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Literature Studies - Science topic

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For an environmental fate study, I need to radiolabel a substance to identify it's degradation pathway with the presence of bacteria. For this reason, I want to have some ideas of which carbon positions are usually recommended to radiolabel and why?
Any recommended relevant scientific literature study to understand this topic will be highly appreciated.
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Of course literature of study does much in accumulating information. In addition ,it saves your time
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In my literature studies, I saw that aluminum alloys are coated with Nickel-Boron. What I want is for it to be covered only with boron without the use of nickel. Is it possible to coat aluminum alloys with only boron-containing substances without substances such as nickel and tin?
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Dear İsmail Gündüz many thanks for your kind response and explanation. Clearly sodium borohydride itself is unsuitable for coating metals or metal alloys with boron species. NaBH4 is a water-soluble salt which has highly reducing properties. However, sodium borohydride is often used as a reducing agent to prepare metal coatings and metal nanoparticles.
In your case I assume that for coating aluminum and aluminum alloys with boron compounds you should look for hard and resistive materials like metal borides and boron carbide etc. For some potentially useful articles about this topic please have a look at the following papers:
Heat treatments for electroless nickel–boron plating on aluminium alloys
and
IMPROVED ALUMINUM ALLOY-BORON CARBIDE COMPOSITE MATERIAL
One of the authors of the first article is an RG member. Thus you can easily contact him directly via RR at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Fabienne-Delaunois and request the full text of the article from him.
Good luck with your research and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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Lipid peroxidation (LPO) is an oxidative degradation of lipids. LPO causes loss of membrane fluidity, disrupting membrane integrity and functions which resulted reduction of cell’s antioxidant capacity. Moreover, accumulation of lipid peroxides often cause cell death which is the key downstream feature of ferroptosis.
Through literature study, it is evident that glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) play significant role to attenuate LPO level. Can anyone help me to understand –
1) How does GPx and GSH impact LPO level?
2) Is there any correlation between lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity?
What are your suggestions? Thanks in advance!
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you can see this paper, .
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I'm looking for research results in this field.
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My MA thesis applies a structural narrative theory to an author's text. I will update on this when the journal article is available. Watch the space!
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In T S Eliot "the Waste land" or in WB Yeats Poetry we can find number of symbols and expressions to expose their feelings taken from ancient  languages. Present day generation, I feel, showing their interest in technology rather than creativeness in language. as a result sweet fragrance of beauty in language is going to disappear. 
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Yes, if handled masterly, they can still be applicable
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I am working on improving the use of digital innovations at scale globally. Most of the innovations I work with provide relevant knowledge on improving the performance of projects, programs, and organizations working on social impact sectors such as agriculture, health, environment, education, etc. However, the number of decisions influenced by the knowledge is much lower than the developers' expectations and sponsors of the innovations.
I am looking for empirical studies or reviews providing evidence and insights on the factors that influence the success of knowledge in influencing decisions in social impact sectors. Could you advise publications on this?
Many thanks for considering my request.
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we lost a large number of intellectuals, critics and writers during the years from 2003-2020.
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I believe it is imperative to work on a some form of a literary anthology to register all the literary works that depicted the turning point in the history of the country and how the American invasion of Iraq and its aftermath were portrayed in the works of Iraqi writers (dead or still alive). It is a promising and massive project but it is not an impossible task. There is a bad need for volunteers to start working on such project. It is a national obligation!
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What does the text reveal about the problematics of post-colonial identity, including the relationship between personal and cultural identity and such issues as double consciousness and hybridity?
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Try to read "Can the Subaltern Speak?" Spivak discusses the lack of an account of the Sati practice, leading her to reflect on whether the subaltern can even speak. Spivak writes about the process, the focus on the Eurocentric Subject as they disavow the problem of representation; and by invoking the Subject of Europe, these intellectuals constitute the subaltern Other of Europe as anonymous and mute. Reading Edward Said should help critics like you understanding this topic. All the best!
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I have prepared an aqueous extract and a methanolic extract of a plant. Using the disk diffusion method, the microorganism inhibitory pattern I am intended to observe. In several literature studies, I found the Methanolic extract gives a better inhibitory zone than the aqueous one. But in my case, it is the opposite. So, it will be helpful if anyone specifying the main reason behind this and can refer to some articles (Is polar or nonpolar compounds don't matter for aqueous extract).
Thanks in advance.
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in normal cases it should be methanolic extract give better inhibitory than in case of aqueous extract but in your cases it should be repeated after establishment for all factors that may affecting your results mainly contamination.
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I'm interested in literature, studies and psycho-social experiments on the relation between hand-shaking and trust, with an eye onto how social distancing might affect trust. Thank you for your attention
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A great question. In my opinion, however, the most important challenge at the moment are the face masks, which everyone is obliged to wear. Can we trust each other without seeing each other's faces?
Relative to the touch:
According to this article, physical touch is not necessary to develop trust.
Trust without touch: jumpstarting long-distance trust with initial social activities. DOI: 10.1145/503376.503402
In turn, this experiment shows how touch in the context of trust is more important for introverts.
Effects of mediated social touch on affective experiences and trust. doi: 10.7717/peerj.1297
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Many African critics have written in support of the popularly held belief that most African societies are  patriarchal in nature, and that women are yet to occupy their rightful position in the scheme of things. The question is, in what way (s) are African writers, particularly female writers responding to the issue of marginalization of the female subject in Africa? 
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How are Nigerian Female Writers responding to the issue of patriarchal hegemony in their writing? Many African critics have written in support of the popularly held .
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I'm developing a project on migration and literature, migration in literary works....
I was thinking about discourse analysis...May anyone suggest some methodologies used in these fields of critical literary studies and cross-cultural and comparative literature?
Thank you very much in advance
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Migration and Literature have been deliberated upon by many writers and critics in the post-colonial and post-Modern context. Unless we bring in the class-caste-race-gender or other such perspectives, there is a chance of being highly generic in such narratives.
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Looking for literature that study effectiveness of a programme or initiative.
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Thanks Hui Au Yong for this useful information.
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From many literature studies, it is mentioned ss/sh ratio is 2.5 as optimum. If the ratio increase the strength decrease due to various changes in polymerisation
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Kiran Kumar Poloju If I have understood correctly from your question:
When constructing geoplymer cement, all the calculations must be taken into account. for Instance, higher molarity may result in leaching of free cations (e.g. Na+) which will be observable on the surface of the specimens. On the other hand if the molarity of the activator/hardeners are lower than required, the polycondensation may remain incomplete and may result in low strength and durability. Therefore, the aim should be to achieve a chemically stable structure (Na/Al=1) and the ratios should be chosen accordingly.
I have a review paper published today...check it out. I hope it would be helpful to you
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Recently, i made o/w microemulsion with stirring at 600 rpm. and it resulted to be clear, transparant, almost like water (the transparancy), a bit yellowish. but the droplet size is 300 nm whereas in my literature study, microemulsion droplet size is very various. i just want to know what you guys think. Thank you
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The microemulsion size limit is arbitrary. If the Tyndall effect (scattering by particles in transmitted light) is observed for the emulsion, then this is a microemulsion. If the surface tension at the water-hydrocarbon interface is approaching zero, then this is a microemulsion. The formation of microemulsions refers to critical phenomena in binary systems. The formation of emulsions - to the separation of phases.
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I am interesting in calculating sample size for a descriptive design, quantitative research method study. I will use a nonprobability (snowball) sampling technique. Realizing that a probability statistical technique cannot be used to calculate sample size; it is not statistically justified to use probability statistical measurements (e.g. confidence level) and sample size because the probability of participants' opportunity to participate is unknown. Looking for calculation method and/or literature, studies that may provide insight. Thank you.
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use the following equation
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I have a catalyst with Cu as the active metal supported on zeolitic and non-zeolitic supports (several different samples). Initial XRD studies and literature studies have indicated the co-existence of both Cu+ and Cu2+ species on my catalytic surface. I need the Cu+/Cu2+ ratio inorder understand my catalytic reaction results. I don't have XPS at my lab so I am striking it off from my options. Please do let me know if there are other methodologies.
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You can also use XANES or ELNES to determine the valence from line ratios.
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Hello RG colleagues. Can anyone shed light on the major difference between scoping and integrative review of literature. Been reading about it and it seems like both share very common features. Thank you very much.
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While the scoping review aims to map the literature, seeking to describe the results in a graphic and classificatory way to have a better ideia on what is there, Integrative review proposes to integrate the literature found on a determined object of investigation.
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Dear Scholars,
In recent days, many organisations participate in CSR activists. Few organisations involve here for the development of society whereas many do it for business perspective, for instance, to avoid the legal issues, reduce the tax, increase the business image or branding, etc.
So, now my questions are:
1. Is my thinking right or wrong.
2. Is there any literature/ study to understand the business perspective to participate in CSR. If you have any resources, pls share it with me.
Thanksgiving
Shuvro
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I would recommend reading the following article which is published in Harvard Business Review:
- Michael E. Porter and Mark R. Kramer (Dec. 2006) Strategy Society: The Link between Competitive Advantage and Corporate Social Responsibility, Harvard Business Review.
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1. The requirement of "Get published" for university teacher gives incentives in order to increase affiliation level and updated literatures study effectiveness.
2. Given a very busy teaching schedule and administrative work and university teachers are required to conduct research. It is impossible to do the research. (similar question but without statement of impossibility, we have added some changes and thanks to Dr. Abdulghani Al-Hattami)
3. Job offering affiliation should cover additional expenses of the added effort (in example: through the higher payments, bonuses etc..) and experiment costs including publishing fee. ( In general it can be solved via reasonable financial tradeoffs).
4. If the university teacher has graduate students then it is necessary to publish and even he/she should get paid more for his added efforts. (In some countries adopted systems affiliation accepts the teacher publication if his student first author and he/she is second one "as a supervisor leading his/her graduate students").
5. The Basic of any subject knowledge is not related with study publication. A good teacher is good from his soul. People (teachers) are different and the incentives will not work to let them to do so, it should be in their hearts.
6. ???
(We will be grateful if you will write your expert opinion or if you are agree with any answers please mention them in your comment)
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Several thoughts come to mind. First, it usually takes a very long time to get a research paper accepted and published (sometimes up to two years). The university authorities should keep that in mind. Sometimes you have to submit (and revise) the manuscript to a dozen journals.
Second, the pressure to get something published is so intense that some people will be tempted to publish fraudulent "research" or research "results." If this happens, sooner or later it will come back to haunt the person and when discovered he will still be fired and, worse, will not be able to find employment in his field ever again. And the punishment will be well deserved.
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I am looking to social, economic, anthropological and cultural research detailing the impact of large-scale transport infrastructures on local life during construction and after completion (possibly, follow-up studies).
Thank you for pointing me to the most relevant literature.
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Thank you,!
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I found levels of aluminium in pore water of sediment core and it was not normal in these sampling area. Some have a tip about the source or literature for study about it?
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Dear Eduardo Duarte Marques Eduardo, thank you for answer. The pH range was between 6.7 to 7.2. I am working with more sampling points and only one presented Al in sollution (whole seidmenr core).
Francisco Silveira Francisco, thank you for your answer as well. Yeah, I was thinking that comes from the origin of sediment (subtropical soil), but how I said to Eduardo, I am monitoring others samplings points and only this one showed Al in sollution. I was wondoring maybe other explanation besides its origin.
Thank you both.@
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I am looking for the best solvent for the extraction of Capsicum species fruits. In fact, I am aware that specific type of solvent is required for isolating compounds from medicinal plants. Through the literature study, I have found that water (H2O) is the best solvent since mostly decoction is prepared using water by the researchers. However, some other paper also suggest that methanol (CH3OH) and ethanol (C2H5OH) also exhibit desirable result.
What are your suggestions? Thanks in advance!
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crude extract by 70% ethanol
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Hi,
I want to show differences and comparison between terms such as Green Marketing, CSR, and other sustainable terms in the present business literature.
I am doing my PhD publishing based 3 papers for my first paper I will do a literature review.
I will choose important papers from each field like most important paper and highest citation for each year the last decade on this each concept and compare.
I have received lots of help and ideas from my supervisors, yet it would be very interesting to gain more knowledge from different backgrounds and fields. Especially ones specialised in sustainability.
Thank you so much in advance.
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I suggest to use the European Commission documentation related to circular economy to have a further input: Here is a starting point for references https://ec.europa.eu/environment/circular-economy/index_en.htm
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I'm wondering about attachment styles in relationship to inherited wealth. I have not found any literature or studies regarding but if any one knows of existing or developing research please let me know!
Much thanks, Michele
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What a great question/future research area. Money is indicative of so many areas of life. I study attachment and have never seriously considered the variable. Best of luck on your work!
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We are coming to the end of a study and it contains some determinants over shaping methodology and research design. We call them a set of assumptions regarding and comparing the extant literature studies. But we already created a methodology section and filled up with our methodology, data set and main charecteristic of the population etc.
So finally what's your opinion in which section do we have to locate these determinative assumptions? To the end of introduction section or somewhere else?
Thanks in advance,
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It should be at the start of the Hypothesis section.
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Hi, I am currently writing my Bachelor thesis. The content is about the challenge of digitalization in the area of international HRM and I still need good literature, studies or something like that. Many thanks for your help!
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Hi,
You may see the recent book:
Cantoni, F., & Mangia, G. (Eds.). (2018). Human Resource Management and Digitalization. Routledge.
Good luck.
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Is it possible to use existent literature and studies as research which combined can prove the research argument and compliment them with qualitative research such as interviews and quantitative such as surveys?
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Thank again Daniel! It was very helpful.
Your proposal sounds quite interesting must say.
Yes, I am currently research what role does emotion play in capturing and sustaining our attention in new media advertising.
For that I am looking at: 1. How emotions influence our memory; 2. Types of attention (short or captured, long or sustained) 3. How emotions influence our decision making process. 4.The attentional relationship between brands and consumers.
I would like to test wether emotional advertising can capture our attention and then transform short attention into long attention.
As it is complicated test this, I am considering to rely on different studies, and then combine them to create a new model in which separate theories are interconnected.
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As a part of my literature study and market research I am looking for an answer to the following question.
1) List of commercially available software for tool path generation in deposition based additive manufacturing processes. (for STL files)
process like: laser metal deposition process or direct energy deposition process.
ex: Slic3r.
Thank you so much in advance.
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I am looking into it. but it looks somehow helpful. Thank you so much for your quick response.
Yogi Patel.
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I am looking for any literature study which might have evaluated the effect of changing the thermal mass of the turbine housing for a turbocharged IC engine on the transient response of the engine and on the turbine outlet conditions. I am particularly interested in understanding the sensitivity of the thermal response on the thermal mass of the turbine housing.
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Michael Uebel Thanks a lot! I do agree the literature is limited on this.
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Understanding in solidification path is the key to understand the phase transformation in AlCuSi alloy. I have a difficulties in finding AlCuSi phase diagram so that I can understand the solidification processes of Al-32wt.%Cu-6wt.%Si.
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Dear Dedy ,
you can my paper
regards
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Is Science Fiction studied in your country/region, for instance? If so, how?
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My wife is a distinguished scholar of the work of Elizabeth Bishop. When I asked my granddaughter, a recent college grad, why she thought Bishop's poetry was so popular in colleges these days, she said, because of gender and post colonial connections. Not at all the reasons for admiring her poems. The wrong reasons.
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can we compare feminist approach of 19th century with current feminist approach, although the parameters are totally different?
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Impossible, they are not isomorphic planes. The study of nineteenth-century feminism is, by nature, a study in the archeology of knowledge.
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Novel has considerably replaced drama. Some amount of drama is found only in a different genre - film. I think Television, Video and Film restrain people from going to the theatres. Theatre gives enormous scope to dramatic literature which other media cannot. I would like to know and be connected with modern English playwrights in Britain and USA. Some experiments are made in India, but they are not worth the salt.
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The mass society is only interested in degraded comedy. The drama belongs to high culture. High culture that is in decline, of course.
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Dear all,
For a research project I'm currently working on I am looking for literature that documents how a firm/organization's past experiences (positive or negative) in collaboration influences current or future attitudes and choices in collaborative relationships (e.g., alliances, JVs, R&D collaboration, buyer-supplier relationships).
By analogy, I know that there is quite some work in psychology that documents the influence of an individual's early-life experiences on their general propensity to trust others in e.g. work or personal relationships as an adult. I'm thus looking for work that studies the same kind of dynamics in an (inter)organizational context.
Thanks!
Jasper
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Grazie Simone, will have a look
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how to measure a hypothesis that goes like this "Self-Tracking Motivation improve Self-Efficacy in adopting fitness band ".
I only found literature that study self-efficacy and motivation separately on the same subject, or motivation based on self-efficacy. But my study theorizes that self-tracking motivation which already existed in users when using previous tools such as mobile apps, affects their self-efficacy in adopting fitness band.I asked an expert (a professor) in my university he quickly replied it's wrong without explanation.
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Use the null hypothesis (i. e., that there is no influence), get a reasonably strong data base (at least 100 cases), then use a high level of confidence (day, .96).
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I should find literature on studies that have been interested in the way in which external political actors organize themselves to intervene schools with low school results to avoid "over-intervention" and decrease the "institutional stress". I appreciate any help on this topic.
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What I have is a case study in primary data and not literature. Wish you well in your search...
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Hello everybody,
I am trying to find literature/studies about qualitative examination of TAM-Factors. So far I've found a ton of quantitative surveys but my approach wants to focus instead on qualitative in-depth-interviews. Specifically I want to find out if different cultural backgrounds influence the perception of the same mobile appilcation in a different way.
It seems as if qualitative surveys in this area are quite rare so my second question would be if there is a valid way to bundle the quantitative questions in some qualitative ones?
Kindly,
Nicole
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Hello,
Are these of any help:
Jaber, O. A. (2016). An Examination of Variables Influencing the Acceptance and Usage of E-Learning Systems in Jordanian Higher Education Institutions (Doctoral dissertation, Cardiff Metropolitan University).
Vogelsang, K., Steinhüser, M., & Hoppe, U. (2013). A qualitative approach to examine technology acceptance.
Money, A. G., Atwal, A., Young, K. L., Day, Y., Wilson, L., & Money, K. G. (2015). Using the Technology Acceptance Model to explore community dwelling older adults’ perceptions of a 3D interior design application to facilitate pre-discharge home adaptations. BMC medical informatics and decision making, 15(1), 73.
But I'm not sure whether these are just what you need.
Very best wishes,
Mary
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Recent literature and studies about technological pedagogical content knowledge.
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At the heart of the TPACK framework, is the complex interplay of three primary forms of knowledge: Content (CK), Pedagogy (PK), and Technology (TK). The TPACK approach goes beyond seeing these three knowledge bases in isolation. The TPACK framework goes further by emphasizing the kinds of knowledge that lie at the intersections between three primary forms: Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK), Technological Content Knowledge (TCK), Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK), and Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). A range of other scholars have argued that that knowledge about technology cannot be treated as context-free and that good teaching requires an understanding of how technology relates to the pedagogy and content.
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In line with the previous question, I would also like to know if there have been teachers/ researchers in the field of reading comprehension and adolescent literacy who have tried the Critical Elements of Strategies Instruction (CESI) Model as the framework for helping adolescent struggling readers' comprehension and metacognitive awareness. How does CESI Model help teachers and students in their goal to improve reading comprehension for older students like 11th or 12th graders?
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Take a look at the work of Helma van Lierop-Debrauwer (https://tilburguniversity.academia.edu/HelmavanLierop)
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I am fascinating to do research on workability of high entropy material. I read many literature study on workability but i couldn't able to find how they measuring axial, lateral strain and stress, whether they measure the stress and corresponding axial, lateral strain by discontinuous loading during the process before fracture occurs or by measuring the strain by continuous loading still sample fails.
If we considered discontinuous loading during the process it may affect the property of the sample?
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DIFFERENT TEST METHODS FOR WORKABILITY MEASUREMENT
Depending upon the water cement ratio in the concrete mix, the workability may be determined by the following three methods.
  1. Slump Test
  2. Compaction Factor Test
  3. Vee-bee Consistometer Test
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Dear honorable researchers.
I'm working on the effect of silane compound addition on materials properties. Before I'm introducing the silane compound to the materials, I want to know about their effect on the material properties based on previous study. Could anyone help me to send or recommend a literature that it studied the effect of silane compound ratio to materials properties, specifically in BET surface area.
Regards
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Thank Dr Dibakar Pal
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I am working on the fortune of Madame d'Aulnoy at the end of 19th century and I could not find any thesis ou studies about this topic.... can you help me?
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I'm researching Soja and Bachelard on spatiality and the poetics of space and am looking for two or three texts to use as application for their theories.
Thank you.
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You could use Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o, specifically his novel A Grain of Wheat if you want to focus on space from the perspective of Nationality and post colonial.
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Hello
For my research, I'm looking for a rich corpus in English literature. is there anybody knows a good one?
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(My answer assumes that you are referring to computer corpora of literary texts. I hope I have not misunderstood you.)
I am not familiar with specific literary corpora: I know they exist, but I do not know their size or composition. However, you might do well to bear in mind that a number of the main general corpora, including the OEC, the BNC and the COCA have a literature subcorpus.
Whether you would be better off with a smaller specific literature corpus or a larger general corpus which includes literary texts will depend on the nature of your research. If you are looking above all for a large amount of texts, then you might be better off with a mega corpus such as the OEC or the Coca: even though literature is not the mainstay of their composition, the sheer overall size of these two corpora (around 2 billion words in the case of the OEC and around half a billion in the case of Coca) will ensure that you are not short of literary texts. However, you would need to examine the composition of the literature subcorpus in these corpora, to see if it fits your purposes. If you require more information than that supplied with the corpus, you could always try contacting the corpus compilers.
The BNC is available on both SketchEngine and the Brigham Young University platform. You would need to check if it's the same version on both platforms, as it wasn't at one time. The OEC is also available on Sketch Engine, if you obtain prior permission to use it from the publishers (Oxford University Press.) Coca is available on the Brigham Young University platform.
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i am to answer a question about how the rapsodies where named ( from greek alfabet from α-ω) and why they where separated this way .. if anyone has any idea ...
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Well, Alexandrian grammatics did this. They divided Homer's poems on 24 books, named with the letters of Greek alphabet: "The second and third key moments are the critical editions made by the 3rd and 2nd century BCE Alexandrian scholars Zenodotus of Ephesus and Aristarchus respectively; both of these scholars also published numerous other works on Homer and other poets, none of which survive. Zenodotus' edition may well have been the first to divide the Iliad and Odyssey into 24 books".
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Literature is a social document of contemporary society. Literature expand our imaginations and refine our moral and social sensibilities. We need to go beyond the appeal to common experience and into the territory of psychological research. people are more prone to do that when the story is set away from home. The emotional situations and moral dilemmas that are the stuff of literature are also exercise for the brain studies suggest, increasing our real-life. We also become sensitive towards other human beings. And our family and social relations depend upon our sensitivity towards others. In literature it is used for the cleansing of emotions of the characters. It can also be any other radical change that leads to emotional rejuvenation of a person.
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I agree with Prof. Judeh's view. I consider that the positive impact of literature on emotional and social rejuvenation of a person is noticeable.
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In Forster's novels, the narrative arts are not so complicated, I think.But there are something behind which makes his novels very attractive. Perhaps it is because of his unique narration. I just want to know more about it.Thanks.
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Perhaps you might begin by addressing the theory of symbols proper and Forster's own unique relation to symbols in the late-Victorian English tradition--i.e. this does *not* equal French Symbolism!  Throughout his life, EMF had a healthy mistrust of signification insofar as he had inherited from KCC and his teachers there (G L Dickinson, indirectly G. E. Moore, and others) the neo-Platonist tendency to view language as symbolic to the ill, i.e. as displacing a better experience, lived more fully and pleasurably elsewhere, beyond the text. Hence what scholars call the "contradictory" tension--I view it, rather, as a fruitful ambivalence--between what language (writing) can convey as representation and what it can't, or shouldn't, convey.
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I would be interested in any kind of published or unpublished article for my current research project.
Thanks in advance!
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We have a collection of Indian adaptations of Shakespeare at the open access MIT Global Shakespeares digital video archive: http://globalshakespeares.org/
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Dear All
Please recommend a few books and articles on Indian literature written in Hindi as well as English covering literary movements and trends.
Thanks
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Indian literary movements integrally belong to the category of spontaneous outbursts both prior to and after Indian independence. Amongst the noted literary movements of this era was the Progressive Writers' Movement which was established in Kolkata during 1936, prior to the Partition of India. The Little Magazine Movement commenced during the 1950's and 1960's in numerous languages including Bengali, Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati, Malayalam and Tamil. Two of the significant literary movements in India which were successful to create an everlasting impression upon the natives was the fuelling of the Progressive Writers' Movement and the Little Magazine Movement. The contemporary writers  are  still  striving  to  provide  liberation  to  the  female  world  from  the  debilitating  socio-cultural constraints  and  oppressive  myths  of  their  respective  countries. Feminism  is  a  movement  which  advocates  granting  the  same  political,  social,  and  economic  rights  to women as those enjoyed by men. Throughout the world, women have been deprived of their basic socio-legal  rights by a patriarchal order.  Literary movements are,  Romanticism, Transcendentalism,  Realism,  Naturalism, Modernism,     Existentialism, Beat Generation.In Hindi literature  In the 20th century, Hindi literature saw a romantic upsurge. This is known as Chhayavaad (shadowism) and the literary figures belonging to this school are known as Chhayavaadi. Jaishankar Prasad, Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala', Mahadevi Varma and Sumitranandan Pant, are the four major Chhayavaadi poets.  This period of Neo-romanticism, represents the adolescence of Hindi Poetry. It is marked by beauty of expression and flow of intense emotion. Other important genres of Adhunik Sahitya (Modernism) are: Prayogvad (Experimentalism) of Ajneya and the Tar Saptak poets, also known as Nayi Kavita (New Poetry) and Nayi Kahani (New Story) of Nirmal Verma and others; followed by Pragativad (Progressivism) of Gajanan Madhav Muktibodh and other authors. Rahul Sankrityayan, Bhadant Anand Kausalyayan, Sachchidananda Hirananda Vatsyayan 'Ajneya' and Baba Nagarjun were some of the great Indian writers who dedicated themselves entirely to the Hindi Travel Literature.
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I'm researching children's music however most of my theory comes from literature studies. I'm aware of the lists of the attributes of children's book complied by Perry Nodelman, Myles Mcdowell and others, and I have used such a list for my studies. But I know this method is not without its critics. I appreciate that this involved reception theory and issues of implied readership.
I wondered if someone could summarise the main limitations of 'the child in the book' approach.
Thanks, Liam
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I recommend cognitive development theories and principles: Jeanne Bamberger, The Mind Behind the Musical Ear: How Children Develop Musical Intelligence (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1991).  I'm sure there are other books as well.
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Anthropomorphism is a common device in literature (with its roots in ancient writings, such as Aesop's Fables). The most outstanding form of anthropomorphism is animals with human traits. However, anthropomorphism is not limited by the application of these qualities to just animals.
Animal allegory (notably used in George Orwell's Animal Farm) is an obvious example of anthropomorphism.
I'm looking for sources that discuss the history of anthropomorphism and/or animal allegory in writing. Suggestions please!
Thanks.
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There are some quotations on Helen of Troy in the Elegies of Propertius (I BC), I would like to known if any scholar has written about that.
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This may not be at all relevant, but the imagery of the poem 'A thought from Propertius' by the 20th century poet W B Yeats relates to Cynthia and Helen. So, commentaries on Yeats may have references to research on the image of Helen in Propertius.
I tried a quick on-line search for recent discussion of Helen in Propertius's imagery. There seems little. Try F. Cairns, Sextus Propertius,The Augustan Elegist  - but only on p 401:
There's also discussion, but again only on pp 15-16, in a Stanford PhD thesis by M. Y. Myers, 2008. You'll be able to find the thesis itself from Stanford, but here are details:
I don't think that this will help much, but best wishes with it.
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I find many sources that attribute this quote to Sigmund Freud, but I can find no confirmation that he really said it: "Where does a thought go when it's forgotten?"
I searched through my Kindle copy of his collected works. I did not find it, but that could always be a translation issue. I'd like to quote him in a book but I won't use the quote if I can't confirm it.
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I'm quite sure it's not in The Interpretation of Dreams and suspect it's not from Freud at all, primarily because he objected to the notion of the unconscious as a locality, which is virtually the answer demanded by the wording of the question as it is. Freud focused on the repression process as a dynamic of forgetting. Freud did focus on the fact that the lost material (I suspect he didn't often speak of it as a "thought" either) was available for later retrieval or recollection.
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Which different theoretical perspectives (within feminist theory) would you make sure to include?
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Thank you for asking !
Classics - with a range of perspectives (chronological order):
--Simone de Beauvoir.  The Second Sex (1953).
--Kate Millett.  Sexual Politics (1970).
--Nancy Chowdorow.  The Reproduction of Mothering (1978).
--Evelyn Fox Keller.  Reflections on Gender and Science (1985).
--Sandra Harding.  The Science Question in Feminism (1986).
--R. Connell.  Gender and Power (1987).
--Sandra Bem.  The Lenses of Gender (1993).
--Judith Lorber.  Paradoxes of Gender (1994).
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Canon represents in the context of discussions about the place of literature in national or federal curriculum programs. Decisions made by educators, curriculum developers and policy makers about the content of the literature curriculum have underlying theoretical and political implications.
 
 
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The notion of a canon (or selection of great works) has become problematic because of the difficulty of deciding the criteria for deciding what should be included (and excluded). Older canons tend to be the preserve of dead, white males: they tended to exclude women and blacks (or people of colour) and so were rightly objected to as instances of cultural imperialism. But canons are difficult to escape. Just think how many newspapers or blogs or magazines publish stories based upon 'the hundred best....films/operas/symphonies/novels/pop songs...of the last ten/50/100 years'. They offer interesting objects for discussion as long as they are not taken too seriously as the pronouncement of universal and permanent value
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I am doing research work on the writings of William Faulkner and thinking of adding a Faulkner novel to my course on Law and Literature (probably Requiem for a Nun)
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Eric, if you go for Requiem for a Nun, it would be just perfect in your field of study. Best wishes.
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Terry Eagleton had tried to critique the liberal humanist argument that literature makes us better persons as well as the socialist argument that we must make that which we gain from literature concrete and practical. And also Lord Byron had postulated at a time that England was sick, therefore English Literature must save it. This implies that there is something that literature does to us. My take is that literature can also make one a bad person; that if indeed we want to believe that it makes us better persons, then it must be because humanists believe that life on earth is very valuable and must be cared for. Any way you look at it, if Somebody becomes a serial killer by reading a novel that deals with the life a serial killer, that person has definitely been made a bad person by literature!
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 Really eternal question... partially and differently answered by Plato (Republic), Aristotle (Poetics), Aristophanes (Frogs)... It is interesting, that "catharsis" of  the literature (or of the art, generally) as an emotional  purification of the person  was attested by modern experiments in behavioral neuroscience.
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Hello, everybody! I am interested in learning more on imagology studies. Could you recommend schools, centers, researches or researchers or any other contribution in this field? Thank you
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Because you are studying cultural stereotypes as presented in literature etc., I would recommend you first immediately explore your interests with Google Images.
This is fascinating! What IS this set of images that appears and why???
Are these all stereotypes? Are they all from literature? Which cultures do they come from? How is this dataset biassed?
Save each image as a PDF and try to put tags on each. What happens? Have fun!
Then get ready to work and do a good Google
Search for imagology definition and imagology meaning.
Then search for imagology method.
Next search for imagology history and imagology comparative literature.
Prepare your review of literature by going to Google Scholar.
Repeatedly follow the “Cited by” and “Related articles” until you have seen everything you need. Don't get lost!
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How can we differentiate emotional literacy from emotional intelligence?
- Can we use a standardized emotional intelligence scale to assess the emotional literacy?
Katherine Weare defines emotional literacy, in her book “Developing the Emotionally Literate School” as the ability to understand ourselves and other people, and in particular to be aware of, understand and use information about the emotional states of ourselves and others with competence. It includes the ability to understand, express and manage our own emotions, and respond to the emotions of others, in ways that are helpful to ourselves and others.
According to Goleman "Emotional intelligence is the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, for managing emotions well ourselves and in our relationships" (Goleman, 1995).
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Literacy has two different meanings:
a) in the original sense it refers to reading and writing education
b) you can use as a metaphor to speak of basic skills in another domain: e.g. computer literacy.
Literacy b): Emotional literacy covers the basic skills, emotional intelligence the whole range.
Literacy a): You are able to understand emotional backgrounds in reading and to  express emotions in writing. This is actually related to emotional intelligence, but the situational scope is far more narrow.
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The twentieth century witnessed two devastating wars which made the earlier style of living upside down. Men became wild, and sadness gripped human psyche. Against this backdrop, T.S. Eliot discovered 'hollow men'. However, the earth is not going to perish tomorrow, so we must live. It is an eternal paradox that despite misfortunes which come not as single flies but in battalions men rise up and strive to start life afresh - enjoying the morning sun, listening to the cuckoos and the nightingales, having sunbath on the sea beach, singing songs, being in love, writing poems, growing crops and breeding children. This attitude of man has generated a new kind of Romantic mood in English poetry in the 21st century. I believe Romanticism shapes the earth more beautifully than any other creed.
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Dear Ferenc,
I would like to edit your post first. Unless it is done your position would not be clear. Please do not take offence.
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Dear Sibaprasad,
This is a very strong and moving topic. I agree with you that poetry which glorifies life is badly needed in the 21st century as well. My questions are these:
1. Who are the poets you have in mind?
2. Why do you think that this life-affirming sort of poetry needs to be necessarily romantic?
Looking forward to your answer,
kind regards,
Ferenc
Isn't The Shadow of Light : An Album of Poems an experiment in Neo-Romanticism? - ResearchGate. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/post/Isnt_The_Shadow_of_Light_An_Album_of_Poems_an_experiment_in_Neo-Romanticism#view=5688e1d47eddd306688b458b [accessed Jan 3, 2016].
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Dear Ferenc,
The Shadow of Light: An Album of Poems is a novel experiment in Neo-Romanticism. Before initiating a discussion, this volume of poems needs to be read. It is available on Amazon and Barnes and Noble.
You have rightly grasped that the kind of poetry which glorifies life is seriously needed in the 21st century. The last century has been pitiably inhuman especially in the backdrop of two world wars that took away precious human lives and devastated the edifices of civilization built by men by the sweat of their brows since the beginning of  time. Poetry diverted itself to portray the desolateness of human life and the lifeless ruins that filled the earth. The values of love, friendship and tolerance were replaced by infidelity, divorce, promiscuousness and treachery. Prosperity meant accumulation of wealth at any cost.
Now that about  sixty years have passed since World War II and since Hiroshima and Nagasaki have sprung back to life and glory, men are beginning to feel  a new breeze blowing gently on the earth. With the fall of Soviet Union, the war of nerves is a thing of the past although monocentric world power is no less dangerous. Islamic terrorism is threatening the world order no doubt, but positive forces rallying against them will be able to diminish its rage. It is time that we looked back to nature, to innocent childhood,  to love and to the sunny mornings. This urge is being nurtured by some poets not with an eye to the Nobel Prize but for the sake of the celebration of life. They are few, but they are there.
2. Romanticism is an uncommon awareness of life - to be elated at the sight of a violet by a mossy stone, at the sight of daffodils beside the lake beneath the trees, at the voice of the nightingales and the cuckoos, at the spectacle of children flying kites, at the hush-hush kissing of  teenaged lovers. Socially, it also encourages equality and fraternity - a goal we have set for ourselves.  This is what you have nicely called 'life-affirming' trend of modern life. Romanticism is not an illusion, but more realistic than realism. It is like mining gold and diamond under the crust that is 'realistically' barren.
I wish you were in touch with me via email. That would give us opportunities to exchange ideas on new grounds.
All the best,
Sibaprasad
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T.S. Eliot is famous for his use of symbols. He has used symbols in every piece of his work. How does he use symbols in his monumental work The Waste Land? 
Sibaprasad Dutta
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Eliot’s symbol of perpetual life appears first in the epigraph as the ancient Sybil who cannot die, and again, perhaps, in “The Burial of the Dead” as “Belladonna, the Lady of the Rocks” (“She is older than the rocks among which she sits ...” runs Pater’s description). She is the woman in “The Game of Chess,” surrounded by “her strange synthetic perfumes” and on whose dressing-room walls hang the “withered stumps of time”—the artistic record of the mythical past (“... and all this has been to her but as the sound of lyres and flutes, and lives only in the delicacy with which it has moulded the changing lineaments, and tinged the eyelids and the hands”). And she appears, finally, in “The Fire Sermon,” where she draws “her long black hair out tight,” while bats with baby faces in the violet light Whistled, and beat their wings And crawled head downward down a blackened wall (“... like the vampire, she has been dead many times, and learned the secrets of the grave”).
-- Thank you
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Origin of Bildungsroman is from German literature and what are all the features that distinguishes it from English Bildungsroman.
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The hero of the classics bildungsroman, the German, e.g. Wilhelm Meisters, is more idialistic. He aims for knowledge and perfection in everything. The hero of the English is more pragmatic influenced by the capitalist ideology, although the idealism is still present. He also wants to learn in order to be a better persona.
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Want to know whether any modern traits have been attached with the genre bildungsroman in the contemporary literary world and need anseres with explanations and examples.
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Perception of the genre itself as one of the literary conventions in need for de- and re-construction - together with a number of other conventions. Like making it a part of a Baroque stylization as in Gunter Grass. Or turning it (together with family saga) into a 'bad endlessness' like in Marquez. Or making it just one of the personal memory strategies like in Waterland by Graham Swift.
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New Historicism is generally applied to literary works written in the past e.g. renaissance literature or Victorian literature. However, I want to practice the theory of new historicism on novels written by Pakistani anglophone writers like Kamila Shamsie, Mohisn Hamid, Bina Shah etc. These writers started writing around the start of 21st century. Their fictions are set in the Pakistan of 1980s, 90s and post 9/11 world; major historical events of the country like 1971 War, Zia regime, post 9/11 conditions usually form the background of these fictions. Please suggest! Thanks
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hi waseem, 
interesting question .
New historicism can be employed as the  theoretical touchstone to analyze even recent writers.  Historical Knowledge manifested  in the form of  ‘historicism’ and ‘history’ is regarded as  fundamental embodiment of modernity and , I believe , postmodernism with a new perspective on terms like knowledge, reality, ideology and worldview. 
here are some publications : 
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Who has reseach (dissertations) about American playwright Wendy Wasserstein or her plays?
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Hello Yulia
There were a lot of books on Google Scholar; I don't know if all the links below are academic enough for what you need, but might be of interest:
This paper discusses The Heidi Chronicles:
Schroeder, P. R. (1993). American Drama, Feminist Discourse, and Dramatic Form: In Defense of Critical Pluralism. Journal of Dramatic Theory and Criticism, 7(2), 103-118.
Carlson, S. (1984). Comic Textures and Female Communities 1937 and 1977: Clare Boothe and Wendy Wasserstein. Modern drama, 27(4), 565-574.
This link is a short biography:
Dolan, J. (2008). Feminist performance criticism and the popular: Reviewing Wendy Wasserstein. Theatre Journal, 60(3), 433-457.
This is an interview:
This might also be of interest:
Very best wishes
Mary
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I've been digging through piles and piles of literature for studies of ROS mediated control of signaling cascades - does anyone have any good article suggestions?   (feel free to toot your own horn here!)
There is a surprisingly large amount of poor or confusing info out there - I'm trying to speed my search and not get distracted by misleading studies 
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Hi Levi,
I'm not sure what the basis of your search is of course, but if it is from a molecular point of view these reviews might be interesting to you: 
This review by Claudia Cremers and Ursula Jacob is very informative: http://www.jbc.org/content/early/2013/07/16/jbc.R113.462929
If you're new to redox signalling and biochemistry, this perspective might be very useful to you as well (it might help to interpret many of the data out there): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21459321
Also, we have recently written a review on disulphide-dependent signalling that includes some examples of (disulphide-mediated) redox signalling events that might be of interest: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25109988 
Finally, this is quite a long one but there might be some leads in there for you: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24634836
Best,
Marrit
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eg. Marlowe's Edward II: Why shouldst thou kneele, knowest thou not who I am?/Thy friend, thy selfe, another Gaueston.
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Rhimi is right, like a in the rest of Europe, the ancient Grrk mythology plays an imortant role in Early Modern English literature (latin was the common language of arts and science in those times all over Europe).
So the lover as one's other self is a rhetoric Topos ( a Motive that Comes up with different authors and in different historical periods.
It originates in Platons Symposion dialogue in the myth about the origin of peolpe , who were described as round balls, with 4 arms and 4 legs and two heads and they were said to be very powerful, so Zeus decided to weaken them by cutting them apart.
Since then every human is eager to find his or her other half....
This myth should explain the origin of eroticism...
good luck,
Carina
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Requires some communication theories to be applied to study of English and Indian Literature
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Try to use the 'Conversational Floor' model that can be used to analyse 'conversations' in a literary work.
Here is a useful link:
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Do you know the textes that inspire Ford Madox Ford works? 
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Dear Valentina
one of them is Mark Twain's a connecticut yankee in king arthru's court
Late-Victorian England, of course, was the golden age of the literary fairy-tale. Lewis Carroll's Alice books and George Mac-Donald's The Princess and the Goblin had appeared shortly before Ford was born, and they were followed by dozens of imitations. The line between adult and juvenile fiction was less strict then than it is now, and adult writers like Charles Dickens, William Thackeray, Oscar Wilde, and Christina Rossetti, who was Ford's aunt by marriage, all wrote fairy stories; Ford's project was therefore not unusual.
and this book:
good  luck with your research
a.
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My main topic is on decorum and propriety found in this epic poetry and what are the impact which the Renaissance period had on such kind of works.
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Decorum and propriety is first discussed in Western literature in Aristotle's "Poetics," and it is there that any study on epic poetry and tragedy needs to begin. It is only a fifty-page work, yet has guided the Renaissance, the Baroque, Rococo and all Western neo-classicism.
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I am interesting in calculating sample size for a descriptive design, quantitative research method study. I will use a nonprobability (purposive) sampling technique. Realizing that a probability statistical technique cannot be used to calculate sample size; it is not statistically justified to use probability statistical measurements (e.g. confidence level) and sample size because the probability of participants' opportunity to participate is unknown. Looking for calculation method and/or literature, studies that may provide insight. Thank you.
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NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING: This is equally acceptable method of obtaining data when the followings are observed: (i) no sampling frame; (ii) bias is negligible; (iii) sampling and sample could be monitored (chain of control and custody: who, what, when, why, and how?); (iv) probability sampling is not feasible or appropriate, i.e. if the data is time dependent and the there is a significant difference between the base period and the current period as result of time lapse (economic data); (v) data could be collected only where the collectors are available; (vi) by the circumstances and nature the sample size is small and limited, i.e. forensic evidence cases; and (vii) sampling decision is made in the field or at an operational level, i.e. QC managers select widgits from a production batch to do a "pre-test" for defects before invest resources for the "big test."
HOW TO DO NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING?: There may be many methods used. However, these two methods may be instructive: (i) quota sampling, and (ii) representative item sampling.
(i) Quota Sampling: Given a population with non-finite size (N unknown), the researcher define all observable characteristics of the population. Determine the ration of such characteristic in the population through series of test samples. Once this proportion is known, start taking sample for the study for a "size" where the proportion of the pre-defined characteristics comes close. Here, percentage confidence becomes applicable.
(ii) Representative Item method: The researcher is looking for a particular characteristic or a set of properties (this is the purpose). The population may have characteristics: [a, b, ..., z], but the research is searching for only characters (d, e, f). First take series of sample to get an average (expected) proportion of (d,e,f) in the population, then take the "sample" needed for the study by taking the sample until the same proportion shows. This is similar to quota sampling, but in representative method, one takes look for specific characteristics: (e,d,f).
n = (Z2σ2) / SE2
... where n = minimum sample size; Z = standard score obtained by (Xi - X^) / S; σ = estimated population standard deviation; and SE = standard error where SE = σ / sqrt(n). Note that Z provides a critical value for which F(Z) = % confidence may be read from the Z-table. The fact that the sample is non-probability does not preclude us from calculation the probability among the test samples that we took. Except there is one caveat, do bootstrapping to verify if the n obtained from one trial to the next varies significantly. It is not true to say that non-probability sample precludes probability analysis.
BIAS: The concern in non-probability sampling is "bias." since the sampling is "purposive"---i.e. taking the sample for a particular purpose, we are concerned that the result may be self-fulfilling prophecy. So long as this concern may be overcome, bias minimized, then even non-probability sampling is acceptable----acceptability enough to send a person to the execution chair in case of using limited and very small genetic evidence in prosecuting a criminal in a murder case. Therefore, if non-probability sample is used, the researcher must be able to demonstrate safeguarding measures against bias. In forensic evidence, this is generally accomplished through the chain of custody.
RELIABILITY: Reliability is defined as the ability to reproduce the same result in subsequent studies following the same procedures used in the prior study. If the result could not be reproduced, the prior study fails on reliability test. Whatever sample method used, if subsequent independent study could reproduce the result it is said that the study is reliability. In genetic test, researchers are provided with limited amount of sample, generally small amount. Regardless of how the genetic material was taken, probability or non-probability sampling, if subsequent test does not reproduce the same result, the conclusion of the  prior study is not reliable and, therefore, unreliable.
SAFEGUARD BY DISTRIBUTION TEST: As a precaution use distribution verification to verify if the population is normally distributed. If it is normally distributed, one may safely say that the elements in the population have equal chance of being selected. If all elements in the population exists in a state of random (equal chance of being selected), no matter if we "conveniently" or "randomly" select the elements, we should get the same result. Distribution test may be accomplished by: (i) Shapiro-Wilk Test, (ii) Cramer-von Mises Test, or (iii) Anderson-Darling Test. if the test shows that the population is normally distributed, then all elements in the set has equal chance. If the distribution test shows that the data are not normally distributed, use the chi-square test as back up for your significance test.
VALIDITY: Validity refers to the precision between the expected and the observed. in the genetic testing example, since the genetic make up of everyone is different, the result of the test----even with minute sample---must hit the mark in every test. If one test identifies the owner of the gene to be Mr. A and on subsequent test shows that the gene comes from Mr. B, the test is not valid---here, the choice of sampling method (probability or otherwise) becomes moot.
REFERENCES:
[1] Laplace, Pierre-Simon de (1774). “Mémoire sur la probabilité des causes par les événements.” Mémoires de l'Académie royale des Sciences de Paris (Savants étrangers), tome 6: 621–656.Translated by Stephen M. Stigler in Statistical Science 1 (3), 1986
[2] Lexis, Wilhelm (1878). “Sur la durée normale de la vie humaine et sur la théorie de la stabilité des rapports statistiques.” Annales de démographie internationale (Paris) II: 447–462.
[3] Lukacs, Eugene; King, Edgar P. (1954). “A Property of Normal Distribution.” The Annals of Mathematical Statistics 25 (2): 389–394.
[4] Marsaglia, George; Tsang, Wai Wan (2000). “The Ziggurat Method for Generating Random Variables.” Journal of Statistical Software 5 (8).
[5] Marsaglia, George (2004). “Evaluating the Normal Distribution.” Journal of Statistical Software 11 (4).
[6] Papoulis, A. Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 100-101, 1984.
[7] Rohrbasser, Jean-Marc; Véron, Jacques (2003). “Wilhelm Lexis: The Normal Length of Life as an Expression of the “Nature of Things.”” Population 58 (3): 303–322.
[8] Stigler, Stephen M. (1982). “A Modest Proposal: A New Standard for the Normal.” The American Statistician 36 (2): 137–138.
[9] Wallace, C. S. (1996). “Fast pseudo-random generators for normal and exponential variates.” ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software 22 (1): 119–127.
[10] Whittaker, E. T. and Robinson, G. “Normal Frequency Distribution.” Ch. 8 in The Calculus of Observations: A Treatise on Numerical Mathematics, 4th ed. New York: Dover, pp. 164-208, 1967.
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I am collecting data (articles, papers, criticism) for a monograph study about William Wharton (Albert du Aime, 1925-2008). So far I have found next to nothing (a handful of reviews, some obituaries etc.) - is anybody able to help me?
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A detailed description of the project is available here: https://www.academia.edu/358921/William_Wharton._Sketches_from_Memory
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I have been examining the relationship between the poet-playwright Garcia Lorca and composer Falla, using motivic analysis recommended by Juan David Garcia Bacca. I would like to know of similar studies of other writers and composers.
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Dear Professor Nelson Orringer,
Nowadays, its difficult to relate literature and music due to film industry. But if we look back, we can say before inception of art, literature, music and dance were inter-related and was treated as single activity.
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I am ongoing to complete my research based on survey. I want to test whether a variable (dependent) has the positive relation with another variable (independent). I have 6 independent variables and one dependent variable, and there are 3 questions under each variable.  Totally 21 questions for 7 avarialbes. The answers for each question is likert scale (1=strong disagree, 2=disagree, 3=Neutural, 4=agree, 5=strong agree). I have collect the 101 effective responses.
According to past literature study, some researchers used PLS method for the analysis. But I have little knowdge on statistical analysis.  could you kindly please how to process this analysis from likert scale data to the data for PLS?
By the way, one stupid quesiton, what is the" loading" how to calcualte the "loading" for each questions?
Really appreciate your kind advice!
Best wishes
crane
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Based on your question "I want to test whether a variable (dependent) has the positive relation with another variable (independent)." collapse each of your clusters of three variables and undertake a bivariate correlation against the matching dependent variable for each case. Observe 1. whether there is correlation and 2. If correlation is present whether positive or negative. You could also collapse all independent variables and all dependent variables and undertake a bivariate correlation between all collapsed dependent and all collapsed independent variables. Again observe 1. whether there is correlation and 2. If correlation is present whether positive or negative
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Achebe accused Conrad for being racist . Achebe is considered the inventor of African Literature(Simon Gikandi) . What do you think?
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I agree with you in part, Segun Omidiora, but remember the start of the book: the Thames is as dark (if not darker) than the Congo river in the reminiscence of the old sailor who is telling the story :-).
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I have names such as Brue Boehrer and Erica Fudge, but need earlier writers on this topic.The information will be helpful with a project I'm currently working on.
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There are some other important studies that haven't been mentioned which are excellent resources.  Lucinda Cole's article in Journal of Early Modern Cultural Studies (2010) on Macbeth; Karen Raber's  Animal Bodies, Renaissance Culture. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013.  Cole also has a book coming out next year from Michigan, Imperfect Creatures: Vermin, Literature, and the Sciences of Life, 1600-1730.
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Comic art has received differing explanations since Aristotle´s "Poetics." Bergson in his essay "Laughter" conceives of comedy as deshumanization of human beings into things or machines. How do you conceive the mechanism of the funny? Who is your favorite comedian or comedienne and what in your opinion makes him or her laughable? If you can post youtubes of examples, that would clarify.
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For me, dear @Nelson the man in question is Fernand Contadin-Fernandel! :)
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