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Lithic Technology - Science topic

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Dear colleagues, for my book, I try to find two maps that demonstrate vegetation units (polar desert, tundra, steppe, etc.) in Europe during MIS 6 and MIS5e. Of course, I know and I have the article of Andel-Tzedakis from 1996, but the quality of maps is poor (graphic, not the content :)
I remember I saw nice maps even in colour, but I can't find them again. Would you be kind to share your knowlege within this topic?
Thank you for any suggestions
Petr
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Hi Petr,
I currently have an article submitted to Quaternary International where I create paleoclimate zones for MIS5e.  Attached is a draft image of the figure.  Is this what you have in mind?
Chris
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We have Clovis tools made from weathered Coastal Plain Chert. I'm also interested in this analysis on metavolcanic stone tools from North and South Carolina.
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For someone a little closer to home, I would recommend talking to Andrew Barker at the University of North Texas. Archeochemistry is his bag and he frequently works in the southwest USA.  He is on academia if you are interested in looking up some of his work: https://unt.academia.edu/AndrewBarker
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Understanding that surface collections are biased towards the collection of larger artifacts. Is there any useful application of aggregate analysis to such assemblages other than general comparative purposes between other surface collected sites or assemblages? Certain individual or typological flake analyses seem also to be biased depending on the particular method if size or weight is a factor.
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I would like to add to this the problem of "skimming the best flakes off the top"---this can happpen at ANY point in time---and whether a site is buried or on the surface. LOL
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I am referring specifically to wood as the primary tool and not the handle, base or frame.
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Thank you for providing me with these. They are interesting texts. However, I am specifically looking for the use of wood in preparing animal skins whereby a wooden tool is made to prepare the hide for producing clothing or other items. The reason I am looking for this is because at a site where we suspect intense hide-working to have taken place we are instead finding evidence for wood-working and someone asked whether wood was used in hide preparations
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Lots of techniques have been used trying to distinguish burned flint (etc.) from non thermaly altered ones. Does anyone knows about one using magnetic susceptibility?
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Interesting. I think the term "flint" is overused in the U.S., especially in the media. They call anything flint: chert, chalcedony, rhyolite, metaquartzite, etc. If I do use the term "flint", it is usually referencing a high quality chalcedony like that found in chalk deposits that is usually gray to black, but can be shades of brown.
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Many analytical techniques rely on experimentally produced comparative assemblages. These experiments may involve creating different artifact types, using different reduction modes, reducing a variety of materials, and using different knappers of various skill levels. Typically in application, these are then compared with trends evident in archaeological assemblages. Most experimental research seems to involve larger sized cores, making application of the various methods only applicable to archaeological assemblages composed of chipped-stone materials with moderate to large initial package sizes.
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William, I think mention of end product is important. Also, what is your criteria for small cobbles/cores? In cobble reduction you normally have initial hard-hammer reduction in order to produce platforms that then can be struck by soft-hammer methods (limestone hammerstone or antler billet). Most of the lithic reduction in Louisiana, east Texas, and southern Mississippi was done on Pliocene/Pleistocene gravels averaging 6 - 10 cm that were roughed out using a hammerstone prior to soft-hammer reduction. Also, be aware that some lithic material types require a certain angle of attack to be used during soft-hammer reduction that mimics and is indistinguishable from bipolar reduction. Then there is split pebble technology that is more effective than bipolar technology in producing thin cores from cobbles that can then be reduced into bifaces.
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The body of Paleolithic finds and information from southeast Europe has been growing to a great extend in the recent years. Nevertheless from certain areas such as Kosovo there are no finds reported whatsoever. Is this due to lack of accessible publications or lack of research in this particular field of archaeology?
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Thanks!
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Gifata Points from Dakhleh are described as long and narrow Bifacial Foliates. Are there similarities to Nubian and Lupemban foliates?
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oops, sorry ... I appended wrong illustration, here 'tis ...
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Brown (2000) has promoted fractal analysis as a means of examining size frequency as a means of assessing lithic debitage and inferring reduction mode. The analysis plots the natural log transformation of flake size against the cumulative frequency log creating a trend line that can be compared to experimentally produced assemblages. Other than the common technical shortcomings encountered by all aggregate methods of flake analysis (such as mixed assemblages), what are some of the theoretical critques of the procedure?
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This seems an interesting analytical method, although I'd have some questions about its application to archaeological assemblages that are incomplete in terms of their reduction sequence. The experimental assemblages Brown uses obviously represent a complete reduction sequence. However, how would differences in material transport and reduction intensity effect interpretations in terms of the distribution of material sizes? My other concern is that not all raw material types fracture equally. Here in South Africa, quartz exploitation in the Oldowan has challenged analytical methods b/c of the high rate of fragmentation inherent in this material. So hypothetically, while size distributions of materials may represent a complete reduction sequence (in reality they don't), small flaking debris is always over-represented, simply b/c of the material properties of quartz. So wouldn't interpretations be skewed to some degree simply based on the fact that quartz is a more waste-producing material in stone-knapping. Brown's archaeological assemblages seem to be mostly composed of chert and obsidian, which are obvious better quality materials. If the completeness of reduction sequences cannot be assumed, or fracture rates of materials might skew completeness, how does this affect interpretations? 
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Ahler devised mass analysis to be applied to a series of size grades which includes 1/8" as an essential grade. In the absence of this grade, as most data recovery projects use 1/4" mesh (excepting flots), can Ahler's method be applied? Other researchers have devised alternative aggregate methods, such as Pattersons log-linear model (simple but found unreliable) or Bradbury and Carrs aggregate trend analysis (reliable) but requires additional individual trait attributes to be recorded.
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Just to chime in, and in agreement of the other replies- Ahler's mass analysis works for Ahler at the Knife River Flint quarries, but its use anywhere else is problematic because there are too many variables in lithic reduction, as Douglas noted.  If you don't have the 1/8th inch fraction, it's even less useful (I'd go so far as to say it's useless). If the collection is already excavated, do a technological analysis of the debitage that you do have; if you haven't excavated yet, use 1/8th inch screens-- and then do a technological analysis of the debitage, not mass analysis.  The appeal of mass analysis is that it is quick and easy, but like many quick and easy methods it won't provide useful data, particularly in your case.
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I am using a 980 nm laser to excited some glass samples doped with Yb3+ ions. At around 480-490 nm, I observed a strong peak in its emission spectrum. Is it a upconverted blue emission from Yb3+ ions or the harmonic of laser? If none, what are the other possibilities?
Details: The laser is set at 800 mW. The samples have good non-linear behavior, I believe (not tested). The glasses are in powder form! The emission spectra are collected by transferring the powder to an Quartz cuvette, which is fully transparent in studied region. 
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Easily you can check it by changing the sample. If you still see the same emission with changing the samples, then it may arise from the setup of your laser system. 
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I am currently working with an collection of lithic artifacts (mostly debitage) and there is a noticeably higher percentage of a particular chert type in the collection. Past interpretations have argued this to be indicative of more intense use of that chert. However, I have discovered that the chert in question was being obtained from a local river in the form of small cobbles of which bipolar reduction is required to initially work the stone. Diagnostic evidence indicates that bipolar reduction was performed on these river cobbles and to date is the only chert type in the collection to exemplify such evidence. I am concerned that the higher percentage of lithic debitage from this chert type is due to the reduction method rather than an increased preference for the chert itself. Furthermore, stone tools from this collection are more evenly distributed and do not reflect a high abundance of one particular chert source.
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There are two factors that need to be disentangled. One is whether knapping techniques such as bipolar produce more debris than other techniques applied to the same material. The second is the extent of reduction: have knappers simply worked one material more than another material. One of the things bipolar does is allow knappers to work small cores and to reduce them to a very small size. While this is facilitated by the techniques we might consider this a decision about how much to reduce the core, since they could have stopped at any point..
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From the Spanish assemblages the differences in modalities inside mousterian methods look to be very slight. Social or economical reasons could be under this technological expressions. How much do you trust in the "stretch" French vision about concepts, methods and modalities?
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Several researchers are actually asking this question nowdays, and I think it is a sign towards the close reevaluation of the significance of the usage in the past on one Levallois modality or another. Have you seen this levallois unipolar/convergent core refitted on a preferential/recurrent one discovered close to Bergerac, by Laurence Bourguignon and her team? Best wishes,
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Precisely, I am interested on bowls and containers with circular cross section. I'm looking for both use-wear studies and experimental reports.
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1. HCl and H2SO4 can not be useful because they form poly atomic species very easily and cause to interferences.
2. Perchloric has very high boiling point ( 203 degree C). This may cause evaporation, harm ful processing during analysis.
3. Hydrofloric acid digestion also have health risk during process.
4. Nitric acid 1.5 to 3% w/v is proper because of its easy dilution and comparatively not much harmful effect.
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Do you believe that statistical methods enable to describe a large population of studied lithic artefacts but lack the detail offered by qualitative techniques which use the “chaine opératoire” method? And to what extent can we combined the two methods?
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As you intuited the two methods are complementary. Each of them give you different information sets and both are important to achieve a comprehensive analysis.
The statistical methods gives you a "macro-image" of studied issues, while technological, functional and typological analysis gives you a "micro-image" of the same issues.
The best way to combined the two methods is firstly to made qualitative analysis and after that, when you obtain the necessary data on all levels (echnological, functional and typological), you can use the statistical methods to quantified, compared and generalised your data.
In my opinion to obtaining the clear results is mandatory to use both methods (qualitative and quantitative).
Best wishes,
Catalin