Science topic

Lung Injury - Science topic

Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.
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Publications related to Lung Injury (10,000)
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Context Pterostilbene (PTE), a common polyphenol compound, exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in many diseases, including acute lung injury (ALI). Objective This study explores the potential mechanism of PTE pre-treatment against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Materials and methods Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control, ALI,...
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Context Lavender oil (Lav) from Lavandula angustifolia L. (Lamiacease) exhibits antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties against various diseases. Objective The study explores the effect of Lav pre-treatment on sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Materials and methods Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into Sham, caecal ligation and punc...
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Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening illness which may progress to chronic pulmonary fibrosis (CPF). Resveratrol (RSV), a natural polyphenol, is known to exert several pharmacological effects on lung injury. However, its physicochemical properties and pharmacokinetic profile limit its clinical applications. In this study, RSV was loaded in...
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Objectives Sevoflurane is identified as an effective candidate drug for acute lung injury (ALI) treatment, but its curing effects and detailed mechanisms have not been fully disclosed. The present study was designed to resolve this academic issue. Methods The ALI mice models were established, and Hematoxylin-eosin staining assay was performed to e...
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Context Acute lung injury (ALI) is a complex, severe inflammation disease with high mortality, and there is no specific and effective treatment for ALI. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan (QFXYW) has been widely used to treat lung-related diseases for centuries. Objective This study evaluates the potential effects and elucidates the therapeutic mechanism of QFXY...
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Objective: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common complication of heat stroke (HS) and a direct cause of death. However, the mechanism underlying ALI following HS remains unclear. Method: To investigate whether ferroptosis is involved in HS-ALI. We established a HS model of mice and mouse lung epithelial-2 cells (MLE-2). The severity of lung injury...
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Context Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a highly fatal, inflammatory condition of lungs with multiple causes. There is no adequate treatment. Objective Using the murine LPS-induced ARDS model, we investigate SPPCT-800 (a complex lipid) as treatment for ARDS. Materials and methods C57B16/N mice received 50 μg of Escherichia coli O111...
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Context Crocin has been reported to have multiple bioactivities. However, the effect of crocin administration on caecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis remains unknown. Objective We investigated the effects of crocin on CLP-induced sepsis in mice and the underlying mechanism of action. Materials and methods Five experimental groups (n...
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Background: Despite the great results of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, there is an increasing need for effective therapeutics. Increasing viral loads are associated with systemic inflammatory response, more disease progression, and increased mortality, while exaggerated immune responses result in immune overreaction and cytokine storm (CS)-induced acute...
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Smoke bombs are often used in military/fire training, which can produce a large amount of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) smoke. Inhalation of ZnCl2 smoke usually causes acute lung injury (ALI) that would likely develop to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is no effective prevention or treatment strategy for the smoke-induced ALI. Re...
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Context Acute lung injury (ALI) is a serious heterogenous pulmonary disorder. Fraxinol was selected for this study since it is a simple coumarin compound, not previously investigated in ALI. Objectives This study investigates the ALI therapeutic effect and mechanisms of fraxinol. Materials and methods Male BALB/c mice were treated with fraxinol (...
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Chronic exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) causes respiratory damage in humans owing to oxidative stress and inflammation. Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum (Maxim.) Kitamura (CZL) has been used in traditional medicine to treat several inflammatory diseases; however, studies on inflammatory pulmonary diseases are scarce. This...
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Malignant tumors, one of the worst-case scenarios within human health problems, are now posing an increasing threat to the well-being of the global population. At present, the treatment of malignant tumors mainly includes surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, etc. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are often applied to inoperable tumors, a...
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Background Acute lung injury (ALI) and its severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), are devastating clinical disorders with high mortality, and for which more effective therapies are urgently needed. FGF1, the prototype member of the FGF family, is shown to exert protective effects against injurious stimuli in multiple disease model...
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Infection with influenza A virus (IAV) can trigger pulmonary inflammation and lung damage. Osteopontin (OPN) is an essential regulator of cell death and immunity. However, the role and underlying mechanism of OPN in cell death in IAV-induced pulmonary injury remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that OPN-deficient (OPN −/− ) mice were ins...
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Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome, which is a more severe form of ALI, are life-threatening clinical syndromes observed in critically ill patients. Treatment methods to alleviate the pathogenesis of ALI have improved to a great extent at present. Although the efficacy of these therapies is limited, their relevance has...
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The significant mortality rate and prolonged ventilator days associated with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in patients with severe COVID-19 have incited a debate surrounding the use of noninvasive respiratory support (NIRS) (i.e., HFNC, CPAP, NIV) as a potential treatment strategy. Central to this debate is the role of NIRS in preventing in...
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Background Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is caused by stretch stimulation and other factors related to mechanical ventilation (MV). NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), an important innate immune component, is strongly associated with VILI. This study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanisms of aerobic exercise (EX) on VILI. Methods...
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Background Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In some patients with non-resolvable (NR) COVID-19, lung injury can progress rapidly to the point that lung transplantation is the only viable option for survival. This fatal progression of lung injury involves a rapid fibroprol...
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Background High airway driving pressure is associated with adverse outcomes in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation, but large multicentre studies investigating airway driving pressure during major surgery are lacking. We hypothesised that increased driving pressure is associated with postoperative pulmonary complications in pat...
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Second-generation COVID-19 vaccines could contribute to establish protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and its emerging variants. We developed COH04S1, a synthetic multiantigen modified vaccinia Ankara-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine that co-expresses spike and nucleocapsid antigens. Here, we report COH04S1 vaccine efficacy in animal models. We demonstr...
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The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening clinical condition. The number of ARDS cases has risen dramatically recently but specific treatment options are limited. ARDS is associated with an overshooting inflammatory response and neutrophils play a central role in its pathogenesis. Neutrophils express the integrin Mac-1 on...
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Background Neutrophils are the most abundant innate immune cells in the circulating blood, and they act as the first responder against bacterial and fungal infection. However, accumulation of activated neutrophils can cause severe inflammation and tissue damage. Recently, neutrophil trogocytosis or membrane transfer with neighboring cells was repor...
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Background SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Both clinical data and animal experiments suggest that the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2-induced ALI. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and a c...
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Diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage (DPH) is a common respiratory complication in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Our previous study found that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have an important role in SLE pathogenesis. In this study, we further examined the role of MDSCs in the DPH mice model. We first observed an increased pro...
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Relevance Studies have previously been published on a possible differential approach to respiratory therapy in patients with COVID-19 depending on the L- or H-phenotype. The authors believe that early tracheal intubation reduces the risk of lung injury. The use of deep sedation and low PEEP (6–8 cmH 2 O) and early intubation may prevent transition...
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Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common critical disease, which is characterized by an uncontrolled, acute inflammatory response, diffuse lung damage and ultimately directly deteriorates into acute respiratory distress syndrome. The number of pro-inflammatory macrophages is related to the severity of ALI. Up-regulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activ...
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Telocytes (TCs) are a type of interstitial cells with essential roles in regenerative medicine. TCs spatially exist in the stem cell niche and are considered a ‘stem cell helper cell’. Mesenchymal stromal cells therapy has been widely used in treating lung diseases, while there is increasing evidence from preclinical studies to show the beneficial...
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Objective: To report early outcome of mechanical ventilation in pediatric surgical patients. Study Design: Retrospective Analytical Cross-sectional study. Setting: Pediatric Surgical Intensive Unit, Mayo Hospital/ King Edward Medical University, Lahore. Period: January 2020 to December 2020. Material & Methods: The patients requiring mechanical ven...
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Introduction Survivors of viral ARDS are at risk of long-term physical, functional and neuropsychological complications resulting from the lung injury itself, but also from potential multiorgan dysfunction, and the long stay in the intensive care unit (ICU). Recovery profiles after severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in intensive care unit survivors have y...
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Background Acute lung injury (ALI) has received considerable attention in the field of intensive care as it is associated with a high mortality rate. Obacunone (OB), widely found in citrus fruits, is a natural bioactive compound with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, it is not clear whether OB protects against lipopolysaccharid...
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Background An abrupt lung deflation in rodents results in lung injury through vascular mechanisms. Ventilator disconnections during endo-tracheal suctioning in humans often cause cardio-respiratory instability. Whether repeated disconnections or lung deflations cause lung injury or oedema is not known and was tested here in a porcine large animal m...
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Background In late 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which is responsible for coronavirus disease (COVID-19), was identified as the new pathogen to lead pneumonia in Wuhan, China, which has spread all over the world and developed into a pandemic. Despite the over 1 year of pandemic, due to the lack of an effecti...
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Background: Excessive inspiratory effort could translate into self-inflicted lung injury, thus worsening clinical outcomes of spontaneously breathing patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Although esophageal manometry is a reliable method to estimate the magnitude of inspiratory effort, procedural issues significantly limit its use in dai...
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The lung is one of the most sensitive tissues to ionizing radiation, thus, radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) stays a key dose-limiting factor of thoracic radiotherapy. However, there is still little progress in the effective treatment of RILI. Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate1, Rac1, is a small guanosine triphosphatases involved in oxida...
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Background E-cigarettes are devices which allow to aerosolize liquids containing nicotine or other substances. Ever since they were released on the market in 2006, the number of users have been constantly increasing, especially among adolescents, ranging from 7,6% to 9,3% in the age group 18–24 years old from 2014 to 2019. Hand in hand with the spr...
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Background Uncontrolled inflammation is an important factor in the occurrence and development of acute lung injury (ALI). Fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14), a plasma membrane-anchored receptor, takes part in the pathological process of a variety of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the role of Fn14 in ALI has not yet been...
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Background Acute lung injury (ALI) is an acute multifactorial infectious disease induced by trauma, pneumonia, shock, and sepsis. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of pseudoephedrine and emodin combined treatment in experimental ALI, as well as the mechanisms underlying the regulation of inflammation and pulmonary edema via the...
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Background External chest-wall compression (ECC) is sometimes used in ARDS patients despite lack of evidence. It is currently unknown whether this practice has any clinical benefit in patients with COVID-19 ARDS (C-ARDS) characterized by a respiratory system compliance ( C rs ) < 35 mL/cmH 2 O. Objectives To test if an ECC with a 5 L-bag in low-co...
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Background Dyspnea is one of the common symptoms patients present to the emergency department (ED). The broad spectrum of differentials often requires laboratory and radiological testing in addition to clinical evaluation, causing unnecessary delay. Point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) has shown promising results in accurately diagnosing patients with...
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Background Respiratory pendelluft phenomenon, defined as intrapulmonary gas redistribution caused by asynchronous alveolar ventilation, could be potentially harmful by inducing lung injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate its prevalence and prognosis in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Method...
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Background Radiation-induced lung fibrosis (RILF) is a common complication of thoracic radiotherapy. Alveolar epithelial cells play a crucial role in lung fibrosis via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells own the beneficial properties to repair and regeneration of damaged tissues, however the underly...
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Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving technology, but it can also inadvertently induce lung injury and increase morbidity and mortality. Currently, there is no easy method of assessing the impact that ventilator settings have on the degree of lung inssflation. Computed tomography (CT), the gold standard for visually monitoring lung function, can...
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Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains the most common respiratory complication of prematurity as younger and smaller infants are surviving beyond the immediate neonatal period. The recognition that oxidative stress (OS) plays a key role in BPD pathogenesis has been widely accepted since at least the 1980s. In this article, we examine the interpl...
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Background Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) are clinical syndromes characterized by acute lung inflammation, pulmonary edema and hypoxemia, with up to 50% mortality rate without effective pharmacological therapy. Following the acute inflammation, repair and remodeling occurs which in some cases resulting in lung fibr...
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Acute lung injury (ALI) represents a frequent sepsis-induced inflammatory disorder. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) elicit anti-inflammatory effects in sepsis. This study investigated the mechanism of exosomes from adipose-derived MSCs (ADMSCs) in sepsis-induced ALI. The IL-27r −/− (WSX-1 knockout) or wild-type mouse model of sepsis was establishe...
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Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are relatively rare and sometimes become life threatening. In particular, rapidly progressive ILD, which frequently presents as acute lung injury (ALI) on lung histopathology, shows poor prognosis if proper and immediate treatments are not initiated. These devastating conditions include acute exacerbation of idiopat...
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Objective To examine whether supraphysiological oxygen administration during surgery is associated with lower or higher postoperative kidney, heart, and lung injury. Design Observational cohort study. Setting 42 medical centers across the United States participating in the Multicenter Perioperative Outcomes Group data registry. Participants Adul...
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The mitochondrial quality control of lung epithelial cells is disturbed during sepsis, which contributes to abnormal mitochondrial function and acute lung injury. Melatonin is one of the primary hormones secreted by the pineal gland, displaying favorable antioxidative actions in sepsis and cardiopulmonary disease. However, the potential roles and m...
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Background Acute lung injury (ALI) arises from sepsis or bacterial infection, which are life-threatening respiratory disorders that cause the leading cause of death worldwide. 5-Methoxyflavone, a methylated flavonoid, is gaining increased attention for its various health benefits. In the current study, we investigated the potential effects of 5-met...
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Background Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of respiratory failure in critically ill patients that results in significant morbidity and mortality. Recent studies indicate that cell-based therapies may be beneficial in the treatment of ALI. We recently demonstrated that Nrf2-overexpressing human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) reduc...
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Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic progressive lung disease that steadily leads to lung architecture disruption and respiratory failure. The development of pulmonary fibrosis is mostly the result of previous acute lung inflammation, caused by a wide variety of etiological factors, not resolved over time and causing the deposition of fibrotic tissue in...
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Abstract Acute lung injury is an inflammation that triggers acute respiratory distress syndrome with perialveolar neutrophil infiltration, alveolar-capillary barrier damage, and lung edema. Activation of the toll-like receptor 4 complex (TLR4/MD2) and its downstream signaling pathways are responsible for the cytokine storm and cause alveolar damage...
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Necroptosis is the major cause of death in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) during acute lung injury (ALI). Here, we report a previously unrecognized mechanism for necroptosis. We found an accumulation of mitochondrial citrate (citrate mt ) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated AECs because of the downregulation of Idh3α and citrate carrier (CIC, als...