperature experiment were conducted with 6 temperature from 30 to 40℃ during maize silking period.
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Hi, everyone my name is Tesfalem, MsC student at Warsaw university of technology. I wanted to do a research on maize grain storage which can be used to store for extended period of time without deterioration. Before selecting materials and do simulation of the storage I want you guys to tell me about how to model and simulate temperature distribution of the maize grain with in 1 m diameter circling.
Thank you.
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I am a agricultural adviser in Huambo in Angola, which is said to have the most fertile soil in Angola, what I can't see here really.
Wheat and maize were here planted for 2 years and irrigated with a pivot sprinkler system to ensure emergence in the dry season, but yields was yet with only moderate success. The corn yield was just as weak as that of other farmers in the area. I estimated that the maize yield is only around 1000 kg/ha. After the harvest residues, the wheat was only ¾ with a height of 1 m.
The soil with about pH 5, is a grey silty-sandy soil, presumably because the soil is 500 m from a river. But here isn't a laterite of rusty-red coloration like most soils here and that laterite are more remote from rivers.
My specific question is:
What is the best choice of soil preparation, fertilizing and which seed varieties to cultivate and gain best yields for wheat and corn on juvenile soil cleared before such acid and very sandy soils? Precipitation ist 1300 mm per Year.
The farm worker prefer to SEED and fertlize all by hand. Soil preparation and seed covering is done by harrow disks.
J HUMER, 18.7.22, Huambo
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For Example from one maize hectare of land we will get 80-120 qt/ha by using soil test based recommendation with recommended agronomic practice. But from one maize hectare of land we will get 25-35 qt/ha by using soil test based recommendation with recommended agronomic practice.
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Dear @Alemayehu Abdeta Keneni
The principal cereal grains contain about 10-14% moisture, 58-72% carbohydrate, 8-13% protein, 2-5% fat, and 2-11% indigestible fiber. Although these are typical values, composition vary depending on varieties of the particular grain, geographical and weather conditions, and other factors. Legumes and oilseeds are considerably higher in protein than cereal grains, and oilseeds also are much higher in fat. Various mature dry legumes and oilseeds contain about 20-40% protein; fat levels in peas and beans are low but are 20-50% in oilseeds.
During photosynthesis, plants produce glucose from CO2 and water in the presence of sunlight. The simple sugar then gets converted into complex carbohydrates; during the process the required energy is derived from oxidation of synthesized glucose.
For synthesis of protein and fatty acids and glycerol, the primary phosynthate is again utilized. Of course, in case of protein, nitrogen and sulphur are supplied from soil. However, the conversion requires much energy that come from breakdown of primary photosynthate (glucose).
For conversion of glucose into complex carbohydrates (major storage product in cereal grains), relatively less energy is required compared to those for conversion into protein and fats. Therefore, cereals are inherently high yielding crops than legumes and oilseeds. Of course, there exists other reasons that confer productivity advantage to cereals.
PS: This is my personal opinion, and you may disagree.
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screening for herbicide resistance and identify genomic regions associated with it in maize
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I am not expert in this field but I expect that even experts would need to know considerably more about your plans to be able to answer meaningfully.
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If you add a response, please do me a favor and answer the actual question. I've already searched the literature and haven't found anything. I already know what exudates are, and that they are different under stress conditions. To reiterate, I would like to know the SPECIFIC CULTIVARS of maize that have high exudation rates, under just basic field conditions, not any kind of stress.
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Root exudates comprise a large variety of compounds released by plants into the rhizosphere, including low-molecular-weight primary metabolites (particularly saccharides, amino acids and organic acids) and secondary metabolites (phenolics, flavonoids and terpenoids).
Exudates influence several factors within the soil such as nutrient availability, soil pH, and recruitment of bacteria and fungi.
Root exudates in maize are secreted depending on the kind of abiotic stresses such as soil acidity, salinity, drought, etc. Genotypic variations for root exudates are well documented in maize under acidity (Al toxicity), sodicity and drought. Specific Inbreds, populations or hybrids of maize with high root exudates under the given situation can be accessed through literature hunt.
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Gender in Agricultural development
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Gender issues are common in agriculture all over the world, mostly in developing nations.Women do most of the agricultural work and they are still paid less as compared to male for the same level of work. Particularly for maize,in my view knowledge level of both male and female in production may be the issue.
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Is there anybody suggest or describe this maize disease (cause) or Deficiency of minerals? This days common on some maize farmers in Ethiopia.
Thank you!
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Zinc deficiency photo University of Nebraska on maize.
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Or do you have knowledge or ideas where to get thiee MAIZE informations?
I see everywhere maize fields here with only very low maize yields, with about only 1 t/ha maize.
We in Austria have about 10 - 15 t / ha.
This Huambo region should be the best agricultural region, is written.
I am advising a new farmer here, but there is no knowledge about this requirement.
Many Thanks
J HUMER
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I want to determination the root activity of maize, who knows a fast way to determination the root activity? Thank you for your kind help and comments?
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Introduce a hydroponic and grow maize. it will be easy for observation
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The advantages of using maize for Biogas
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Maize in the form of silage provides high yields (10–30 t of total solids—TS per hectare [1–3]) and is thus a suitable energetic crop for biogas production.
Regards,
Shafagat
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Struggling to get good quality DNA from dried maize leaf samples. Used modified CTAB protocols, without liquid Nitrogen but had smears on my gel. Anyone to help with a protocol that works best for extraction of DNA from Maize leaf samples?
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Aditya Sarkar Thank you. Just noticed that the protocol uses both CTAB and SDS detergents. Will give it a try and provide feedback
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I a Wifi Thermometer which is portal with an API for data sharing. I would to use it in an experiment for Maize grain storage facility (a shade).
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Luis Daniel Lepe thank you so much very helpful site
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Dear Experts
At the beginning of fermentation, the pH of the mixture of barley and maize is 4.5. However, the pH of barely alone is 5.3, and maize is 5. 6. Thus, what are the possible reductions in pH in the mixture?
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Dear @Reda Nemo You should access replies to a similar question at:
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I am based in North West Province, South Africa. North West is a land locked province, with mainly summer rainfall and dry winters.
Summer is around September to March and Winter June/July to August.
This year we had more early winter rains. This is not normally the case.
I have started seeing these caterpillar/worms with a black body, with hairs al over, with some white hairs on the body.
What are these caterpillar/worms? Are they harmful to maize, soya, sorghum or sunflower seed/plants?
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Thank you for your answer.
Do you possibly know the family, genus and species? Also, if you have an image or diagram of the lifecycle and the amount of time between stages.
I would also like yo know their natural habitat, or preference, as well as how to spot their damage on either leaves, stems or grain. As in specific markings they leave behind when feeding or the appearance of their excrement/residue.
This would be very helpful
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Dear colleagues, I'm looking for published statistics on global percent area used for production of wheat, rice and maize. I know that there are some data on global production and data on estimated global irrigation that I could use for an analysis. However, I would like to see first if there is this information already published by someone.
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For an assay on young plant
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Dear Vanessa,
You must prepare a suitable spore suspension of the pathogen Fusarium verticillioides, put it in a suitable volume sterile syringe and then inject the spore suspension in the plant stem near the tip. You need some time to see the symptoms appearance.
Wishing this method is useful.
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Dear friends,
I am doing a PhD and one of my objectives is to use DSSAT for modeling effect of Climate change scenarios on maize productivity in SW Uganda. My study area lies btn
0.8435° S, 30.8039° E
Where can I download the above current climate scenarios datasets for simulation of impact of cc on maize yield ( early, mid and end of) century?
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Also, you can download CMIP6 ensemble data and/or its members from Copernicus (https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/cdsapp#!/dataset/projections-cmip6?tab=overview).
Good luck on your PhD.
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Dear colleagues,
I would like to ask if there is a Standard, guide, manual or well-explained procedure to do the "pot experiment", also known as "plant growth experiment" (there is another name for this experiment?). Additionally, if there is a special one for maize growth, that would be great.
In fact, I read several articles where this experiment was used, however, in none there was mention of a standard, protocol or manual. I am kind of surprised about it, as this procedure seems quite important.
If you have any tip, article, thesis or any trustable document that I could use to guide me, that would be great. I plan to do this experiment with a collaboration, however, I need to know better the procedure to plan ahead.
I thank you all in advance for your time and attention.
Have a great week.
Kind regards
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Luanna, I expect that there's a lot of literature on potted maize trials, and I suggest you compare their experimental designs with the facilities used and the variability that was encountered. There are some principles to apply to your own growing conditions, rooting media etc. (which I believe in having done many greenhouse trials with potted eucalypts in Portugal - I have no experience with maize). Try to do pilot studies to understand your own total variance, and to get an idea of how to partition it in your experimental designs. Personally I'd do several smaller trials rather than fewer bigger ones, so that you can observe the variation between trials, and similarly I'd keep the designs relatively simple - eg. randomised complete blocks. Finally a couple of very basic points - make sure you have plenty of error degrees of freedom, and if there is any mortality make sure that the number of plants per plot is sufficient to avoid missing values or inflating the error variance.
Philip
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  • We expressed a maize CC-NBS-LRR protein in Nicotiana benthamiana by injecting the Agrobacterium strain GV3101 with a maize CNL protein into the leaves, cell death was observed after 3 days without the presence of the cognate pathogen effector, Does this happen often?
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Thanks a lot!
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In general fall army worm will feed and cause damage by feeding in whorl of Maize. So we are recommending whorl spraying of different mode of action insecticides against FAW. But recent some studies found that whorl application of insecticides by mixing with sand is best option. Is this really effective??
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Better option is to identify FAW tolerant genotypes although it is very difficult. Among the tested 40 genotypes, one hybrid was less infested by FAW. We are trying to promote this one and already proposed to release for commercial cultivation in Nepal.
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Hi everyone! I wonder if anyone could indicate me an efficient and simple protocol for separation of leaf tissues (epidermis, mesophyll, vascular tissue) that could be used for crops, such as tomato, soybean, maize, etc.?
I appreciate any suggestion given.
Kind regards,
Aline
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Rapid and simple isolation of vascular, epidermal and mesophyll cells from plant leaf tissue
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What are the implications of using maize-cobs for mulching? Does it rob the soils of its nitrogen?
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Yes, I fully agree with Paul, to remove excess N you may very well use as mulching.
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I intent to subject maize seeds to mutagenic treatment and need advice on how to characterize the mutant lines using genetic tools
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For how long maximum nitrogen is required by crops like wheat and maize. Then how long urea maintain N supply in soil?
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Perhaps , grain filling stage is most crucial with respect to nitrogen use ,in addition to tillering stage , depending upon other agro-pedologcial fcators. It would be better , if talk in terms of agronomic efficiency, physiological efficiency , apparent recovery , utilization efficiency , upatek efficiency ...like that, so many terms , depending upon their field of specialization , researchers use
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Root length, root biomass and types of root determine the nutrients absorption, tolerance to drought and lodging and ultimately optimum plant growth and productivity. Is there any simple field based procedure to grow maize plant in field and to determine total length and biomass of root? An efficient and simple protocol may help in screening maize germplasm for root parameters.
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Dear Dr Narendra Kumar Singh,
Greetings, this stage is the most important one as its is the last stage in plant life. I have done the same stress in wheat after anthesis.
For estimating the root traits their is some software that could help in getting the data. So, try find it. Their is some free software .
with best regards
Khaled
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Last year during winter planting in some of the areas in Terai region (plain southern part of Nepal) we faced tassel ear problem in maize.
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Deae Dr. Singh,
There was no frost but temperature was below 10 degree C at V5 to V6 stage.
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Dear RG scholars, GREETINGS!!!
  • I'm relatively new to CROP MODELING and Simulation
  • As you all know, modeling is so interesting but as wide as an ocean.
  • Modeling includes many challenging topics such as model calibration, parameter estimation, reliability assessment, data collection design, and a lot more.
I'm doing my research on "Model simulation of maize growth and yield using DSSAT-CERES-maize model v.4.7.".
No model was done before for my location.
I'd two-year experiments using 3 maize varieties and 5 nitrogen rates for a new
(same location but different years).
  • 1st year for model calibration
  • 2nd year for model validation
N.B.
  • My maize is rain-fed maize
  • I've 30 years of climate data (RF, Tmax & Tmin)
  • I've soil and plant lab analysis results
What parameters, mandatory data, and what max and min values should I have?
What vital steps should I never forget?
What yield components of maize should I focus on?
Your experience, please? And any relevant reference you think is good for me!!!
STAY BLESSED!!!
Alem
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High Alem,
Interesting to start discussions!
I recommend you first to read the manual. What type of soil sample ( profile or surface)? It is the profile data you need. Crop data is highly important and there are variety specific parameters. You have to know that! I knew for the varieties BH540 and BH660 for example in Ethiopia. I hope you know Dr Kinde from CIMMYT Ethiopia, he will help you a lot about DSAT as he is expert of it.
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In India the soil health cards are being issued to farmers since last 6 years. However, it is not possible to have soil health cards for each and every field till today. We know that whenever we have a bumper crop of sorghum, maize, rice, wheat etc. the soil nutrient status changes after every crop season. Under such situation it is required to measure the soil nutrient status after every crop season. Therefore, we need to have a fast and accurate measurement system which can provide the soil health card to the farmers in his field itself so that he can plan for fertilizer application rate just before the crop sowing season. Under present laboratory analysis method it takes months to get the soil health card and by that time the crop sowing season is over.
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See also the following very good RG link:
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Nitrogen is the most limiting and the least efficiently used (NUE is 0.3-0.5 in developed countries) plant nutrient.
But what most gets me in doubt is the time of nitrogen fertilizer application.
  • Some say before planting (African Farm Resources Center, attached herewith)
  • Most say during planting (N.B. maize takes 6-9 days to emerge, but still not active to use fertilizer)
  • Only a few say after planting.
Which one is scientifically correct? Please include references!!!!!!!
==============================================================
N.B.
I don't know if Nitgen fertilizer has other uses in the soil than as food for the plant. Some well-experienced farmers have told me that Nitrogen dehydrated water-logged soils; "It ignites the heat that helps seeds to emerge profoundly"!!!
============================================================
Appreciate your valuable help for all in doubt like me!!
Alem
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Dear Dr. Redda,
Very nice and practical question you raised. Normally, agriculturists recommend 50. 100 and 100% of N, P205 and K20, respectively as a basal dose. As you mentioned, until and unless plants have roots they can not utilize the applied fertilizers. Potassium and phosphatic fertilizers takes a little longer time to to be ready to the plants. Therefore they must be applied as basal. There should be wise application of Nitrogenous fertilizers as they are lost through volatilization, leaching and run off water. If Phosphatic fertilizer is complex one with some amount of N, it is not necessary to apply additional N through Urea or other sources. This is the reason, instead of applying 50% N as basal; increase the number of top-dresses at various stages. It will automatically increases the N use efficiency by crop.
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Given the diverse use of maize for human consumption, animal feed and industrial raw material, is maize is going to play as a major rabi crop in the coastal region in general and coastal saline region in particular.
Please give comments on how to increse the maize acerage and reduce the fallow area as well as increase farmers income.
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Maize can be grown everywhere if weather condition (extremely low and high temperatures) is not a limiting factor.
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  • Five cereal crops provide 60% of the daily food intake worldwide!!!
  • Three cereals (rice, maize, and wheat) cover more than 50% of food intake.
  • Maize is regarded as a "Hunger-breaking crop", particularly by the poor farmers of Africa.
  • Today, climate change is the biggest threat challenging agriculture. So, which crop is more vulnerable to climate change (rainfall, temperature, etc.)?
  • Maize is getting wider destinations even to new places due to its special characteristics. What do you think are its special merits for its popularity?
  • Which of the 3 popular world cereal crops would be the 1st in 2050 and/or 2100? Why?
Thank you for all your valuable responses!!!
Alem
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Considering the global context of climate change, maize crop can tolerate various stresses such as heat (higher temperatures), drought, water and others. This crop can save life of both humans and animals as it can be used as food, feed, fodder and fuel. Therefore, it can be predicted that maize will be the number one crop in the future.
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In my case, we use 150 kg ha-1 for OPV and 200 kg ha-1 for hybrid varieties are recommended to be applied with three splits: 1st at planting, 2nd at knee height, and 3rd at flowering (silking and tasseling). But, still, farmers of the lowlands (hotter areas) use less than this rate and generally miss the 3rd split due mainly to fear of the burning effect caused by high temperature and/or low moisture.
What is African Farm Resource Centre telling us?
"For hybrid maize, 400 kg ha-1 of NPK is recommended to be applied just before planting, which should be followed up four weeks after planting with 250 kg ha-1 of CAN as side-dressing."
400 kg ha-1 before planting + 250 kg ha-1 after planting"
  • How is this possible?
  • Is that logical? I don’t understand it!!
  • What about the law of diminishing returns?
  • Could poor farmers afford this? Is this acceptable by farmers?
  • What would be the benefit-cost ratio of this? Is this economically feasible?
  • Nitrogen fertilization is the main cause of Carbon Footprints in agriculture. Did African Farm Resource Centre consider this?
Many thanks and respect to all RG members!!!
Alem
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In case of Nepal, 180:60:40 NPK kg/ha has been recommended for commercial hybrid maize cultivation. Urea, DAP and K20 are used as sources, respectively. The 18% N in DAP works in initial stage. The whole Phosphorus and potash should be applied during last field preparation. It will be better to apply N fertilizer in four splits: I: First weeding II: Knee high stage III. Prior to silking and tasseling and, IV: Initial grain filling stage. Each time, top-dress from opposite side of the row where previous top-dress was carried out. Cover the N fertilizer immediately after top-dressing. Irrigate the field before top-dressing if needed, and not just after top-dressing to protect nutrient from leaching.
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What is the optimal temperature for grain filling stage in maize? How lower temperature than optimal at this stage affects plants?
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When the issue of intercropping is raised, most researchers, including myself, are addicted to the idea of intercropping cereals with pulse crops and the first reason that comes to our mind is the "nitrogen fixation", i.e., restoring the fertility of the soil.
But when doing my research on intercropping, I had the chance to come through seeing farmers intercropping maize with sorghum (obviously, both are cereals). I was really surprised a lot!!!
  • What do you think is the farmers' reason?
  • What other forms of intercropping did you know? What with what?
  • What advantages (reasons) of intercropping do you know beyond the well-known fact of enhancing soil fertility?
Wish you all the best this life can deliver!!!!
Alem
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Dear Alem,
Intercropping in general is a delicate topic I think. To my opinion, it shall be applied only if the combined crops can benefit from synergies or side effects from the other (not mixing randomly any crops without reasoning). For sorghum and maize, I agree that it might not be the best option, and a maybe a more obvious combination would be to combine cereals with leguminoses... However, maize and sorghum are needed in higher quantity by many growers serving as animal feed (plant residues) and carbohydrate source (grains), especially subsistence growers. I think there are several reasons to combine both. Literature indicates there can be better weed control, better water use efficiency, and even higher yield or higher silage quality. Of course, when managed inappropriate or having bad luck with the weather, there can also be negative effects. Additionally I would also add decreased disease spread compared to monocultures. If you have time, you might review some literature, to confirm my hypotheses ;)
Cheers, Elisa
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I'm doing my research on modelling of barriers (limitations) and determinants (social constraints) of maize farmers' adoption of adaptation options to curb the negative impacts of CVC (climate variability and change) using the MNL model.
For the results of the MNL regression model, I'm using the assumptions of IIA (the Hausman test), the VIF, and the contingency coefficient that need deep result interpretation.
But in the STATA software, both the terms contingency coefficient and correlation coefficient appear, of course with different values.
What is the conceptual difference between the contingency coefficient and correlation coefficient? What best example do we have to differentiate them for better understanding?
THANK YOU SO MUCH!!!
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Alem Redda that’s why they are called independent
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We know rice is a C3 plant. In context of rising global temperature, C4 plants (maize, sugarcane) are likely to have some physiological advantage over c4 plants. Rice scientist have been working to develop c4 rice varieties. What is the prospect of c4 rice varieties in rice growing Asian countries?
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Nice question. This is IRRI s most ambitious research program...and if we succeed , it will be breaking the plateau in rice productivity with close to carbon neutral ability of rice .
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What number of days to 50% silking can be used to predict the maturity of maize? for example early maturing verities may have a range 56-63 days to 50% silking.
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In our case, just you double the number of days to 50% silking that will be the tentative days to physiological maturity. For example, if days to 50% silking of a variety is 60, then the days to physiological maturity will be 120 days.
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I performed a fungal and enzymatic treatment in the lab and now I will do this pretreatment in the field. In my opinion if we add the fungi directly to the field there will be a great risk of contamination. Or, even if there will be contamination, the control will give us a difference?
thanks in advance for your feedback
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Then I recommend you conduct the research in screen house.
The name of the fungi is very important, is the fungus in question serious pathogen in your country? Is it of quarantine important? If no, then you can try it on the field. Higher temperature may also influence the results.
Review some partinent literatures and use the appropriate methods. I wish all the very best.
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I'm looking for a study on the utilization of cover crops or green manure in corn fields that was conducted in China. I'm curious to see how cover crops or green manure affect the SOC over there. I'd love it if someone could send me some papers or other information. My main interest are cover crop/ green manure, SOC and Corn/maize.
Thanks
Best
Deepak
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Meta-analysis of green manure effects on soil properties and crop yield in northern China
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We are having a seed dryer soon in our Farm. In our assessible markets, grain dryers are common but getting choices for seed dryer is not. I am concerned about germination of seeds if dried in grain dryer which doesn't have temperature control options. Please suggest me mechanical seed drying options suitable for a farm that produces seeds in about 30Ha of land.
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La temperatura que se sugiere es 15 grados celcius
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I've tried proline determination assay (Bates 1973) on maize leaves, but it didnt work. Though it worked on maize pulverized seed (not lyophilized). Anybody knows if there's something wrong with lyophilized tissue and this specific method? or something with lyophilization procedure?
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Have you tried doing a proline analysis on fresh tissue and with added proline (increasing amounts might be instructive)? Make the same samples then lyophilise them and analyse for proline. that should show if it is lyophilisation which is the problem. P.S. do good replication and perhaps different methods of lyophilisation.
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When you looked at the CV of the yield component data including height is very low compared to the grain yield, then it is very difficult to generate data that relate final yield data with height for example. This is due to subjectivity of the researchers! Is it not better to fix at office where to take the plant sample ( plant height ) ?
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I have experience with big-size data of rice. I took yield and yield components including plant height data both at the field (at the dry condition) and office lab. So you can take a random or prefix sampling for yield component data of big cereals like maize, but precision will be reduced due to fixing or reducing sample size.
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Seed carbohydrate composition as affected by some soil or foliar applied substance
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Thank you
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Please anyone help me in data analysis.
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please read my paper in MAYDICA (foliar Ti for corn)
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How can I download China county level maize production and area historical annual data?
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You can get help from FAO site
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  1. This is Entomopathogenic fungal isolates screening experiment under laboratory condition. We want to calculate feeding percentage of S. fruigiperda larval instar as we provide specific quantity of maize leaves to each instar. We count the data after 24 hrs/ 1day which goes up to 10 days. We provide 7, 12, 20, 30, 45 and 60 gram maize to 1st, 2nd , 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th instar respectively. The maize quantity is for group of 15 larvae and we will replace it after each day. We observed that S. fruigiperda slow down feeing efficacy against some fungal isolates as compared to control. We didn't use leaf disc method because it was not convenient for us. it will be really appreciated if someone can help us to find the formula by which we can do statistical analysis.
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Thank you
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I have collected data on F1 and F2 yield and one of the hybrid varieties showed increased yield in F2 generation. I have re-checked my data but there seems to be no mistake in data collection. Is it a mere chance or technical error?
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Sonam Dorji -
What kind of data do you have? Do you have, say, continuous data where you could do regression to compare yields. If you had a ratio relationship where y = bx + e, and y|x should be heteroscedastic, then you could determine b and its standard error. If b indicated that the F2 yield is greater than the F1 yield, you might find that the standard error of b is so large that the true value of beta could be of the opposite sign as the estimate, b.
If it still looks like the F2 yield is greater than the F1 yield, then maybe there is some unknown variable, some other reason.
I'm not familiar with this, so if you have just one value each for both F2 and F1 yields, then regression won't help. But you could still look for unknown (currently "unknown") variables.
Cheers - Jim
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Recently, I plan to detect some mRNAs expressed level of whole life stage of maize weevil, but I don't know how to collect it's eggs. So does anyone have some experence of collect the eggs of S. zeamais, S. oryzae or S. granarius ?
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Any chemical or hormonal or environmental or procedural manipulations that can help to improve the seed set when secondary/tertiary gene pool is used in crossing programme with accessions of primary gene pool. Any validated experimental proof/information in general in any crop species but in maize as a specific crop species may serve the purpose.
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Dear @Narendra Kumar Singh
Please check the following links. The first two relates to food legumes; the third one is deals with utilization of CWR in sunflower and maize. Hope, these links might be useful to you:
Best wishes, AKC
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Selfing is necessary application for pureline production of maize parents for hybrid production. I want to learn different approaches for selection.
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Dear Ahmet Okumuş Starting from an open-pollinated population, continued selfing rapidly separates the population into several lines. During early generations (S2, S3 and S4), several lethal and sub-vital types appear, and selection for such highly heritable traits are highly effective. From S5 generation onwards, one can practice selection for plant height, length of ear shoot, etc (quantitative traits) as the lines attain considerable homozygosity (> 95%), and the effects of dominance and non-allelic interactions have been dissipated. For further details of employing various approaches of selection, you can go through the related chapters in the following books:
1. Principles of Plant Breeding by Robert Allard,
2. Breeding Field Crops by John Poehlman, and
3. Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding by Arnel Halluer and JB Miranda Filho
Best wishes, AKC
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ID please? It was found in Bhutan in maize. Could it be Cryptanura spinaria ??
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Hello Thinley; Here is a reference that contains keys and illustrations to the families of Hymenoptera of the World.
Goulet, H and JT Huber 1993. Hymenoptera of the world: an identification guide to families. Research Branch Agriculture Canada Publ. 1894/E. 668 pp. Best regards, Jim Des Lauriers
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I have this data set about the concentration of aflatoxin in maize. most of the means have very high SD. What should i do about this when reporting?
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Yes, standard deviation can be greater than the mean.
So in the event of a negative or 0 Mean you always have a higher SD than Mean. This means nothing, it is expected to be so. In the case that the data sets values are 0 or positive a higher SD than the Mean means that the data set is very widely distributed with a (strong) positive skewness.
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This Defect has seen nearly 2 or 3 plant in 1 hector of land.
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A large number of mutations affect sex determination in maize. Mutations that feminize the plants include the tassel seeds, which are characterized by the development of pistils in florets on tassel.
Such a mutation may have pleiotropic effects, causing the absence of outer covering of tassel ear.
Best wishes, AKC
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Specifically looking for deficient, low, adequate and high ranges for the key nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn).
Moreover, may also require the plant biomass nutrient ratio ranges for N/P, N/K, P/K, P/Ca, P/Zn, K/Ca, Ca/Zn etc
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You need to work out the nutrient logging exercise to identify these nutrient diagnostic limits . But , you need some yield data, so that you can address these nutrients limits with respect to yield. Nuruent modelling youc na try using DRIS, CND , bonadry line concept , critical limit concepyt , plenty but need to see , which fits well in your dataset.
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Dear all,
I would like to investigate the linkage disequilibrium in maize collection with TASSEL in order to determine the marker number for population structure and GWA analysis.
Our maize collection have been genotyped with maize DArTseq (1.0) by the Diversity Arrays Technology Ltd. So I have two types of markers:
(1) dominant silicoDArT markers (Presence/Absence variation of restriction fragment)
(2)  codominat SNP markers in the restriction fragments
Can I mix this two types of marker data in the hapmap file and run the LD analysis?
Is it appropriate to mix two different marker data when I perform LD analysis?
Or should I make one hapmap file for silicoDArT markers and one for SNP markers and perform the LD analysis for the two marker sets independetly?
Thanks for your help!
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Hi István
I am suffering from this problem. If you did find any solution. Could you share it with me?
Thanks in advance
Uğur
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I am currently working on a project and I need to know the pros and cons, the applications, and even the limitations of vegetation indices particularly those that are useful in the RGB spectrum in the assessment of crop health. The crop in question is maize.
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This is not a direct answer to your question, but rather a caution not to over-interpret what NDVI can tell you. It's a metric of relative vegetative growth compared to a long-term 'norm', not the health of a crop. A clear example was from Ethiopia in the 1980s when locations of high enset (false banana) cultivation showed bright green on NDVI due to high precipitation and above-ground growth, but below ground blight had begun to destroy the enset harvest. In other words, the enset regions were green but the crop was not healthy. Hope that helps.
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How do I go about the development of lypolytic potential of grains of sorghum and maize
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Dear Yirabari Gote Igoni I have attached one pdf; hope it may be useful to you.
Best wishes, AKC
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How C emissions from dLUC should be allocated in crop rotation, for exemplo, soybean - maize? Please give your opnion.
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I believe that based on the time of each crop on land (land occuparion/year - m2a) per year could be an interesting one. This approach have some limitations due to the economic value of each crop and on the differences of cultivation time from one producer to another or even between harvests. The economic approach could also be applied but considering that depending on the year and the climatic conditions (e.g. droughts and frosts) the economic value of the crop could be very low, this situation would result in a high degree of variability.
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When a Maize plant is given normal condition for growth development, stand & establishment, it grows without tillering. But, when it get infected by any infestans for eg, Stem borer or FAW that infestes on Plant whorl making it unable to grow any further tall.
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Dear Radhakrishna Bhandari Modern maize (Zea mays L.) has descended from teosinte (Zea maxicana L.) possibly through a macromutation with pleiotropic effects including preclusion of tillering habit. In cases of early pathogen infection, insect induced or physical damage, "tillering" genes get activated in order to sustain pertetuity of the modern maize. To my opinion, such a phenomenon in modern maize is the relic of tillering ability of its ancestral species.
Best wishes, AKC
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Maize (Zea mays L.), a crop with very much of nutritional & dietary importance doesn't have good yield & productivity(2.84t/ha in Nepal & 5.82t/ha in world in 2019 ) (FAOSTAT, 2021)as the plant is tall & do not bears any tillers. And the demand of Maize cereals as food & concentrate will increase a geometrical ration on future. The study on breeding to make Maize; a tillering type of cereal crop had not been heard by me. So, I want to ask what are the research the aforementioned subject?
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Dear Radhakrishna Bhandari I hope the two attachments will give you an overview of current level of research on tillering type maize.
Best wishes, AKC
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Greenhouse trial was established with different fertilizer formulations. Is it possible to calculate fertilizer use efficiency after harvesting biomass at 5 weeks after emergence and determination of weight and tissue nutrient concentrations?
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It's quite possible using using various versions of nutrient use efficiency such as apparent recovery, nutrient uptake efficiency , nutrient utilization efficiency and many more , since nutrient use efficiency is reported to be defined through as many 19 definitions, each one uses different concept depending upon the subject...area
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Since multiple alleles are working for variation in different individuals for a particular trait due to mutation over the wild allele, which leads to functional features or traits, how different features/traits observed in one individual like different hair color in some animals, different seed color in maize, etc? How this feature is also related to evolution?
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Dear Solomon Abera Gebrie Your question, and explanation of your question don't support each other. Based on your explanation, I think you are interested to know as to how multiple allelic series contributes to evolution.
As we all know that diversification, adaptation and extinction all go simultaneously in the process of evolution. Phenotypic diversification depends on mutation induced allelic diversity. If we consider a single locus with two alleles, we have only three genotypes. However, a single gene with three alleles can produce six genotypes, and with 4 alleles we will have 10 genotypes, and so on. Thus, mutation induced phenotypic diversity provides raw materials for natural selection to operate, ultimately shifting the population towards more adaptedness. For a comprehensive understanding, you may go through books such as "Principles of Plant Breeding (2nd Edition)" by RW Allard, and "An Introduction to Genetic Analysis" by Suzuki et al.
Thanks, AKC
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Hello,
I'm working on the flowering of maize, and more particularly on ASI. This year i would like (for my job) to make a selection in the objective to reduce ASI. But I didn't find any informations about how to do in litterature. Could you help me please?
Thank you very much
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Dear Jean Mergnat I am attaching two relevant pdfs; hope, these may be useful to you.
My best wishes, AKC
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Recently some farmers have claimed that they are making use of paddy straw in making maize silage by adding some percentage of paddy straw. Therefore, is it possible to use paddy straw for making silage of maize+ paddy straw or in combination with other nonleguminous fodders? Kindly give your remarks.
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Rice straw is a readily available, practical, and cheap source of fodder for feeding ruminants such as buffaloes, cattle, goats, and sheep. ... The high silica and lignin contents of straw also contribute to poor nutrient (dry matter and protein) digestibility (<50%). https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-32373-8_7
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I am planning to collect popular local maize varieties and carry out conventional maize breeding (bulking method). I don't have a clear idea about it.
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Sonam Dorji: You are talking about maize which is a highly cross pollinated crop and also shows high inbreeding depression. So bulk method of breeding explained above and used in self pollinated crops will not work here in case of maize. In maize varietal improvement, our emphasis must be to increase the frequencies of desirable alleles in the population (developed by crossing/chain crossing, etc different varieties/lines). The simplest way to increase frequency or to improve various agronomic traits is to use simple recurrent selection method. In SRS method, phenotypically outstanding plants say 100-200 are selected and their seeds are harvested separately. After post-harvest screening, equal seeds from each selected plants are mixed and planted for next cycle of improvement using the same approach. Each cycle is completed in one year and here selection is only made for female parent since pollens are coming from unknown sources. Improved population can be used as variety/OPV for cultivation or can further be used for improvement using methods based on half-sib/full-sib/S1 progeny test.
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I want to conduct one experiment on Habitat management using a push-pull strategy. This involves intercropping maize with a “push” plant, such as Desmodium, that repels FAW from the field, and planting a crop along the field boundary (e.g. Napier grass or Brachiaria spp) that attracts or “pulls” the FAW away from the maize. So i want to know the where i will get the Desmodium and Napier grass seeds.
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Thank you all...
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As an experiment to study high temperature effect on pollen abortion I need to have some viable flowers to start with. I have gone for two sowing dates first week of feb and first week of March with sufficiently high temperature during these days. However I am getting only 5 to 8 % floweirng. Can foliar application of any phytohormone help?
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Flowering is fastened during the "drought-escape" mediated by ABA, which could be applied ectopically by spraying. Nevertheless, it could have side effects for your experiment.
This article provides a nice overview of its effects:
I hope this helps you
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Recently, I conducted an experiment on maize under control conditions in white sand with two treatment variables ( 1; irrigated with distilled water and 2; irrigated with 60mM NaCl solution) and 40 replications. After three weeks I collected the data of SPAD from the first large leaf of each replication. I observed that 60mM NaCl treatment significantly increases the SPAD value with respect to control (treated with distilled water). Is it normal?
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The sensitivity of maize to salinity is associated with higher accretion of Na+ in the leaves (Fortmeier and Schubert 1995). A saline level of more than 0.25 M NaCl damages maize plants and may stunt growth and cause severe wilting (Menezes-Benavente et al. 2004).
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Almost all research reports which i ever seen work on Early mature embryo for Agrobacterium mediated maize transformation. In other grass families like rice, we can use mature seed and what do you think this will work in maize?
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I want to download chromosome wheat genome sequence v 4 from IWGSC website but can't find a way to do so. Secondly I want to perform BLAST search using GENEIOUS software can some1 suggest any other appropriate software to BLAST, in which I can compare genetic architecture of different Spp. (rice, maize, wheat, barley) ?
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Mirza Faisal Qaseem Thank you so much....
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Hi,
I am growing maize plants in lysimeter for my experiment. The medium for growth is sand mixed with organic matter and garden soil. The temperature of the region is 22 C/15 C, recently I observed some nutrient deficiency with the symptom of yellow lines and slow growth (image attached). Please help me to identify this nutrient deficiency.
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when my corn looks like that I calcium, magnesium and iron. Your soil looks "locked"
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internode length above the uppermost ear or leaf of the ear or below the ear and if yes, then between which numbers of leaves. Thanks in advance.
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Though I did not have any experimental data support, yet I assume that the internode just below and just above the uppermost ear node should be consider for determining diversity. Both internodes probably give better reflection on internodal diversity among the various genotypes.