Science topic

Lung Diseases - Science topic

Lung Diseases are pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Questions related to Lung Diseases
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
2 answers
I am doing my thesis paper on the Assessing hospital acquired infections (HAI) based on problem solving framework, is there any articles and sources that could help me with in the literature review regarding its- key determinants,prevention, specific recommendations...... 
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
2 answers
want to do some research work
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, one of the manifestation of the disease involves lungs. and long term complication also involves changes in lungs. it is definitely a pulmonary disease. though it involves other organs also, extent of pathologies of other organs are yet to completely documented.
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
3 answers
In a patient undergoing corticosteroid treatment
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you so much Wojciech Feleszko and Jigneshkumar Parmar
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
1 answer
Hi!
I am researching the function of neutrophil elastase in lung diseases such as the ARDS. But I cannot find any information or papers to look into the expression of mRNA level of the neutrophil elastase from the bone marrow derived neutrophil. If you have done the tests, can you let me know what and how much stimulator would be used for the nutrophil to express the mRNA of neutrophil elastase?
Thank you!
Relevant answer
Answer
I cannot help. I deal only with skin and local pain without AINS treatment
JEAN
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
3 answers
We need CT scan images of lung diseases like bronchitis,emphysema, pleural
effusion and normal lung
Relevant answer
Answer
ou can find some CT examples with nodules and normal occurences
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
6 answers
Please colleagues
Can you help me in getting a recent published references state how the occurrence of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) differ according to gender?
Regards;
Hussein Abid
Relevant answer
Answer
I think that women are more than men for exposure to COPD.
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
2 answers
Carbon is one of the common air pollutants. Burning of fossil fuel generates carbon pollution. Carbon pollution in turn triggers bouts of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, type II diabetes, dementia etc. To reduce the burden of these said ailments we need to reduce the use of fossil fuels. What could be the fuel sources alternative to fossil fuels? What measures could be taken to reduce air pollution from burning fossil fuels?
Relevant answer
Answer
The main alternatives energy sources to the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation are:
a) Renewables;
b) Nuclear energy.
However, not all countries are ready to replace the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation with the use of renewables and nuclear energy altogether. Renewable energy sources are unstable, such as solar and wind power; both types of renewables depend on climate conditions. Some others are not available in the country such as geothermal or their presence is not strong enough to represent a real alternative to the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation such as hydropower.
The use of nuclear energy for electricity generation is not a cheap option, and many countries have not adequate infrastructure and the qualified workforce to use this type of energy source for electricity generation.
For this reason, a country should study all types of energy sources available in the country very carefully and select the most economical and clean combination of energy sources to build its energy matrix.
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
13 answers
As we all know we aave so many different modes of ventilators, you can use different modes for different patients and lung diseases to have better patient ventilator synchrony and better outcomes. But in general which mode do you prefer ?
Relevant answer
Answer
In continuation: I do like PAV+ (similar capability in othe ICU vents), dfor patients that can control thier ABG needs. It provides very useful in formation on compliance, resistance, intrinsic PEEP diaphragmatic loading etc. However, once you have this data the bedside clinican needs to synthesiize the best short term support and long term weaning plan for this patients evolving pulmonary support needs. THis includes anticipating mitigating and reacting to the evolving pathologies and responces to treatments. This becomes all inclusive in the analysis and potential postive patient outcome while the antithesis also is true.
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
7 answers
WHO and Global Burden of Disease have data with five years of interval, however, I am looking for country wide annual data (at least from 2000 to 2015). If someone know the source of data bank please let me know. I appreciate your assistance.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you very very much Sir, this link worked.
I was unable to download the annual data from WHO's data bank.
Thank you again.
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
3 answers
What is the cellular composition of a lung biopsy and does it depend on a biopsy method?
Relevant answer
mostly alveolar macrophages.. Alveolar epithelium. Lymphocytes. In addition to another cells according to the pathology
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
7 answers
I'd like to know if there are studies about mitigation of lung diseases asociated to anaerobic digestion technologies.
Relevant answer
Answer
Prevention is better than cure and here the role of Environmental Scientists/managers to prevent the health hazards by introducing the appropriate technologies for cleanup. By this way Anaerobic digestion is helpful for decontaminating the environment and breaking the chain of disease. Conclusively it will help to minimize the risk of disease. I am also curious about to know if any other direct linkage in between.
Thanks and regards
Dr Shankhwar
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
3 answers
I am looking for normal lung cell lines, and will pay shipment costs if someone is able to send them.
The aim is to use normal lung as control for small cell lung cancer. Does anyone know about better controls for SCLC? According to literature the SCLC cells origin is not known for sure (maybe not epithelial cell origin)
Thanks for your help!
Relevant answer
Answer
Maybe L132 and MRC-5....
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
7 answers
I'm having an hard time trying to evaluate diagnostic concordance between lung biopsy histology reports and radiological findings (CT scan or XRay).. Do you know of anyone that has performed this comparison in children?
If not, how would you proceed?
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
1 answer
As we know, pyocyanin is a redox active virulence factor of PA. It is a highly diffusable compound, but does it enter blood circulation from the site of infection?
Relevant answer
Answer
It may it is highly diffusible and if the patient survives long enough. The patient may suffocate due to poor lung function from chronic lung infection and worse lung function by lower expiratory volume. It may only be possible in acute infection because biofilm infection may not produce as much as 100uM needed for the blue tinge of the sputum. 
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
2 answers
Hi, I am planning to isolate single cells from human lung tumour tissue. I am wondering what is the best way to enzymatically degrade the tissue to isolate MOST of the cells (since the population of interest is very rare and I want to avoid false negatives when I do FACS analysis). I came across multiple collagenase cocktails which have been reported in literature, but not sure which is the best way forward. Which is the best collagenase to work with?
Any leads would be appreciated. I don't want to optimise too much since these are precious patient samples. Thank you! :)
Relevant answer
Answer
You can digest tissue in RPMI-1640 (2-3% serum) containing 0.8mg/ml Dispase and 0.2mg/ml Collagenase P (Roche). Tubes should be incubated at 37˚C in a water bath or incubator and gently invert at 5-10 min intervals to ensure the
contents are well-mixed. After 30 min,gently collect the cells in another tube and add the fresh media with collagenase and dispase. Total process will take around 60 min. Centrifuge the cells and plate them in fresh media.
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
1 answer
I am trying to extrapolate airway surface liquid concentrations from BAL concentrations. If anyone can help me with this with appropriate references?
Relevant answer
Answer
this is very important question even for me also. i insert 1.5 mL of PBS in a mice for BALF and i get average protein concentrion is 0.2 to 0.8 mg/mL. since in real time the total volume of surfactant of lungs would be less then 100 uL (cant say exactly) and we collect 1 to 1.5 mL total wash. so i am too waiting for answer of this question
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
4 answers
Hello All,
I am pretty new to the lung field and also lipid biology.  I am working on a project where I have a mouse model where lung function is perturbed.  I am looking at some surfactant proteins and prelim data shows less expression of Surfactant protein B.
My main question is now is surfactant composition different between wt vs mutant?  also is there just less surfactant produced in mutant?
Do you guys think its best to do mass spec for phosophoplids? what is the standard for the field?  BAL fluid analysis ? any suggested papers or advice would be fantastic.  
Thanks all
Relevant answer
Answer
LC-MS
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
2 answers
Can anyone advise me on an efficient tool to make broncho alveolar lavage on rats? I usually do it on mice with a catheter, but I would like to do the same on rats and I don't know which tool pick and which size?
Thanks a lot for your answers
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
9 answers
A 58 years old male presented with history of right sided chest pain and cough 2 years ago with CT Attached(1). CT guided taken outside our hospital with pathology suggestive of adenocarcinoma lung. Slide review done on our centre rejected this diagnosis and said that there are no malignant cells. Repeated CT and CT guided biopsies 4 times were not diagnostic but only necrotic tissues. Attached here is the last CT.(2-3). During these 2 years duration of hesitations, 2nd and 3rd opinions , he was complicated with right sided empyema and septic shock complicated by acute renal failure that mandated CRRT for 3 months. Now renal functions are normal. He is asking for help and not hesitant as before. What can we do for this patient as we have 3 options; 1st just VATS biopsy and that set. 2 nd is open biopsy only. My impression is thoracotomy exploration, biopsy, excision of this right lung mass through right upper lobectomy, bilobectomy or even pneumonectomy or sleeve resection,
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi
Great case.
It all depends on the resources you have. On the second image you show us, it looks like there is an airway adjacent to the mass. I would probably attempt EBUS with TBNA and have rapid on-site pathological evaluation, if available.
If surgery is more readily available than bronchoscopy, I would do PET/CT scan followed by surgery if FGD avidity is high. 
It doesn't look like VATS would be of high yield here. 
Hope it helps!
Keep us posted about the results.
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
2 answers
use of glucocorticoids in bpd 
Relevant answer
Answer
The AAP is not recommending steroid use to prevent BPD. The general agreement is late use of steroid may help to extubate premature infants on ventilator. You can look into DART protocol and some of my colleagues are very into using low dose hydrocortisone for that purpose.
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
5 answers
Co-morbidities in COPD patients can mimic the typical symptoms which define an exacerbation of COPD - what if the worsening dyspnea is due to congestive heart failure? Would systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics be the appropriate treatment? Obviously not...
Relevant answer
Answer
In the Netherlands we have widely implemented the term Lung Attack about 3 years ago (in a campaign from the Dutch Lung Foundation) and has landed quite well (until then there was not an widely accepted alternative to the complex term 'exacerbation'). It somehow emphasizes the severity of these events in terms of it's impact on mortality (which is worse compared to cardiac failure/hear attack), accelerated lung function decline and quality of life. Another advantage is that it underlines the acuteness of these events. 
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
3 answers
I am looking for a collaborator in Indonesia who is interested in immune responses to viral respiratory infections and looking at intervention trials in the area of antioxidants and reducing effects on childhood lung disease.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Collegue
I have colleague ... Dr  Rina Triasih Indonesian Pediatricians from Universitas Gadjah Mada .. PhD graduate from Melbourne University and published many international publication. If you need more information about her I will give you further contact information
Best wishes
Awalia Febriana 
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
3 answers
  • Bacterial and Viral lung infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitals as well as community. With neutropenic patients on a raise ..some fungal infections are also increasingly observed.
  • If we can have a/or some biomarkers to differentiate bacterial compared to viral and or fungal infections it will be useful in addressing the problem on early stage itself.
  • Are there any biomarkers available to differentiate bacterial infections from viral as well as from fungal and or parasitic infections that are available and in use or in research??
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
1 answer
Is there any other reference you suggest? I found this:
Paediatr Drugs. 2005;7(6):353-63.
Leukotriene receptor antagonists in children with cystic fibrosis lung disease : anti-inflammatory and clinical effects.
Schmitt-Grohé S1, Zielen S.
Relevant answer
Answer
As CF is caused by a mutation in the CFTR I don't see a role for LT in the disease.  My thoughts would be that because of the insussipation of mucus agents to help clear and thin the mucus plus a bronchodilator would be about the best course to help with the cough.  Remember that as the LIR become activated by the eventual narrowing and mucus accumulation they will add to the cough.  Using a beta agonist to open the airways as much as possible under these conditions will help to reduce the LIR activation and there fore the cough.  Frustrating as it is, I don't see that a LT antagonist would help.  If you were to try one (singular presumably) you may be served by looking for LT metabolites in urine first to assure that there is in fact a LT component to what you are trying to treat. 
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
12 answers
Lung injury is the primary result of inhalation of chemical toxic material, however it is not always just because of inhalation route. As in the case of paraquat, a defoliate agent (herbicide) exposed to person through whatever route definitely it more affects lungs rather then other organ, why? Might it be structural similarity? Another case is in lipopolysacharide (LPS), where animal models get acute lung injury just after of intraperitoneal injection of LPS . Why it is so? Why do all these toxins not get metabolized in liver or blood (pass metabolism), and why are only lungs the primary target of such chemical toxin? Is it the physiological and structural condition of pulmonary system so that it favours the accumulation of such toxins? 
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, trans-dermal! years ago, dermatologist Dr Don Rosenthal and I published a case report in which a 30+ year old farmers wife had mixed a herbicide (Paraquat) to spray their fruit trees. She did not take the advised precautions to wear a total covering. She had a scratch on her forearm prior to mixing the Paraquat which subsequently became necrotic and she simultaneously, over about 2-3 weeks developed respiratory failure due to a rapidly developing neutrophilic inflammatory response and ARDS from which she died in about 3 weeks. Since her husband did the spraying her only exposure was dermal!
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
3 answers
What are the DPLDs which increase lung volume rather than decreasing it?
Relevant answer
Answer
ILD with preserved or increased lung volumes 
lymphangioleiomyomatosis,
pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis
some sarcoid patients
concomitant emphysema or asthma.if ILD develops in a patient with significant emphysema,
combined pulmonary fibrosis emphysema symdrome
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
1 answer
I am looking at the ALung, Respiratory Dialysis for a minimally invasive approach to extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO₂R) for patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure.
Are there any members that can share their experiences of using this machine with us, also, if so, are there are potential complications with this therapy, and what types of patients (conditions) that this therapy best suits?
Also, has it shown to be cost effective, and reduce the inpatient time and mortality rates?
Any information would be gratefully accepted.
Relevant answer
Answer
No
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
9 answers
I want to know if anyone knows a software that can help me to estimate number of lesions or classify the pathology find on pictures (regular camera) taken from fresh lungs at the time of necropsy. I want to classify pathology by another method that is not empirical (human eyes).
Relevant answer
Answer
I need to strongly second the statements of Jean-Martin as regards this and emphasize that unless you do histopathological analysis of at least some of your gross lesions your results will be dubious at best. With proper experimental planning and knowledge of the disease distribution in the lung lobes (particularly possible in the case of widely disseminated or multifocal patterns) you can designate a lung lobe consistently for pathology.  You then tie it off and formalin fix it separately. This leaves the other lobes for use in other analyses. This is done regularly for ferrets and even mice so certainly might be done for rabbits.  Then you can do gross/histo correlates for every animal in your study. 
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
4 answers
Practically I find these clinical methods are subjective and non-contributory.
Relevant answer
Answer
De acuerdo con los compañeros anteriores.
Pero hay que conocer la practica de la percusion.
No para pacientes obesos o con gran enfisema subcutaneo.La auscultacion sin fonendoscopio utilizando el oido puede ser util ante un accidente en carretera o incluso en puertas de urgencias de un Hospital.A veces no hay tiempo para llevar el paciente  a diagnostico por la imagen.El neumotorax hipertensivo requiere una rapida actuacion.Sobre todo si hay que intubar al paciente que agravara la hipertension.
Recordar que con una radiografia en bipedestacion al acostar al enfermo ,la patologia pleural cambia.Yo siempre practico la percusion en estos casos.
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
6 answers
Observing a very frothy white layer on a bronchoalveolar fluid obtained with a very  good yield (155/200ml) prompted me to measure both the albumin and protein content of this fluid. The beer-like appearance reminded me of dissolving human albumin some years backi in a lab experiment. The concentrations obtained were very low (measured with the technique used for detection of microproteinuria...).
Protein 0.132 g/L and albumin 11.2mg/L. So far I have not found reference values for these findings.
Anyone aware of the normal range of protein and albumin content in BAL fluid?
Is the froth related to the yield rather than to an increased protein content?
Relevant answer
Answer
READ ABOUT THE UREA METHOD...
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
4 answers
I am an undergraduate student. I'm doing a cross-sectional study on incense burning (exposure: yes/ no) and lung function (continuous data: FVC&FVE1). I can't find any previous studies so how should I calculate sample size or power?
Relevant answer
Answer
Sounds like a good first approximation would be to look at the literature on lung function of people smoking cigarettes. I might suspect that incense might be more like second-hand smoke exposure, so the effect will be less than for someone who is smoking. I would therefore try and increase my sample size.
Search the internet for sample size calculators, and you can find many. They generally assume your sample is from a population that is normally distributed. They also require information that you don't have -- though you could use smoking studies here too.
Talk to a graduate student or instructor in the Statistics department. They should be able to help you avoid some of the more common problems. How you define your population, and how you sample that population can cause as many problems as having too few samples.
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
3 answers
Had a patient with persistent lung shadows with worsening respiratory distress despite regular haemodyalysis and broad spectrum antibiotics!
Relevant answer
Answer
Do fully agree. In itself ILD as a side effect of cyclophosphamide is very rare. So, do exclude other causes that may be related to the development of ILD in this patient. Might it be related to the underlying disease for which you gave the cyclo; and, of course do exclude (opportunistic; PJP) infection.
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
2 answers
what is the role of echinocandins in disseminated histoplasmosis?
Relevant answer
Answer
i think this study will help
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
8 answers
Is Pseudomonas colonization a contraindication for BLVR with EBV if there is minimal secretions/sputum production?
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes: An endobronchial foreign body may lead to a post obstructive pneumonia which a pt with severe COPD may not tolerate it well. The device is expensive and should not be placed with an intention to remove it if the patinet develop infection. Besides, these patients are also on ICS, that furtehr increses the risk of infections. If you have not been able to irradicate this organism, likely it is multidrug resistant. Agree with use of inhaled aminoglycosides.
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
7 answers
Hello friends, I want to design my study on anthracosis, a chronic lung disease characterized by the deposit of coal dust in the lungs and by the formation of black nodules on the bronchioles, resulting in focal emphysema. My patient samples will be taken through bronchoscopy from lung tissue. But I wanted to ask how to provide control groups regarding medical ethics? How can I compare my results if I would not have the control negative group?
Relevant answer
Answer
Recruitment of volunteers may be very ethical but a control group thus formed may be quite inadequate in the framework of a particular study. I still believe that one should, first of all,  think about characteristics which must be equal in the groups to be compared.. As to the ethics, the first question is whether the new  knowlege you hope to obtain is worth invasive tests at all.
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
5 answers
In 49 years old woman with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, radiologically suggested, we prescribed 2 weeks of prednisolne, 30mg (0.5mg/Kg). Her chief compains were dry cough with no exertional dyspnea. Chest CT scan showed bilateral consolidation in mainly both lower lung zone. After taking 2-3 weeks of steroid, her symptoms and radiologic finding were improved minimally. So, prednisolone were tapered gradually for a month. However, her F/U chest CT scan showed only minimal improvement after tapering of prednisolne. Her symptom were improved. Should we restart oral steroid with increasing dose or watch and wait?.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you for your useful comments
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
3 answers
Some drugs are oil soluble, could these oleates be nebulized and taken as aerosols. What are the limitations and risks of these type of formulations.
Relevant answer
Answer
Simple answer YES. See for instance:
Aerosol drug delivery: developments in device design and clinical use
Dolovic at al
The Lancet, Volume 377, Issue 9770, Pages 1032 - 1045, 19 March 2011 
Sometimes this type of drug application is not very effective due to large losses in the aerosol inhalation
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
1 answer
In some patients with MAC lung disease, patients do not want to receive SM or KM in the initial phase of treatment. I feel that among these patients, some of them suffered from treatment failure. Should all patient with MAC lung disease receive injectable agent?
Relevant answer
Answer
MAC lung disease can be difficult to treat and can have difficult to tolerate side effects.  Having said this, most experts in this area do not start with injectable agents.  For MAC lung disease a typical regimen would include a macrolide, rifampin and a fluoroquinolone or ethambutol 3x per week (daily if severe or cavitary disease).  Injectable agents are generally reserved for severe cases that are resistant to oral therapy or have become complicated (extensive pleural disease for example).
The goal is to continue therapy for at least 12 months after the last negative sputum culture, and patients need to understand that prolonged therapy is essential.  In many patients, achieving a cure may not be realistic and it may be necessary to treat to achieve control rather than cure.  You will find the ATS guidelines for non tuberculous mycobacterial lung disease useful:
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
6 answers
Better still if the agent were capable of re-activating herpes viruses.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Hassan,
Many thanks for this answer. Attached is a link to the paper which was eventually published. http://www.hcaf.biz/2014/Respiratory_CMV.pdf
Any thoughts welcome.
Cheers
Rod
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
7 answers
The patient is an adult 66 years old with history of CABG and angioplasties (renal and carotid) with mild Pulmonary arterial hypertension. Edema present in both ankles and feet.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Priya, this patient has most likely "Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease" not "Pulmonary arterial hypertension". This differentiation is key, because treatment is completely different for these two types of PH. How high is mPAWP or LVEDP in your patient? How high is the gradient between diastolic PA pressure and mPAWP? In case of high mPAWP heart failure medication is recommended (optimisation of LV function). There is no robust data that supports the use of Sildenafil in such patients.
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
4 answers
The MIST-2 trial showed that intrapleural TPA and DNAse for effusions that did not adequately clear with drainage/flushing alone reduces morbidity and surgical referral compared with placebo or fibrinolytics alone. Few of their patients were mechanically ventilated, although Mayo et al. and Sahn et al have shown that thoracentesis/chest drain insertion is not as dangerous as perhaps thought (when ultrasound is used), with complications occurring in ~1%. Bleeding did occur in a few patients with fibrinolytics.
Prompt sampling of fluid, drainage if there is evidence of pleural infection (as per BTS guidelines), and intrapleural TPA/DNAse may prevent the need for surgery and reduce the risk of death and morbidity. This needs to be tested in the ICU setting where coagulation is of even greater relevance. My question is would you allow your patient in the ICU with pleural infection to be randomised to either the above (medical) strategy or surgery (VATS/decortication)? Or do you believe surgery must always be the better option in the critically ill?
Relevant answer
Answer
My approach is simple: if the pleural effusion is simple and can be easily drain I prefer  medical therapy + chest tube drainage. However, if effusion is complicated or loculated  I prefer VATS. I may consider DNAase/fibrinolytic over surgery if patient is on mechanical ventilator with moderate to high settings  or hemodynamically unstable. 
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
1 answer
Does anyone have a hint how to get hands on murine alveolar epithelial cells of type I? Preferable a protocol for a primary cell isolation but also comments on potential cell line are very welcome.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Mike
Please a recent article that uses murine alveolar type I cell line.
J Gen Virol. 2014 Feb;95(Pt 2):350-62. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.058438-0. Epub 2013 Nov 16.
Characterization of innate responses to influenza virus infection in a novel lung type I epithelial cell model.
Rosenberger CM1, Podyminogin RL, Askovich PS, Navarro G, Kaiser SM, Sanders CJ, McClaren JL, Tam VC, Dash P, Noonan JG, Jones BG, Surman SL, Peschon JJ, Diercks AH, Hurwitz JL, Doherty PC, Thomas PG, Aderem A.
Author information
1Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, 307 Westlake Avenue North, Suite 500, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.
Abstract
Type I alveolar epithelial cells are a replicative niche for influenza in vivo, yet their response to infection is not fully understood. To better characterize their cellular responses, we have created an immortalized murine lung epithelial type I cell line (LET1). These cells support spreading influenza virus infection in the absence of exogenous protease and thus permit simultaneous analysis of viral replication dynamics and host cell responses. LET1 cells can be productively infected with human, swine and mouse-adapted strains of influenza virus and exhibit expression of an antiviral transcriptional programme and robust cytokine secretion. We characterized influenza virus replication dynamics and host responses of lung type I epithelial cells and identified the capacity of epithelial cell-derived type I IFN to regulate specific modules of antiviral effectors to establish an effective antiviral state. Together, our results indicate that the type I epithelial cell can play a major role in restricting influenza virus infection without contribution from the haematopoietic compartmen
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
6 answers
Granulomas are found in Tuberculosis but I want to know whether caseous, fibrotic and non caseating granulomas indicates different disease condition or all of them are found in a single patient.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes. All types of granuloma can be found in a single patient.
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
8 answers
For an example, I want to study rs2910164 in Indian NSCLC patients. How do I calculate the desired sample size to get a significant power in the study?
Relevant answer
Answer
Sample size estimates are not trivial. One can easily use any number of statistical software packages (PASS, SAS, CreoStat, et al.), but these can be "dangerous" in the hands of a novice who does not understand the underlying assumptions/calculations. I would suggest either of 2 options: (1) contact a statistician to help, or (2) spend a few days going through the text by S C Chow et al (2008) "Sample size calculations in clinical research" Chapman and Hall. This book is very helpful both in explaining the process, but also has extremely useful tabulated results that might actually spare you from doing the calculation by hand or with software.
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
18 answers
What is the recent formula that can be used for calculation of lung age in smoking and non smoking people?
Relevant answer
Answer
The original paper from Morris & Temple Preventive Medicine 1985 vol 14 pg 655- 662 compared different methods but the authors suggested that the formula based on FEV1 was superior.
Lung age = (2,87x height in inches) - (31,25 x observed FEV1) - 39,375
But Vito has a valid point….
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
3 answers
Relevant answer
Answer
Seyed es mi opinión.
En patología maligna pienso que no hacemos favor al paciente. Si la carcinomatosis es muy avanzada. Si no es muy avanzada indicaría la fenestración pericardica en la pericarditis constrictiva sin pleuritis constrictiva. Si la hay practicar drenaje anterior o contralateral.
En patología benigna en el paciente joven siempre cirugía. En el paciente adulto la pericardiectomía total o parcial si compromete la vida del paciente.
Siempre valorar en ambos casos individualizando al paciente.
Me alegro de conocerte.
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
6 answers
If you can choose, what would you prefer (IOS vs Spirometry)? I know the best is to do with both, but with your experiences what is your first choice?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Marko you can download my full paper on my profile... If you have some comments, be free to send it...
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
5 answers
I'm staining frozen sections of the human lung and would need a good marker to identify epithelial cells in immunofluorescence. EpCAM apparently is not expressed enough in the airway epithelium, what could I use instead?
Relevant answer
Answer
What type of cells you want to identify?
a cytokeratin 19 antibody is a good marker for bronchial cells.
DClamp allows to visualize all type II pneumocytes.
Regarding the dendritic cells, there are several markers specific for each family of DC:
Langerin or ASGPR for the epithelial tissue.
DCsign or MR, for the alveolar tissue.
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
34 answers
In some instances, the underlying cause of acute respiratory failure can not be identified using laboratory, radiological and minimally invasive diagnostic procedures (including bronchoscopic BAL). Do you at all consider surgical lung biopsy a useful option in this situation? And if so, what is your trigger to request a biopsy? What are your contraindications?
Relevant answer
Answer
In our institutional experience, when the biopsy is done for a patient who is in an outpatient setting it usually provides useful information and a therapeutic change for over 50% of the patients. For critically ill and mechanically ventilated patients that require high PEEP and FiO2, perhaps it is too late and surgical intervention not only adds insult to injury but also doesnt change much in terms of therapy. Our mortality rate for outpatients is 0% and for ICU patients jumps to 45%.
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
2 answers
I need to segment the 3D vessels of the lung in HR-CT data to analyze ILD disease.
Best method for tree vessel detection after Identification and segmentation lung detection, because, I have not enough slices.
Relevant answer
Answer
Commonly used algorithms are using center line detection methods and reorientation along that center line in order to initialize segmentation algorithms, such as
E.Ukwatta et al. "Joint Segmentation of 3D Femoral Lumen and Outer Wall Surfaces from MR Images" MICCAI 2013. 534-541.
I've seen something nice at CVPR this year, that could work well too: Zhu et al. "Graph-Based Optimization with Tubularity Markov Tree for 3D Vessel Segmentation" CVPR 2013.
Other than that you can always apply a Frangi vesselness filter and threshold the probabilistic result with an easy matlab script. The filter can be found on Matlab central. Hope that helps! Good luck!
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
2 answers
As we want to look for inhaled materials in the lungs, we don't want to use instilled fixatives, which could move the material to other compartments. Is it possible to keep the lung structure in this way? Or do you have any other suggestions?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks, Monika. Do you know if Cryomatrix is any different from e.g. formalin for this type of preservation? I reformulated the question to reflect the potential problem of not wanting to instil any fixative into the lungs. BR, Jitka
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
6 answers
Do we do CPT for a patient with a moderate pleural effusion
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Sheila
As a part of CPT we manage and treat not only the disease itself but its clinical consequences as well.
One of the consequences of pleural effusion is lung volume reduction which could couse ventilation-perfusion mismach, hypoxemia and increasd work of breathing.
It means that Pleural effusion by itself is not an absolute CI
But several PT interventions may be contraidicated in case of Pleural effusion.
Some possible interventions that can improve ventilation-perfusion ratio are positioning: side lying (abdomen free) with unaffected lung down, modalities to decrease stress and WOB (music, massage, , appropriated breathing pattern) , and maintain the general mobility.
You can find some suggestions for treatment in the following textbooks:
1. Physiotherapy in respiratory care (by Alex Hough)
2. Emergency physiotherapy (edited by Beverly Harden)
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
6 answers
Can anyone tell me why the chronic HDM mouse model for allergic airway disease (HDM exposure intranasal 5 days/week, for 5 or 7 weeks) doesn’t need the inhalation provocation like acute OVA mouse model (OVA sensitisation intraperitoneal day 0, 7, 14, and OVA inhalation provocation on day 27, 28, 29)?
Relevant answer
Answer
First, let me declare a potential conflict: our company Indoor Biotechnologies manufactures purified natural and recombinant allergens. However, since my days in academia (University of Virginia), we have long held the view that there are flaws in both OVA and HDM models of asthma. OVA is a relatively minor food allergen and has been used mainly because it is inexpensive and readily available. Use of OVA is fundamentally no different from using other model protein antigens, such as lysozyme. HDM models are a step up, but the problem here is that the HDM used by different groups is not standardized, and even if standardized HDM is used, there is often little evidence that the inflammatory responses generated are actually caused by mite allergens, rather than other antigens and biologics in HDM extract. If one follows the logic of using HDM, then egg extract should be used instead of OVA!
So my advice to Duc is to think carefully about the consequences of using either of these antigens. Models using HDM, need to evaluate antibody and cellular responses to the major allergens, e.g. Der p 1, Der p 2 and others, as well as consider the potential role of endotoxin, chitin and other potential adjuvants in HDM extracts, if they are to pinpoint the mechanisms of allergic inflammation and AHR.
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
2 answers
From the abstract, lobar analysis on extent (on a six-point scale) of emphysema, the presence of bronchiectasis, airway wall thickening, and tracheal abnormalities on volumetric CT images was done by thoracic radiologists. So the extent of the abnormality at each lobar level will range from 0 to 6, right? Next, the extent of emphysema, airway wall thickening, and luminal area were quantified at the lobar level by using commercial software. Does this mean the sum of the extent of 0-6 at each level is used to quantify the extent of the feature/abnormalities at the lobar level? If not, what is the variable used to combine the extent (0-6) that has been analyzed by the radiologist for quantification at lobar level. Also, what is the commercial software used to get the value, and do you use the term score to refer to the extent of the features,i.e emphysema, airway wall thickening and etc.?
Relevant answer
Answer
No, the amount of emphysema is based on the attenuation of the xray beam as it passes through the lung. If the collimation gives slices more than 1 mm thick, then the number in Hounsfield units should be more than -950 HU, the standard amount for today's high resolution scans. If you are using, say, scans of 2.5 to 5 mm in thickness, for example, a cutoff of -910 to -920 HU would be better. As you can see, it is a little arbitrary! I think the commercial software, such as Vida, is set up for -950 HU.
Airway dimensions, thickness and lumen size, are tricky, since they depend on the size of the airway normally. The right way to do it, and the most tedious, is to make several observations and plot them in the form of percent of the airway wall area or the square root of the airway wall area (but not mixed up!) against the length of the internal perimeter of the airway where it was measured, making sure that the plotted values are spread out a bit. Of course, you calculate these measurements from your actual measurement of the diameter of the airway itself and its lumen. An arbitrary value of this perimeter (iP=10 mm) is what is usually reported, so it must lie on the plot as well. And that is the number that explains airway wall thickness. I have no idea what commercial software does here, since my experience is with a home-grown program. I am not familiar with the 0-6 method of grading, though it is as good as any.
A new idea is that of air trapping, as opposed to emphysema alone. Certainly emphysema causes air trapping, but many cases with significant airway problems have no emphysema, How this is to be measured is still under debate and study. For example, does an increase in small airway wall thickness account for air trapping? It usually requires an expiratory CT scan and careful observation of the lungs for irregular air trapping, or a mosaic pattern. Quantification is much debated.
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
9 answers
ACE II catalyzes the conversion of decapeptide angiotensin I to octapeptide angiotensin II.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Araz,
the pulmonary endothelium is known to be the main source of circulating ACE in the body. Main work in this field has been scientifically done by Sergeij Danilov and his group. However most of his work is on ACE I.
some papers:
Heterogeneous distribution of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (CD143) in the human and rat vascular systems: vessel, organ and species specificity.
Metzger R, Franke FE, Bohle RM, Alhenc-Gelas F, Danilov SM.
Microvasc Res. 2011 Mar;81(2):206-15. doi: 10.1016/j.mvr.2010.12.003. Epub 2010 Dec 16.
There is a work in mice which says that ACE II was primarily epithelial in the lung however:
Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 is primarily epithelial and is developmentally regulated in the mouse lung.
Wiener RS, Cao YX, Hinds A, Ramirez MI, Williams MC.
J Cell Biochem. 2007 Aug 1;101(5):1278-91.
best wishes
Kai
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
7 answers
I am working in a city in the south-east of Iran,where the prevalence and incidence of TB is higher than other parts of Iran. Here, my colleagues and I are faced with patients with MDR-TB and pre-XDR-TB.
Relevant answer
Answer
One of the resources most used by US physicains can be found at the following link. It will go far to helping with an approach to your patients and which medications are effective:
  • asked a question related to Lung Diseases
Question
2 answers
Collodial carbon that goes to the lungs
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks a lot! This reference will really help to find the right product!!