Science topic

Lizards - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Lizards, and find Lizards experts.
Questions related to Lizards
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
1 answer
Many speculation exists that wall gecko can cause immediate death if they come in contact with Toothbrush or even fall in uncovered food in homes.
Relevant answer
Answer
It is very possible as I stumbled on an article reporting Shigella from feces of geckos!!!
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
2 answers
I got some lizard specimen which had been stored in 95% alcohol for over 15 years at room temperature. Also, the lizards were all being preserved in the same container, while their legs were removed for karyotype experiments, which means there are some holes on their body. My question is that could these samples be applied in Sanger sequencing? Or even NGS? I wonder if this bad storage condition affect the DNA among these samples. Thanks!
Relevant answer
Answer
Mattia De Vivo Thanks for your helpful advice!
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
8 answers
This is mentioned quite a bit on the internet, mainly related to captive care, but I’m having trouble finding anything published.
Thanks in advance!
Relevant answer
Answer
Visit also the following useful RG link: https://www.researchgate.net/topic/Lizards
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
8 answers
Is promoting the rearing of small-sized animals’ (micro-livestock) a viable option for addressing the issue of climate change adversity in smallholder farming sector in Africa.
In this context micro-livestock refers to small indigenous vertebrates (goats, sheep, rabbits, guinea pigs, poultry (chickens, ducks, guinea fowls), etc.) and invertebrates (snails, rodents, lizards, insects, etc.) both domesticated and wild genetic animal resources which may be produced on a sustainable basis for food.
Relevant answer
Answer
A negative effect, especially the rise in temperature, which increases the activity of parasites and microorganisms
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
3 answers
I already have 16s sequenced for the particular species I am working on. The literature I have found has used beta-actin or 18s as a housekeeping gene in RTqPCR. I am wondering if I can use 16s instead? Will make my life a bit easier.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi, shruti. GAPDH, beta-actin and 18s are well-established housekeeping genes. Coming to your question, 18s is endogenous in eukaryotes. Hence in case you are working with eukaryotic ones, it is highly recommended to use either GAPDH, Beta-actin or 18 s to perform qPCR from cDNA samples. (based on the reference levels). However, 16s rRNA is highly used for prokaryotes.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
2 answers
Do all geckos have a combination of pleurodont and acrodont teeth ? If not, what exceptions are there?
Relevant answer
Answer
As far as I am aware most geckos have pleurodont teeth. Check with Aaron Bauer: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Aaron-Bauer-2
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
3 answers
I have seen that in Gekko gecko they use 1 volt to obtain seminal samples, but I search for Phyllodactylidae individuals that weigh 6-7 grams and measure 5-7 cm.
Relevant answer
Answer
Determing the value of electroejaculation as a method of semen collection in lizards and chelonians. Read that paper
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
2 answers
Dear community,
I was wondering if anesthesia (most likely isofluran) of animals before euthanasia and sampling of internal organs (here reproductive tracts in lizards) for RNA seq might ater the mRNA expression profile?
Would you recommand to perfor the euthanasia without the anesthesia or would you anesthetized them?
Thanks a lot for your answers,
Morgane
Relevant answer
Answer
Anesthesia is an intervention that one should expect to alter RNA expression!
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
1 answer
I'm looking for protocol to extract DNA from liver tissue sample of geckos that have collected and preserved in 95% Ethanol. I also want the protocol along from DNA extract until sequencing of nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA. Please help
Relevant answer
Answer
Since DNA is insoluble in ethanol and isopropanol, the addition of alcohol, followed by centrifugation, will cause the DNA proteins to come out of the solution. When DNA concentration in the sample is heavy, the addition of ethanol will cause a white precipitate to form immediately.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
21 answers
I recently began to work with viviparous Neotropical skinks of the genus Mabuya. Specifically with females at different stages of gestation. My tutor and lab colleagues have studied them for a long time and a recurring comment is related to the difficulty of field sampling.
The standard method of catch is by hand, but these lizards are very quick moving through the litter, and their smooth-scales covered skin makes them difficult to hold. Also, in the most advanced stages of pregnancy, these lizards stops feeding so funnel traps will likely be less effective.
I have little experience in catching, and I am planning some field trips to obtain some specimens (especially to learn about the field work). I would like to try different catch methods, hoping to make it easier to obtain research material.
I will be very grateful for any suggestions or advice you can provide.
Relevant answer
Artificial retreats :)
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
1 answer
I know there are different structures referred to as "eyelids" in animals, specifically reptiles. However, I had been under the impression that the eyelids found in Eublepharidae (Gekkota) were more plesiomorphic than the fused spectacles found in other gecko genera, including but not limited to Rhacodactylus and Phelsuma. Is this accurate? I can't find any research expressly stating so (or the opposite), at least not without paywalls.
Thank you in advance!
Relevant answer
Answer
Sarah, suggesting these papers may answer to your query, hopefully. Best
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
2 answers
South India s monitor lizards are not studied closely.If any one is interested or doing work on sand goann's,I am interested to call them.
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
8 answers
How ecologist and herpetologist can observing small specis. For example, these last week we have descovred a new chameleon species in Madagascar.
This new reptile is become the smallest amniots in the world - the specis : Brookesia nana !!!
Can you give us your opinion about this question?
Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
I believe that a discovery as intriguing as this must pass, not only to worry about preserving this species, but also to conduct studies in its habitat to continue its preservation. I also think it is interesting to carry out studies in its food chain. This discovery could open more doors for even smaller animals. Conducting research on the types of bacteria that maintain their habitat is also very important.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
4 answers
Hello,
I just recently started working with the different types of home range estimations and have a few questions about this and that. Maybe you could help me out with that?!
My study animals are Sand Lizards (Lacerta agilis), that I tracked with VHF transmitters along a railway track in eastern Germany. I tracked up to 20 animals at the same time, that’s why I have only 3-7 datapoints per animal per day. The transmitters lasted up to 20 days, but most of them were peeled of by the animals earlier. In average I have 33 datapoints per animal. With this information in mind, you can hopefully get an impression of the data quality I am working with. So here are my questions:
1) I read that it is important to report on autocorrelation of the datasets (and also on site fidelity of the animals). The dataset of most of my animals seems to be autocorrelated. This is probably due to the site fidelity of the animals. My question is: How do I interpret this information about autocorrelation and how does that affect my home range estimation?
2) I would like to check if the number of locations was somehow sufficient to calculate proper home range estimates. Therefor I would like to use “area-observation plots”. I am just wondering what to have on the y-axis: if I have this plot for an MCP analysis (for example), do I take the total area of an animals MCP (in m2) or do I use percentages (where my final MCP is 100%)? In the second case, an asymptote would probably have more that 100 % - is that correct? Additionally: Is there a way how to calculate the number of locations randomly from my dataset (for every single animal) or is that usually done just one by one in the same order as my sampling occurred?
3) During the sampling I took notes when I sighted the animal I was tracking. Is there a way to include this information in any home range estimation? Do you think that is a useful information at all?
I would be really glad if you have at least one or another comment on my questions or could recommend some literature on these topics. Thank you very much!!
Alina
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi,
when your additional observation is on the exact position than the position from telemetry you could weight the telemetry point. This would affect a kernel density, but not a 100% mcp. For the mcp data points outside the mcp you get from telemetry alone would be interesting.
Best, Christoph
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
7 answers
Dear all,
I am working on peptides secreted from frog skin. The peptide under study is secreted from the skin of Australian frog - Uperoleia mjobergii. I would be very grateful if anyone of you could let me know what is the pH of frog skin. Thank you very much for your help. 
Best regards,
Sunny 
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Adriano,
I wasn't physically measuring pH from frog's skin. I was working in vitro with the peptides that are secreted from frogs and toads. I was studying their fibrillation characteristics, so I needed to know what was the right range of pH where these single fibrils of peptides start bundling together to form aggregates. Frogs and other toads don't have a complex immune system like in the animal kingdom. So, the hypothesis is that they use their secreted peptides to help them evade any microbial attacks on their body. Some of these peptides are amyloid forming peptides and are antimicrobial in nature.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
2 answers
We are analyzing the response of >400 respondents to a survey, with values of -1 (no) 0 (neutral), and +1 (yes). The data were collected to assess opinions on feeding practices at zoos. An example of what we want to get answers to, could be whether a respondent would prefer to see live insect feeding to a lizard on exhibit, or would prefer to have this done off exhibit. Thus for this question, and others, the data in excel is sorted as illustrated in <Capture neg pos ranks>.
Our first analysis would be to compare differences between these variables; this would be followed by comparing each variable to others (gender, age, nationality, and so on). Any help/suggestions on the choice of test we want to use, i.e. we were thinking of the Chi square test, would be greatly appreciated. Stay safe!
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
3 answers
I am currently working on a research entitled: “Taxonomical study of some true Lizard family (Lacertidae) species in the Syrian coastal region, using peripheral blood cells morphology”. And I am facing many difficulties such as the lack of classification keys for this family or a field guide to differentiate between its species,I could not obtain an approved classification key, Therefore, I am writing to ask if you can provide me with a classification key to help me completing this research.
Relevant answer
Answer
Use the regional checklists of all herpetofauna, not just lacertidae and you will find some checklists.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
7 answers
I am searching for a GPS that can be used in small arboreal lizards. Any advice is welcome, thanks. Manuel 
Relevant answer
Answer
I may be proven wrong, but I don't believe the technology is quite there yet for using GPS with small lizards. My friend is using some relatively small ones on clouded monitors, but they would be too large for a smaller lizard species. I don't think the GPS loggers/transmitters are small enough yet (and also the accuracy is likely not ideal for tracking movements of small animals with relatively small movements). I think the best way to do it is with eternally attached small radio transmitters (we use holohil) and manual tracking (unfortunately). - Sorry if this reply is too late to be of help, I just now saw it.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
16 answers
I placed the word "eggs" in quotation marks, because maybe they are not eggs... These structures shown in the photos were exposed in a sand dune by the wind in the Negev Desert, Southern Israel. They look calcareous with sand attached to them and they are quite hard and elongated. They are thicker than normal hard-shelled reptile eggs (e.g., geckos, turtles etc). They don't look like soft-shelled reptile eggs, that tear and look like an empty paper bag when they dry out (like Varanus eggs). But the most disturbing character is that they are not round in a cross section, as are all reptile (and bird) eggs that I have seen so far. All of them (found on three different occasions) where flattened in the same way and not round in a cross section.
I will be glad to hear from anyone who has seen something similar elsewhere or has an idea for a process that could lead to form these structures (maybe accumulation of calcium on something else, not necessarily an egg?).
Thanks,
Amos
Relevant answer
Answer
All the best ,Amos
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
3 answers
I am working on a grant proposal for undergrad. My idea is to try to identify the process by which crested geckos (C. ciliatus) undergo parthenogenesis, and why it often fails. I have read that parthenogenesis in reptiles sometimes occurs as a result of hybridization.
Relevant answer
Answer
Ciliatus and Sasinorum have hybridized in captivity. Feel free to message me for details.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
14 answers
In the desert region of Moquegua, South Peru on Cerro Baul (2500 masl) i took a photo of these lizard. Does anybody know to which family and genus it belongs ?
Relevant answer
Answer
I think the suggestions of Tropiduridae and Microlophus are correct. I would also suggest uploading this image at www.iNaturalist.com. There is a giant community of Herpetologists there who can provide an accurate ID for you.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
5 answers
Hi I'm trying to heat a chamber (about 100 Liter volume) with ceramic IR lamps (6 units of 125w each). The goal is to have an approximately homogenate heating at the bottom of the chamber (50cm from the lamps at the moment). But is not so simple, although I manage to get the intended temperatures, on average, the central area of the chamber can surpass the borders by 4 ºC, which is a bit too much to call it homogeneous space. Which is understandable, because even though the lamps are evenly distributed through the top surface, the commonly heat area on the centred ends up receiving more heat. The question is, how to receive the heat from these 6 spots (the six lamps) and distribute equally? I've been thinking of placing a metallic mesh (2mm pores) between the lamps and the chamber, to try to have a layer of heating on top instead of the 6 spots of heat... would that work? I have to be careful with this layer, because too much isolation would result in massive overheating of the lamp side to get the intended temperatures on the chamber side. Has anyone faced this kind of unequal heating? how did you solve it?
All opinions are welcome.
Thank you.
Cheers, Luís Pereira.
Relevant answer
Following
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
4 answers
I can't find the original research where Rhacodactylus ciliatus was placed in the genus Correlophus. But I know it happened recently.
Relevant answer
Answer
Bauer, Aaron M., et al. "Revision of the giant geckos of New Caledonia (Reptilia: Diplodactylidae: Rhacodactylus)." Zootaxa 3404.1 (2012): 1-52.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
3 answers
I am working on a project involving parthenogenesis in crested geckos (Correlophus ciliatus), and I plan on comparing genes- particularly STRs- in samples from the eggs, the potential parents, and previous records (via GenBank, etc), to each other. However, I do not know how to successfully isolate DNA from a very early embryo in a shelled reptile egg. I will likely have to do this, because all the previous parthenogenic eggs from my geckos have failed long before complete development. Please excuse my phrasing, this is not a subject I have much experience in yet.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
1 answer
Deseo comprobar si las excretas de los geckos
Hemidactylus frenatus en las casa de un municipio de Honduras son portadores de Salmonella spp.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hola Diego,
El procedimiento para el análisis de excretas para cepas de Salmonella luego de la colecta de las heces directamente de la cloaca o del terrario de una diversidad de reptiles es descrita en Corrente et al. (2004).
Te dejo un link con el método. (http://bit.ly/3a8S5Ji)
J.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
2 answers
I am desperately searching for results about the foraging mode (active foraging, ambush or mixed) of Sphaerodactylus lizards, geckos from the America for which data seem poor in the standard literature. I have already searched books, reviews and the google scholar but maybe someone here is aware of a good but difficult to find reference
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
3 answers
The brain tissue its from a lizard. We want to see de serotonin mark in the pineal complex.
Relevant answer
Answer
Use Sudan black dye or diazo dye
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
6 answers
What are the most effective methods for permanently marking small lizards for population monitoring (in my case skinks approximately 60 mm SVL). Are there reliable alternatives to implants or toe clipping?
Relevant answer
Answer
Damian; My colleague used india ink for the tattoo. As I remember, the marks lasted more than a year...the duration of the study. Cheers, Jim Des Lauriers
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
2 answers
Hi, can anyone please help us identify this species of mites found on Moroccan Geckos in the Anti-Atlas mountains. We're actually seeking collaboration with experts to finalize some works on prevalence of these ectoparasites in different Geckos populations.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Jalal,
They're good photos of interesting mites! I would also recommend contacting Dr Monika Fajfer, who has been publishing several excellent works on the Pterygosomatidae. See, for example:
Her contact details are given on the title page, and she may be able to help.
Kind regards, Owen.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
3 answers
I'm working on counting the number of neurons and volume of the optic lobe in lizard embryos. Currently I have sectioned one embryo's head for the pilot study, but I don't know what to do from now on.
I'm going to use the physical disector without a specialized software.
I was instructed by a researcher that has been helping me to section the tissue for the pilot with 30 pairs of sections. The paraffin embedding protocol shrink the tissue more than I thought and I only got 17 pairs of sections.
Now, I don't know how to sample the pairs of sections, as I don't have a motorized stage available. Is there a technique for manual sampling for the physical disector? And also, how to define the distance between the probes in the pilot? It is estimated using 100x for what I've been told, but I noticed that although the layers are quite distinct, the nucleus of the cells are not clear and the tissue is a bit blurred at 100x. Is this a problem to count the cells?
I read a paper by Brown (2017) that helped understand how to estimate volume with 4x objective lens. Is it still possible to use the same sample for both probes (Physical disector and Cavalieri) in different objective lens?
I hope someone can help me. Thanks!
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
4 answers
How does one distinguish between cursorial and generalized terrestrial modes of life in lizards? I know that in mammals it is relatively easy to distinguish between a cursorial and non-cursorial species based on the former's much longer limbs, but this is less obvious in lizards. So how would one distinguish between a cursorial lizard like a collared lizard and a non-cursorial species like a chuckwalla or a monitor?
Relevant answer
Answer
This maybe useful to you:
With best regards,
Sudesh
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
3 answers
I performed a mark-recapture survey at four sites (of two different sizes) for one species of lizard, and now have data for - total survey time, survey area and number of individuals encountered. Is there any way to calculate survey effort from this data?
I intend to revisit the sites and assess if there has been population decline; so quantifying the search effort each year is key to support any findings.
Relevant answer
Answer
What may seem like a simple metric can become very complex. The basic number you are looking for is catch per unit effort with effort being time-constrained or area-constrained. An important assumption is that all members of the target population are equally catchable (males, females, juveniles) at all sites (habitats) using whatever technique you used. Factors that affect these numbers include time of year, time of day, and weather conditions. Many population models also assume a closed system, that is births, deaths, immigration, and emigration will not significantly change the population size or demographics. As long as these factors are understood and included in the survey protocol you should be able to generate meaningful numbers.
Within either the time or area constrained methods you must consider technique (e.g., visual encounter surveys, pit falls, box traps, or other device used for capturing target species, etc.). With the visual encounter survey if you were marking and releasing the animals as you encountered them you may need to subtract the time required to mark and collect other data such as sex and size. Not knowing the scope of your survey efforts or the number of animals encountered, I do not know if that is an important factor for your study. If a device is used to capture the animal then the numbers are more straight forward: x number of animals per y length of time (trap-days or trap-hours) assuming equal number of traps per unit area.
In a study we conducted of Bog Turtles at 4 sites in New York we found that we did not capture a sufficient number of individuals on a single survey day to make meaningful population estimates. We pooled data for each site and for all sites combined made on 3 successive surveys conducted approximately 2 weeks apart during the period from peak spring emergence to onset of nesting. We repeated this study over a 4 year period. We choose the Schumacher-Eschmeyer method for our data analysis which is designed to work with data sets that include multiple resample efforts. Because these populations are relatively small only 1 of the 4 sites produced a population estimate within the 95% confidence limits.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
3 answers
What time of year do lizards breed? Is It different with different lizards?
Relevant answer
Answer
yes its right
for example, the breeding season of Podarcis vaucheri is in spring and early summer whose perido of ovulation runs from mid-April to mid-July.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
12 answers
Hi everyone. I have two quantitive variables: population density (of a gecko species) and refuges density. The first one has values from 0.0012 to 0.02, and the other one, from 0.33 to 17.66.
In order to obtain a better scale to observe my data in the scatterplot, I transformed these variables to log. Actually, they looked better after the transformation. But, when I compared the R2 of these two linear regressions (one with log transformation and the other one without it), the R2 of the untransformed data was higher (R2= 0.32) than the R2 of the transformed data (R2=0.20).
So, in this case, which one I should use? Regression with transformed or untransformed data?
Thank you for your time!
Relevant answer
Answer
@Emmanuel, it was a good discussion, good points were placed on the table, thanks for that!
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
7 answers
We have a verified record of more than 40 years in a captive Uromastyx (exact species identification still in process). We would like to know how this record compares to the longest known life times in this genus. Thanks to help us find published records (with exact literature reference) or unpublished data!
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks Shai and all who kindly answered! Actually we established a new Uromastyx longevity record of at least 46 years! It is documented in the following note:
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
5 answers
I am doing a research project for my grad studies and I plan on feeding the specimens four different types of food in seperate terrariums.
Relevant answer
Answer
You can use a gastric lavage technique depending on what you're interested in. See Legler and Sullivan 1979 or Durtsche 2000.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
5 answers
I wish to purchase a smartphone-compatible microscope, primarily for counting scales on small lizards, identifying invertebrates etc. A low magnification capability (e.g. 5 or 10x) is more important than high. A lot of the devices I've seen online start at (e.g.) 50x zoom, which is generally too much magnification for my needs. My ideal would be something that can be attached to a stand, has built-in LED, and if possible also doubles as a borescope (to investigate tree hollows, burrows etc.). I plan to use it for field work, hence the desire for a multi-purpose device. Please can anyone suggest something suitable?
Relevant answer
Answer
I would recommend looking into the range of microscopes provided by Dino-Lite. See the following link:
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
7 answers
I'm attempting to use a Biomeme two3 portable qPCR machine for SNP genotyping as part of an MSc project. I am using DNA from lizard blood samples purified with the Biomeme M1 purification kit and PrimeTime primers and probes designed and manufactured by IDT for our SNP of interest.
The amplification curves we've obtained so far look extremely strange. Our most recent runs consistently show a small, early increase in fluorescence around cycle 10, which almost immediately levels off (after 2-3 cycles). Two previous qPCR runs (with the same reagents) show patterns of increasing and decreasing fluorescence which seem almost random - at the time we assumed this represented background noise, but the relative changes in fluorescence were actually much higher than for more recent runs, suggesting that perhaps something more was going on?
Any help interpreting this somewhat perplexing data would be much appreciated!
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi John,
Please send me an email and I will be happy to trouble shoot with you. I am a senior molecular biologist at Biomeme and will definitely be able to help you further.
My email is: mieke@biomeme.com
Thanks
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
3 answers
My e:mail is pmedica@usgs.gov or home e:mail medicahunter@cox.net I retired about 5 years ago and am emeritus at USGS and to to the office about twice a week now. I am trying to finish up all the loose ends of projects I started some years ago and work on a book of the herps of Nevada.
My questions pertain to repeating genetic sampling of the Rock Valley lizards and rodents now.. Do you have any thoughts if it would be worth the effort? I did gather samples of Whiptail tails and rodent ear clips some years ago.
Regards,
Phil Medica
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Dr Pa Medica , wish your message will reach to concerned authorities.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
4 answers
In particular, I am having difficulty finding data on vitamin D and K.
Interested in:
- quail
- chicken
- wild avian
- wild rodents
- mice
- rats
- rabbits
- lizards
- fish
Relevant answer
Answer
Vits D & K have rarely been measured in WHOLE prey, apart from a few fishes, as they're just not valuable food sources for humans or economically important livestock species. Literature values typically isolated studies - hence need for comprehensive database development!
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
11 answers
I am searching for ways to promote lizard and amphibian capacities as a profit from the restauration of their habitat in private gardens.
Therefore I need evidence of these actions
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
3 answers
I am interested in learning standard procedure for stomach content analysis.
Relevant answer
Answer
The only way I know to perform this analysis is to dissect the stomach and count the number of lizards it contains. For upper middle class adults living in the Boston area, any whole number greater than or equal to one would be cause for alarm. This procedure is not likely to have any negative effect on the lizards, however, the procedure which led to the lizards being in the stomach is very likely to have been destructive to them.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
13 answers
It is common in species catalogues to cite the first page of the work where a particular species was originally described. Although in many articles we see the first reference to the new name in the abstract or in different parts of the main text, we usually cite as the "first page" that where the "Description" is set, citing the holotype, type locality, etc. But what about a new species whose description is placed in an unpaginated supplementary material? This question arose when reading the recently published article describing a new lizard species, Ameivula apipensis: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/zsc.12277/full
Relevant answer
Answer
This is an extremely bad practice of Zoologica Scripta to put species description into online supplementary material. Unfortunately (if the description meets all the criteria of ICZN online publication) there is no other way just referring to the online supplement. I think authors describing new species should avoid publication in such journals even-thought it has "high impact factor"
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
5 answers
The pictures were taken between December 2017 / January 2018 (winter).
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Gregor,
It does look like Leiocephalus carinatus, yet the subspecies armouri does not occur on Cuba. It is probably safe to go with the nominate. If you have the specimen, you could use the dichotomous key in the book by Schwartz & Henderson (1985) to check the ID (see attached).
Good luck!
Best,
Danny
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
3 answers
Hi all,
I am planing to look at reproductive cycle in females lizards (Podarcis muralis). My goal is to asses clutch size, ovulation and differentiate between late and earlier stage of pregnancy.
I checked this couple of options of ultrasounds machines:
MyLab™One
Sonsonite Titan Portabl
However I heard that they are not as precise as thought. I was wondering if someone has any experience with this machines or others of this type ( portable, since I will be in the field) and can give me some advise
Thank you very much in advance ,
Mara
Relevant answer
Answer
Refer this attached paper...
Author used A Sonosite portable ultrasound (Vet 180 plus) unit with a curvilinear probe (C11/7-4 MHz Transducer) for scans.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
8 answers
I am planning for a morphological study on Saara hardwickii in the Aravallis in Western India. It has a semi-arid landscape with a fairly good population of the species. But capturing these species became a problem. I need to know some methods by which I can capture these species for morphological study and then release safely in their habitat.
Relevant answer
Answer
In West Africa there is a park manager on the W national park trapping Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus) with Havahart trap too. He had a big succes
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
5 answers
I have to calculate the distance an animal moves in a box over a 4 hr time period.I need to pull the data off a 4 hr long webcam video of the animal moving between two chambers in a box (area fixed). There is a divider in the middle of the box, so you cant see the animal for a few seconds as it moves to the opposite chamber.  The movement isn't linear.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you all for your help!
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
5 answers
Can species of Lacerta viridis complex hybridize at all? And if yes, then can Lacerta viridis hybridize with Lacerta bilineata, Lacerta strigata, Lacerta trilineata?
Can you recommend literature on this topic?
Relevant answer
Answer
Have you seen this paper? http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jzs.12115/abstract. They could not unambiguously resolve whether there is gene flow in contact zones between the species or not. So, a very interesting question to dig into.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
5 answers
Are there any morphological features to use to distinguish Podarcic taurica from Podarcic muralis in the wild nature and to distinguish species of the Podarcis genera without making genetical and molecular analyses?
Relevant answer
Answer
According to the key by Arnold & Ovenden (2002), in P. taurica:
"Collar usually distinctly serrated, throat scales fairly coarse, bod scales usually well keeled
while in P. muralis:
"Collar more or less smooth-edged, body scales often not very distinctly keeled, or smooth".
Don't know how much this helps.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
6 answers
I have an undergraduate student who is sorting through some fossil lizard jaw bones, but identification to species (or even genus) is challenging. Does anyone know of a good resource (publication or person) that they could suggest that might help in this regard? Thanks.
Relevant answer
Answer
Here is what my students said:
"They are between approximately 12,000-55,000 years old and are found the La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California, USA. Most of them have been found within microfossil matrix sorting methods." She said several of them appear possibly to be horned lizards (Phrynosomatidae). 
Thanks everyone!
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
3 answers
Sadly collecting location is uknown, but possibly Indonesia. I assume one of the two species being D. sumatranus.
very thankful for any help.
Relevant answer
Answer
I think is a female of the variable species draco sumatranus Schlegel, 1844.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
4 answers
A few years ago I have seen the above mentioned plot (Snout Vent vs. Julian Date) in a Herpetology book, but I can't remember now which book it was, nor how was the plot called. The plot may be used to determine cohorts and to see patterns in growth at different ages. 
I attach such a plot that we have produced, hoping that it will remind someone if they have seen or used such a plot in a publication.
Thanks,
Amos 
Relevant answer
Answer
Many thanks, Evgeny. Being an article in French, I would probably not be likely to find it in regular searches.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
5 answers
Do captive Correlophus ciliatus require UVB? And are they thought to be nocturnal or crepuscular?  
I am writing a paper on whether Crested geckos require UVB lighting as part of their husbandry, any help will be greatly appreciated. 
Thanks. 
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
3 answers
I intend to begin live trapping efforts on a carnivorous lizard that has yet to be consistently trapped. Some efforts have been made to determine bait preferences with live traps, but successful trapping is so low and with no statistical significance.
Has anyone used baited camera traps to determine bait preferences? Would the animal need to consume the bait for it to be considered a success?
Relevant answer
Answer
I'm currently looking at a range of baits to attract animals to a specific model of kill trap. As well as being interested in whether animals find one bait more attractive than an other I also want to know which species show an interest in the bait so we can assess potential risk to non-target species. One problem with not catching an animal is that in the absence of any other information you don't know if you didn't catch it because the bait wasn't attractive enough or because the animal wasn't there in the first place. We have used motion triggered CCTV to record animal activity in the vicinity of the trap. It is surprising how many animals of even the target species walk straight past the trap/bait as if it is not there or give it a brief sniff before walking away. Taking this approach for an initial trial might give you a better idea of the encounter rate vs the capture rate and might reveal some aspects of animal behaviour that could help you improve trap performance.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
7 answers
Two African lizards, Lygodactylus picturatus PASTEUR, 1964 and L. luteopicturatus (PETERS, 1870), are often kept as vivarium reptiles in Europe. As both taxa are similar in body size, shape and colouration, they are sometimes wrongly identified in the pet trade (especially the name L. picturatus is often used for L. luteopicturatus). Can anyone provide me good morphological characters which would be helpful in correct identification of these geckos? Or maybe based on any new (molecular?) data these names are just synonyms??? 
Thank you in advance for your help and answers.
Best regards,
Radomir
Relevant answer
Answer
Perhaps this paper (in German) has the answer:
Röll, B. (2004). Lygodactylus luteopicturatus Pasteur, 1965 [1964]: ein Synonym von Lygodactylus picturatus (Peters, 1870)(Sauria, Gekkonidae). Sauria, Berlin, 25(1), 33-37.
Best regards!
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
3 answers
I would like reference of this type of interaction in Anolis. The case that a male attack  other male during the copulation
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Abhishek and Gordon, thank you for the information
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
10 answers
Dear Herpetologists,
Being in Burma in 2011 in Mandalay City, I found a lot of agamas sitting on trees near the Kings Palace channel. These for my mind are from Genera Calotus, but when using Jacob Hallermann's key from 2000, I saw differences of this species from possible three species known from this part of Burma, as: C. emma, C. mystaceus and C. jerdoni. Moreover, colors of looking the same species males differ seriously. Is that just polymorphism, gender dimorphism or agamas can change its color and what kind is this species?
Andrey
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks, Stephen. Now Im absaolutely sure.
Andrey
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
9 answers
Please, help me identify these lizards, those are given from zoo to nature history musem.
Last one could be Pogona vitticeps
Relevant answer
Answer
First one, possible, can be Physignathus cocincinus. The second can be Pogona vitticeps.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
7 answers
Hello Reaserchgate ! 
I'm a student in Heritage and I'm curently doing my traineeship in the science faculty of Toulouse where I inventory a lot of taxidermy. 
I encounter difficulties to identify some of the animals and require your help. 
Number 2 and 5 : I'm thinking about varanus dumerilii, but not quite sure.
Dimentions : number 2 is 37cm (long) / number 5 is 32cm (long)
Number 3 is 38cm (long) with the socle. Maybe an Uromastyx aegyptia ?
For number  1, I don't really know but it's 40cm long and 12 cm large. 
Number 4 is 36,5cm long and 9cm large (with the socle), I don't know if it's just a lizard or a tiny monitor. 
I can take more pictures of the details of course,
Thanks a lot !!
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Manon. Nº 2 Varanus niloticus or V. dumerilli (I cannot be 100% sure from the photo) and 5 definitely V. dumerilii.
Genus Uromastix is correct but, as said above, locations are crucial for determining the species.
Please find attached a photo of myself (1st at left) about 10 years old in NE Angola with a V. niloticus recently roadkilled.
All the best and goog luck with your valuable nd fascinating work,
´JP
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
5 answers
Is there anyone know about this species? I've found it in Taman Hutan Raya Banten, Indonesia, yesterday. If there is any references, please share. Thanks!
Relevant answer
Answer
Sphenomorphus sanctus
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
3 answers
Hey everyone,
I have been running into an issue trying to stain lizard hatchling brains. The brains were fixed in PFA and then sunk in sucrose in a fridge. I am slicing at 50um in a cryostat and I mount the slices to the slides. I have tried gel coated and Superfrost ++ slides and gel coated is working better, but I am still losing over 50% of the slices during the staining process. I have tried letting them dry at 36C in an incubator and at 40C on a hot plate for 24 and 36 hours, and the hotplate is a little better then the incubator. I have also tried mounting the brain to the chuck with PBS and OCT, but have not found much effect of that (PBS might stay a little better, but with OCT we get much better slices).
I have also done adult lizard brains, before and did not have this issue, so I am not sure what I could try to do differently to get the slices to stay on the slide. I am doing the mounted staining because the slices are so small (diameter <0.4mm) and delicate that trying to float stain them either ends up with us loosing the slice or it becoming to damaged to use. Any ideas on what to try to get the slices to stay on the slide would be wonderful, as I am running out of ideas.
Thanks,
David
Relevant answer
Answer
I have had similar issues with spinal cord slices. I started coating the slides with gelatin.https://www.rndsystems.com/resources/protocols/protocol-preparation-gelatin-coated-slides-histological-tissue-sections
You don't need to do the filtering step as long as you are careful not to add dust to the solution. It had been working well for me. Also, make sure that just prior to sectioning you let the slides warm up on some warm (not hot) surface for 15min at least - it really helps to prevent detachment later on. Good luck!
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
3 answers
I would like to find out if cell cycle times in lizards are considerable slower (or faster?) than those in humans and mice.
Relevant answer
Answer
Reptile red blood cell lifespan has been studied extensively and is much longer than mammals and birds. A review can be found in Biology of the Reptilia. 
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
3 answers
Ecological adaptation techniques of reptiles like lizards, snakes, turtles etc. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Your methodology is going to vary considerably depending on your specific ecological adaptation research question (e.g., sprint speed, climbing ability, body size, sexual size dimorphism, color/patterning, reproductive mode, etc., etc.).  I would first recommend you conduct an extensive literature review of your particular species of interest (or species group) and the particular adaptation you are interested in exploring.  The chances are good that someone else has worked with your study species (or a closely related species) and/or the adaptation you interested in studying.
So for example, you may want to investigate the ecological adaptations of a freshwater turtle species that has populations living in both flowing and non-flowing conditions.  If you look in the literature, turtle populations have adapted to these different flow conditions by evolving different shell shapes; those that live in high flow conditions are more streamlined while those that live in low flow conditions are more robust.  So to answer this question you would want to design a field study to investigate shell morphology (quantify different shell measurements like carapace length, width, and height) at different sites with different flow regimes.  This field study could then be validated by lab studies in a flow-through system to measure swimming efficiency and/or shell drag.  I have attached a great study by Rivera who did just this study.  
There are numerous other papers using similar studies to research ecological adaptations of herpetofauna. Herpetological Conservation and Biology publishes papers like this regularly, and the papers are freely accessible to the public at this web address (www.herpconbio.org).  I hope that this is helpful.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
6 answers
Is Visual encounter surveys the only method?
Animals can't be trapped or captured in the area.
measurement of morphological details of the varanus species is not allowed.
Relevant answer
Answer
Monitors are variable in body pattern, you can recognize individuals by colouration details. Why not to use camera traps or primary photofixation (photographing all individuals in the area) and monitor them electronically after (I mean install traps and use "face recognition" software to compare individuals you will see on the photos)
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
6 answers
I'm aware that the Mwanza rock agama (Agama mwanzae) can be found in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania but I was also wondering if it occupied this area with any other sympatric species.
Relevant answer
Answer
Apart from Agama mwanzae you will certainly see Acanthocercus atricollis and if you make a "stop-over" at Olduvai Gorge Acanthocercus cyanogaster with a bit of luck. Agama armata is rather difficult to find as they tend to live on the open plains where you won't be able to search or leave your vehicle (unless you have a permit and a ranger with you for safety). You may be lucky and see one around the kopjes. All three species are sympatric with A. mwanzae but of course there exists a niche differentiation. A. agama is a purely West-African species and does not occur in the Serengeti. Cheers, Wolfgang
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
1 answer
Could anyone help me in finding an identification key till species level of Gekkonidae family found in India? I will be too glad if anyone could send me an electronic file.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Debaprasad, unfortunately I don't have it but perhaps you can contact taxonomists in this field like Aaron Bauer. He did quite a bit of work on Indian Gekkonids (Hemidactylids). Hopefully he can provide you a key. 
Best of luck and kind greetings, Tariq
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
7 answers
Molecular tests are often used to verify claims of captive breeding in birds of prey but I can't find anything similar for reptiles. Ideally the method would allow maternal individuals, eggshells and offspring to be linked unambiguously. Thanks for any help!
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Daniel,
If you want to look at parentage using molecular markers there are two main methods: 1) microsatelites or 2) next-generation sequencing (NGS). 
Microsatelites are a common method that have been around for a while. The cons are in optimization and develop of new microsatelites and the difficulty of cross-amplifying primers from distant species. Below is an example from a lab-mate of mine who works on snakes using microsatelites to determine parentage.
There are also several other examples of studies like this for reptiles including lizards.
If you are working with Varanus there are some microsatelites already developed which is really helpful, see link below.
NGS is a little bit newer and has typically been more expensive but costs have really started to get comparable now. The lab I am in has made the switch to a NGS method called ddRAD and one student is using this to examine parentage in a snake species that does not have microsatelites developed already.
I hope this answers your question, or maybe just adds new ones, but hopefully this was helpful.
Best Regards
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
13 answers
I need to identify to which species belongs specimen in the museum collection.
Relevant answer
Answer
Really sad. I mean that I don't care much about taxonomical status, well it could be that they are under some concepts are not species at all. But from my experience, every population of animal could be distinguished if you find appropriate marker. Sometimes this could be done only with microsatellites, sometimes - morphology (I have such study with vipers populations). I've got strange result which points on introduction of L. bilineata and source population is somewhere in Italy according to genetics. But sample is old and low quality so I need other line of evidence for such conclusion. Probably going to museum and really thorough morphological description will give me an answer...
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
5 answers
Dear colleagues,
The thyroid glands from the common wall lizards were isolated and directly placed in Bouin's fixative. My question is for how long can the glands safely stay in the fixative before further processing?
Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
I suggested washing in alcohol because years ago it was shown that washing with water removes some soluble picrates formed after fixation...creating artificial speces (that may be detected at high magnification)....yes, 6hrs fixation is enough if the tssue slices are just a few mm across.. Recommended time is at least overnight (ca. 18 hrs.).
for removal of yellow color it is recommended that you can use Lithium Carbonate ( but it is absolutely not required for small pieces). Whatever little yellow remains gets washed when you stain the slides
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
1 answer
I am trying to figure out if there is something that inactivates glucocorticoids in reptiles (fence lizards in particular) while the offspring is still inside the mother.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear David,
we did some studies with corticosteroid stimulation in reptiles (did not publish yet). After stimulation, lizards had steroids in faeces. I think that reptiles are ready to activate as well as deactivate glucocorticosteroids.
  • asked a question related to Lizards
Question
3 answers
It was in a collection of Victorian butterflies, with no geographic background and it would seem that the taxidermist was not kind to it.