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Mario Praz in his The Romantic Agony (1956) suggests that there is "no opposite pole to 'romantic'" which imlplies that romanticism could be understood as a set of ideals or a style that could emerge as a climax or a revolution, thus it is always in progression and could emerge at any time as a culmination of the intellectual process.
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A good question that requires an answer too complex for a statement such as mine. I think that basic "Romanticist" ideas and practices (they should be kept separate) evolved from the great democratic revolutions of 1776 and 1789, and also, in part, from the ideas of Rousseau who gave us ideas about the basic "goodness" of "Nature." These ideas persist, often sentimentalized, into the present day. They celebrate the pleasantries of benign natural landscapes and the individual self as a powerful self-expressive source. They counter religious Medievalism, even some of its Protestant variations, even as this Medievalism survives the revolutions, into present days. Romanticism also alleges "freedom of expression," even though its strongest representatives, Byron, Shelley, Keats and others, wrote traditional forms such as sonnets. So Romanticism and "neo-classical" formalisms are not incompatible. A dark underside of Romanticism is also present, in Gothic novels, for example, and in the pessimisms that evolve out of revolutionary disappointments. So Mario Praz gets it right: There is a "Romantic Agony" that results from the gap between idealism and actuality that is (also!) at the core of the Romantic movements.
I think it's important not to be enthralled by the textbook labels for historical eras--such as "Age of Reason," "Romanticism," "Modernism," etc. To do so is to subscribe to the great undifferentiated non-familiar. "Romantic" (and other) ideas persist into the twentieth century and beyond "Modernism" into "Postmodernism." In some cases Romantic-democratic ideas are taken to some extremes--free verse for example as a way to liberate the individual voice. I think many Modernist painters could be described as Romantics, and not just the landscape painters.
History, and the history of ideas and practices, is untidy and complex. It is also easy to stereotype. Is not Mary Shelley's Frankenstein doctor a Romantic howl against technology gone out of control? Look at where we are now, except for Researchgate.
Emilio DeGrazia
Winona, MN
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I am looking for public domain translations into English of the classic Bengali crime stories of Priyanath Mukhopadhyay (1855—1947). I think he wrote in the Calcutta Review, and that something there might be in English?
Darogar Daptar were pioneering Bengali crime stories written around the start of twentieth century or late nineteenth century inspired by Arthur Conan Doyle. The author was a police inspector himself, so there might even be a little Vidocq element involved.
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Dear Mike,
I am on the lookout for the English translation of the work. But till now I can only find Bangla copies. Bangla Academy, Bangladesh might have english translations but I do not think they are online.
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The phrase "unión hipostática" occurs once in the writings of San Juan de la Cruz, like a received phrase which came to his mind at that time. Where did he learn it? Not from St Thomas Aquinas - apparently, Thomas does not use that exact phrase. I have not found it in Duns Scotus (also taught at Salamanca where Juan studied), nor in Melchor Cano or Luis de León. Authors speak of personal union, or even of union according to the hypostasis. But the exact phrase is 'hypostatic union'. The exact Greek equivalent I find in Leontius of Byzantium, but that is a rather distant link. The Diccionario de Autoridades offers examples from the 17th century. In fact, the Enciclopedia del Idioa of  Martín Alonso ascribes 'hipostatica' to 17th - 20th centuries. But where did 16th century Juan de la Cruz learn the phrase?
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Hypostatic union was formally confirmed at the First Council of Ephesus in 431, and was made explicit in the Nicene Creed. The Greek term hypostasis was used by the Stoics, and it's also used (infrequently) in the New Testament (Hebrews 1:3).
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Foucault points out that, even though there are many discussions on the idea of "Author", none of the current theories try to understand how the concept of "opus"/ "literary work"  operates in different literary systems. I'm trying to find authors that deal with this concept in a theoretical level. Could you recommend me some? 
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Umberto Eco é um bom caminho para isso. Comece com "Obra Aberta" e depois pode prosseguir para as questões do livro "As Formas do Conteúdo", "Estrutura Ausente" e "Lector in Fabula" (que é uma grande resposta ao Barthes), todos da Editora Perspectiva em Português.
Também tenho coisas escritas sobre isso. Coloquei aqui alguns  que trabalham sobre a questão de autoria e diferentes níveis da obra
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The list of writers fascinated with sport is long (Frost, Malamud, Nabokov, etc.). Please give any ideas that come to your minds.
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Baseball is often read as the defining element of US's independence from the European tradition. It is widely used in the contemporary novel as a metaphor for some uniquely American political and individual thought - for baseball in US lit, and sport more widely conceived, see Coover's Universal Baseball Association, Roth's Great American Novel, DeLillo's Underworld, Mailer's The Fight (boxing), Wallace's Infinite Jest (tennis).
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Anthropomorphism is a common device in literature (with its roots in ancient writings, such as Aesop's Fables). The most outstanding form of anthropomorphism is animals with human traits. However, anthropomorphism is not limited by the application of these qualities to just animals.
Animal allegory (notably used in George Orwell's Animal Farm) is an obvious example of anthropomorphism.
I'm looking for sources that discuss the history of anthropomorphism and/or animal allegory in writing. Suggestions please!
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Thinking of series such as Easy Readers
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I think Larisa has made an excellent suggestion: Agatha Christie for beginners.
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Literature has been considered ancient source of knowledge but with the advent of science and technology, People have started doubting its reliability, How we can revive its supremacy ?
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A literary text is an example of the best practice of language usage. It cannot be overestimated as a source in linguistic and stylistic education and self-education.
Besides, the literary text represents emotional agumentation and argumentation which can be called argumentation through images, both of which are the dominant type of the argumentation used in modern media. So studing a literary text rhetorically helps develop critical thinking. That's it for the present.
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This paper argues that archives play a significant role in fostering three elements essential to Cambodia’s recovery: accountability, truth, and memory. First, archives have an enduring power to hold the regime accountable because they were the catalyst for an international human rights tribunal, as shown by the relentless activism of the archives’ director, international efforts to preserve Khmer Rouge records, and the correlation between indictments and documentary evidence. Secondly, this paper posits that archives make a significant contribution to the establishment of truth because they have epistemological validity over the testimony of survivors, as seen repeatedly throughout the tribunal. Finally, this paper argues that the archives are succeeding in constructing memory of the Khmer Rouge era because it is forcing Cambodia to deal with its uncomfortable past by giving voice to survivors, creating textbooks, and conducting outreach. This paper is rooted in the field of archival studies within the discipline of library and information science, but draws on history, Cambodian studies, and legal studies. Employing transcripts of the ongoing tribunal, NGO reports, and newsletters as primary sources, the paper argues that while archives have been successful in holding the Khmer Rouge accountable, establishing truth, and creating memory, only a tribunal can administer justice.
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You can also lead up to questions like -- where is the resistance to accountability, truth and memory located? Who is resisting and why? What kinds of silences do this resistance produce and what versions of history can that produce? This will lead to responses that emphasise the significance of truth, accountability and memory.
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I want to write about the development of Shakespeare's metadrama, particularly interested in online texts or articles 
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I strongly support the preceding answer. I think Calderwood has a few  more interesting books on Shakespearean metadrama (1979 on the Henriad, 1983 on Hamlet).
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The aim is to assist in writing a dissertation
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Also see:
Brunel, Pierre. Companion to Literary Myths, Heroes, and Archetypes. London: Routledge, 1993
Douglas, Mary. Natural Symbols: Explorations in Cosmology. London: Barrie and Rockliffe, 1970
Hogan, Patrick Colm. The Mind and Its Stories: Narrative Universals and Human Emotion. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2003
Matthews, Jack, ed. Archetypal Themes in the Modern Story. New York: St Martin's Press, 1973
Stevens, Anthony. Archetypes: A Natural History of the Self. New York: William Morrow, 1982
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I am collecting data (articles, papers, criticism) for a monograph study about William Wharton (Albert du Aime, 1925-2008). So far I have found next to nothing (a handful of reviews, some obituaries etc.) - is anybody able to help me?
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A detailed description of the project is available here:
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In the context of a research project on 19th-century Spanish narrative I am working on two novels by above named author ("La herencia del diablo" and "El pilluelo", both 1888) . However, so far I have been unable to find any information about García Alemán. I would be grateful for any pointers.
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"Some of the big names".... I cannot stand Pérez Galdós (is that heresy?). Tilmann, I have another idea; (1.) if you could find out about Garcia Alemán's family, you would surely find heirs that want their grandfather remembered, (2.) perhaps in some of the bookstores in Madrid there would be information that you and I lack. Start with Casa del Libro first and work downward from there.
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I've already considered Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness, but I may need some more material. Perhaps some Travel Literature?
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There you go Christopher!
Bibliographic Resources
on Orientalists and Orientalism
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Dark humor comedies with substituted corpses would do. Any repertoire would do (Italian, Spanish, German, Irish, British etc)
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The protagonist Huck Finn attends his own funeral in a humorous scene in Mark Twain's most famous novel _Huckleberry Finn_ (the adventures of).
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How can you explain the existence of art that expresses mystery or secrecy for its own sake? Debussy found mysteriousness in music a synonym of beauty. Picasso communicated a sense of mystery in his famous synthetic cubist painting, "The Three Musicians" (1921). Yet how can you judge the quality of hermetic art if what it attempts to convey is purposely veiled? Could you offer examples of such art and account for their immortality?
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That is an excellent answer, Peter! I am reminded of "trobar clus" in Provencal poetry, concealing the name of the beloved to preserve her honor (while quasi-deifying her). Much enigmatic literature cultivates mystery to avoid social opprobrium. As to the expression of mystic union through incestuous love, compare the "Song of Solomon," 5,17: "I come to my garden, my sister, my bride." This biblical book has often been repeatedly interpreted by mystics in the Middle Ages and Renaissance as a secret code for the union between God and His Church, when not between the Holy Spirit and the human soul. Somehow the sense of mystery endows the sibling relationship with sacredness.
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I'm trying to develop a course for undergraduate students on postcolonial novels narrating the development of the nation. I'm thinking of novels like Salman Rushdie's Midnight's Children.
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I don't know if you have it in english, but you can read "El Separatista" (the separatist) by Eduardo López Bago; it relates about the last years of the spanish colony of Cuba. From Spain, you have the "National episodes" by Benito Pérez Galdós; it's 46 novels, some of them translated in english.