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# Logic Programming - Science topic

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Questions related to Logic Programming

I would like to ask what is the best (the most simple) way to implement a deductive system based on non-monotonic logic (example: can we do this using PROLOG)?

Thanks in advance!

Many approaches propose combined alternatives in this sense. For instance, using logic programing (Prolog), rough sets, and other more joined with models. However, it would be interesting to understand more practical strategies that promote a way of extracting the rules of inferences produced in the tree-based models.

I am not expert in logic, but I am wondering whether ASP could be a good instrument to face and solve Temporal Logic problems. In many examples I have seen ASP applied to first-order logic... is this extension to the temporal dimension possible?

I want to know what is the logic programming and how can combine the characteristics of the logic programming with the constraint satisfaction in any combinatorial problem

Looking for a programming language that can handle Belnap (four valued) logic.

Do Xilinx Contraints differ from family to family?

means vertex 5 to vertex 7

I have been developing the first-order reasoner RACE [1] for Attempto Controlled English ACE [2] that allows users to check the consistency of a set of ACE axioms, to deduce ACE theorems from ACE axioms and to answer ACE queries from ACE axioms.

RACE uses a set of auxiliary axioms to express context-independent knowledge like the relation between plural nouns and singular nouns, or the ordering relations of natural numbers. These auxiliary axioms are written in Prolog that – having the power of the Turing machine – allows us to practically do any deduction. Thus often the question is not "Is this deduction correct?", but "Should RACE allow for this deduction?".

In the following I would like to discuss a case where this question arises.

Using the power of Prolog I have extended RACE by auxiliary axioms that perform second-order deductions, concretely aggregation. Thus RACE can deduce

*John is a man. Johnny is a man. ⊢ There are two men.*

Adding a further axiom establishing that, in fact, Johnny is John, RACE fails.

*John is a man. Johnny is a man. Johnny is John. ⊬ There are two men.*

Thus I have a case of non-monotonic reasoning. (Note that RACE can still deduce that there is one man.)

My question to the community is "Should RACE allow for non-monotonic reasoning, or does non-monotonicity have consequences that could confuse RACE users in more complex cases?"

There are some logic puzzles, for instance Schubert's steamroller (see below), that can be solved by deduction without any additional information.

There are other logic puzzles, for instance the Zebra puzzle (see below) or the Marathon puzzle (see R. Schwitter) that need problem-specific solution strategies and problem-specific additional information.

I wonder whether there are systematic, more general, ways to solve the puzzles of the second kind.

Conference Paper Answer Set Programming via Controlled Natural Language Processing

I am looking for a proof such that:

Given a set of Horn clauses, show that there is a unit refutation from S if and only if S is unsatisfiable

I am just now interested in explore the capabilities of quantum programming. I found some implementations on literature based on C or C++. Also there is a very promising language QML on top of the functional language Haskell that is based on linear logic, but i'll rather prefer to manage a logic language. Any one know if there is a work on such line?